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Sample records for frog odontophrynus cultripes

  1. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus carvalhoi Savage and Cei, 1965: Distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Barnagleison Silva; da Silva, Ubiratan Gonçalves; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2010-01-01

    We present the first record of Odontophrynus carvalhoi for the state of Alagoas, Brazil, and a distribution map for this species. This new record represents the nearest location to the Brazilian coast known for this species. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  2. Toxicity Assessment of the Xanthid Crab Demania cultripes from Cebu Island, Philippines

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    Manabu Asakawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of poisoning resulting in human fatalities and stemming from the ingestion of coral reef crabs have been reported from the Indo-Pacific region. We assessed the toxicity of the unidentified xanthid crab collected from the Camotes Sea off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, central Visayas region of Philippines from the food hygienic point of view. All seven specimens, which were identified with Demania cultripes, collected in 2006 were toxic to mice irrespective of the season of collection and induced paralytic symptoms typical of tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP. The activity was expressed in mouse unit (MU being defined as the amount of TTX to kill a 20 g ddY male mice in 30 min after i.p. injection. Toxicity scores for viscera and appendages of specimens were 18.2±16.0 (mean ± S.D. and 4.4±2.6 MU/g, respectively. The highest individual toxicity scores observed for viscera and appendages were 52.1 and 7.7 MU/g, respectively. The frequency of toxic samples was 100%. Toxin profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection analysis (HPLC-FLD revealed that TTX was the main toxic principle accounting for about 90% of the total toxicity along with 4-epi TTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed mass fragment ion peaks at m/z 376, 392 and 407, which were characteristic of the quinazoline skeleton (C9-base specific to TTX. In addition, only a small amount of PSP containing gonyautoxins1–4 and hydroxysaxitoxin was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting evidence of occurrence of TTX and PSP in the xanthid crab D. cultripes inhabiting waters surrounding Cebu Island. From food hygienic point of view, people in coastal areas should be warned of the potential hazard of this crab in order to prevent its intentional or accidental consumption.

  3. Toxicity Assessment of the Xanthid Crab Demania cultripes from Cebu Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Gomez-Delan, Gloria; Tsuruda, Shintaro; Shimomura, Michitaka; Shida, Yasuo; Taniyama, Shigeto; Barte-Quilantang, Mercy; Shindo, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Several cases of poisoning resulting in human fatalities and stemming from the ingestion of coral reef crabs have been reported from the Indo-Pacific region. We assessed the toxicity of the unidentified xanthid crab collected from the Camotes Sea off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, central Visayas region of Philippines from the food hygienic point of view. All seven specimens, which were identified with Demania cultripes, collected in 2006 were toxic to mice irrespective of the season of collection and induced paralytic symptoms typical of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The activity was expressed in mouse unit (MU) being defined as the amount of TTX to kill a 20 g ddY male mice in 30 min after i.p. injection. Toxicity scores for viscera and appendages of specimens were 18.2 ± 16.0 (mean ± S.D.) and 4.4 ± 2.6 MU/g, respectively. The highest individual toxicity scores observed for viscera and appendages were 52.1 and 7.7 MU/g, respectively. The frequency of toxic samples was 100%. Toxin profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection analysis (HPLC-FLD) revealed that TTX was the main toxic principle accounting for about 90% of the total toxicity along with 4-epi TTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed mass fragment ion peaks at m/z 376, 392 and 407, which were characteristic of the quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX. In addition, only a small amount of PSP containing gonyautoxins1-4 and hydroxysaxitoxin was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting evidence of occurrence of TTX and PSP in the xanthid crab D. cultripes inhabiting waters surrounding Cebu Island. From food hygienic point of view, people in coastal areas should be warned of the potential hazard of this crab in order to prevent its intentional or accidental consumption.

  4. Behavioural responses of Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles (Anura: Leptodactylidae to fish chemical cues

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    Scarabotti, Pablo A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de muchas especies de anfibios viven en ambientes con vegetación y de aguas turbias, donde la visibilidad es muy limitada. En estos ambientes, la utilización de señales químicas para la detección de depredadores podría ser más confiable que la utilización de señales visuales. Las larvas de Odontophrynus americanus habitan en las lagunas del valle aluvial del río Paraná Medio, Argentina, donde normalmente se dan condiciones de baja visibilidad. La hipótesis de este trabajo fue que los renacuajos de esta especie pueden detectar a los depredadores y responder subsecuentemente con conducta antipredador ante la percepción de señales químicas de los depredadores. En el presente trabajo se llevaron a cabo tres experimentos de laboratorio para evaluar si los renacuajos de O. americanus responden conductualmente al estímulo químico del pez Astyanax fasciatus. Las respuestas conductuales fueron evaluadas observando cambios en actividad, utilización de refugio y distribución espacial de los renacuajos. En presencia del estímulo químico del pez, los renacuajos redujeron su actividad en un 27%, incrementaron cinco veces la utilización de refugios, pero no exhibieron una respuesta de elusión espacial al estímulo del depredador. Las respuestas conductuales de los renacuajos de esta especie podrían reducir las probabilidades de encuentro y ataque por parte de los depredadores. Many amphibian larvae live in turbid and vegetated habitats with very limited visibility. In these habitats, the use of chemical cues for predator detection may be more reliable than visual ones. Odontophrynus americanus tadpoles inhabit floodplain ponds of the middle Paraná River, Argentina, where they frequently encounter low visibility conditions. We hypothesize that tadpoles of this species can detect predators and subsequently respond with antipredator behaviour by means of chemical cues from predators. In the present work, we ran three separate

  5. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  6. Un nuevo y peculiar Odontophrynus de la sierra de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Cei, José M.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Un examen crítico de la morfología y cariotipo de los Odontophrynus de las poblaciones de la Sierra de Guayasán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina, permite sustentar su estado específico, frente a las otras formas del conjunto diplo-tetradiploide del grupo americanus. La nueva especie diploide O. lavillai exhibe caracteres diferenciales significativos, somáticos, de estructura cutánea y de coloración. Se presentan datos ecológicos generales y una discusión de sus relaciones cariotípicas con las otras formas diplo-tetraploides del grupo.

  7. Fantastic Frogs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kym

    2002-01-01

    Number rhymes can be used in many exciting and different ways to support the early learning goals for mathematics. The rhyme "five little speckled frogs" provides the theme for this display, which was set up in Lewisham's professional development center. It provides a range of ideas which would help develop young children's mathematical learning…

  8. Fantastic Frogs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kym

    2002-01-01

    Number rhymes can be used in many exciting and different ways to support the early learning goals for mathematics. The rhyme "five little speckled frogs" provides the theme for this display, which was set up in Lewisham's professional development center. It provides a range of ideas which would help develop young children's mathematical learning…

  9. The tadpole of Odontophrynus barrio Cei, Ruiz, and Beçak, 1982 (Anura: Odontophrynidae: a comparison with the other tadpoles of the genus

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    Exequiel González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the tadpole of Odontophrynus barrioi including external larval features, chondrocranial and cranial musculature, and compare it with the other species of the genus. Tadpoles of O. barrioi at stages 31–37 are about 52.46 mm long. The body is slightly depressed in lateral view and ovoid in dorsal view. Oral disc is emarginate laterally, anteroventral and small with a single row of marginal papillae, a single large dorsal gap, and labial tooth row formula 2(2/3(1. Despite small interspecific variations, like different labial tooth row formulae, the general aspect of species is quite similar. Although poorly-known yet, the chondrocranium and cranial musculature display some variations within the genus.

  10. Chytridiomycosis in frogs from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Aramburu, Andrea

    2009-04-06

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is reported in Uruguayan native amphibians for the first time. Histological evidence of infection was observed in tadpoles of Hypsiboas pulchellus, Odontophrynus maisuma, Physalaemus henselii, and Scinax squalirostris. The effects of chytridiomycosis on these species are still unknown. However, the disease is of potential concern for the conservation of the apparently declining species P. henselii and also for O. maisuma, given its restricted distribution in habitats which are being increasingly disturbed.

  11. Frog eat frog: exploring variables influencing anurophagy

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    G. John Measey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Frogs are generalist predators of a wide range of typically small prey items. But descriptions of dietary items regularly include other anurans, such that frogs are considered to be among the most important of anuran predators. However, the only existing hypothesis for the inclusion of anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs postulates that it happens more often in bigger frogs. Moreover, this hypothesis has yet to be tested.Methods. We reviewed the literature on frog diet in order to test the size hypothesis and determine whether there are other putative explanations for anurans in the diet of post-metamorphic frogs. In addition to size, we recorded the habitat, the number of other sympatric anuran species, and whether or not the population was invasive. We controlled for taxonomic bias by including the superfamily in our analysis.Results. Around one fifth of the 355 records included anurans as dietary items of populations studied, suggesting that frogs eating anurans is not unusual. Our data showed a clear taxonomic bias with ranids and pipids having a higher proportion of anuran prey than other superfamilies. Accounting for this taxonomic bias, we found that size in addition to being invasive, local anuran diversity, and habitat produced a model that best fitted our data. Large invasive frogs that live in forests with high anuran diversity are most likely to have a higher proportion of anurans in their diet.Conclusions. We confirm the validity of the size hypothesis for anurophagy, but show that there are additional significant variables. The circumstances under which frogs eat frogs are likely to be complex, but our data may help to alert conservationists to the possible dangers of invading frogs entering areas with threatened anuran species.

  12. Yet More Frogs

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    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  13. Yet More Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Paul M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Extending a recent paper by Derek Holton, we show how to represent the algorithm for the Frog Problem diagrammatically. This diagrammatic representation suggests a simpler proof of the symmetrical case (equal numbers of frogs of each colour) by allowing the even and odd cases to be treated together. It also provides a proof in the asymmetrical…

  14. Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist

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    Wignall Jacqui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Methods Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. Results We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus. Conclusion Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura.

  15. Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Methods Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. Results We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight) and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET) was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus. Conclusion Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura. PMID:20398399

  16. Frogs In Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑; 岳巧玲

    2005-01-01

    If you go out to the field at ni ght inspring or summer,you can hear frogs croaking and singing joyfully here and there.It seems as if they were performing a fiel dsymphony (交响曲).How pleasant and sweet it sounds!It fills nature with music and vitality.

  17. It's a Frog's Life

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    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  18. Lithobates sylvaticus (wood frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam

    2016-01-01

    A single specimen found southwest of Hattiesburg in Timberton (31.270391oN, 89.327675oW; WGS 84). 23 July 2015. Gary, Kat, and Ron Lukens. Verifi ed by Kenneth Krysko, Florida Museum of Natural History (UF-Herpetology 176455). This species has never been recorded from the state of Mississippi before (Dodd 2013. Frogs of the United States and Canada – Volume 2. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 982 pp.). According to Dodd (2013), the closest population is located in east central Alabama, approximately 400 km to the northeast, as documented by Davis and Folkerts (1986. Brimleyana 12:29-50).

  19. Generation of transgenic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Jana; Pan, Fong Cheng; Pieler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of generating transgenic animals is of obvious advantage for the analysis of gene function in development and disease. One of the established vertebrate model systems in developmental biology is the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Different techniques have been successfully applied to create Xenopus transgenics; in this chapter, the so-called meganuclease method is described. This technique is not only technically simple, but also comparably efficient and applicable to both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. The commercially available endonuclease I-SceI (meganuclease) mediates the integration of foreign DNA into the frog genome after coinjection into fertilized eggs. Tissue-specific gene expression, as well as germline transmission, has been observed.

  20. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  1. To Be or Not to Be...a Frog: The Frog Prince and Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lisa Marie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses three modern variations of the classic "Frog Prince" folk tale: "Pondlarker" (Fred Gwynne); "The Frog Prince Continued" (Jon Scieszka); and "The Prince of the Pond" (Donna Jo Napoli). Notes that these variants create a world in which frogs can have values, wisdom, and emotion, and in which frogs can influence the ways of humanity. (RS)

  2. A Comparison of V-Frog[C] to Physical Frog Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley, James P.; Piotrowski, Phillip S.; Battaglia, Barbara; Brophy, Keith; Chugh, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of virtual frog dissection using V-Frog[C] and physical frog dissection on learning, retention, and affect. Subjects were secondary students enrolled in year-long life science classes in a suburban high school (N=102). Virtual dissections were done with V-Frog[C], a…

  3. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  4. Diseases of frogs and toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents information on infectious diseases of free-living frogs and toads that have completed metamorphosis. The diseases discussed in this chapter pertain principally to sub-adult and adult frogs and toads that are at least 60-90 days removed from completion of metamorphosis. The main emphasis of this chapter is the diseases found in amphibians of Canada and the United States. Diseases of recent metamorphs, larvae and amphibian eggs are presented in the chapters Diseases of Amphibian Eggs and Embryos and Diseases of Tadpoles. The smallest disease agents (viruses and bacteria) are presented first, followed by fungi, protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites. Diseases presented in this chapter are Ranaviral (iridovirus) infection Lucke frog herpesvirus (kidney cancer) Frog erythrocytic virus West Nile virus Red-leg disease (bacterial septicemia) Salmonellosis Chytrid fungal infection Basidiobolus fungi Dermosporidiosis Ichthyophoniasis Dermocystidium & Dermomycoides Myxozoa Ribeiroia flukes and Amphibian malformations Clinostomum metacercaria Aspects of each disease are presented to assist the biologist with recognition of diseases in the field. Hence, the major emphases for identification of diseases are the epizootiological aspects (host species, life stage, casualty numbers, etc) and gross findings ('lesions'). Descriptions of the microscopical, ultrastructural and cultural characteristics of each infectious agent were considered beyond the scope of this text. Detailed cultural and microscopical features of these disease agents are available in other reviews (Taylor et al., 2001; Green, 2001). Some diseases, while common in captive and zoo amphibians, are exceptionally rare in free-living frogs and toads, and therefore are omitted from this review. Among the diseases not presented are infections by chlamydia and mycobacteria, which occur principally in captive colonies of African clawed frogs (Xenopus, Hymenochirus, et al.) and northern leopard frogs

  5. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the f

  6. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  7. FROG - Fingerprinting Genomic Variation Ontology.

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    E Abinaya

    Full Text Available Genetic variations play a crucial role in differential phenotypic outcomes. Given the complexity in establishing this correlation and the enormous data available today, it is imperative to design machine-readable, efficient methods to store, label, search and analyze this data. A semantic approach, FROG: "FingeRprinting Ontology of Genomic variations" is implemented to label variation data, based on its location, function and interactions. FROG has six levels to describe the variation annotation, namely, chromosome, DNA, RNA, protein, variations and interactions. Each level is a conceptual aggregation of logically connected attributes each of which comprises of various properties for the variant. For example, in chromosome level, one of the attributes is location of variation and which has two properties, allosomes or autosomes. Another attribute is variation kind which has four properties, namely, indel, deletion, insertion, substitution. Likewise, there are 48 attributes and 278 properties to capture the variation annotation across six levels. Each property is then assigned a bit score which in turn leads to generation of a binary fingerprint based on the combination of these properties (mostly taken from existing variation ontologies. FROG is a novel and unique method designed for the purpose of labeling the entire variation data generated till date for efficient storage, search and analysis. A web-based platform is designed as a test case for users to navigate sample datasets and generate fingerprints. The platform is available at http://ab-openlab.csir.res.in/frog.

  8. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  9. Care and Feeding of Frogs

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    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    "Propellers" are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.) the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, "Blériot," appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ~4 years. Pan & Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in "frog resonances" with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t delay, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t delay exceeds the frog libration period P lib, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t delay Lt P lib, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Blériot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P lib ~= 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Blériot's t delay ~ 0.01P lib, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  10. CARE AND FEEDING OF FROGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Margaret; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    'Propellers' are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno et al.); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, 'Bleriot', appear consistent with a sinusoid of period {approx}4 years. Pan and Chiang proposed that propeller moonlets librate in 'frog resonances' with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t{sub delay}, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t{sub delay} exceeds the frog libration period P{sub lib}, and if damping from Lindblad torques balances driving from co-orbital torques. If t{sub delay} << Pl{sub ib}, then the libration amplitude damps to zero. In the case of Bleriot, the frog resonance model can reproduce the observed libration period P{sub lib} {approx_equal} 4 yr. However, our simple feedback prescription suggests that Bleriot's t{sub delay} {approx} 0.01P{sub lib}, which is inconsistent with the observed libration amplitude of 260 km. We urge more accurate treatments of feedback to test the assumptions of our toy models.

  11. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, I.S.; Roubos, E.; Mangoni, M.L.; Yoshizato, K.; Vaudry, H.; Kloepper, J.E.; Pattwell, D.M.; Maderson, P.F.A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a

  12. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, I.S.; Roubos, E.; Mangoni, M.L.; Yoshizato, K.; Vaudry, H.; Kloepper, J.E.; Pattwell, D.M.; Maderson, P.F.A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a

  13. A Depolarizing Electrogenic Pump in Frog Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    mw copy AFRRI SR75-20 AUGUST 1975 AFRRI SCIENTIFIC REPORT O ■ to A DEPOLARIZING ELECTROGENIC PUMP IN FROG MUSCLE D. Geduldig D. R...Academy of Sciences - National Research Council. AFRRI SR75-20 August 1975 A DEPOLARIZING ELECTROGENIC PUMP IN FROG MUSCLE D. GEDULDIG* D. R...INTRODUCTION When Na-enriched frog muscles are bathed in Na- and K-free saline, the small amount of potassium which could accumulate outside of the membrane

  14. HARDENING FROG POINTS BY EXPLOSIVE ENERGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were made to determine the most efficient method of strain hardening railroad frog points in order to increase their fatigue resistance...Mechanical strain hardening with rolls 40 mm in diameter under a load of 8 tons produced in standard frogs cast from G13L high-manganese steel (AISI...Hadfield steel) a work-hardened surface layer 3-5 mm thick with a hardness of 340 HB. In other experiments, the frogs were hardened by exploding a

  15. Care and feeding of frogs

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret; 10.1088/0004-6256/143/1/9

    2012-01-01

    "Propellers" are features in Saturn's A ring associated with moonlets that open partial gaps. They exhibit non-Keplerian motion (Tiscareno 2010); the longitude residuals of the best-observed propeller, "Bl\\'eriot," appear consistent with a sinusoid of period ~4 years. Pan and Chiang (2010) proposed that propeller moonlets librate in "frog resonances" with co-orbiting ring material. By analogy with the restricted three-body problem, they treated the co-orbital material as stationary in the rotating frame and neglected non-co-orbital material. Here we use simple numerical experiments to extend the frog model, including feedback due to the gap's motion, and drag associated with the Lindblad disk torques that cause Type I migration. Because the moonlet creates the gap, we expect the gap centroid to track the moonlet, but only after a time delay t_diff, the time for a ring particle to travel from conjunction with the moonlet to the end of the gap. We find that frog librations can persist only if t_diff exceeds the...

  16. The Ups and Downs of Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Tamme, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science activity in which students simulate increases and decreases in frog populations to get a better understanding of different environmental issues affecting animal populations. Includes simulations for both natural frog populations as well as populations affected by human activities. (YDS)

  17. Semi-automated identification of leopard frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Edwards, Aaron; Chiasson, John; Chollet, Gérard; Pilliod, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is used to implement a semi-automatic recognition system to identify recaptured northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens). Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given. The presented algorithm is shown to provide accurate identification of 209 individual leopard frogs from a total set of 1386 images.

  18. The Ups and Downs of Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Tamme, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science activity in which students simulate increases and decreases in frog populations to get a better understanding of different environmental issues affecting animal populations. Includes simulations for both natural frog populations as well as populations affected by human activities. (YDS)

  19. A comparative analysis of frog early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino, Eugenia M; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Montenegro-Larrea, Paola; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Moya, Iván M; Alarcón, Ingrid; Sudou, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Taira, Masanori

    2007-07-17

    The current understanding of Xenopus laevis development provides a comparative background for the analysis of frog developmental modes. Our analysis of development in various frogs reveals that the mode of gastrulation is associated with developmental rate and is unrelated to egg size. In the gastrula of the rapidly developing embryos of the foam-nesting frogs Engystomops coloradorum and Engystomops randi, archenteron and notochord elongation overlapped with involution at the blastopore lip, as in X. laevis embryos. In embryos of dendrobatid frogs and in the frog without tadpoles Eleutherodactylus coqui, which develop somewhat more slowly than X. laevis, involution and archenteron elongation concomitantly occurred during gastrulation; whereas elongation of the notochord and, therefore, dorsal convergence and extension, occurred in the postgastrula. In contrast, in the slow developing embryos of the marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae, only involution occurred during gastrulation. The processes of archenteron and notochord elongation and convergence and extension were postgastrulation events. We produced an Ab against the homeodomain protein Lim1 from X. laevis as a tool for the comparative analysis of development. By the expression of Lim1, we were able to identify the dorsal side of the G. riobambae early gastrula, which otherwise was difficult to detect. Moreover, the Lim1 expression in the dorsal lip of the blastopore and notochord differed among the studied frogs, indicating variation in the timing of developmental events. The variation encountered gives evidence of the modular character of frog gastrulation.

  20. Population density of tropical forest frogs: relation to retreat sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M M; Pough, F H

    1983-08-05

    The forest frog Eleutherodactylus coqui defends specific sites for retreats and nests in the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico. The hypothesis that shortages of nest and retreat sites limit population size was tested by placing 100 bamboo frog houses in plots measuring 100 square meters in areas of high frog density. These new sites were readily adopted by adult frogs. After one year, experimental plots had significantly more nests and frogs of all sizes than did control plots.

  1. Lbx1 expression and frog limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Michelle C; Nath, Kimberly; Elinson, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify prospective limb muscle cells in a frog, we cloned Lbx1 from the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui. Like in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis but unlike in other vertebrates, EcLbx1 is expressed in all trunk somites. Like in embryos of chick, mouse, and zebrafish, cells expressing EcLbx1 are then found in limb buds, consistent with migration of those cells from somites. EcLbx1 is also expressed in the dorsal spinal cord as in other vertebrates.

  2. Redescription of the Frog Bladder Fluke Gorgoderina attenuata from the Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew G. Bolek; Scott D. Snyder; John Janovy Jr

    2009-01-01

    .... Morphological comparisons between gravid G. attenuata recovered from bullfrogs and northern leopard frogs indicated statistically significant differences in 11 of 28 morphological characters examined...

  3. Meeting the "Standards" with Vanishing Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Cindy B.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Patrick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Explains methods for introducing high school students to the issue of the declining amphibian population. Plays the game Frogs' Futures following a seminar as an instructional strategy. Describes the game, procedures, and rules. (YDS)

  4. Region 6 Northern Leopard Frog Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a collection of completed questionnaires and related additional data regarding the status review of the northern leopard frog. On July 1,...

  5. Meeting the "Standards" with Vanishing Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Cindy B.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Patrick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Explains methods for introducing high school students to the issue of the declining amphibian population. Plays the game Frogs' Futures following a seminar as an instructional strategy. Describes the game, procedures, and rules. (YDS)

  6. Malformed frog survey Dahomey NWR - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains field data sheets assoicated with malformed frog survey on Dahomey NWR in 2001. Work was done in support of regional sampling on refuges for...

  7. Frog Call Survey Summary 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2002, Patuxent Research Refuge has conducted frog surveys on South Tract, Central Tract, and North Tract locations. These surveys are conducted by Patuxent...

  8. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  9. Development of the pseudothumb in frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Iwai, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Frogs have highly conserved hand and foot morphology, possessing four fingers and five toes. As an exception, two Japanese ranid frog species, the Otton frog Babina subaspera and the dagger frog Babina holsti, possess a unique thumb-like structure (the pseudothumb) in the forelimb, giving an appearance of a total of five fingers on the hand. To obtain insights into the developmental mechanisms that generate this novel character, we investigated the hand morphogenesis of the Otton frog. The unique morphological pattern of the pseudothumb was already established in juveniles. Surprisingly, the bud-like structure, which is similar to the area of inductive activity (e.g. feather buds in birds and the carapacial ridge in turtles), was detected over the site where the future prepollex develops in larvae. By contrast, this bud-like structure was not found in larvae of other ranid species. We discuss possible scenarios that would favour the evolution of this very unusual trait in frogs. PMID:20147308

  10. From Virtual Frog to Frog Island: Design Studies in a Development Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Walker, Decker F.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the efforts of a curriculum development team who set out to create a virtual frog for use in biology education, but instead, after several design studies, developed a virtual world called Frog Island. Argues for incorporating educational design studies into other educational development projects. (CMK)

  11. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The... wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect...

  12. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If repairs...

  13. Pain perception and anaesthesia in research frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénette, Sarah Annie; Giroux, Marie-Chantal; Vachon, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Frogs possess pain receptors and pathways that support processing and perception of noxious stimuli however the level of organization is less well structured compared to mammals. It was long believed that the experience of pain was limited to 'higher' phylums of the animal kingdom. However, it is now commonly accepted that amphibians possess neuro-anatomical pathways conductive of a complete nociceptive experience. Xenopus laevis frogs have been one of the most popular aquatic research models for developmental studies and genetic research. These frogs have been extensively use in research for their eggs, that can be collected following hormonal stimulation either naturally or by surgical intervention. Many anaesthetics have been used in amphibians such as bath solutions of MS-222, benzocaine and eugenol as well as systemic injections of ketamine or tiletamine, barbiturates, propofol and gas administrations of methoxyflurane, halothane and isoflurane. Most of these anaesthetic drugs produce variability in depth and duration of anaesthesia. MS-222 appears to be one of the most reliable anaesthetics. This review will focus on the evidence of pain perception in frogs and will compare the effectiveness and limitations of different anaesthetics used in Xenopus leavis frogs.

  14. The propeller and the frog

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    "Propellers" in planetary rings are disturbances in ring material excited by moonlets that open only partial gaps. We describe a new type of co-orbital resonance that can explain the observed non-Keplerian motions of propellers. The resonance is between the moonlet underlying the propeller, and co-orbiting ring particles downstream of the moonlet where the gap closes. The moonlet librates within the gap about an equilibrium point established by co-orbiting material and stabilized by the Coriolis force. In the limit of small libration amplitude, the libration period scales linearly with the gap azimuthal width and inversely as the square root of the co-orbital mass. The new resonance recalls but is distinct from conventional horseshoe and tadpole orbits; we call it the "frog" resonance, after the relevant term in equine hoof anatomy. For a ring surface density and gap geometry appropriate for the propeller Bl\\'eriot in Saturn's A ring, our theory predicts a libration period of ~4 years, similar to the ~3.7 yea...

  15. FROG The Fast and Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  16. FROG The Fast and Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  17. FROG: The Fast & Realistic OPENGL Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (<3 MB) and fast (browsing time ~20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL and GLUT libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This document describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisations, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  18. The Frog Inner Ear: Picture Perfect?

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James; Segenhout, Johannes M.; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (2015) DOI: 10.1007/s10162-015-0506-z Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever’s (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Ra...

  19. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  20. Do all frogs swim alike? The effect of ecological specialization on swimming kinematics in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robovska-Havelkova, Pavla; Aerts, Peter; Rocek, Zbynek; Prikryl, Tomas; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-10-15

    Frog locomotion has attracted wide scientific interest because of the unusual and derived morphology of the frog pelvic girdle and hind limb. Previous authors have suggested that the design of the frog locomotor system evolved towards a specialized jumping morphology early in the radiation of the group. However, data on locomotion in frogs are biased towards a few groups and most of the ecological and functional diversity remains unexplored. Here, we examine the kinematics of swimming in eight species of frog with different ecologies. We use cineradiography to quantify movements of skeletal elements from the entire appendicular skeleton. Our results show that species with different ecologies do differ in the kinematics of swimming, with the speed of limb extension and especially the kinematics of the midfoot being different. Our results moreover suggest that this is not a phylogenetic effect because species from different clades with similar ecologies converge on the same swimming kinematics. We conclude that it is important to analyze frog locomotion in a broader ecological and evolutionary context if one is to understand the evolutionary origins of this behavior.

  1. Water Frogs, Aquariums, and Salmonella -- Oh My!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-09

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses how people can get Salmonella from water frogs and aquariums.  Created: 12/9/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 12/9/2009.

  2. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  3. Female frogs send ultrasonic signals for courtship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ During their studies of Odorrana tormota,a frog species with recessed tympanic membranes,CAS researchers have found that females go ultrasonic during courtship,revealing an amazingly system for communication.The work was reported online on 8 May by Nature.

  4. Tracking Frogs that sing ultrasonic duet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ In central China, unique frogs talk by emitting ultrasonic calls, male to show their virility and female for courtship, which are received by tunable ears with amazing accuracy. Prof. SHEN Junxian from the CAS Institute of Biophysics and his collaborators are working diligently to explore the mysteries of unique sound communication in animal kingdom.

  5. Embryo Development of Tree Frog Polypedates leucomystax at Campus of State University of Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Pearlindah; Emy Kusumawati; Dian Ratri Wulandari; Dwi Listyorini

    2012-01-01

    Tree frogs live in natural places which are unpolluted. Regarding their role as an ecological indicator, the decrease of frogs population in a particular habitat indicates the danger of environment quality decrease. Moreover, this condition can harm the frogs themselves. All kinds of frogs breed in aqueous environment such as ponds, marshes, and farming fields. One of the tree frogs, Polypedates leucomystax, which belongs to Familia Rachophoridae, is widely spread in Indonesia. This frog has ...

  6. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-01-01

    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found th...

  7. The Bear,The Rabbit And The Golden Frog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Bear and Mr. Rabbit didn’t like each other very much. One day, while walking through the woods, they came across a golden frog. They were amazed when the frog talked to them. The golden frog admitted that he didn’t often meet anyone, but, when he did, he always gave them six wishes. He told them that they could have 3 wishes each.

  8. From frog integument to human skin: dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Iain S; Roubos, Eric W; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Vaudry, Hubert; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Pattwell, David M; Maderson, Paul F A; Paus, Ralf

    2014-08-01

    For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a research model, for example aiding in the study of ion transport through tight epithelia, where it has served as a model for the vertebrate distal renal tubule and mammalian epithelia. However, it has rarely been considered in comparative studies involving human skin. Yet, despite certain notable adaptations that have enabled frogs to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, frog skin has many features in common with human skin. Here we present a comprehensive overview of frog (and toad) skin ontogeny, anatomy, cytology, neuroendocrinology and immunology, with special attention to its unique adaptations as well as to its similarities with the mammalian integument, including human skin. We hope to provide a valuable reference point and a source of inspiration for both amphibian investigators and mammalian researchers studying the structural and functional properties of the largest organ of the vertebrate body.

  9. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David

    2014-11-01

    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  10. Faint Infrared-Excess Field Galaxies FROGs

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, L A; Zepf, S E; Bunker, A J

    1997-01-01

    Deep near-infrared and optical imaging surveys in the field reveal a curious population of galaxies that are infrared-bright (I-K>4), yet with relatively blue optical colors (V-I20, is high enough that if placed at z>1 as our models suggest, their space densities are about one-tenth of phi-*. The colors of these ``faint red outlier galaxies'' (fROGs) may derive from exceedingly old underlying stellar populations, a dust-embedded starburst or AGN, or a combination thereof. Determining the nature of these fROGs, and their relation with the I-K>6 ``extremely red objects,'' has implications for our understanding of the processes that give rise to infrared-excess galaxies in general. We report on an ongoing study of several targets with HST & Keck imaging and Keck/LRIS multislit spectroscopy.

  11. A perchlorate sensitive iodide transporter in frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Deborah L.; James A. Carr; Ray E. Willis; Pressley, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence comparisons have identified a gene product in the genome database of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) as a probable member of the solute carrier family of membrane transporters. To confirm its identity as a putative iodide transporter, we examined the function of this sequence after heterologous expression in mammalian cells. A green monkey kidney cell line transfected with the Xenopus nucleotide sequence had significantly greater 125I uptake than sham-transfected con...

  12. Frogs and snakes from the island of Morotai (Moluccas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    Van Kampen (1924, p. 284) mentions only two species of frogs from Morotai Island; the identification of one of these was considered to be doubtful. Of snakes De Jong (1928, p. 149) records five species from this island. The study of a small collection of frogs and snakes from Morotai, presented to t

  13. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  14. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  15. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  16. Using a Phototransduction System to Monitor the Isolated Frog Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method of monitoring the movement of an isolated frog heart provides comparable results to those obtained with a force transducer. A commercially available photoresistor is integrated into a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and the output signal is interfaced directly with a recording device. An excised, beating frog heart is…

  17. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  18. The Observation of Frog Species at State University of Malang as a Preliminary Effort on Frog Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratri Wulandari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Frog is an amphibian which is widely spread around the world. Indonesia houses 450 species which represent 11% of frog species in the world. In Java Island alone, there live 42 species of frogs and toads. Frogs can be used as an environment indicator in that the presence of frog in a particular place indicates that the place stays natural and unpolluted. The 1st Campus of State University of Malang, which is located in the heart of Malang District, has been developing rapidly currently. Thus, it requires the construction of new various facilities to support its huge activities. Extensive construction can be destructive even damaging to the habitat of frog, which potentially threats the frog’s life, if it does not take the environmental impact into careful consideration. This study is aimed to identify the species of frog which survives at State University of Malang with, particularly the frog species found in 1995. Species identification was conducted by observing the morphological character. This study found that there were four species with three species remained survived in 1995; those were Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Polypedates leucomystax, and Kaloula baleta; and one new species called Rana chalconota. This study also revealed that there were four species which were extinct; those were Fejervarya cancrivora, Fejervarya limnocharis, Ingerophrynus biporcatus, and Occidoziga lima. This situation shows the decreasing amount of species from 7 to 4 within the last 17 years. This result indicates that there is a serious environmental degradation which causes the losing of frog habitats. Further research is needed to study the ecological condition changing in order to save the frog species.

  19. The gastrocoel roof plate in embryos of different frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Santillana-Ortiz, Juan-Diego; del Pino, Eugenia M

    2012-02-01

    The morphology of the gastrocoel roof plate and the presence of cilia in this structure were examined in embryos of four species of frogs. Embryos of Ceratophrys stolzmanni (Ceratophryidae) and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae) develop rapidly, provide comparison for the analysis of gastrocoel roof plate development in the slow-developing embryos of Epipedobates machalilla (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Embryos of the analyzed frogs develop from eggs of different sizes, and display different reproductive and developmental strategies. In particular, dorsal convergence and extension and archenteron elongation begin during gastrulation in embryos of rapidly developing frogs, as in Xenopus laevis. In contrast, cells that involute during gastrulation are stored in the large circumblastoporal collar that develops around the closed blastopore in embryos of slow-developing frogs. Dorsal convergence and extension only start after blastopore closure in slow-developing frog embryos. However, in the neurulae, a gastrocoel roof plate develops, despite the accumulation of superficial mesodermal cells in the circumblastoporal collar. Embryos of all four species develop a ciliated gastrocoel roof plate at the beginning of neurulation. Accordingly, fluid-flow across the gastrocoel roof plate is likely the mechanism of left-right asymmetry patterning in these frogs, as in X. laevis and other vertebrates. A ciliated gastrocoel roof plate, with a likely origin as superficial mesoderm, is conserved in frogs belonging to four different families and with different modes of gastrulation.

  20. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI; Zhunwei KE; Yihua WANG; Tim M. BLACKBURN

    2011-01-01

    Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time), and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish.Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density.

  1. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  2. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica): a technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Rittmann, S.; Irwin, J.; Keinath, D.; Scherer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Overall, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is ranked G5, secure through most of its range (NatureServe Explorer 2002). However, it is more vulnerable in some states within the USDA Forest Service Region 2: S3 (vulnerable) in Colorado, S2 (imperiled) in Wyoming, and S1 (critically imperiled in South Dakota (NatureServe Explorer 2002); there are no records for wood frogs in Kansas or Nebraska. Primary threats to wood frog populations are habitat fragmentation (loss of area, edge effects, and isolation) and habitat loss due to anthropogenic causes (e.g., wetland draining, grazing) and natural changes as habitat succession occurs. Wood frogs are most conspicuous at breeding sites early in the spring, when snow and ice are often still present at pond margins. They tolerate frezzing and hibernate terrestrially in shallow depressions, under leaf litter, grasses, logs, or rocks (Bagdonas 1968, Bellis 1961a); there are no reports of aquatic hibernation for this species (Licht 1991, Pinder et al. 1992). Wood frogs require semi-permanent and temporary pools of natural origin and adjacent wet meadows, and landscape alterations that shorten the hydroperiod of ponds can result in catastrophic tadpole mortality. Plant communities utilized by wood frogs in the Rocky Mountains are hydric to mesic and include sedge and grass meadows, willow hummocks, aspen groves, lodgepole pine forests, and woodlands with leaf litter and/or herbaceous understory (Maslin 1947, Bellis 1961a, Roberts and Lewin 1979, Haynes and Aird 1981). Wood frogs are likely to disperse into surrounding marsh and woodlands soon after oviposition (Heatwole 1961, Haynes and Aird 1981). In the arly fall, wood frogs begin to seek hibernacula at or just below the ground surface, generally in upland forest habitat (Regosin et al. 2003). Licht (1991) demonstrated shelter-seeking behavior at 1.5 [degrees] C. Once they have concealed themselves for hibernation, wood frogs are very difficult to detecta?|

  3. Active control of ultrasonic hearing in frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Feng, Albert S.; Shen, Jun-Xian; Yu, Zu-Lin; Rosowski, John J.; Narins, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrates can modulate the sound levels entering their inner ears in the face of intense external sound or during their own vocalizations. Middle ear muscle contractions restrain the motion of the middle ear ossicles, attenuating the transmission of low-frequency sound and thereby protecting the hair cells in the inner ear. Here we show that the Chinese concave-eared torrent frog, Odorrana tormota, can tune its ears dynamically by closing its normally open Eustachian tubes. Contrary to the belief that the middle ear in frogs permanently communicates with the mouth, O. tormota can close this connection by contraction of the submaxillary and petrohyoid muscles, drastically reducing the air volume behind the eardrums. Mathematical modeling and laser Doppler vibrometry revealed that the reduction of this air volume increases the middle ear impedance, resulting in an up to 20 dB gain in eardrum vibration at high frequencies (10–32 kHz) and 26 dB attenuation at low frequencies (3–10 kHz). Eustachian tube closure was observed in the field during calling and swallowing. Besides a potential role in protecting the inner ear from intense low-frequency sound and high buccal air pressure during calling, this previously unrecognized vertebrate mechanism may unmask the high-frequency calls of this species from the low-frequency stream noise which dominates the environment. This mechanism also protects the thin tympanic membranes from injury during swallowing of live arthropod prey. PMID:18658240

  4. Active control of ultrasonic hearing in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Feng, Albert S; Shen, Jun-Xian; Yu, Zu-Lin; Rosowski, John J; Narins, Peter M

    2008-08-05

    Vertebrates can modulate the sound levels entering their inner ears in the face of intense external sound or during their own vocalizations. Middle ear muscle contractions restrain the motion of the middle ear ossicles, attenuating the transmission of low-frequency sound and thereby protecting the hair cells in the inner ear. Here we show that the Chinese concave-eared torrent frog, Odorrana tormota, can tune its ears dynamically by closing its normally open Eustachian tubes. Contrary to the belief that the middle ear in frogs permanently communicates with the mouth, O. tormota can close this connection by contraction of the submaxillary and petrohyoid muscles, drastically reducing the air volume behind the eardrums. Mathematical modeling and laser Doppler vibrometry revealed that the reduction of this air volume increases the middle ear impedance, resulting in an up to 20 dB gain in eardrum vibration at high frequencies (10-32 kHz) and 26 dB attenuation at low frequencies (3-10 kHz). Eustachian tube closure was observed in the field during calling and swallowing. Besides a potential role in protecting the inner ear from intense low-frequency sound and high buccal air pressure during calling, this previously unrecognized vertebrate mechanism may unmask the high-frequency calls of this species from the low-frequency stream noise which dominates the environment. This mechanism also protects the thin tympanic membranes from injury during swallowing of live arthropod prey.

  5. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  6. Biosensor, ELISA, and frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) analysis of water associated with frog malformations in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Eric A. E.; Erb, Judith L.; Downward, James G.; Priuska, Eric M.; Wittliff, James L.; Feng, Wenke; Magner, Joseph; Larsen, Gerald L.

    2001-03-01

    Between 1995 and 1997 over 62% of the counties in Minnesota reported the presence of malformed frogs. While most sites have recently shown a decline in malformed frog populations, one site in northeastern Minnesota with no prior history of containing malformed frogs was recently discovered to contain > 67% malformed Rana pipiens (northern leopard frogs). As part of an effort to study the presence of hormonally active agents in fresh water sources, water samples were collected from lakes in Minnesota containing malformed frogs and analyzed for the presence of hormonally active compounds using a novel evanescent field fluorometric biosensor and the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay. The waveguide based biosensor developed by ThreeFold Sensors (TFS biosensor, Ann Arbor, MI) detects the presence of estrogenic compounds capable of interacting with free human ER-a and by inhibiting binding to an immobilized estrogen. The FETAX bioassay is a developmental assay, which measures teratogenicity, mortality, and inhibition of growth during the first 96 hours of organogenesis and thereby provides a universal screen for endocrine disruptors. TFS biosensor and FETAX screening of the water samples suggest a relationship between estrogenic activity, mineral supplementation, and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

  7. Frog: The fast and realistic OpenGL event displayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quertenmont, Loic, E-mail: loic.quertenmont@cern.c [Center for Particle Physics and Phenomenology CP3, Universite catholique de Louvain, Chemin du cyclotron 2, B-1348-Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-04-01

    FROG is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy physics experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time {approx} 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL and Glut libraries. Moreover, Frog does not require installation of heavy third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of Frog version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  8. Frog: The fast & realistic OpenGL event displayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quertenmont, Loïc

    2010-04-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy physics experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time ~ 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[3] and Glut [4] libraries. Moreover, Frog does not require installation of heavy third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of Frog version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  9. Dahomey NWR Malformed Frog Survey Data 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data set contains information concerning surveys for malformed frog collections on Dahomey NWR in MS from 2003-2004. Data were collected as part of the national...

  10. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  11. Final Critical Habitat for Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Rana pretiosa (Oregon Spotted Frog). Maps published in the Federal Register 2016.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas of FINAL critical habitat for Rana pretiosa (Oregon Spotted Frog). Maps published in the Federal Register 2016.

  13. California Red-Legged Frogs in coastal dune drainages (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) are typically regarded as inhabitants of permanent ponds, marshes, and slow-moving streams, but their ecology in other...

  14. FROG: The Fast And Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] [2] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable to any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light (< 3 MB) and fast (browsing time 20 events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OPENGL [3] and GLUT [4] libraries. Moreover, FROG does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally the application of FROG for physic experiment/environement, such as Gastof, CMS, ILD, Delphes will be presented for illustration.

  15. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) Monitoring at Jack Creek 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information from mark-recapture surveys conducted in 2015 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort...

  16. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, R; Grue, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequent...

  17. Frogs Communicate by Means of Ultrasonic Sounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ People are always fascinated by ways that some members of mammalian species (such as dolphins, bats and some rodents) communicate using sounds that we cannot hear. But think twice if you say the capacity of producing and detecting ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20kHz) is limited to mammalians. A study implemented by Prof. SHEN Junxian from the CAS Institute of Biophysics (IBP) and colleagues in CAS and abroad showed that a rare frog species in China should also be added to that list. It is the first documented case of a non-mammalian species being able to use ultrasonic communication. Their work was reported in the March 16 issue of the journal Nature.

  18. Cutaneous acariasis in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Timothy R; Dillehay, Dirck L; Mook, Deborah M

    2004-12-01

    Increased mortality was observed in a single colony of 50 Xenopus laevis. The frogs were used as oocyte donors in developmental biology studies. Necropsy findings included dermal erythema and petechiation consistent with red leg syndrome; dermal ulcerations and white, filamentous growths on the skin were consistent with Saprolegnia sp. Microscopic evaluation of the skin and fungus revealed an astigmatid mite similar to those of the genus Rhizoglyphus. The mite was also found in the water and the biological filter of the tanks housing the frogs. This mite is considered not to be a parasite of X. laevis; instead, it feeds off moss, fungi, and detritus. Subsequent evaluation of the sphagnum moss used for shipping the frogs from the supplier revealed the same mite in the moss. Our hypothesis is that the mite was introduced into the tank with the shipment of new frogs in sphagnum moss. The mites lived within the biological filter, and were only found after the growth of Saprolegnia sp. attracted the mites to the frogs. Laboratory animal care and veterinary personnel should consider non-pathogenic species of mites in the differential diagnosis of acariasis in Xenopus frogs.

  19. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia.

  20. Is chytridiomycosis driving Darwin's frogs to extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Soto-Azat

    Full Text Available Darwin's frogs (Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum are two species of mouth brooding frogs from Chile and Argentina that have experienced marked population declines. Rhinoderma rufum has not been found in the wild since 1980. We investigated historical and current evidence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd infection in Rhinoderma spp. to determine whether chytridiomycosis is implicated in the population declines of these species. Archived and live specimens of Rhinoderma spp., sympatric amphibians and amphibians at sites where Rhinoderma sp. had recently gone extinct were examined for Bd infection using quantitative real-time PCR. Six (0.9% of 662 archived anurans tested positive for Bd (4/289 R. darwinii; 1/266 R. rufum and 1/107 other anurans, all of which had been collected between 1970 and 1978. An overall Bd-infection prevalence of 12.5% was obtained from 797 swabs taken from 369 extant individuals of R. darwinii and 428 individuals representing 18 other species of anurans found at sites with current and recent presence of the two Rhinoderma species. In extant R. darwinii, Bd-infection prevalence (1.9% was significantly lower than that found in other anurans (7.3%. The prevalence of infection (30% in other amphibian species was significantly higher in sites where either Rhinoderma spp. had become extinct or was experiencing severe population declines than in sites where there had been no apparent decline (3.0%; x(2 = 106.407, P<0.001. This is the first report of widespread Bd presence in Chile and our results are consistent with Rhinoderma spp. declines being due to Bd infection, although additional field and laboratory investigations are required to investigate this further.

  1. Frog Foam Nest Protein Diversity and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissa, Denise Cavalcante; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira De; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lopes, José Luiz De Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cascon, Paulo; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-08-01

    Some amphibian species have developed a breeding strategy in which they deposit their eggs in stable foam nests to protect their eggs and larvae. The frog foam nests are rich in proteins (ranaspumin), especially surfactant proteins, involved in the production of the foam nest. Despite the ecological importance of the foam nests for evolution and species conservation, the biochemical composition, the long-term stability and even the origin of the components are still not completely understood. Recently we showed that Lv-RSN-1, a 23.5-kDa surfactant protein isolated from the nest of the frog Leptodacylus vastus, presents a structural conformation distinct from any protein structures yet reported. So, in the current study we aimed to reveal the protein composition of the foam nest of L. vastus and further characterize the Lv-RSN-1. Proteomic analysis showed the foam nest contains more than 100 of proteins, and that Lv-RSN-1 comprises 45% of the total proteins, suggesting a key role in the nest construction and stability. We demonstrated by Western blotting that Lv-RSN-1 is mainly produced only by the female in the pars convoluta dilata, which highlights the importance of the female preservation for conservation of species that depend on the production of foam nests in the early stages of development. Overall, our results showed the foam nest of L. vastus is composed of a great diversity of proteins and that besides Lv-RSN-1, the main protein in the foam, other proteins must have a coadjuvant role in building and stability of the nest.

  2. Frogs on the beach: Ecology of California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) in coastal dune drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) are typically regarded as inhabitants of permanent ponds, marshes, and slow-moving streams, but their ecology in other habitats, such as drainages among coastal dunes, remains obscure. Because coastal dune ecosystems have been degraded by development, off-highway vehicle use, stabilization, and invasive species, these unique ecosystems are the focus of restoration efforts. To better understand the ecology of California Red-legged Frogs in coastal dune ecosystems and to avoid and minimize potential negative effects of dune restoration activities on these rare frogs, we studied their spatial ecology, habitat selection, and survival in coastal dune drainages at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA. All 22 radio-marked frogs remained in their home drainages throughout the spring and summer of 2015 and, with some notable exceptions, most remained close to water. Local convex hull home ranges of four out of five California Red-legged Frogs with > 20 observations in dunes were < 1,600 m2 . At the population level, frogs were 1.7 (95% credible interval, 1.2‒4.4) times more likely to select sites 1 m closer to water, and were 83 (2.0‒17,000) times more likely to select sites with 10% greater percentage cover of logs that served as refuges from environmental extremes and predators. On average, California Red-legged Frogs avoided the invasive plants Iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis) and European Beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria). Frogs were 0.68 (0.32‒0.89) and 0.55 (0.24‒0.75) times as likely to select areas that had 10% greater cover of these plants, respectively. Assuming constant risk of mortality, California Redlegged Frogs had an annual survival rate of 0.70 (0.27‒0.96) in coastal dune drainages. Our results indicate that coastal dune drainages provide a locally important habitat for California Red-legged Frogs. Restoration practices that maintain wetted drainages with logjams are likely to benefit California

  3. Experiment for Development of Simple Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Concrete Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Park, Myeong Soo

    Three prototype escape countermeasures for frogs that can be easily installed in U-shaped canals with widths of 30-50 cm and depths of 30-50 cm were experimentally produced because frogs cannot escape from agricultural canals with deep concrete walls after falling into the canal. The differences of effectiveness of the 3 prototypes in places for the countermeasures (1 and 2) and flow conditions (dry and water running) were investigated for 2 frog species (Tokyo Daruma Pond Frog and Japanese Brown Frog). The brown frogs escaped from the canals more easily than the pond frogs. The brown frogs escaped regardless of their body size, but the small pond frogs escaped more easily than the large pond frogs. The prototype with slopes beside both canal walls and a net spread across the center line of the canal enabled frogs to escape from the canal more easily than the prototypes with only slopes or nets beside both canal walls. Increasing the number of places for the countermeasures enhanced frog escape. The differences in frog escape between dry canals and canals with water running were not significant. Therefore, the prototypes were confirmed sufficient as escape countermeasures that is inexpensive and can be easily placed in and removed from agricultural canals.

  4. Resurrecting an Extinct Species: Archival DNA, Taxonomy, and Conservation of the Vegas Valley Leopard Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggestions that the extinct Vegas Valley leopard frog (Rana fisheri = Lithobates fisheri) may have been synonymous with one of several declining species has complicated recovery planning for imperiled leopard frogs in southwestern North America. To address this concern, we recon...

  5. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  6. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog.

  7. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Belden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in

  8. Frog community responses to recent American bullfrog invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming LI, Zhunwei KE, Yihua WANG, Tim M. BLACKBURN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Native species may decline quickly when confronted with an exotic species to which they are not adapted. The extent of decline may depend on the abundance of an invader and the length of time since it first arrived in the community (residence time, and the interaction between these two variables. We tested these effects using data on the effects of American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus invasion on native frog communities in 65 permanent lentic waters on islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China. We examined variation in native frog abundance and species richness in relation to features of the American bullfrog invasion, habitat disturbance, characteristics of the water body and fish communities and the presence of red swamp crayfish. Bullfrog invaded sites had lower native frog density and species richness, higher submerged vegetation cover and greater frequency of repairs to the water body than did non-invaded sites. The minimum adequate general linear mixed models showed that both native frog density and species richness were negatively related to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density, and that native frog species richness was also positively related to the vegetation cover. There was no effect on either native frog density or species richness of residence time or its interaction with bullfrog density, or of the abundance of bullfrog tadpoles. The results suggested that post-metamorphosis bullfrogs had impacts on native frog communities in the islands, and that the extents of these impacts are proportional to post-metamorphosis bullfrog density [Current Zoology 57 (1: 83–92, 2011].

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs.

  11. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...

  12. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  13. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  14. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity.

  15. Tourism and the Conservation of Critically Endangered Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Clare; Simpkins, Clay; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf C.

    2012-01-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of many threatened species. Despite this, many protected areas are acutely underfunded, which reduces their effectiveness significantly. Tourism is one mechanism to promote and fund conservation in protected areas, but there are few studies analyzing its tangible conservation outcomes for threatened species. This study uses the 415 IUCN critically endangered frog species to evaluate the contribution of protected area tourism revenue to conservation. Contributions were calculated for each species as the proportion of geographic range inside protected areas multiplied by the proportion of protected area revenues derived from tourism. Geographic ranges were determined from IUCN Extent of Occurrence maps. Almost 60% (239) of critically endangered frog species occur in protected areas. Higher proportions of total range are protected in Nearctic, Australasian and Afrotopical regions. Tourism contributions to protected area budgets ranged from 5–100%. These financial contributions are highest for developing countries in the Afrotropical, Indomalayan and Neotropical regions. Data for both geographic range and budget are available for 201 critically endangered frog species with proportional contributions from tourism to species protection ranging from 0.8–99%. Tourism's financial contributions to critically endangered frog species protection are highest in the Afrotropical region. This study uses a coarse measure but at the global scale it demonstrates that tourism has significant potential to contribute to global frog conservation efforts. PMID:22984440

  16. Efficacy of frog skin lipids in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram Rama

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frog skin has been sequentially and scientifically evaluated by our group for its wound healing efficiency. Owing to the complex structure of skin, attempts were being made to analyse the role of individual constituents in different phases of healing. Our earlier papers have shown the significance of frog skin not only in wound healing but also enhancing the proliferating activity of the epidermal and dermal cells which are instrumental for normal healing process. We also have identified for the first time novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of Rana tigerina and thereby reduce the complications involved in the sepsis. Purpose of the study and Results The current study envisages the role of frog skin lipids in the inflammatory phase of wound healing. The lipid moiety of the frog skin dominated by phospholipids exhibited a dose dependent acceleration of healing irrespective of the mode of application. The efficiency of the extract is attributed partially to the anti-inflammatory activity as observed by the histochemical and immunostimulatory together with plethysmographic studies. Conclusions Thus, frog skin for the first time has been demonstrated to possess lipid components with pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. The identification and characterization of such natural healing molecules and evaluating their mechanism of action would therefore provide basis for understanding the cues of Nature and hence can be used for application in medicine.

  17. Drainage ditches facilitate frog movements in a hostile landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ditches are common in landscapes influenced by agricultural, forestry, and peat mining activities, and their value as corridors remains unassessed. Pond-breeding amphibians can encounter hostile environments when moving between breeding, summering, or hibernation sites, and are likely to benefit from the presence of ditches in the landscape. Within a system consisting of ditch networks in bogs mined for peat in eastern New Brunswick, Canada, I quantified the breeding, survival, and movements of green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota) in drainage ditches and also surveyed peat fields. Frogs rarely ventured on peat fields and most individuals frequented drainage ditches containing water, particularly in late summer. Though frogs did not breed in ditches, their survival rate in ditches was high (88%). Ditches did not hinder frog movements, as frogs moved independently of the current. Results indicate that drainage ditches containing water enable some movements between habitats isolated by peat mining, in contrast to peat surfaces, and suggest they function as amphibian movement corridors. Thus, such drainage ditches may mitigate the effects of peat extraction on amphibian populations. At the very least, these structures provide an alternative to hostile peat surfaces. This study highlights that small-scale corridors are potentially valuable in population dynamics. ?? Springer 2005.

  18. Frog sound identification using extended k-nearest neighbor classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukahar, Nordiana; Affendi Rosdi, Bakhtiar; Athiar Ramli, Dzati; Jaafar, Haryati

    2017-09-01

    Frog sound identification based on the vocalization becomes important for biological research and environmental monitoring. As a result, different types of feature extractions and classifiers have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of frog sound identification. This paper presents a frog sound identification with Extended k-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN) classifier. The EKNN classifier integrates the nearest neighbors and mutual sharing of neighborhood concepts, with the aims of improving the classification performance. It makes a prediction based on who are the nearest neighbors of the testing sample and who consider the testing sample as their nearest neighbors. In order to evaluate the classification performance in frog sound identification, the EKNN classifier is compared with competing classifier, k -Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Fuzzy k -Nearest Neighbor (FKNN) k - General Nearest Neighbor (KGNN)and Mutual k -Nearest Neighbor (MKNN) on the recorded sounds of 15 frog species obtained in Malaysia forest. The recorded sounds have been segmented using Short Time Energy and Short Time Average Zero Crossing Rate (STE+STAZCR), sinusoidal modeling (SM), manual and the combination of Energy (E) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) (E+ZCR) while the features are extracted by Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC). The experimental results have shown that the EKNCN classifier exhibits the best performance in terms of accuracy compared to the competing classifiers, KNN, FKNN, GKNN and MKNN for all cases.

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  20. Isoflurane anesthesia in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Stump, K C

    2000-11-01

    Isoflurane is one of the safest and most accepted anesthetic agents for reptiles, birds, and mammals. It has also been used in terrestrial amphibians. The use of inhalation agents in an entirely aquatic frog presents a new dilemma for delivery in contrast to terrestrial species. The African Clawed Frog respires by using both transcutaneous gas exchange and air breathing. These frogs remain submerged for long periods of time, thus making standard inhalation techniques impractical. We tested five methods for delivering isoflurane: 1) bubbling isoflurane and oxygen in the water, 2) intracoelomic injection, 3) subcutaneous injection, 4) intramuscular injection, and 5) topical application. For the topical application, we developed a simple technique by using an absorptive pad with a vapor-barrier backing, saturating the pad with the liquid isoflurane, and placing the pad on the back of the frog while it was confined in a plastic bowl. Although two of the three injectable routes induced anesthesia, only the topical route produced rapid induction with consistent, safe recovery. Bubbling isoflurane with oxygen into water was unsuccessful. Topical application of isoflurane was most successful and appears to be a safe and practical method that can be used as an alternative to tricaine methylsulphonate, hypothermia, or other methods for anesthetizing African Clawed Frogs.

  1. Biological Jumping Mechanism Analysis and Modeling for Frog Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Wang; Xi-zhe Zang; Ji-zhuang Fan; Jie Zhao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanical model of jumping robot based on the biological mechanism analysis of frog. By biological observation and kinematic analysis the frog jump is divided into take-off phase, aerial phase and landing phase. We find the similar trajectories of hindlimb joints during jump, the important effect of foot during take-off and the role of forelimb in supporting the body. Based on the observation, the frog jump is simplified and a mechanical model is put forward. The robot leg is represented by a 4-bar spring/linkage mechanism model, which has three Degrees of Freedom (DOF) at hip joint and one DOF (passive) at tarsometatarsal joint on the foot. The shoulder and elbow joints each has one DOF for the balancing function of arm.The ground reaction force of the model is analyzed and compared with that of frog during take-off. The results show that the model has the same advantages of low likelihood of premature lift-off and high efficiency as the frog. Analysis results and the model can be employed to develop and control a robot capable of mimicking the jumping behavior of flog.

  2. Sophisticated Communication in the Brazilian Torrent Frog Hylodes japi

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Fábio P.; Zina, Juliana; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication in frogs plays an important role in the recognition of conspecifics in general and of potential rivals or mates in particular and therefore with relevant consequences for pre-zygotic reproductive isolation. We investigate intraspecific communication in Hylodes japi, an endemic Brazilian torrent frog with territorial males and an elaborate courtship behavior. We describe its repertoire of acoustic signals as well as one of the most complex repertoires of visual displays known in anurans, including five new visual displays. Previously unknown in frogs, we also describe a bimodal inter-sexual communication system where the female stimulates the male to emit a courtship call. As another novelty for frogs, we show that in addition to choosing which limb to signal with, males choose which of their two vocal sacs will be used for visual signaling. We explain how and why this is accomplished. Control of inflation also provides additional evidence that vocal sac movement and color must be important for visual communication, even while producing sound. Through the current knowledge on visual signaling in Neotropical torrent frogs (i.e. hylodids), we discuss and highlight the behavioral diversity in the family Hylodidae. Our findings indicate that communication in species of Hylodes is undoubtedly more sophisticated than we expected and that visual communication in anurans is more widespread than previously thought. This is especially true in tropical regions, most likely due to the higher number of species and phylogenetic groups and/or to ecological factors, such as higher microhabitat diversity. PMID:26760304

  3. A perchlorate sensitive iodide transporter in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Deborah L; Carr, James A; Willis, Ray E; Pressley, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Nucleotide sequence comparisons have identified a gene product in the genome database of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) as a probable member of the solute carrier family of membrane transporters. To confirm its identity as a putative iodide transporter, we examined the function of this sequence after heterologous expression in mammalian cells. A green monkey kidney cell line transfected with the Xenopus nucleotide sequence had significantly greater (125)I uptake than sham-transfected control cells. The uptake in carrier-transfected cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of perchlorate, a competitive inhibitor of mammalian Na(+)/iodide symporter. Tissue distributions of the sequence were also consistent with a role in iodide uptake. The mRNA encoding the carrier was found to be expressed in the thyroid gland, stomach, and kidney of tadpoles from X. laevis, as well as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The ovaries of adult X. laevis also were found to express the carrier. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the putative X. laevis iodide transporter is orthologous to vertebrate Na(+)-dependent iodide symporters. We conclude that the amphibian sequence encodes a protein that is indeed a functional Na(+)/iodide symporter in X. laevis, as well as R. catesbeiana.

  4. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in three species of wild frogs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, M J; Vanderstichel, R; Hogan, N S; Teather, K; Wood, J

    2010-09-02

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has resulted in the decline or extinction of approximately 200 frog species worldwide. It has been reported throughout much of North America, but its presence on Prince Edward Island (PEI), on the eastern coast of Canada, was unknown. To determine the presence and prevalence of Bd on PEI, skin swabs were collected from 115 frogs from 18 separate sites across the province during the summer of 2009. The swabs were tested through single round end-point PCR for the presence of Bd DNA. Thirty-one frogs were positive, including 25/93 (27%) green frogs Lithobates (Rana) clamitans, 5/20 (25%) northern leopard frogs L. (R.) pipiens, and 1/2 (50%) wood frogs L. sylvaticus (formerly R. sylvatica); 12 of the 18 (67%) sites had at least 1 positive frog. The overall prevalence of Bd infection was estimated at 26.9% (7.2-46.7%, 95% CI). Prevalence amongst green frogs and leopard frogs was similar, but green frogs had a stronger PCR signal when compared to leopard frogs, regardless of age (p frogs, juveniles were more frequently positive than adults (p = 0.001). Green frogs may be the most reliable species to sample when looking for Bd in eastern North America. The 1 wood frog positive for Bd was found dead from chytridiomycosis; none of the other frogs that were positive for Bd by PCR showed any obvious signs of illness. Further monitoring will be required to determine what effect Bd infection has on amphibian population health on PEI.

  5. Sticking under wet conditions: the remarkable attachment abilities of the torrent frog, Staurois guttatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Endlein

    Full Text Available Tree frogs climb smooth surfaces utilising capillary forces arising from an air-fluid interface around their toe pads, whereas torrent frogs are able to climb in wet environments near waterfalls where the integrity of the meniscus is at risk. This study compares the adhesive capabilities of a torrent frog to a tree frog, investigating possible adaptations for adhesion under wet conditions. We challenged both frog species to cling to a platform which could be tilted from the horizontal to an upside-down orientation, testing the frogs on different levels of roughness and water flow. On dry, smooth surfaces, both frog species stayed attached to overhanging slopes equally well. In contrast, under both low and high flow rate conditions, the torrent frogs performed significantly better, even adhering under conditions where their toe pads were submerged in water, abolishing the meniscus that underlies capillarity. Using a transparent platform where areas of contact are illuminated, we measured the contact area of frogs during platform rotation under dry conditions. Both frog species not only used the contact area of their pads to adhere, but also large parts of their belly and thigh skin. In the tree frogs, the belly and thighs often detached on steeper slopes, whereas the torrent frogs increased the use of these areas as the slope angle increased. Probing small areas of the different skin parts with a force transducer revealed that forces declined significantly in wet conditions, with only minor differences between the frog species. The superior abilities of the torrent frogs were thus due to the large contact area they used on steep, overhanging surfaces. SEM images revealed slightly elongated cells in the periphery of the toe pads in the torrent frogs, with straightened channels in between them which could facilitate drainage of excess fluid underneath the pad.

  6. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  7. Frog: The Fast & Realistic OpenGL Event Displayer

    CERN Document Server

    Quertenmont, Loic

    2009-01-01

    FROG [1] is a generic framework dedicated to visualisation of events in high energy experiment. It is suitable for any particular physics experiment or detector design. The code is light ($<3~\\textrm{MB}$) and fast (browsing time $\\sim20$ events per second for a large High Energy Physics experiment) and can run on various operating systems, as its object-oriented structure (C++) relies on the cross-platform OpenGL[2] and GLUT [3] libraries. Moreover, \\textsc{Frog} does not require installation of third party libraries for the visualisation. This documents describes the features and principles of FROG version 1.106, its working scheme and numerous functionalities such as: 3D and 2D visualisation, graphical user interface, mouse interface, configuration files, production of pictures of various format, integration of personal objects, etc. Finally, several examples of its current applications are presented for illustration.

  8. Control of rod shedding in the frog retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, S F; Hollyfield, J G

    1980-01-01

    In all vertebrate species examined thus far, rod outer segment shedding follows a cyclic pattern in which the outer segment tips are shed shortly after the onset of light. Work in the rat retina suggests that rod shedding may follow a circadian rhythm which is controlled by one or more circadian oscillators. Our results in the frog retina are significantly different in that: rod shedding can be driven by the onset of light or other environmental cues; shedding does not persist in constant darkness; shedding is unaffected in frogs with chronic unilateral or bilateral optic nerve section; and shedding will rapidly phase shift to the time of light onset on a wide variety of diurnal cycles. Thus, rod shedding in the frog retina does not appear to be a classical circadian rhythm.

  9. Host Defense Peptides from Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth T.V. Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are currently major focal points of medical research as infectious microbes are gaining resistance to existing drugs. They are effective against multi-drug resistant pathogens due to their unique primary target, biological membranes, and their peculiar mode of action. Even though HDPs from 60 Asian frog species belonging to 15 genera have been characterized, research into these peptides is at a very early stage. The purpose of this review is to showcase the status of peptide research in Asia. Here we provide a summary of HDPs from Asian frogs.

  10. Host Defense Peptides from Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineeth T.V.; Holthausen, David; Jacob, Joshy; George, Sanil

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are currently major focal points of medical research as infectious microbes are gaining resistance to existing drugs. They are effective against multi-drug resistant pathogens due to their unique primary target, biological membranes, and their peculiar mode of action. Even though HDPs from 60 Asian frog species belonging to 15 genera have been characterized, research into these peptides is at a very early stage. The purpose of this review is to showcase the status of peptide research in Asia. Here we provide a summary of HDPs from Asian frogs. PMID:27025618

  11. Determination of age, longevity and age at reproduction of the frog Microhyla ornata by skeletochronology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh M Kumbar; Katti Pancharatna

    2001-06-01

    Skeletochronological estimation of age, longevity, age at sexual maturity and breeding of Microhyla ornata was done. Frogs ( = 62) were collected locally in August (rainy season) 1997 and brought to the laboratory. Body mass and snout-vent-length (SVL) of each frog was recorded; the 4th toe of both the hind limbs was clipped under anaesthesia, fixed in 10% formalin, demineralized in 5% nitric acid and processed for histology. Limb bones (femur, humerus, tibiofibula and radioulna) of 6 large sized frogs were also processed for skeletochronology in order to study the rate of resorption. Gonads of 25 frogs (belonging to different body size ranges) were processed for histology in order to ascertain the gametogenic status of individual frogs. One to four growth rings consisting of growth zones and lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were noticed in frogs of different body sizes; the number of LAGs remained identical in all the limb bones and phalanges in 5 out of 6 frogs. Back calculation indicated that the resorption rate is very low in this frog. Male frogs possessed sperm bundles in seminiferous tubules in the 1st year, while females showed yolky follicles in the ovary in the 2nd year. Frogs found in amplexus were 3–5 years old. The results suggest that this frog may live for a maximum of 5 years in the natural population.

  12. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  13. The Maluti Mystery revisited: Taxonomy of African River Frogs (Pyxicephalidae, Amietia) on the Drakensberg Mountains in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channing, Alan

    2015-02-27

    The taxonomy of two similar frogs from the top of the Drakensberg escarpment, the Maluti River Frog and the Phofung River Frog is not settled. I examine the relevant types and type descriptions, and discover a number of errors in the literature. Some of the recent taxonomic changes were found to be unsupported. The Maluti River Frog is assigned to Amietia vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and the Phofung River Frog to Amietia hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920).

  14. Morphometric discrimination of wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on hindlimb length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui; HUANG Xiao-ming; YANG Shu-hui; XU Yan-chun; Ying Lu; Thomas D.Dahmer

    2011-01-01

    Commercial farming of anuran species that arc declining in the wild raises a need to discriminate wild from farmed frogs. We hypothesized wild frogs might have extended hindlimbs due to greater frequency or intensity of jumping relative to farmed frogs, highlighting a morphometric approach to discrimination of wild from farmed frogs using hindiimb length. In the present study, Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) was used to test this hypothesis. We measured body mass (Mb)and hindlimb length (Lh) of 2-year old farmed frogs and wild frogs aged 2 to 5 years. Dybowski's frog demonstrated significant dimorphism in Mb and Lh. Mb was significantly greater among farmed 2-year old frogs in both sexes (p=0.000), while only among females w as Lh significantly greater for wild frogs (p=0.000). Lh/Mb was used as an index for origin discrimination to eliminate the influence of Mb due to variation of husbandry conditions among farms. Mean Lh/Mb for fanned frogs was significantly lower than for wild frogs (p=0.000) in the 2-year old age class.Discrimination correctly classified 84.4% of fanned and 96.3% of wild male frogs. Among females, 92.9% of farmed frogs and 90.1% wild frogs were correctly classified. The ovcrall correctness of classification was 92.1% and 90.8% for males and females, respectively. However, Lh/Mb revealed variation with age, resulting in reduced discriminative power for frogs ≥3 years old. We introduced a coefficient Ce to adjust the Lh/Mb of frogs ≥3 years to the level equivalent to 2-year frogs. Thc adjustment achieved 89.5% for overall correctness of origin for wild males and 92.4% for wild females ≥3 years old. These results show that Lh/Mb is an effective index to discriminate wild from fanned Dybowski's frog. Since the physical demands ofjumping are common among anurans, this index is also potentially applicable to other anuran species.

  15. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  16. Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Vos, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Orientation is a key component to successful movements between habitats. We hypothesized that barren agricultural landscapes hinder the ability of frogs to orient and move between habitats. Specifically, we predicted that when presented with a choice between a short route through a hostile environme

  17. Archaeobatrachian paraphyly and pangaean diversification of crown-group frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Kim; Bossuyt, Franky

    2005-02-01

    Current models for the early diversification of living frogs inferred from morphological, ontogenetic, or DNA sequence data invoke very different scenarios of character evolution and biogeography. To explore central controversies on the phylogeny of Anura, we analyzed nearly 4000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA for the major frog lineages. Likelihood-based analyses of this data set are congruent with morphological evidence in supporting a paraphyletic arrangement of archaeobatrachian frogs, with an (Ascaphus + Leiopelma) clade as the sister-group of all other living anurans. The stability of this outcome is reinforced by screening for phylogenetic bias resulting from site-specific rate variation, homoplasy, or the obligatory use of distantly related outgroups. Twenty-one alternative branching and rooting hypotheses were evaluated using a nonparametric multicomparison test and parametric bootstrapping. Relaxed molecular clock estimates situate the emergence of crown-group anurans in the Triassic, approximately 55 million years prior to their first appearance in the fossil record. The existence of at least four extant frog lineages on the supercontinent Pangaea before its breakup gains support from the estimation that three early splits between Laurasia- and Gondwana-associated families coincide with the initial rifting of these landmasses. This observation outlines the potential significance of this breakup event in the formation of separate Mesozoic faunal assemblages in both hemispheres.

  18. How Can We Tell if Frogs Jump Further?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Gordon B.; Tom, Brian D. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective is training frogs to jump? This is perhaps the most frequent question in biology that is subjected to statistical analysis: does a treatment make a difference? One can examine whether there is indeed a training effect, by first assuming the opposite. That is, the authors assume that training has no effect on the mean distance jumped.…

  19. Antimicrobial peptides from the skins of North American frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    North America is home to anuran species belonging to the families Bufonidae, Eleutherodactylidae, Hylidae, Leiopelmatidae, Ranidae, and Scaphiopodidae but antimicrobial peptides have been identified only in skin secretions and/or skin extracts of frogs belonging to the Leiopelmatidae ("tailed frogs") and Ranidae ("true frogs"). Eight structurally-related cationic alpha-helical peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, termed ascaphins, have been isolated from specimens of Ascaphus truei (Leiopelmatidae) occupying a coastal range. Characterization of orthologous antimicrobial peptides from Ascaphus specimens occupying an inland range supports the proposal that this population should be regarded as a separate species A. montanus. Ascaphin-8 shows potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent. Peptides belonging to the brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, and temporin families have been isolated from North American ranids. It is proposed that "ranalexins" represent brevinin-1 peptides that have undergone a four amino acid residue internal deletion. Current taxonomic recommendations divide North American frogs from the family Ranidae into two genera: Lithobates and Rana. Cladistic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of the brevinin-1 peptides provides strong support for this assignment.

  20. Natural disturbance reduces disease risk in endangered rainforest frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roznik, Elizabeth A; Sapsford, Sarah J; Pike, David A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2015-08-21

    Natural disturbances can drive disease dynamics in animal populations by altering the microclimates experienced by hosts and their pathogens. Many pathogens are highly sensitive to temperature and moisture, and therefore small changes in habitat structure can alter the microclimate in ways that increase or decrease infection prevalence and intensity in host populations. Here we show that a reduction of rainforest canopy cover caused by a severe tropical cyclone decreased the risk of endangered rainforest frogs (Litoria rheocola) becoming infected by a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Reductions in canopy cover increased the temperatures and rates of evaporative water loss in frog microhabitats, which reduced B. dendrobatidis infection risk in frogs by an average of 11-28% in cyclone-damaged areas, relative to unaffected areas. Natural disturbances to the rainforest canopy can therefore provide an immediate benefit to frogs by altering the microclimate in ways that reduce infection risk. This could increase host survival and reduce the probability of epidemic disease outbreaks. For amphibian populations under immediate threat from this pathogen, targeted manipulation of canopy cover could increase the availability of warmer, drier microclimates and therefore tip the balance from host extinction to coexistence.

  1. Ranavirus in wild edible frogs Pelophylax kl. esculentus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Kielgast, Jos; Svart, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    interviewed by phone and 10 cases were examined on suspicion of diseaseinduced mortality. All samples were negative for Bd. Ranavirus was isolated from 2 samples of recently dead frogs collected during a mass mortality event in an artificial pond near Slagelse, Denmark. The identity of the virus was confirmed...

  2. Choosing the safest route: frog orientation in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Vos, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Orientation is a key component to successful movements between habitats. We hypothesized that barren agricultural landscapes hinder the ability of frogs to orient and move between habitats. Specifically, we predicted that when presented with a choice between a short route through a hostile environme

  3. BIFURCATION ANALYSIS OF A MITOTIC MODEL OF FROG EGGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金虎; 张子范; 张锁春

    2003-01-01

    The mitotic model of frog eggs established by Borisuk and Tyson is qualitatively analyzed. The existence and stability of its steady states are further discussed. Furthermore, the bifurcation of above model is further investigated by using theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. At the same time, the numerical results of Tyson are verified by theoretical analysis.

  4. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  5. How Can We Tell if Frogs Jump Further?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Gordon B.; Tom, Brian D. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective is training frogs to jump? This is perhaps the most frequent question in biology that is subjected to statistical analysis: does a treatment make a difference? One can examine whether there is indeed a training effect, by first assuming the opposite. That is, the authors assume that training has no effect on the mean distance jumped.…

  6. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and maintenance of animal communication systems requires the co-evolution of signal and receiver. Frogs and toads rely heavily on acoustic communication for coordinating reproduction and typically have ears tuned to the dominant frequency of their vocalizations, allowing discriminat...

  7. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30 °C–34 °C was 191 ± 9...

  8. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  9. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  10. Biophysics of directional hearing in the frog Eleutherodactylus coqui

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Buhl; Schmitz, Barbara; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    ) or closed (GC response) during the measurement. 3. The lateral body wall vibrated with a maximum amplitude close to that of the eardrum and in the same frequency range. 4. Covering the frog's body wall with vaseline reduced the vibration amplitude of the GC response by up to 15 dB. 5. When a closed sound...

  11. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  12. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  13. Glycation of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) hemoglobin and blood proteins: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Justin A.; Degenhardt, Thorsten; Baynes, John W.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of in vivo freezing and glucose cryoprotectant on protein glycation were investigated in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Our studies revealed no difference in the fructoselysine content of blood plasma sampled from control, 27 h frozen and 18 h thawed wood frogs. Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) decreased slightly with 48 h freezing exposure and was below control levels after 7 d recovery, while glycated serum albumin was unchanged by 48 h freezing but did increase after 7 d of recovery. In vitro exposure of blood lysates to glucose revealed that the GHb production in wood frogs was similar to that of the rat but was lower than in leopard frogs. We conclude that wood frog hemoglobin was glycated in vitro; however, GHb production was not apparent during freezing and recovery when in vivo glucose is highly elevated. It is possible that wood frog blood proteins have different in vivo susceptibilities to glycation. PMID:19540217

  14. Assessment of radiocesium contamination in frogs 18 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Noe; Ihara, Sadao; Takase, Minoru; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the accumulation of radionuclides in frogs inhabiting radioactively contaminated areas around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) to search for possible adverse effects due to radionuclides. We collected 5 frog species and soil samples in areas within and outside a 20-km radius from FDNPP in August and September 2012 and determined their radiocesium concentrations (134Cs and 137Cs). There was a positive correlation between radiocesium concentrations in the soil samples and frogs, and the highest concentration in frogs was 47,278.53 Bq/kg-wet. Although we conducted a histological examination of frog ovaries and testes by light microscopy to detect possible effects of radionuclides on the morphology of germ cells, there were no clear abnormalities in the gonadal tissues of frogs collected from sites with different contamination levels.

  15. Adaptive response in frogs chronically exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audette-Stuart, M., E-mail: stuartm@aecl.ca [Environmental Technologies Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1P0 (Canada); Kim, S.B.; McMullin, D.; Festarini, A.; Yankovich, T.L.; Carr, J.; Mulpuru, S. [Environmental Technologies Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1P0 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Using the micronucleus assay, decreased levels of DNA damage were found after high dose ionizing radiation exposure of liver cells taken from frogs inhabiting a natural environment with above-background levels of ionizing radiation, compared to cells taken from frogs inhabiting background areas. The data obtained from a small number of animals suggest that stress present in the above-background environment could induce an adaptive response to ionizing radiation. This study did not reveal harmful effects of exposure to low levels of radioactivity. On the contrary, stress present in the above-background area may serve to enhance cellular defense mechanisms. - Highlights: > Frogs were collected from background and higher tritium level habitats. > The micronucleus assay was conducted on liver cells obtained from the frogs. > No detrimental effects were noted in frogs exposed to elevated tritium. > Adaptive responses were observed in frogs exposed to elevated tritium.

  16. Pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis to brown tree frogs (Litoria ewingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadich, Ermin; Cole, Anthony L J

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial dermatosepticemia, a systemic infectious bacterial disease of frogs, can be caused by several opportunistic gram-negative bacterial species including Aeromonas hydrophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia liquifaciens. Here we determined the pathogenicity of 3 bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) associated with an outbreak of fatal dermatosepticemia in New Zealand Litoria ewingii frogs. A bath challenge method was used to expose test frogs to individual bacterial species (2 x 10(7) cfu/mL in pond water); control frogs were exposed to uninfected pond water. None of the control frogs or those exposed to A. hydrophila or P. mirabilis showed any morbidity or mortality. Morbidity and mortality was 40% among frogs exposed to K. pneumonia, and the organism was reisolated from the hearts, spleens, and livers of affected animals.

  17. Glycation of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) hemoglobin and blood proteins: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Justin A; Degenhardt, Thorsten; Baynes, John W; Storey, Kenneth B

    2009-10-01

    The effects of in vivo freezing and glucose cryoprotectant on protein glycation were investigated in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Our studies revealed no difference in the fructoselysine content of blood plasma sampled from control, 27 h frozen and 18 h thawed wood frogs. Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) decreased slightly with 48 h freezing exposure and was below control levels after 7d recovery, while glycated serum albumin was unchanged by 48 h freezing but did increase after 7d of recovery. In vitro exposure of blood lysates to glucose revealed that the GHb production in wood frogs was similar to that of the rat but was lower than in leopard frogs. We conclude that wood frog hemoglobin was glycated in vitro; however, GHb production was not apparent during freezing and recovery when in vivo glucose is highly elevated. It is possible that wood frog blood proteins have different in vivo susceptibilities to glycation.

  18. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  19. Epidermal Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve Nichole M. Jindra Robert J. Thomas Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed...in the Frog Sciatic Nerve 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) .Nichole M. Jindra, Robert J. Thomas, Douglas N...Alan Rice 14. ABSTRACT Measurements of laser stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were made using

  20. Emerging myxosporean parasites of Australian frogs take a ride with fresh fruit transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Peacock, Lee; Rosenwax, Alex; Phalen, David N; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-01-01

    .... Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis are two species of myxosporean parasites infecting Australian frogs and tadpoles that have been recently recognised as important disease agents impacting...

  1. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ICE IN FROZEN TISSUES OF FROGS AND MICE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and digit free of ice at all temperatures are the stratum corneum in both the frog and the mouse, the stratum compactum in the frog and the fibrous...sheath of the mouse tendon. (4) The epidermis is almost entirely free of ice in frog skin at -1C and in mouse skin at -2C. (5) When ice is formed, the...horizontal connective tissue of the dermis. (6) Ice is present in the tendon of the frog at -5C and -3C, and in that of the mouse at -5C. With excised

  2. Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT - We found more green tree frogs ( Hyla cinerea) n canopv gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopv gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat Flies were the most commonlv collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  3. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  4. Vocal acrobatics in a Chinese frog, Amolops tormotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Albert; Narins, Peter; Xu, Chun-He

    2002-06-01

    Although amphibians are highly vocal, they generally emit only a limited number of acoustic communication signals. We report here the extraordinarily rich vocal repertoire of Amolops tormotus, a ranid species in China. These frogs produce countless vocalizations, some of which share features of birdsong or primate calls, e.g., ultrasonic frequency components, multiple upward and downward FM sweeps, and sudden onset and offset of selective harmonic components within a call note. Frame-by-frame video analysis of the frog's calling behavior suggests the presence of two pairs of vocal sacs that may contribute to the remarkable call-note complexity in this species. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0335-x.

  5. The rediscovered Hula painted frog is a living fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Rebecca; Geffen, Eli; Vences, Miguel; Cohen, Orly; Bailon, Salvador; Rabinovich, Rivka; Malka, Yoram; Oron, Talya; Boistel, Renaud; Brumfeld, Vlad; Gafny, Sarig

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian declines are seen as an indicator of the onset of a sixth mass extinction of life on earth. Because of a combination of factors such as habitat destruction, emerging pathogens and pollutants, over 156 amphibian species have not been seen for several decades, and 34 of these were listed as extinct by 2004. Here we report the rediscovery of the Hula painted frog, the first amphibian to have been declared extinct. We provide evidence that not only has this species survived undetected in its type locality for almost 60 years but also that it is a surviving member of an otherwise extinct genus of alytid frogs, Latonia, known only as fossils from Oligocene to Pleistocene in Europe. The survival of this living fossil is a striking example of resilience to severe habitat degradation during the past century by an amphibian.

  6. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailov, M.C.; Prechter, I.; Greimel, H.; Welscher, U.E.

    1983-07-01

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation.

  7. The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M; Gilchrist, Michael J; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M; Mead, Paul E; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D; Warren, Wesley C; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Zorn, Aaron M; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K; Richardson, Paul M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-04-30

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  8. An Electromyographic Study of Jaw and Tongue Reflexes in Frogs

    OpenAIRE

    熊井, 敏文; 野村, 浩道

    1983-01-01

    Electromyographic activities of jaw and tongue muscles produced reflexly by mechanical and chemical stimulation of various loci of orofacial region were studied in the frog, Rana nigromaculata. Temporal muscle activity occurred when mechanical stimuli were applied to the palatal ridge, lower lip, root of tongue and pharynx. Electromyograms of the masseter muscle were similar to that of the temporal muscle, but the masseter muscle activity was occurred ipsilaterally and was not occurred by the...

  9. Effects of Dimethoate on Tree Frog (Hyla arborea) Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferah SAYIM; Kaya, Uğur

    2006-01-01

    Considering the global decline of amphibian populations, the present study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of tree frogs to a common pesticide, dimethoate. Our study reports the effects of dimethoate on 21st- and 25th-stage Hyla arborea larvae under standardized laboratory conditions in an acute toxicity test using the static system. Specimens used for testing were obtained from the eggs of mating pairs collected at a local natural pond. Each experimental group contained 10 healthy larva...

  10. Effect of Krebs cycle metabolites on frog heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopde, C T; Dorle, A K; Brahmankar, D M

    1975-01-01

    All the Krebs metabolites except pyruvate, lactate, acetate and succinate reduced the force and rate of myocardial contractions and also decreased cardiac output in frog. Succinate on the contrary was found to augment the rate and force of heart. The cardiac stimulation produced by epinephrine was reduced by fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate and alpha-oxoglutarate, whereas transaconitate and citrate produced only a slight inhibition. Pyruvate, lactate, acetate and succinate did not alter cardiac response to epinephrine.

  11. Develop Inventory Protocols for frogs within the Region 1 Great Northern and Great Basin LCC, Protocol Development & Remote Audial Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many refuges lack basic information on distribution of frogs, but conducting inventory surveys for frogs can be problematic. Different species breed at different...

  12. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  14. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E; Grue, Christian E; Hayes, Marc P; Troiano, Alexandra T

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  16. Chronic exposures to monomethyl phthalate in Western clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Polymer flexibility and elasticity is enhanced by plasticizers. However, plasticizers are often not covalently bound to plastics and thus can leach from products into the environment. Much research effort has focused on their effects in mammalian species, but data on aquatic species are scarce. In this study, Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) embryos were exposed to 1.3, 12.3, and 128.7mg/L monomethyl phthalate (MMP) until the juvenile stage (11weeks) and to 1.3mg/L MMP until the adult stage (51weeks). MMP decreased survival, hastened metamorphosis, and biased the sex ratio toward males (2M:1F) at the juvenile stage without altering the expression of a subset of thyroid hormone-, sex steroid-, cellular stress- or transcription regulation-related genes in the juvenile frog livers. At the adult stage, exposure to MMP did not have significant adverse health effects, except that females had larger interocular distance and the expression of the heat shock protein 70 was decreased by 60% in the adult liver. In conclusion, this study shows that MMP is unlikely to threaten amphibian populations as only concentrations four orders of magnitude higher than the reported environmental concentrations altered the animal physiology. This is the first complete investigation of the effects of phthalates in a frog species, encompassing the entire life cycle of the organisms. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural study of the frog Rana temporaria larval stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, J; Villaro, A C; Bodegas, M E; Valverde, E; Sesma, P

    1993-10-01

    The gastric wall of Rana temporaria tadpoles consists of a well-developed mucosa and thin muscular and serosa layers. Three cellular types--mucous, ciliated and endocrine cells--make up the lining epithelium. Different types of endocrine cells exist. Argyrophylic endocrine cells can be recognized in semithin sections of plastic-embedded material while non-argyrophylic endocrine cells can only be identified under the electron microscope. Glands are composed mainly of well-differentiated oxyntic cells and, occasionally, scarce endocrine cells. Oxyntic cells show abundant mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but do not contain zymogen granules as do those present in adults. Secretory canaliculi with microvilli are also well-developed. The lamina propria contains numerous vascular sinuses and nerve bundles which innervate the endothelium and some endocrine cells. The neuroendocrine regulation of frog gastric functions seems therefore to have developed in young tadpoles. Nerve fibers also innervate the muscular propria, which is composed of a single layer of smooth muscle cells. Underlying the muscle, connective fibers and a flattened layer of mesothelial cells make up the serosa. In summary, the structure of the frog larval stomach shows a well-differentiated histological pattern, especially referring to surface epithelium and glands. Some of the histological traits will also be present in adult frogs while others are characteristic of the tadpole's stage.

  18. Polyandry, Predation, and the Evolution of Frog Reproductive Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Kelly R; Bell, Rayna C; Nali, Renato C; Haddad, Célio F B; Prado, Cynthia P A

    2016-09-01

    Frog reproductive modes are complex phenotypes that include egg/clutch characteristics, oviposition site, larval development, and sometimes, parental care. Two evident patterns in the evolution of these traits are the higher diversity of reproductive modes in the tropics and the apparent progression from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction, often attributed to higher fitness resulting from decreased predation on terrestrial eggs and tadpoles. Here, we propose that sexual selection-and not only natural selection due to predation-favors terrestrial breeding by reducing the loss of fitness due to polyandry. To examine this novel selective mechanism, we reconstructed the evolution of reproductive diversity in two frog families (Hylidae and Leptodactylidae) and tested for concerted evolution of egg and tadpole development sites with specific mating behaviors. We found that oviposition and tadpole development sites are evolving independently, do not show the same diversity and/or directionality in terms of terrestriality, and thus may be diversifying due to different selective mechanisms. In both families, terrestrial egg deposition is correlated with amplexus that is hidden from competing males, and in hylids, testes mass was significantly larger and more variable in males with exposed amplexus that are vulnerable to polyandry. Our results indicate that intrasexual selection has been an underappreciated mechanism promoting diversification of frog reproductive modes.

  19. Eugenol for anesthesia of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénette, Sarah A; Hélie, Pierre; Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2007-05-01

    To determine the level of anesthesia attained in Xenopus laevis frogs with eugenol at different doses and by different routes of administration. Prospective experimental trial. Sixty X. laevis nonbreeding female frogs weighing between 90 and 140 g. Three different routes of administration were tested - subcutaneous injections into the dorsal lymph sacs, topical administration using a gauze patch, and immersion in a bath containing eugenol. Following the determination of the best route of administration, the acetic acid test, the withdrawal reflex, righting reflex, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were used to evaluate central nervous system depression following eugenol bath administration. In an additional group, the response to a surgical incision of the abdominal wall was evaluated. The pharmacokinetics of eugenol were determined following bath immersion administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated following blood concentration determination by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. It was not possible to induce anethesia with subcutaneous and patch administration, independent of the eugenol dose administered. The immersion bath was the only efficacious route for anesthesia inducing surgical anesthesia for at least 30 minutes with postoperative analgesia. Histopathology of selected tissues (heart, lung, liver, kidneys, eyes) showed no evidence of lesions 24 hours following bath immersion. The elimination half-life (T(1/2)) was 4 hours. When administered as a single-bath immersion (dose 350 mg L(-1)) for 15 minutes, eugenol may serve as an effective anesthetic in X. laevis frogs for short surgical procedures.

  20. Frog meat microbiota (Lithobates catesbeianus used in infant food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is of great economic potential, mainly for its thighs and leather. The nutritional quality of frog meat includes properly balanced amino acids with a protein profile of high biological value, low fat and low cholesterol, and high digestibility due to its short chain molecule structure. It is recommended by doctors and nutritionists, especially for protein restricted children or malnourished children. Aiming to aggregate value to the segment and offer a product with nutritional properties that meet the need of children aged six months and above, a meat product based on the composition of frog meat was developed experimentally. To ensure raw material quality after bleaching and deboning, the microbiota present in the frog meat was determined. The analyses were performed according to Brazilian laws. It was observed that the resident and transient microbiota met the standards set by regulations. The results found were: mesophyll 4.5 x 10(4 CFU/g; Staphylococcus coagulase positive 2.0 x 10² CFU/g; negative for Salmonella sp. and Aeromonas spp. The findings indicate that the raw material showed satisfactory sanitation even in terms of family industry.

  1. Developmental aspects of the direct-developing frog Adelophryne maranguapensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ana V P; Reis, Alice H; Amado, Nathália G; Cassiano-Lima, Daniel; Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Abreu, José G

    2016-05-01

    Direct development in amphibians is characterized by the loss of aquatic breeding. The anuran Adelophryne maranguapensis is one example of a species with direct development, and it is endemic to the state of Ceará, Brazil. Detailed morphological features of A. maranguapensis embryos and the stages of sequential development have not been described before. Here, we analyzed all available genetic sequence tags in A. maranguapensis (tyr exon 1, pomc and rag1) and compared them with sequences from other species of Adelophryne frogs. We describe the A. maranguapensis reproductive tract and embryonic body development, with a focus on the limbs, tail, ciliated cells of the skin, and the egg tooth, which were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses revealed ovaries containing oocytes surrounded by follicular cells, displaying large nuclei with nucleoli inside. Early in development, the body is unpigmented, and the neural tube forms dorsally to the yolk vesicle, typical of a direct-developing frog embryo. The hindlimbs develop earlier than the forelimbs. Ciliated cells are abundant during the early stages of skin development and are less common during later stages. The egg tooth appears in the later stages and develops as a keratinized microridge structure. The developmental profile of A. maranguapensis presented here will contribute to our understanding of the direct-development model and may help preserve this endangered native Brazilian frog. genesis 54:257-271, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An Effective Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An effective hybrid cuckoo search algorithm (CS) with improved shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. First of all, with the framework of SFLA, an improved frog-leap operator is designed with the effect of the global optimal information on the frog leaping and information exchange between frog individuals combined with genetic mutation with a small probability. Subsequently, in order to improve the ...

  3. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  4. Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs mount distinct interferon responses to the Frog Virus 3 ranavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Emily S; Yaparla, Amulya; Koubourli, Daphne V; Grayfer, Leon

    2017-03-01

    Infections of amphibians by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to the amphibian declines, yet much remains unknown regarding amphibian antiviral immunity. Notably, amphibians represent an important step in the evolution of antiviral interferon (IFN) cytokines as they are amongst the first vertebrates to possess both type I and type III IFNs. Accordingly, we examined the roles of type I and III IFNs in the skin of FV3-challenged amphibian Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs. Interestingly, FV3-infected tadpoles mounted type III IFN responses, whereas adult frogs relied on type I IFN immunity. Subcutaneous administration of type I or type III IFNs offered short-term protection of tadpoles against FV3 and these type I and type III IFNs induced the expression of distinct antiviral genes in the tadpole skin. Moreover, subcutaneous injection of tadpoles with type III IFN significantly extended their survival and reduced FV3 dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 45602 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow Creek Ranch, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for California Red-Legged Frog, at Swallow... the Federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii), under the Endangered Species Act... California red-legged frog on the property subject to the Agreement (Enrolled Property), which is owned...

  6. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  7. Complex and transitive synchronization in a frustrated system of calling frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Ikkyu; Takeda, Ryu; Mizumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takuma; Takahashi, Toru; Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    This letter reports synchronization phenomena and mathematical modeling on a frustrated system of living beings, or Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). While an isolated male Japanese tree frog calls nearly periodically, he can hear sounds including calls of other males. Therefore, the spontaneous calling behavior of interacting males can be understood as a system of coupled oscillators. We construct a simple but biologically reasonable model based on the experimental results of two frogs, extend the model to a system of three frogs, and theoretically predict the occurrence of rich synchronization phenomena, such as triphase synchronization and 1:2 antiphase synchronization. In addition, we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction by ethological experiments on the calling behavior of three frogs and time series analysis on recorded sound data. Note that the calling behavior of three male Japanese tree frogs is frustrated because almost perfect antiphase synchronization is robustly observed in a system of two male frogs. Thus, nonlinear dynamics of the three-frogs system should be far from trivial.

  8. The toxicity of Poison Dart Frog alkaloids against the Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These alkaloids are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, and are generally are believed to deter vertebrate predators. We developed a method to put ind...

  9. Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Mellison, Chad; Galvan, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    The Toiyabe population of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris, hereafter "Toiyabe frogs") is a geographically isolated population located in central Nevada (fig. 1). The Toiyabe population is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment of Columbia spotted frogs, and is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The cluster of breeding sites in central Nevada represents the southernmost extremity of the Columbia spotted frogs' known range (Funk and others, 2008). Toiyabe frogs are known to occur in seven drainages in Nye County, Nevada: Reese River, Cow Canyon Creek, Ledbetter Canyon Creek, Cloverdale Creek, Stewart Creek, Illinois Creek, and Indian Valley Creek. Most of the Toiyabe frog population resides in the Reese River, Indian Valley Creek, and Cloverdale Creek drainages (fig. 1; Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). Approximately 90 percent of the Toiyabe frogs' habitat is on public land. Most of the public land habitat (95 percent) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), while the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages the remainder. Additional Toiyabe frog habitat is under Yomba Shoshone Tribal management and in private ownership (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). The BLM, USFS, Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Natural Heritage Program (NNHP), Nye County, and U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have monitored the Toiyabe population since 2004 using mark and recapture surveys (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2004). The USFWS contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce population estimates using these data.

  10. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs II. Application of a vortex ring model to DPIV data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Nauwelaerts, S

    2005-01-01

    Frogs propel themselves by kicking water backwards using a synchronised extension of their hind limbs and webbed feet. To understand this propulsion process, we quantified the water movements and displacements resulting from swimming in the green frog Rana esculenta, applying digital particle image

  11. Rate of protein synthesis and polyribosome formation in the frog pancreas after fasting and feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venrooij, W.J. van; Poort, C.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The rate of incorporation of [14C]leucine into the proteins of the frog pancreas was measured after the animals had been fasted or fed. The incorporation rate increased after feeding, being maximal at about 4 h after the meal. 2. 2. In homogenates of pancreases from fasted frogs only monoribo

  12. Comparison of RABITT and FROG measurements in the temporal characterization of attosecond pulse trains

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyung Taec; Park, Mi Na; Imran, Tayyab; Umesh, G; Nam, Chang Hee

    2007-01-01

    The attosecond high harmonic pulses obtained from a long Ar-filled gas cell were characterized by two techniques - the reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transition (RABITT) and frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) methods. The pulse durations obtained by RABITT and FROG methods agreed within 10 %.

  13. Bacterial flora on Cascades frogs in the Klamath Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Pope

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines due in part to the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Some symbiotic bacteria residents on frog skin have been shown to inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitis (Bd) but few studies have attempted to fully describe the resident bacterial flora of frog skin. We cultured and sequenced 130...

  14. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring at Jack Creek 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from mark-recapture and egg mass surveys conducted 2015-2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort at Jack Creek, Klamath County, Oregon. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, life stage, and sex, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time each survey.

  15. Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella typhimurium infections associated with aquatic frogs - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    During April-July 2009, the Utah Department of Health identified five cases of Salmonella Typhimurium infection with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, predominantly among children. In August, CDC began a multistate outbreak investigation to determine the source of the infections. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing investigation, which, as of December 30, had identified 85 S. Typhimurium human isolates with the outbreak strain from 31 states. In a multistate case-control study, exposure to frogs was found to be significantly associated with illness (63% of cases versus 3% of controls; matched odds ratio [mOR] = 24.4). Among 14 case-patients who knew the type of frog, all had exposure to an exclusively aquatic frog species, the African dwarf frog. Environmental samples from aquariums containing aquatic frogs in four homes of case-patients yielded S. Typhimurium isolates matching the outbreak strain. Preliminary traceback information has indicated these frogs likely came from the same breeder in California. Reptiles (e.g., turtles) and amphibians (e.g., frogs) have long been recognized as Salmonella carriers, and three multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections associated with turtle contact have occurred since 2006. However, this is the first reported multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with amphibians. Educational materials aimed at preventing salmonellosis from contact with reptiles should be expanded to include amphibians, such as aquatic frogs.

  16. BIOSENSING TECHNICS FOR HUMAN DETECTION. 1. THE FROG SKIN TRANSDUCER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated frog skin used as a transducer whose bioelectrical potential is measured as a function of chemical species and concentration, is shown to...log units. A high degree of variability of response between frog skins, and a lack of data on ultimate sensitivities at usefully low levels for selected substances, are major problems that remain to be examined.

  17. SOME PROPERTIES OF THE AFFERENT PATHWAY IN THE FROG CORNEAL REFLEX,

    Science.gov (United States)

    evidence on the neurological basis of stimulus specificity. The frog corneal reflex is particularly well suited for this type of study, since the stimulus...conducted on normal adult frogs . The results provide a new basis for study of animals with transplanted sensory tissue. (Author)

  18. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  19. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  20. Propulsive force calculations in swimming frogs I. A momentum-impulse approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauwelaerts, S; Stamhuis, EJ; Aerts, P

    Frogs are animals that are capable of locomotion in two physically different media, aquatic and terrestrial. A comparison of the kinematics of swimming frogs in a previous study revealed a difference in propulsive impulse between jumping and swimming. To explore this difference further, we

  1. Hematological, Biochemical and Histopathological Studies on Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda, Naturally Infected with Waltonella duboisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of Waltonella duboisi naturally infection in the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda. Healthy and infected frogs of both sexes were collected from Al-Qatif and Al-Hassa farms, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were estimated in infected male and female frogs compared with healthy frogs. The values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count were statistically decreased in infected frogs. Infection with Waltonella duboisi induced significant reduction in the levels of serum glucose and total proteins, while the values of triglycerides cholesterol, creatinine, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase were significantly elevated. Histopathological examination of stomach, small intestine, liver showed the larval developmental stages of Waltonella duboisi. A partially abnormal of testis and ovary structures with pronounced disturbance in quantity and quality of spermatogenesis and oogenesis processes were noted in infected of both sexes of frogs. From the present study, it is obviously that Waltonella duboisi caused many severe physiological and histopathological alterations in both sexes of the marsh frogs. Thus, more sincere ecological and scientific efforts are required to rescue the marsh frog population from parasitic infection, pathogenic factors and increases of mortality rate.

  2. Embryogenesis and laboratory maintenance of the foam-nesting túngara frogs, genus Engystomops (= Physalaemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Carvajal, Andrés; Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Venegas-Ferrín, Michael; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Lee, Chanjae; Bond, Jennifer; Ryan, Michael J; Wallingford, John B; Del Pino, Eugenia M

    2009-06-01

    The vast majority of embryological research on amphibians focuses on just a single genus of frogs, Xenopus. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of amphibian development, experimentation on non-model frogs will be essential. Here, we report on the early development, rearing, and embryological analysis of túngara frogs (genus Engystomops, also called Physalaemus). The frogs Engystomops pustulosus, Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi construct floating foam-nests with small eggs. We define a table of 23 stages for the developmental period in the foam-nest. Embryos were immunostained against Lim1, neural, and somite-specific proteins and the expression pattern of RetinoBlastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Due to their brief life-cycle, frogs belonging to the genus Engystomops are attractive for comparative and genetic studies of development. Developmental Dynamics 238:1444-1454, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Biju

    Full Text Available Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae, this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecular data, consisting of two nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments for all known rhacophorid genera, to investigate the phylogenetic position of these new frogs. Our analyses identify a previously overlooked, yet distinct evolutionary lineage of frogs that warrants recognition as a new genus and is here described as Frankixalus gen. nov. This genus, which contains the enigmatic 'Polypedates' jerdonii described by Günther in 1876, forms the sister group of a clade containing Kurixalus, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Mercurana and Beddomixalus. The distinctiveness of this evolutionary lineage is also corroborated by the external morphology of adults and tadpoles, adult osteology, breeding ecology, and life history features.

  4. Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, S. D.; Mahony, Stephen; Kamei, Rachunliu G.; Thomas, Ashish; Shouche, Yogesh; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Bocxlaer, Ines Van

    2016-01-01

    Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae), this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecular data, consisting of two nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments for all known rhacophorid genera, to investigate the phylogenetic position of these new frogs. Our analyses identify a previously overlooked, yet distinct evolutionary lineage of frogs that warrants recognition as a new genus and is here described as Frankixalus gen. nov. This genus, which contains the enigmatic ‘Polypedates’ jerdonii described by Günther in 1876, forms the sister group of a clade containing Kurixalus, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Mercurana and Beddomixalus. The distinctiveness of this evolutionary lineage is also corroborated by the external morphology of adults and tadpoles, adult osteology, breeding ecology, and life history features. PMID:26790105

  5. Isolation of Brucella inopinata-Like Bacteria from White's and Denny's Tree Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masanobu; Une, Yumi; Suzuki, Michio; Park, Eun-Sil; Imaoka, Koichi; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and B. sp. strain BO2 isolated from human patients, respectively, are genetically different from classical Brucella species. We isolated bacteria of the genus Brucella from two species of wild-caught tropical frogs kept in the facilities in Japan: White's tree frog, which inhabits Oceania, and Denny's tree frog, which inhabits Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis showed that two isolates of Brucella spp. showed significant similarity to BO1, BO2, and the isolates from other wild-caught frogs. These results suggest that a variety of frog species are susceptible to a novel clade of Brucella bacteria, including B. inopinata.

  6. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  7. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  8. Inventory of frog species in the South Carolina Sandhills with a focus on the pine barrens treefrog and the gopher frog

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tabular data consists of site specific locations of sampling points on Carolina Sandhills NWR for determination of frog species and more specifically sites with Pine...

  9. Inventory of frog species in the South Carolina Sandhills with a focus on the pine barrens treefrog and the gopher frog

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to conduct an inventory of frogs and toads at the Carolina Sandhills NWR and adjoining lands. Special emphasis is to locate the pine barrens treefrog and...

  10. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  11. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: Interspecific differences in take-off and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Stephen M; Montuelle, Stephane J; Schmidt, André; Krause, Cornelia; Naylor, Emily; Essner, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing. Frogs with forelimb landing radiated into many forms, locomotor modes, habitats, and niches with controlled landing thought to improve escape behavior. While the biology of take-off behavior has seen considerable study, interspecific comparisons of take-off and landing behavior are limited. In order to understand the evolution of jumping and controlled landing in frogs, data are needed on the movements of the limbs and body across an array of taxa. Here, we present the first description and comparison of kinematics of the hindlimbs, forelimbs and body during take-off and landing in relation to ground reaction forces in four frog species spanning the frog phylogeny. The goal of this study is to understand what interspecific differences reveal about the evolution of take-off and controlled landing in frogs. We provide the first comparative description of the entire process of jumping in frogs. Statistical comparisons identify both homologous behaviors and significant differences among species that are used to map patterns of trait evolution and generate hypotheses regarding the functional evolution of take-off and landing in frogs.

  12. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bouchard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  13. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  14. 论莫言小说《蛙》中的“蛙”意象%The Frog Image in the Novel Frog by Mo Yan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卉

    2012-01-01

    从远古神话到到当代小说,从考古、民俗到文学想象,“蛙”意象的产生与发展经历了一个漫长而富有变化的过程。文章结合文学人类学的理论对莫言长篇小说《蛙》中的“蛙”意象进行深度分析,追溯到“蛙”原型中的“蛙女神”,将其与小说中突出的人物“姑姑”进行对比,揭示这一原型意象的运用对小说文化蕴涵的提升作用。%The image of frog has a long history since its creation and differs quite well in different texts like ancient mythology,contemporary novels,archeology,folklore and literary i- maginations. This paper analyzes the image of frog from the perspective of literary anthropolo- gy in the novel Frog by Mo Yan. A comparative, study of the protagonist,the aunt of the nar- rator in the novel,and the frog goddess,the prototype frog, will be conducted,which indicates that the archetypal image of frog helps to enrich cultural connotations of the novel.

  15. Surveys for presence of Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa): background information and field methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Clayton, David; Turner, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is the most aquatic of the native frogs in the Pacific Northwest. The common name derives from the pattern of black, ragged-edged spots set against a brown or red ground color on the dorsum of adult frogs. Oregon spotted frogs are generally associated with wetland complexes that have several aquatic habitat types and sizeable coverage of emergent vegetation. Like other ranid frogs native to the Northwest, Oregon spotted frogs breed in spring, larvae transform in summer of their breeding year, and adults tend to be relatively short lived (3-5 yrs). Each life stage (egg, tadpole, juvenile and adult) has characteristics that present challenges for detection. Breeding can be explosive and completed within 1-2 weeks. Egg masses are laid in aggregations, often in a few locations in large areas of potential habitat. Egg masses can develop, hatch, and disintegrate in <2 weeks during warm weather. Tadpoles can be difficult to identify, have low survival, and spend most of their 3-4 months hidden in vegetation or flocculant substrates. Juveniles and adults are often difficult to capture and can spend summers away from breeding areas. Moreover, a substantial portion of extant populations are of limited size (<100 breeding adults), and field densities of all life stages are often low. An understanding of the biology of the species and use of multiple visits are thus important for assessing presence of Oregon spotted frogs. This report is meant to be a resource for USDA Region 6 Forest Service (FS) and OR/WA Bureau of Land Management (BLM) personnel tasked with surveying for the presence of Oregon spotted frogs. Our objective was to summarize information to improve the efficiency of field surveys and increase chances of detection if frogs are present. We include overviews of historical and extant ranges of Oregon spotted frog. We briefly summarize what is known of Oregon spotted frog habitat associations and review aspects of behavior and

  16. Accessory pathway for sound transfer in a neotropical frog.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the lateral body wall overlying the lung cavity of the arboreal frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, vibrates in response to free-field sound. Peak displacement amplitude of the body wall in response to a natural call note presented at 73 decibels sound pressure level is 1.70 X 10(-9) m, roughly 8 decibels less than that of the ipsilateral eardrum, as measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. We show that the vibration magnitude varies predictably across the body profile and is posture and...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xenopus..._tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus_tropicalis_S.png Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+...tropicalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropical...is&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=137 ...

  18. Plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood vessels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; K Nalini; J Prakasa Rao

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. While the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. This reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. Heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanide. Denuded aortas retained only 30% of the activity of intact tissue. Our results indicate that the amphibian postcaval vein and aorta exhibit plasma membrane electron transport

  19. Periodic Solutions of a Model of Mitosis in Frog Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-ye Feng; Zuo-huan Zheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss a simplified model of mitosis in frog eggs proposed by M.T. Borisuk and J.J.Tyson in [1]. By using rigorous qualitative analysis, we prove the existence of the periodic solutions on a large scale and present the space region of the periodic solutions and the parameter region coresponding to the periodic solution. We also present the space region and the parameter region where there are no periodic solutions. The results are in accordance with the numerical results in [1] up to the qualitative property.

  20. Tactical reproductive parasitism via larval cannibalism in Peruvian poison frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L.; Morales, Victor; Summers, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    We report an unusual example of reproductive parasitism in amphibians. Dendrobates variabilis, an Amazonian poison frog, oviposits at the surface of the water in small pools in plants and deposits tadpoles within the pools. Tadpoles are highly cannibalistic and consume young tadpoles if they are accessible. Deposition of embryos and tadpoles in the same pool is common. Genetic analyses indicate that tadpoles are frequently unrelated to embryos in the same pool. A pool choice experiment in the field demonstrated that males carrying tadpoles prefer to place them in pools with embryos, facilitating reproductive parasitism via cannibalism. PMID:19042178

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  2. Evolutionary and natural history of the turtle frog, Myobatrachus gouldii, a bizarre myobatrachid frog in the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, Samantha; Pepper, Mitzy; Edwards, Danielle L; Roberts, J Dale; Mitchell, Nicola; Keogh, J Scott

    2017-01-01

    Southwest Australia (SWA) is a global biodiversity hotspot and a centre of diversity and endemism for the Australo-Papuan myobatrachid frogs. Myobatrachus gouldii (the turtle frog) has a highly derived morphology associated with its forward burrowing behaviour, largely subterranean habit, and unusual mode of reproduction. Its sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne have restricted distributions in Western Australia with significant phylogeographic structure, leading to the recent description of a new species in the latter. In contrast, Myobatrachus is distributed widely throughout SWA over multiple climatic zones, but little is known of its population structure, geographic variation in morphology, or reproduction. We generated molecular and morphological data to test for genetic and morphological variation, and to assess whether substrate specialisation in this species may have led to phylogeographic structuring similar to that of other plant and animal taxa in SWA. We assembled sequence data for one mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA loci (3628 base pairs) for 42 turtle frogs sampled throughout their range. Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed shallow phylogeographic structure in the mtDNA locus (up to 3.3% genetic distance) and little variation in three of the four nDNA loci. The mtDNA haplotype network suggests five geographically allopatric groups, with no shared haplotypes between regions. These geographic patterns are congruent with several other SWA species, with genetic groups restricted to major hydrological divisions, the Swan Coastal Plain, and the Darling Scarp. The geographically structured genetic groups showed no evidence of significant morphological differentiation (242 individuals), and there was little sexual size dimorphism, but subtle differences in reproductive traits suggest more opportunistic breeding in lower rainfall zones. Call data were compared to sister genera Metacrinia and Arenophryne and found to be highly conservative across

  3. Chasing maximal performance: a cautionary tale from the celebrated jumping frogs of Calaveras County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, H C; Abbott, E M; Azizi, E; Marsh, R L; Roberts, T J

    2013-11-01

    Maximal performance is an essential metric for understanding many aspects of an organism's biology, but it can be difficult to determine because a measured maximum may reflect only a peak level of effort, not a physiological limit. We used a unique opportunity provided by a frog jumping contest to evaluate the validity of existing laboratory estimates of maximum jumping performance in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). We recorded video of 3124 bullfrog jumps over the course of the 4-day contest at the Calaveras County Jumping Frog Jubilee, and determined jump distance from these images and a calibration of the jump arena. Frogs were divided into two groups: 'rental' frogs collected by fair organizers and jumped by the general public, and frogs collected and jumped by experienced, 'professional' teams. A total of 58% of recorded jumps surpassed the maximum jump distance in the literature (1.295 m), and the longest jump was 2.2 m. Compared with rental frogs, professionally jumped frogs jumped farther, and the distribution of jump distances for this group was skewed towards long jumps. Calculated muscular work, historical records and the skewed distribution of jump distances all suggest that the longest jumps represent the true performance limit for this species. Using resampling, we estimated the probability of observing a given jump distance for various sample sizes, showing that large sample sizes are required to detect rare maximal jumps. These results show the importance of sample size, animal motivation and physiological conditions for accurate maximal performance estimates.

  4. Prevalence of malformed frogs in Kaoping and Tungkang river basins of southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Ji; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Yin

    2010-05-01

    In this study we found many amphibians with bizarre appearances, known as malformations in Pingtung County southern Taiwan. For this investigation we collected frogs inhabiting the Kaoping and Tungkang river watersheds between February 2006 and June 2007. Among the total number of 10,909 normal frogs (i.e., anurans) collected during the investigation period, the Indian rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) account for the greatest number next is the Chinese bullfrog (Rana rugulosa). Of all the 244 captured malformed frogs, the Indian rice frog account for the greatest proportion. These malformed frogs have their main distribution in upstream areas of these two rivers. Our result indicates that the appearance rate of malformed frogs is 1.8% in the upstream reaches of the Kaoping River and 2.6%, and 0.8%, respectively in the upstream and midstream reaches of the Tungkang river. The most-commonly-found malformation is the lack of palms, followed by the lack of appendages, exostosis, and a malformed appendicular. It is, therefore, reasonable to speculate that the causes for the malformation may be related to the increased organic pollutants and agricultural chemicals used in the upstream reaches of these two rivers.

  5. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patterns in the evolution of anuran locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Richard L.; Suffian, Daniel J.; Bishop, Phillip J.; Reilly, Stephen M.

    2010-10-01

    All frogs are assumed to jump in a similar manner by rapidly extending hindlimbs during the propulsive phase and rotating the limbs forward during flight in order to land forelimbs first. However, studies of jumping behavior are lacking in the most primitive living frogs of the family Leiopelmatidae. These semi-aquatic or terrestrial anurans retain a suite of plesiomorphic morphological features and are unique in using an asynchronous (trot-like) rather than synchronous “frog-kick” swimming gait of other frogs. We compared jumping behavior in leiopelmatids to more derived frogs and found that leiopelmatids maintain extended hindlimbs throughout flight and landing phases and do not land on adducted forelimbs. These “belly-flop” landings limit the ability for repeated jumps and are consistent with a riparian origin of jumping in frogs. The unique behavior of leiopelmatids shows that frogs evolved jumping before they perfected landing. Moreover, an inability to rapidly cycle the limbs may provide a functional explanation for the absence of synchronous swimming in leiopelmatids.

  6. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area.

  7. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achariya Sailasuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834, were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140 were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney of the frogs that were apparently infected with one of these blood parasites were collected and processed by routine histology and subsequently stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological findings associated with the Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism and Trypanosoma chattoni-infected frogs showed no pathological lesions. Hepatozoon sp. a and Hepatozoon sp. b-infected frogs developed inflammatory lesions predominantly in the liver, demonstrating granuloma-like lesions with Hepatozoon sp. meronts at the centre. Tissue sections of Lankesterella minima-infected frogs also showed lesions. Liver and spleen showed inflammatory lesions with an accumulation of melanomacrophage centres (MMCs surrounding the meronts and merozoites. It is suggested that Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima-infections are capable of producing inflammatory lesions in the visceral organs of rice field frogs, and the severity of lesions is tentatively related to levels of parasitemia.

  8. Embryo Development of Tree Frog Polypedates leucomystax at Campus of State University of Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearlindah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree frogs live in natural places which are unpolluted. Regarding their role as an ecological indicator, the decrease of frogs population in a particular habitat indicates the danger of environment quality decrease. Moreover, this condition can harm the frogs themselves. All kinds of frogs breed in aqueous environment such as ponds, marshes, and farming fields. One of the tree frogs, Polypedates leucomystax, which belongs to Familia Rachophoridae, is widely spread in Indonesia. This frog has yellowish brown skin with black spots or six lines extending from head to the posterior tip of body. A breeding couple of the frog produces foam nests on the water or plants around water body, where they will nest their fertilized eggs. This species produces over a hundred embryos in one spawning season. These embryos require appropriate conditions to develop normally in the nature. Frog embryo development may becomes a reference to understand how the frog population survives. This study focused on P. leucomystax with regards to its decrease in number due to the drying up of the environment and a lot lost of trees in Campus of State University of Malang. The development of P. leucomystax embryos in the reproduction foam was observed until it reached a tadpole stage. The result showed that the embryos developed in the foam until they hatched then they move out of the foam into the water under which they would continue their development. Considering that water body is a critical requirement for the development of P. leucomystax embryos, it is our responsibility to make any efforts to conserve not only the trees but also any type of water bodies including ponds, marshes, and farming fields as well.

  9. The genetic structure of a relict population of wood frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick; Muths, Erin; Noon, Barry; Oyler-McCance, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and the associated reduction in connectivity between habitat patches are commonly cited causes of genetic differentiation and reduced genetic variation in animal populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in a relict population of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvatica) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, where recent disturbances have altered hydrologic processes and fragmented amphibian habitat. We also estimated migration rates among subpopulations, tested for a pattern of isolation-by-distance, and looked for evidence of a recent population bottleneck. The results from the clustering algorithm in Program STRUCTURE indicated the population is partitioned into two genetic clusters (subpopulations), and this result was further supported by factorial component analysis. In addition, an estimate of FST (FST = 0.0675, P value \\0.0001) supported the genetic differentiation of the two clusters. Estimates of migration rates among the two subpopulations were low, as were estimates of genetic variability. Conservation of the population of wood frogs may be improved by increasing the spatial distribution of the population and improving gene flow between the subpopulations. Construction or restoration of wetlands in the landscape between the clusters has the potential to address each of these objectives.

  10. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  11. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  12. Possible postsynaptic action of aminoglycosides in the frog rectus abdominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karataş Y

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the postsynaptic effects of aminoglycosides on contractions evoked by acetylcholine (ACh, KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS and Na(+- and Ca(2+-free Ringer solution with 0.2 mM Na2 EDTA (NaFCaFR in the isolated frog rectus abdominis. Neomycin inhibited contraction elicited by ACh, NaFCaFR, and EFS at the higher frequencies (8 and 10 Hz but not those elicited by KCl and EFS at the lower frequencies (2, 3 and 5 Hz. D-tubocurarine inhibited ACh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, drug reduced EFS-evoked contractions to a limited extent. Lower concentrations (10(-5, 5 x 10(-5, 10(-4, 2 x 10(-4 and 3 x 10(-4 M but not higher concentrations (4 x 10(-4 and 5 x 10(-4 M of methoxyverapamil exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory action on NaFCaFR-induced contractions. Similar inhibitions of the same type of contraction were displayed by aminoglycosides (neomycin, streptomycin, netilmycin, gentamycin and amikacin. These results suggest that in addition to their antagonistic action on nicotinic receptors in the frog rectus abdominis, aminoglycosides may exert stabilizing effects on some functional components contributing to contractions at the membrane.

  13. Octylphenol induced gene expression in testes of Frog, Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yuhui

    2016-06-01

    Octylphenol (OP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), which can disrupt the reproductive system. To understand the effect of OP, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify alterations of gene transcription in the testes of the frog Rana chensinensis after OP exposure. Two hundred positive clones were selected and 134 sequences of gene fragments were produced from the subtractive library randomly. These genes were identified to be involved in metabolic process, cellular process, biological regulation, stimulus, immune system and female pregnancy process. In order to verify the efficiency of the subtractive cDNA library, PSG9 and PAPP-A were analyzed further as two representatives of differentially expressed transcription genes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our result was the first successful construction of the subtractive cDNA library in frog testes after OP treatment. Based on this cDNA library, OP was shown to affect multiple physiological processes including inducing immune response, disrupting the steroid hormone synthesis and influencing spermatogenesis in the testis by up-regulation of specific genes.

  14. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  15. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  16. Ultrastructure of venom glands in the frog (Rana esculenta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Perez, G; Hindelang, C

    1985-01-01

    Electron microscopic study of skin venom glands in the frog, Rana esculenta, revealed the syncytial structure of the inner (secretory) wall which presents two distinct zones: a basal (juxtamuscular) one, which contains nuclei and major cytoplasmic organelles, and an apical one where large electron-dense granules form and accumulate. Granules are seen to arise inside clusters of tightly packed smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) elements, which suggests that the SER system is mainly involved in synthesis of this material. A high glutaraldehyde concentration (5%) also reveals a poorly defined material filling the intergranular cytoplasm. No apical limits to the syncytium could be traced, which suggests massive holocrine secretion. Nerves insinuate between the muscle cells and occur all along the internal face of the muscular layer, sometimes in close contact with the syncytium. The gland duct, the wall of which consists of epidermal cells, is blocked, in contact with the gland, by an epidermal bud linked externally to the muscle layer surrounding the gland. Thus, only strong muscle tension such as to expel all or part of the epidermal bud can trigger granule release. This phenomenon can be induced by the subcutaneous injection of epinephrine, but the high and distressing dose needed to provoke appreciable changes in venom glands renders unlikely any natural intense venom release triggered by epinephrine in the frog.

  17. Localization and characterization of adrenergic receptors on frog skin melanophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, M A; Horowitz, J M

    1981-07-01

    The functional location of adrenergic binding sites was studied in frog skin melanophores by injecting norepinephrine (NE) outside and inside a melanophore. In 49 groups of cells (75% of the fields tested) iontophoretic injection of NE outside the cell caused melanosome aggregation in the target cell and/or in the field. In six cells in which a resting membrane potential was measured before and after intracellular injection (10-90 nA), NE elicited no change in melanosome configuration. Once the receptors were localized, the effect of temperature on these receptors was determined by measuring the reflectance of skins (an indication of melanosome aggregation or dispersion) in two populations of frogs treated with NE, Rana pipiens pipiens (with dominant alpha-receptors) and Rana berlandieri forreri (with dominant beta-receptors). NE (0.1 mM) caused melanosome aggregation in the former and dispersion in the latter tested at 12, 22, and 40 degrees C. The iontophoretic and reflectance results suggest that the binding site of the adrenergic receptor is located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of melanophores and that alpha- and beta-receptors evoke aggregation and dispersion, respectively, within the temperature range of these experiments.

  18. Axonal transport of thiamine in frog sciatic nerves in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, J E; Hanson, M

    1983-03-01

    Thiamine has an essential and unknown function in nerve membranes. Administration of thiamine can alleviate symptoms of thiamine deficiency within a few hours. The time course is consistent with a fast axonal transport of the vitamin. Very little is known about axonal transport of low-molecular-weight substances with a preferential localization to the axon membrane. We investigated if labeled thiamine could be transported in the frog sciatic nerve. Radioactivity accumulated proximal to a ligature on the sciatic nerve after supplying the dorsal ganglia with [35S]thiamine in vitro. The accumulation was reduced by inhibition of the energy metabolism with dinitrophenol and by inhibition of protein synthesis in the ganglia with cycloheximide. Vinblastine did not affect the accumulation of thiamine at a concentration which was sufficient to block transport of [3H]leucine-labeled proteins. Accumulation distal to a ligature could be demonstrated in vivo but not in vitro after injecting the gastrocnemius muscle with labeled thiamine. Axonal transport of [3H]leucine-labeled proteins was inhibited by thiamine at millimolar concentrations in the incubation medium. A transient reduction of the compound action potential was obtained at these concentrations. Thiamine was migrating at a fast rate in frog sciatic nerves in both orthograde and retrograde directions. The uptake and/or transport was dependent on energy metabolism and a concomitant protein synthesis. The lack of effect by vinblastine suggests that the transported fraction of thiamine differs in subcellular localization from the bulk of transported [3H]leucine-labeled proteins.

  19. Remodeling of the metabolome during early frog development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vastag

    Full Text Available A rapid series of synchronous cell divisions initiates embryogenesis in many animal species, including the frog Xenopus laevis. After many of these cleavage cycles, the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio increases sufficiently to somehow cause cell cycles to elongate and become asynchronous at the mid-blastula transition (MBT. We have discovered that an unanticipated remodeling of core metabolic pathways occurs during the cleavage cycles and the MBT in X. laevis, as evidenced by widespread changes in metabolite abundance. While many of the changes in metabolite abundance were consistently observed, it was also evident that different female frogs laid eggs with different levels of at least some metabolites. Metabolite tracing with heavy isotopes demonstrated that alanine is consumed to generate energy for the early embryo. dATP pools were found to decline during the MBT and we have confirmed that maternal pools of dNTPs are functionally exhausted at the onset of the MBT. Our results support an alternative hypothesis that the cell cycle lengthening at the MBT is triggered not by a limiting maternal protein, as is usually proposed, but by a decline in dNTP pools brought about by the exponentially increasing demands of DNA synthesis.

  20. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  1. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  2. Effect of various lysosomes and endotoxin on vascular permeability in frogs and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákó, G; Reichel, A; Csernyánszky, H; Reichel, U

    1975-01-01

    Blood-lymph permeability increasing effects of frog liver lysosomes, Escherichia coli 0111 endotoxin, bradykinin and serotonin were demonstrated in frogs with a method developed by the authors. These actions were expressed in a faster dye saturation in the lymph as compared to that of the controls. 2. The method is based on the determinations of concentration of Evans blue transported as protein-bound dye into the lymph. 3. Frog liver and polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomes had a capillary permeability increasing action tested by local skin response when injecting Evans blue intravenously in mice. 4. All these phenomena are similar to events described earlier in mammalian systems.

  3. Oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, proton conductance and reactive oxygen species production of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Damien; Salin, Karine; Dumet, Adeline; Romestaing, Caroline; Rey, Benjamin; Voituron, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Body size is a central biological parameter affecting most biological processes (especially energetics) and the mitochondrion is a key organelle controlling metabolism and is also the cell's main source of chemical energy. However, the link between body size and mitochondrial function is still unclear, especially in ectotherms. In this study, we investigated several parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of three closely related species of frog (the common frog Rana temporaria, the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus and the bull frog Lithobates catesbeiana). These particular species were chosen because of their differences in adult body mass. We found that mitochondrial coupling efficiency was markedly increased with animal size, which led to a higher ATP production (+70%) in the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) compared with the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). This was essentially driven by a strong negative dependence of mitochondrial proton conductance on body mass. Liver mitochondria from the larger frogs (L. catesbeiana) displayed 50% of the proton conductance of mitochondria from the smaller frogs (R. temporaria). Contrary to our prediction, the low mitochondrial proton conductance measured in L. catesbeiana was not associated with higher reactive oxygen species production. Instead, liver mitochondria from the larger individuals produced significantly lower levels of radical oxygen species than those from the smaller frogs. Collectively, the data show that key bioenergetics parameters of mitochondria (proton leak, ATP production efficiency and radical oxygen species production) are correlated with body mass in frogs. This research expands our understanding of the relationship between mitochondrial function and the evolution of allometric scaling in ectotherms.

  4. Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Molinia, Frank C; Christi, Ketan S; Morley, Craig G; Cockrem, John F

    2010-03-01

    Annual cycles of reproductive steroid metabolites were measured in urine collected from free-living and captive tropical endangered Fijian ground frogs (Platymantis vitiana) a terrestrial breeding. Free-living frogs were sampled on Viwa Island, Fiji and captive frogs were maintained in an outdoor enclosure in Suva, Fiji. Urinary estrone, progesterone and testosterone metabolite concentrations increased in male and female frogs after hCG challenges, with clear peaks in steroid concentrations 2 or 3 days after the challenges. There were annual cycles of testosterone metabolites in wild and captive males, and of estrone and progesterone metabolites in wild and captive females. Peaks of steroid concentrations in the wet season corresponded with periods of mating and egg laying in females in December and January. Steroid concentrations declined in January and February when maximum egg sizes in females were also declining. Body weights of wild male and vitellogenic female frogs showed annual cycles. Body weights of non-vitellogenic female frogs varied significantly between months, although there was no clear pattern of annual changes. Body weights of the 3 captive male frogs and 4 captive female frogs were similar to those of the wild frogs. Estrone metabolites were 80% successful in identifying non-vitellogenic females from males. The results suggest that the Fijian ground frog is a seasonal breeder with an annual gonadal cycle, and this species is likely to be photoperiodic. Urinary steroid measurements can provide useful information on reproductive cycles in endangered amphibians.

  5. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  6. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Instruction Manual and Frog Survey Protocols for Region 1 National Wildlife Refuges, East-side Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This manual is intended to assist biologists wishing to conduct surveys for frogs and toads. The document includes detailed information on how to conduct surveys,...

  8. Western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) distribution in the Bonneville Basin of western Utah: Research in progress

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides information on the western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) which occurs in Tule Valley, Utah. The following topics are discussed; general...

  9. A New Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm to Solve Non-convex Economic Load Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bijami

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a New Hybrid Shuffled Frog Leaping (NHSFL algorithm applied to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problem. Practical ELD has non-convex cost function and various equality and inequality constraints that convert the ELD problem as a nonlinear, non-convex and non-smooth optimization problem. In this paper, a new frog leaping rule is proposed to improve the local exploration and the performance of the conventional SFL algorithm. Also a genetic mutation operator is used for the creation of new frogs instead of random frog creation that improves the convergence. To show the efficiency of the proposed approach, the non-convex ELD problem is solved using conventional SFL and an improved SFL method proposed by other researchers. Then the results of SFL methods are compared to the results obtained by the proposed NHSFL algorithm. Simulation studies show that the results obtained by NHSFL are more effective and better compared with these algorithms.

  10. Recovery plan for the California Red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this plan is to reduce threats and improve the population status of the California red-legged frog sufficiently to warrant delisting. Actions...

  11. Okefenokee and Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge 2009 Frog Abnormality Survey Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of frog observations for abnormal conditions at select sites on both Okefenokee and Banks Lake NWRs. During the 2009 summer, STEP students Zach Carter along...

  12. The Inconsistency Between The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wen-hua

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares Mark Twain’s The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and The Man That Corrupted Had⁃leyburg, in terms of their stylistic and semantic inconsistency, specifically, their narrative technique and moral vision.

  13. Signal perception in frogs and bats and the evolution of mating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Karin L; Farris, Hamilton E; Lea, Amanda M; Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J

    2011-08-05

    Psychophysics measures the relationship between a stimulus's physical magnitude and its perceived magnitude. Because decisions are based on perception of stimuli, this relationship is critical to understanding decision-making. We tested whether psychophysical laws explain how female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) and frog-eating bats (Trachops cirrhosus) compare male frog calls, and how this imposes selection on call evolution. Although both frogs and bats prefer more elaborate calls, they are less selective as call elaboration increases, because preference is based on stimulus ratios. Thus, as call elaboration increases, both relative attractiveness and relative predation risk decrease because of how receivers perceive and compare stimuli. Our data show that female cognition can limit the evolution of sexual signal elaboration.

  14. Adaptive Grouping Cloud Model Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA easily falls into local optimum when it solves multioptimum function optimization problem, which impacts the accuracy and convergence speed. Therefore this paper presents grouped SFLA for solving continuous optimization problems combined with the excellent characteristics of cloud model transformation between qualitative and quantitative research. The algorithm divides the definition domain into several groups and gives each group a set of frogs. Frogs of each region search in their memeplex, and in the search process the algorithm uses the “elite strategy” to update the location information of existing elite frogs through cloud model algorithm. This method narrows the searching space and it can effectively improve the situation of a local optimum; thus convergence speed and accuracy can be significantly improved. The results of computer simulation confirm this conclusion.

  15. Report on Oregon Spotted Frog Egg Mass Surveys 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) were once common across wetlands throughout western Washington and Oregon and were found in northern California and southern...

  16. PHENOBARBITAL AFFECTS THYROID HISTOLOGY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AFRICAN CLAWED FROG XENOPUS LAEVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract highlights our recent study to explore endocrine disrupting effects of phenobarbital in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. In mammals, this chemical is known to induce the biotransforming enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) resulting in increased thyroid...

  17. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge 2001 Frog and Toad Breeding Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The first breeding frog and toad survey on Squaw Creek NWR (SCNWR) was conducted this past Spring. This survey was undertaken to assist the Missouri Department of...

  18. Oregon Spotted Frog Monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa)...

  19. Hexokinase and not glycogen synthase controls the flux through the glycogen synthesis pathway in frog oocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preller, Ana; Wilson, Christian A.M; Quiroga-Roger, Diego; Ureta, Tito

    2013-01-01

    .... Acute microinjection experiments in frog oocytes were specifically designed to change the endogenous activities of the enzymes, either by directly injecting increasing amounts of a given enzyme (HK, PGM and UGPase...

  20. Adaptive Grouping Cloud Model Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for Solving Continuous Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haorui; Yi, Fengyan; Yang, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) easily falls into local optimum when it solves multioptimum function optimization problem, which impacts the accuracy and convergence speed. Therefore this paper presents grouped SFLA for solving continuous optimization problems combined with the excellent characteristics of cloud model transformation between qualitative and quantitative research. The algorithm divides the definition domain into several groups and gives each group a set of frogs. Frogs of each region search in their memeplex, and in the search process the algorithm uses the "elite strategy" to update the location information of existing elite frogs through cloud model algorithm. This method narrows the searching space and it can effectively improve the situation of a local optimum; thus convergence speed and accuracy can be significantly improved. The results of computer simulation confirm this conclusion.

  1. The Developmental Effects Of A Municipal Wastewater Effluent On The Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater effluents are complex mixtures containing a variety of anthropogenic compounds, many of which are known endocrine disruptors. In order to characterize the development and behavorial effects of such a complex mixture, northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, were e...

  2. Hargreaves does not evaluate nociception following a surgical laparotomy in Xenopus leavis frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, P

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the Hargreaves test for the evaluation of nociception in frogs, more precisely to determine if cutaneous thresholds to a radiant heat stimulus would increase with analgesics following an abdominal laparotomy performed under general anaesthesia. Non breeding female Xenopus leavis frogs (3 groups (non-anaesthetized, anaesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222), with or without an abdominal laparotomy) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hargreaves test. Cutaneous thresholds were evaluated at baseline and following anaesthetic recovery (over 8 h) at six different body locations. Increased reaction times were observed in the gular area only at 1 h post-recovery following a MS222 bath immersion in frogs with (p leavis frogs.

  3. Exploratory evaluation of nutrient enrichment and frog response at Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We sampled nutrient and water quality parameters and surveyed Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) life stages (eggs, larvae and recently metamorphosed juveniles) to...

  4. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  5. Distribution and postbreeding environmental relationships of Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, S.S.; Hays, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens) are considered sensitive, threatened, or endangered in all western states and western Canadian provinces. Historically present in eastern Washington in 6 major river drainages, leopard frogs are now only known to occur at 2 localized areas in the Crab Creek drainage in Grant County. During the summers of 2002-2005, we surveyed both areas to document extent of leopard frog distributions and to describe habitat and vertebrate community characteristics associated with leopard frog site occupancy. At Gloyd Seeps, 2 juvenile leopard frogs were observed in a total of 8.2 person-days of searching along a 5-km stream reach. At Potholes Reservoir, we surveyed 243 wetland sites in 7 management units known to have been occupied by leopard frogs during the 1980s. We confirmed leopard frog presence at only 87 sites (36%) in 4 management units. Site occupancy models for individual ponds indicated that, compared to unoccupied sites, occupied sites had slightly greater pond depths, less tall emergent vegetation, more herbaceous vegetative cover, and fewer neighboring ponds containing nonnative predatory fish. Models developed at the 1-km2 scale indicated that occupied areas had greater average midsummer pond depths, fewer ponds occupied by bullfrogs (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), and more herbaceous vegetation surrounding ponds. The Gloyd Seeps population now appears defunct, and the Potholes Reservoir population is in sharp decline. Unless management actions are taken to reduce nonnative fish and bullfrogs and to enhance wetland vegetation, leopard frogs may soon be extirpated from both sites and possibly, therefore, from Washington.

  6. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  7. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... gametogenesis and mating between frogs with incompatible gametes induce a significant hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of R. esculenta, and we discuss compensating advantages and potential evolutionary trajectories to reduce this hybrid load....

  8. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  9. Asplenium bird’s nest ferns in rainforest canopies are climate-contingent refuges for frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Brett R Scheffers; Ben L. Phillips; Shoo, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytes are important for canopy dwelling organisms because they provide a cool and moist microhabitat in the relatively hot and dry canopy. Here we examine whether epiphytic Asplenium ferns act as important habitats for arboreal frogs. We conducted extensive fern and habitat surveys for frogs in the Philippines, and complimented these surveys with roaming day and night canopy surveys to identify the full extent of habitat use across the vertical strata. We artificially dried ferns of vario...

  10. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena E. Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus, a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp., were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%. This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes.

  11. Pecular Features of Hematopoiesis in the Liver of Mature and Immature Green Frogs (Pelophylax Esculentus Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulenko N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes characteristic features of the hematopoiesis in mature and immature green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex. Quantitative differences in liver myelograms were insignificant. However, in a sample of mature animals numerous significant correlations between the number of pigment inclusions in the liver and indicators of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were observed. Those correlations were absent in the immature frogs. We concluded that aft er the frogs’ breeding a lack of plastic resources, in particular, hemosiderin remains up to the hibernation.

  12. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834)

    OpenAIRE

    Achariya Sailasuta; Jetjun Satetasit; Malinee Chutmongkonkul

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834), were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the li...

  13. Cutaneous transport of Ca2+ in the frog Rana pipiens: significance and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, D F; Eskandari, S; Dejbakhsh, S

    1997-04-01

    Rana pipiens were divided into four groups: controls; hypocalcemic frogs, depleted of salts by acclimation to deionized water; hypercalcemic frogs, calcium-loaded by the introduction of 40 mumol calcium gluconate; and frogs exposed to the potential competing ions Mg2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. All groups displayed calcium influx that was proportional to external [Ca2+]; however, the group acclimated to deionized water also displayed hypocalcemia (P 0.3 mM) external [Ca2+]. Ca2+ efflux was depressed in hypocalcemic frogs, and thus net Ca2+ flux shifted from net loss in control frogs to net uptake in hypocalcemic frogs. Hypocalcemia also resulted in increased skin Ca2+ deposits which may be related to a decreased Ca2+ (and other ions) permeability as a consequence of the acclimation to deionized water. Another group of frogs was Ca(2+)-loaded by injecting calcium gluconate: Sodium gluconate controls did not significantly alter Ca2+ fluxes. The frogs that received calcium gluconate treatments became hypercalcemic (P < 0.01) and did not display significant changes in calcium fluxes, nor did they show significant changes in skin calcium deposits. We conclude that hypocalcemia leads to regulatory responses that stimulate active Ca2+ transport in Rana pipiens skin and possibly inhibits cutaneous and renal efflux. We also conclude that hypercalcemia does not alter calcium fluxes across skin. The ions from Group IIA of the Periodic Table of Elements had little effect on Ca2+ fluxes at concentrations ranging from 0.5-4.0 mM; neither Sr2+ or Ba2+ affected Ca2+ influx. The only divalent ion tested that influenced Ca2+ was Mg2+, which significantly inhibited Ca2+ influx but only at 4.0 mM or eight times the external [Ca2+]. We conclude, therefore, that the Ca2+ transport mechanism is fairly specific for Ca2+ within Group IIA.

  14. Transformation of frog embryos with a rabbit beta-globin gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Rusconi, S; Schaffner, W

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the fate and possible expression of foreign DNA during embryogenesis of the frog Xenopus laevis, we have injected a rabbit beta-globin gene into fertilized Xenopus eggs. Frog embryo DNA was extracted at various stages of development, fractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose filters, and hybridized to labeled beta-globin recombinant plasmid DNA. It was found that the injected DNA replicated extrachromosomally, reaching, at gastrula stage, a l...

  15. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  16. Evaluating group housing strategies for the ex-situ conservation of harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp. using behavioral and physiological indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna J Cikanek

    Full Text Available We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (GC concentrations as indicators of stress in each tank. In both small and large groups, frogs initially interacted aggressively, but aggressive interactions and fecal GCs declined significantly after the first 2 weeks of being housed together, reaching the lowest levels by week 4. We conclude that aggressive interactions in same-sex groups of captive Atelopus may initially cause stress, but the frogs become habituated within a few weeks and they can safely be housed in same-sex groups for longer periods of time.

  17. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md

    2009-12-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike.

  18. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  19. Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Session, Adam M.; Uno, Yoshinobu; Kwon, Taejoon; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Takahashi, Shuji; Fukui, Akimasa; Hikosaka, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kondo, Mariko; van Heeringen, Simon J.; Quigley, Ian; Heinz, Sven; Ogino, Hajime; Ochi, Haruki; Hellsten, Uffe; Lyons, Jessica B; Simakov, Oleg; Putnam, Nicholas; Stites, Jonathan; Kuroki, Yoko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Michiue, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Minoru; Bogdanovic, Ozren; Lister, Ryan; Georgiou, Georgios; Paranjpe, Sarita S.; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Shu, Shengquiang; Carlson, Joseph; Kinoshita, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yuko; Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Jenkins, Jerry; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Mitros, Therese; Mozaffari, Sahar; Suzuki, Yutaka; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Takamasa S.; Takagi, Chiyo; Heald, Rebecca; Miller, Kelly; Haudenschild, Christian; Kitzman, Jacob; Nakayama, Takuya; Izutsu, Yumi; Robert, Jacques; Fortriede, Joshua; Burns, Kevin; Lotay, Vaneet; Karimi, Kamran; Yasuoka, Yuuri; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Houston, Douglas W; Shendure, Jay; DuPasquier, Louis; Vize, Peter D.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Ito, Michihiko; Marcotte, Ed; Wallingford, John B.; Ito, Yuzuru; Asashima, Makoto; Ueno, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoichi; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.; Fujiyama, Asao

    2017-01-01

    To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We demonstrate the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of “fossil” transposable elements. Based on the activity of these elements and the age of hundreds of unitary pseudogenes, we estimate that the two diploid progenitor species diverged ~34 million years ago (Mya) and combined to form an allotetraploid ~17–18 Mya. 56% of all genes are retained in two homeologous copies. Protein function, gene expression, and the amount of flanking conserved sequence all correlate with retention rates. The subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with one chromosome set more often preserving the ancestral state and the other experiencing more gene loss, deletion, rearrangement, and reduced gene expression. PMID:27762356

  20. Predator-prey relationships among larval dragonflies, salamanders, and frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J P; Thorp, J H; Jervey, T O

    1980-09-01

    Tadpoles of the barking tree frog, Hyla gratiosa, are abundant in spring and summer in some ponds and Carolina bays on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. To determine how these tadpoles survive in the presence of predaceous salamander larvae, Ambystoma talpoideum, and larvae of an aeshnid dragonfly, Anax junius, we determined fields densities and sizes of the predators and the prey and conducted predation experiments in the laboratory. Tadpoles rapidly grow to a size not captured by Ambystoma, although Anax larvae can capture slightly larger tadpoles. Differing habitat preferences among the tadpoles and the two predator species probably aid in reducing predation pressure. Preliminary work indicates that the tadpoles may have an immobility response to an attack by a predator. In addition, the smallest, most vulnerable tadpoles have a distinctive color pattern which may function to disrupt the body outline and make them indiscernable to predators.

  1. Genome evolution in the allotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Session, Adam M; Uno, Yoshinobu; Kwon, Taejoon; Chapman, Jarrod A; Toyoda, Atsushi; Takahashi, Shuji; Fukui, Akimasa; Hikosaka, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kondo, Mariko; van Heeringen, Simon J; Quigley, Ian; Heinz, Sven; Ogino, Hajime; Ochi, Haruki; Hellsten, Uffe; Lyons, Jessica B; Simakov, Oleg; Putnam, Nicholas; Stites, Jonathan; Kuroki, Yoko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Michiue, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Minoru; Bogdanovic, Ozren; Lister, Ryan; Georgiou, Georgios; Paranjpe, Sarita S; van Kruijsbergen, Ila; Shu, Shengquiang; Carlson, Joseph; Kinoshita, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yuko; Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Jenkins, Jerry; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Mitros, Therese; Mozaffari, Sahar V; Suzuki, Yutaka; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Takamasa S; Takagi, Chiyo; Heald, Rebecca; Miller, Kelly; Haudenschild, Christian; Kitzman, Jacob; Nakayama, Takuya; Izutsu, Yumi; Robert, Jacques; Fortriede, Joshua; Burns, Kevin; Lotay, Vaneet; Karimi, Kamran; Yasuoka, Yuuri; Dichmann, Darwin S; Flajnik, Martin F; Houston, Douglas W; Shendure, Jay; DuPasquier, Louis; Vize, Peter D; Zorn, Aaron M; Ito, Michihiko; Marcotte, Edward M; Wallingford, John B; Ito, Yuzuru; Asashima, Makoto; Ueno, Naoto; Matsuda, Yoichi; Veenstra, Gert Jan C; Fujiyama, Asao; Harland, Richard M; Taira, Masanori; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-10-20

    To explore the origins and consequences of tetraploidy in the African clawed frog, we sequenced the Xenopus laevis genome and compared it to the related diploid X. tropicalis genome. We characterize the allotetraploid origin of X. laevis by partitioning its genome into two homoeologous subgenomes, marked by distinct families of 'fossil' transposable elements. On the basis of the activity of these elements and the age of hundreds of unitary pseudogenes, we estimate that the two diploid progenitor species diverged around 34 million years ago (Ma) and combined to form an allotetraploid around 17-18 Ma. More than 56% of all genes were retained in two homoeologous copies. Protein function, gene expression, and the amount of conserved flanking sequence all correlate with retention rates. The subgenomes have evolved asymmetrically, with one chromosome set more often preserving the ancestral state and the other experiencing more gene loss, deletion, rearrangement, and reduced gene expression.

  2. California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) movement and habitat use: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Kleeman, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nonbreeding habitats are critically important for Rana draytonii, especially for individuals that breed in temporary bodies of water. We radiotracked 123 frogs to evaluate seasonal habitat use. Individual frogs were continuously tracked for up to 16 months. Some individuals remained at breeding ponds all year, but 66% of female and 25% of male frogs moved to nonbreeding areas, even when the breeding site retained water. Frogs at our main study site moved 150 m (median), roughly the distance to the nearest suitable nonbreeding area. The greatest straight-line distance traveled was 1.4 km, although the presumed distance traveled was 2.8 km. Females were more likely than males to move from permanent ponds (38% of females, 16% of males), but among dispersing frogs, males and females did not differ in distance moved. Some frogs left breeding sites shortly after oviposition (median = 12 days for females, 42.5 days for males), but many individuals remained until the site was nearly dry. Fog provided moisture for dispersal or migration throughout the summer. Our data demonstrate that maintaining populations of pond-breeding amphibians requires that all essential habitat components be protected; these include (1) breeding habitat, (2) nonbreeding habitat, and (3) migration corridors. In addition, a buffer is needed around all three areas to ensure that outside activities do not degrade any of the three habitat components. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. Impact of Dams on Riparian Frog Communities in the Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Naniwadekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and home to diverse and unique assemblages of amphibians. Several rivers originate from these mountains and hydropower is being tapped from them. The impacts of hydrological regulation of riparian ecosystems to wildlife and its habitat are poorly documented, and in particular the fate of frog populations is unknown. We examined the effects of dams on riparian frog communities in the Thamirabarani catchment in southern Western Ghats. We used nocturnal visual encounter surveys constrained for time, to document the species richness of frogs below and above the dam, and also at control sites in the same catchment. While we did not find differences in species richness below and above the dams, the frog community composition was significantly altered as a likely consequence of altered flow regime. The frog species compositions in control sites were similar to above-dam sites. Below-dam sites had a distinctly different species composition. Select endemic frog species appeared to be adversely impacted due to the dams. Below-dam sites had a greater proportion of generalist and widely distributed species. Dams in the Western Ghats appeared to adversely impact population of endemic species, particularly those belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus that shows specialization for intact streams.

  4. Aberrant femoral torsion presenting with frog-leg squatting mimicking gluteal muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Ning; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2012-04-01

    Patients with frog-leg squatting have restricted internal rotation and adduction of the affected hips during sitting or squatting. In the surgical literature, the cause generally has been presumed to arise from and be pathognomonic for gluteal muscle contracture. However, we have encountered patients with frog-leg squatting but without gluteal muscle contracture. We therefore raised the following questions: What are the imaging features of patients with frog-leg squatting? Do conditions other than gluteal muscle contracture manifest frog-leg squatting? We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 67 patients presenting with frog-leg squatting from April 1998 to July 2010. There were four females and 63 males; their mean age was 22.2 years (range, 4-50 years). During MRI readout, we observed aberrant axes of some femoral necks and obtained additional CT to measure femoral torsion angles in 59 of the 67 patients. MR images of 27 (40%) patients had signs of gluteal muscle contracture. Twenty-two (33%) patients (40 femora) had aberrant femoral torsion, including diminished anteversion (range, 6°-0°; average, 3.9°) in 11 femora of eight patients and femoral retroversion (range, muscle contracture or aberrant femoral torsion. The observation of aberrant femoral torsion was not anticipated before imaging studies. In addition to gluteal muscle contracture, aberrant femoral torsion can be a cause of frog-leg squatting. Level II, diagnostic study. See the guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. The island rule in the Brazilian frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura: Hylidae: incipient gigantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Mageski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The island rule suggests that, when mainland animals are isolated on islands, large animals tend to become smaller, while small animals tend to become larger. A small frog in eastern Brazil, Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, is widely distributed in association with bromeliads. At the end of the last glaciation, parts of the mainland became islands due to rising sea levels, thereby isolating frog populations on these islands. If the island rule holds, we predicted that frogs on islands would tend to be larger than frogs on the mainland. We compared sizes (weight and length of 30 randomly selected male frogs from the mainland with 30 from an island in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We also sampled population density on the island and mainland because concurrent with changing sizes, depending on the causal relationship, density may also change. As predicted, island frogs tended to be larger (both in snout-vent length and weight and were much more abundant. While not specifically addressed in this study, the absence of predators and interspecific competitors may explain both of these trends.

  6. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  7. Electroencephalographic and physiologic changes after tricaine methanesulfonate immersion of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde-Robert, Vanessa; Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Vachon, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine electroencephalographic and complementary physiologic changes in Xenopus leavis frogs after bath immersion in MS222. We also evaluated the addition of sodium pentobarbital injected intracoelomi- cally 2 h after MS222 immersion to achieve euthanasia. Frogs (n = 9) weighing 105.5 ± 8.4 g (mean ± 1 SD) were immersed in MS222 at either 1 or 3 g/L until anesthesia was achieved; a conductive stainless steel screw then was implanted in the skull on top of the outer pial surface of the brain. Frogs were immersed again in MS222 at the same concentration as previously, and electroencephalograms, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory movements were recorded. Amplitude and mean frequency of the electroencephalographic signal were evaluated at 15-min intervals until a flat-line signal was achieved. At 2 h after induction, frogs were injected intracoelomically with sodium pentobarbital (0.5 mL; 240 mg/mL) to accelerate euthanasia. Immersion of frogs in 1 or 3 g/L of MS222 depressed cerebral activity within 30 min without a significant effect on cardiac function. Intracoelomic injection of sodium pentobarbital at 2 h after MS222 administration rapidly (3.2 ± 1.7 min) induced cardiac arrest. In conclusion, immersion in MS222 can be used for the collection of organs from X. laevis frogs, but the addition of pentobarbital is required to achieve euthanasia.

  8. Muscle fatigue in frog semitendinosus: alterations in contractile function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. V.; Balog, E. M.; Riley, D. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the contractile properties of the frog semitendinosus (ST) muscle before and during recovery from fatigue, to relate the observed functional changes to alterations in specific steps in the crossbridge model of muscle contraction, and to determine how fatigue affects the force-frequency relationship. The frog ST (22 degrees C) was fatigued by direct electrical stimulation with 100-ms 150-Hz trains at 1/s for 5 min. The fatigue protocol reduced peak twitch (Pt) and tetanic (Po) force to 32 and 8.5% of initial force, respectively. The decline in Pt was less than Po, in part due to a prolongation in the isometric contraction time (CT), which increased to 300% of the initial value. The isometric twitch duration was greatly prolonged as reflected by the lengthened CT and the 800% increase in the one-half relaxation time (1/2RT). Both Pt and Po showed a biphasic recovery, a rapid initial phase (2 min) followed by a slower (40 min) return to the prefatigue force. CT and 1/2RT also recovered in two phases, returning to 160 and 265% of control in the first 5 min. CT returned to the prefatigue value between 35 and 40 min, whereas even at 60 min 1/2RT was 133% of control. The maximal velocity of shortening, determined by the slack test, was significantly reduced [from 6.7 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 0.4 optimal muscle length/s] at fatigue. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to the left, so that optimal frequency for generating Po was reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  10. Clinical signs, pathology and dose-dependent survival of adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, inoculated orally with frog virus 3 Ranavirus sp., Iridoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzn, Mara J; Jones, Kathleen M; Vanderstichel, Raphal V; Wood, John; Kibenge, Frederick S B; Kuiken, Thijs; Wirth, Wytamma; Ariel, Ellen; Daoust, Pierre-Yves

    2015-05-01

    Amphibian populations suffer massive mortalities from infection with frog virus 3 FV3, genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, a pathogen also involved in mortalities of fish and reptiles. Experimental oral infection with FV3 in captive-raised adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica Lithobates sylvaticus, was performed as the first step in establishing a native North American animal model of ranaviral disease to study pathogenesis and host response. Oral dosing was successful LD50 was 10(2.93 2.423.44) p.f.u. for frogs averaging 35mm in length. Onset of clinical signs occurred 614days post-infection p.i. median 11 days p.i. and time to death was 1014 days p.i. median 12 days p.i.. Each tenfold increase in virus dose increased the odds of dying by 23-fold and accelerated onset of clinical signs and death by approximately 15. Ranavirus DNA was demonstrated in skin and liver of all frogs that died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs. Shedding of virus occurred in faeces 710 days p.i. 34.5days before death and skin sheds 10 days p.i. 01.5days before death of some frogs dead from infection. Most common lesions were dermal erosion and haemorrhages haematopoietic necrosis in bone marrow, kidney, spleen and liver and necrosis in renal glomeruli, tongue, gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder mucosa. Presence of ranavirus in lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies probably viral were present in the bone marrow and the epithelia of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, renal tubules and urinary bladder. Our work describes a ranaviruswood frog model and provides estimates that can be incorporated into ranavirus disease ecology models.

  11. Developmental Toxicity of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products to Embryos of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-10

    developmental toxicity tests with embryos of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis used to evaluate four individual DWDB; bromodichloromethane...SUBJECT TERMS Developmental toxicity; FETAX; water disinfection by-products; frogs ; Xenopus laevis; embryo malformations; embryo mortality...Disinfection By-Products to Embryos of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) L. M. Brennan,1 M. W. Toussaint,1 D. M. Kumsher,1 W. E. Dennis,’ A. B

  12. Range extension of the critically endambersngered true poison-dart frog, Phyllobates terribilis (Anura: Dendrobatidae), in western Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto Márquez; Germán Corredor; Carlos Galvis; Daniel Góez; Adolfo Amézquita

    2012-01-01

    The poison-dart frog Phyllobates terribilis is currently classified as endangered or critically endangered due to its extremely restricted geographic distribution and intensive smuggling by pet traffickers...

  13. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-02-01

    We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13 degrees; p = 0.007). Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  14. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí, Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso. We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species, followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each. The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas, followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas. Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13°; p = 0.007. Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  15. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Jon P; Reynolds, Alice M; do Amaral, M Clara F; Rosendale, Andrew J; Lee, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM) in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s) that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle) or two-thirds (liver) of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea) to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica.

  16. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01) in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  17. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Netherlands

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01 in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively. Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  18. Defects in host immune function in tree frogs with chronic chytridiomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Young

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has caused mass mortality leading to population declines and extinctions in many frog species worldwide. The lack of host resistance may be due to fungal immunosuppressive effects that have been observed when Bd is incubated with cultured lymphocytes, but whether in vivo host immunosuppression occurs is unknown. We used a broad range of hematologic and protein electrophoresis biomarkers, along with various functional tests, to assess immune competence in common green (Litoria caerulea and white-lipped (L. infrafrenata tree frogs experimentally infected with Bd. Compared with uninfected frogs, Bd infection in L. caerulea caused a reduction in immunoglobulin and splenic lymphocyte responses to antigenic stimulation with sheep red blood cells, along with decreased white blood cell and serum protein concentrations, indicating possible impaired immune response capability of Bd-infected frogs. This is the first in vivo study suggesting that infection with Bd causes multiple defects in systemic host immune function, and this may contribute to disease development in susceptible host species. Although L. infrafrenata failed to maintain Bd infection after exposure, white blood cell and serum globulin concentrations were lower in recovered frogs compared with unexposed frogs, but antigen-specific serum and splenic antibody, and splenic cellular, responses were similar in both recovered and unexposed frogs. This may indicate potential systemic costs associated with infection clearance and/or redirection of host resources towards more effective mechanisms to overcome infection. No clear mechanism for resistance was identified in L. infrafrenata, suggesting that localized and/or innate immune defense mechanisms may be important factors involved in disease resistance in this species.

  19. Cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) from the Eastern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedukh, Dmitry; Mazepa, Glib; Shabanov, Dmitry; Rosanov, Juriy; Litvinchuk, Spartak; Borkin, Leo; Saifitdinova, Alsu; Krasikova, Alla

    2013-04-16

    Hybridogenesis (hemiclonal inheritance) is a kind of clonal reproduction in which hybrids between parental species are reproduced by crossing with one of the parental species. European water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) represent an appropriate model for studying interspecies hybridization, processes of hemiclonal inheritance and polyploidization. P. esculentus complex consists of two parental species, P. ridibundus (the lake frog) and P. lessonae (the pool frog), and their hybridogenetic hybrid - P. esculentus (the edible frog). Parental and hybrid frogs can reproduce syntopically and form hemiclonal population systems. For studying mechanisms underlying the maintenance of water frog population systems it is required to characterize the karyotypes transmitted in gametes of parental and different hybrid animals of both sexes. In order to obtain an instrument for characterization of oocyte karyotypes in hybrid female frogs, we constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes from oocytes of both parental species originating in Eastern Ukraine. We further identified certain molecular components of chromosomal marker structures and mapped coilin-rich spheres and granules, chromosome associated nucleoli and special loops accumulating splicing factors. We recorded the dissimilarities between P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes in the length of orthologous chromosomes, number and location of marker structures and interstitial (TTAGGG)n-repeat sites as well as activity of nucleolus organizer. Satellite repeat RrS1 was mapped in centromere regions of lampbrush chromosomes of the both species. Additionally, we discovered transcripts of RrS1 repeat in oocytes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae. Moreover, G-rich transcripts of telomere repeat were revealed in association with terminal regions of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae lampbrush chromosomes. The constructed cytological maps of lampbrush chromosomes of P. ridibundus and P. lessonae provide

  20. An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna E Dreher

    Full Text Available Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pressure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color divergence among populations of O. pumilio we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body coloration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of conspicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicuousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and

  1. Convergent Substitutions in a Sodium Channel Suggest Multiple Origins of Toxin Resistance in Poison Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvin, Rebecca D; Santos, Juan C; O'Connell, Lauren A; Zakon, Harold H; Cannatella, David C

    2016-04-01

    Complex phenotypes typically have a correspondingly multifaceted genetic component. However, the genotype-phenotype association between chemical defense and resistance is often simple: genetic changes in the binding site of a toxin alter how it affects its target. Some toxic organisms, such as poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae), have defensive alkaloids that disrupt the function of ion channels, proteins that are crucial for nerve and muscle activity. Using protein-docking models, we predict that three major classes of poison frog alkaloids (histrionicotoxins, pumiliotoxins, and batrachotoxins) bind to similar sites in the highly conserved inner pore of the muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.4. We predict that poison frogs are somewhat resistant to these compounds because they have six types of amino acid replacements in the Nav1.4 inner pore that are absent in all other frogs except for a distantly related alkaloid-defended frog from Madagascar, Mantella aurantiaca. Protein-docking models and comparative phylogenetics support the role of these replacements in alkaloid resistance. Taking into account the four independent origins of chemical defense in Dendrobatidae, phylogenetic patterns of the amino acid replacements suggest that 1) alkaloid resistance in Nav1.4 evolved independently at least seven times in these frogs, 2) variation in resistance-conferring replacements is likely a result of differences in alkaloid exposure across species, and 3) functional constraint shapes the evolution of the Nav1.4 inner pore. Our study is the first to demonstrate the genetic basis of autoresistance in frogs with alkaloid defenses.

  2. An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Corinna E; Cummings, Molly E; Pröhl, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pressure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color divergence among populations of O. pumilio we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body coloration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of conspicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake) and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast) of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicuousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and other ecological

  3. Cryoprotectants and extreme freeze tolerance in a subarctic population of the wood frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P Costanzo

    Full Text Available Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica exhibit marked geographic variation in freeze tolerance, with subarctic populations tolerating experimental freezing to temperatures at least 10-13 degrees Celsius below the lethal limits for conspecifics from more temperate locales. We determined how seasonal responses enhance the cryoprotectant system in these northern frogs, and also investigated their physiological responses to somatic freezing at extreme temperatures. Alaskan frogs collected in late summer had plasma urea levels near 10 μmol ml-1, but this level rose during preparation for winter to 85.5 ± 2.9 μmol ml-1 (mean ± SEM in frogs that remained fully hydrated, and to 186.9 ± 12.4 μmol ml-1 in frogs held under a restricted moisture regime. An osmolality gap indicated that the plasma of winter-conditioned frogs contained an as yet unidentified osmolyte(s that contributed about 75 mOsmol kg-1 to total osmotic pressure. Experimental freezing to -8°C, either directly or following three cycles of freezing/thawing between -4 and 0°C, or -16°C increased the liver's synthesis of glucose and, to a lesser extent, urea. Concomitantly, organs shed up to one-half (skeletal muscle or two-thirds (liver of their water, with cryoprotectant in the remaining fluid reaching concentrations as high as 0.2 and 2.1 M, respectively. Freeze/thaw cycling, which was readily survived by winter-conditioned frogs, greatly increased hepatic glycogenolysis and delivery of glucose (but not urea to skeletal muscle. We conclude that cryoprotectant accrual in anticipation of and in response to freezing have been greatly enhanced and contribute to extreme freeze tolerance in northern R. sylvatica.

  4. Enzymatic regulation of glycogenolysis in a subarctic population of the wood frog: implications for extreme freeze tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Clara F do Amaral

    Full Text Available The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at -16°C, a temperature 10-13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA. In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype's exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate.

  5. Enzymatic regulation of glycogenolysis in a subarctic population of the wood frog: implications for extreme freeze tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2013-01-01

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from Interior Alaska survives freezing at -16°C, a temperature 10-13°C below that tolerated by its southern conspecifics. We investigated the hepatic freezing response in this northern phenotype to determine if its profound freeze tolerance is associated with an enhanced glucosic cryoprotectant system. Alaskan frogs had a larger liver glycogen reserve that was mobilized faster during early freezing as compared to conspecifics from a cool-temperate region (southern Ohio, USA). In Alaskan frogs the rapid glucose production in the first hours of freezing was associated with a 7-fold increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog levels, and the activity of this enzyme was higher than that of frozen Ohioan frogs. Freezing of Ohioan frogs induced a more modest (4-fold) increase in glycogen phosphorylase activity above unfrozen frog values. Relative to the Ohioan frogs, Alaskan frogs maintained a higher total protein kinase A activity throughout an experimental freezing/thawing time course, and this may have potentiated glycogenolysis during early freezing. We found populational variation in the activity and protein level of protein kinase A which suggested that the Alaskan population had a more efficient form of this enzyme. Alaskan frogs modulated their glycogenolytic response by decreasing the activity of glycogen phosphorylase after cryoprotectant mobilization was well under way, thereby conserving their hepatic glycogen reserve. Ohioan frogs, however, sustained high glycogen phosphorylase activity until early thawing and consumed nearly all their liver glycogen. These unique hepatic responses of Alaskan R. sylvatica likely contribute to this phenotype's exceptional freeze tolerance, which is necessary for their survival in a subarctic climate.

  6. Rangewide phylogeography of the western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Lind; H.B. Shaffer; P.Q. Spinks; G.M. Fellers

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b...

  7. Prevalence of Spirometra mansoni in dogs, cats, and frogs and its medical relevance in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qing; Feng, Jieping; Liu, Haijuan; Li, Xiaomin; Gong, Lirong; Yang, Zhen; Yang, Weiming; Liang, Xiongfa; Zheng, Rujiang; Cui, Zhicai; Wang, Weiliang; Chen, Daixiong

    2016-12-01

    Sparganosis is an important parasitic disease in Guangzhou and is mainly acquired through the consumption of frog meat or contact with fresh frogs infected by larval stages (spargana) of the tapeworm species Spirometra mansoni. In this study, the prevalence of intestinal S. mansoni infections (with adult parasites) in dogs and cats and of extraintestinal S. mansoni infections (with spargana) in frogs was assessed. In addition, a questionnaire survey was carried out among residents in Guangzhou City in order to evaluate their awareness about the medical and epidemiological relevance of Spirometra and sparganosis. In total, the feces of 229 dogs and 116 cats were examined for eggs, and 1949 frogs were examined for spargana. Sixty-three dogs (27.5%) and 47 cats (40.5%) had eggs in their feces. Two hundred and sixteen out of 416 wild Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann frogs examined were sparganum-positive, with an infection rate of 51.9%, while the infection rate in Rana limnocharis Boie was 35.1% (13/37). None of the tested farmed frogs (including R. tigrina rugulosa and Rana catesbeiana) was positive (0/1382). Analysis of the questionnaire revealed the following results: (1) about 41.0% of residents in Guangzhou had some knowledge of sparganosis or sparganum infection, and information in TV programs was the most important way that residents learned about sparganosis. (2) About 59.9% of the residents ate frog meat. Eating the meat, viscera, or blood of animals, e.g., frogs, snakes, pigs, chicken, mice, and birds, in an improper way might be the main means by which residents acquire the infection. (3) The risk of sparganum infection was higher in males than in females. A high sparganum infection rate was observed in the wild frogs sold in agricultural product markets in Guangzhou. The infection was also serious in cats and dogs in Guangdong Province. With lifestyles and eating habits resulting in sparganum infection, it is necessary to focus on market management and

  8. Viscous-poroelastic interaction as mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, A.; Gat, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a viscous liquid contained between and within the hexagonal structures. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, by allowing for exit of the liquid and thus improving contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscosity and elasticity as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary effects or van der Waals forces. We initially illustrate this concept experimentally by a simplified configuration consisting of two surfaces connected by a liquid bridge and elastic springs. We then utilize poroelastic mixture theory and model frog's toe pads as an elastic porous medium, immersed within a viscous liquid and pressed against a rigid rough surface. The flow between the surface and the toe pad is modeled by the lubrication approximation. Inertia is neglected and analysis of the elastic-viscous dynamics yields a governing partial differential equation describing the flow and stress within the porous medium. Several solutions of the governing equation are presented and show a temporary adhesion due to stress created at the contact surface between the solids. This work thus may explain how some frogs (such as the torrent frog) maintain adhesion underwater and the reason for the periodic repositioning of frogs' toe pads during adhesion to surfaces.

  9. Factors influencing survival and mark retention in postmetamorphic boreal chorus frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jennifer E; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Funk, W. Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ability to track individual animals is crucial in many field studies and often requires applying marks to captured individuals. Toe clipping has historically been a standard marking method for wild amphibian populations, but more recent marking methods include visual implant elastomer and photo identification. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the influence and effectiveness of marking methods for recently metamorphosed individuals and as a result little is known about this life-history phase for most amphibians. Our focus was to explore survival probabilities, mark retention, and mark migration in postmetamorphic Boreal Chorus Frogs (Psuedacris maculata) in a laboratory setting. One hundred forty-seven individuals were assigned randomly to two treatment groups or a control group. Frogs in the first treatment group were marked with visual implant elastomer, while frogs in the second treatment group were toe clipped. Growth and mortality were recorded for one year and resulting data were analyzed using known-fate models in Program MARK. Model selection results suggested that survival probabilities of frogs varied with time and showed some variation among marking treatments. We found that frogs with multiple toes clipped on the same foot had lower survival probabilities than individuals in other treatments, but individuals can be marked by clipping a single toe on two different feet without any mark loss or negative survival effects. Individuals treated with visual implant elastomer had a mark migration rate of 4% and mark loss rate of 6%, and also showed very little negative survival impacts relative to control individuals.

  10. Asplenium bird’s nest ferns in rainforest canopies are climate-contingent refuges for frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Scheffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are important for canopy dwelling organisms because they provide a cool and moist microhabitat in the relatively hot and dry canopy. Here we examine whether epiphytic Asplenium ferns act as important habitats for arboreal frogs. We conducted extensive fern and habitat surveys for frogs in the Philippines, and complimented these surveys with roaming day and night canopy surveys to identify the full extent of habitat use across the vertical strata. We artificially dried ferns of various sizes to identify relationships between water and temperature buffering. Ferns are the preferred diurnal microhabitat and breeding habitat for arboreal frogs. A strong positive relationship exists between fern size and frog usage and abundance. Our drying experiments show that large ferns buffer maximum temperatures and reduce variability in temperatures, and buffering is directly linked to their hydration. Frogs are likely using large ferns for their moist, cool, environments for breeding and daytime retreat, which supports the buffered microhabitat hypothesis—these plants promote species coexistence through habitat creation and amelioration of physical stress. However, drying experiments suggest that this buffering is contingent on regular rainfall. Altered rainfall regimes could lead to the unexpected loss of the functional capacity of these important fern habitats.

  11. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments.

  12. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

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    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  13. Emerging myxosporean parasites of Australian frogs take a ride with fresh fruit transport

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    Hartigan Ashlie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of wildlife pathogens into new geographical ranges or populations is a conservation concern for endangered species. Cystodiscus australis and Cystodiscus axonis are two species of myxosporean parasites infecting Australian frogs and tadpoles that have been recently recognised as important disease agents impacting amphibian conservation. Yet despite their importance to wildlife health, the mechanism of emergence for these parasites is unknown. We hypothesise that these parasites are capable of being accidentally translocated with their amphibian hosts in fresh produce (agricultural, horticultural and industrial shipments into naïve environments and host populations. Methods We surveyed 33 Australian “Banana box” frogs from Sydney fruit markets during 2011 using faecal smears and multiplex species specific PCR on DNA isolated from frog faeces or using histopathology to demonstrate the presence of both C. australis and C. axonis. Results One of the “Banana box” frogs, the Dainty green tree frog (Litoria gracilenta was positive for C. australis and C. axonis in its faeces and continuously shed the parasites for eight months. Conclusions We present a possible mechanism for the emergence of Cystodiscus parasites and a non-invasive screening method to be used as a diagnostic test. In the future, vigilance and communication between wildlife managers/researchers and veterinarians will provide valuable information about these parasites, their host range and true distribution. This will aid risk management assessments for threatened populations within the range of Cystodiscus parasites and ultimately enhance conservation efforts.

  14. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  15. Consequences of intraspecific niche variation: phenotypic similarity increases competition among recently metamorphosed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Michael F; Middlemis Maher, Jessica

    2011-07-01

    Phenotype is often correlated with resource use, which suggests that as phenotypic variation in a population increases, intraspecific competition will decrease. However, few studies have experimentally tested the prediction that increased intraspecific phenotypic variation leads to reduced competitive effects (e.g., on growth rate, survival or reproductive rate). We investigated this prediction with two experiments on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). In the first experiment, we found that a frog's size was positively correlated with the size of its preferred prey, indicating that the feeding niche of the frogs changed with size. In the second experiment, we used an experimental design in which we held the initial mass of "focal" frogs constant, but varied the initial mass of their competitors. We found a significant quadratic effect of the average mass of competitors: focal frog growth was lowest when raised with similar-sized competitors, and highest when raised with competitors that were larger or smaller. Our results demonstrate that growth rates increase (i.e., competitive intensity decreases) when individuals are less similar to other members of the population and exhibit less overlap in resource use. Thus, changes in the amount of phenotypic variation in a population may ultimately affect population-level processes, such as population growth rate and extinction risk.

  16. Skin microbiota differs drastically between co-occurring frogs and newts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, R. G. Bina; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Diverse microbial assemblages inhabit amphibian skin and are known to differ among species; however, few studies have analysed these differences in systems that minimize confounding factors, such as season, location or host ecology. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to compare cutaneous microbiotas among two ranid frogs (Rana dalmatina, R. temporaria) and four salamandrid newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris, Lissotriton helveticus, L. vulgaris, Triturus cristatus) breeding simultaneously in two ponds near Braunschweig, Germany. We found that bacterial communities differed strongly and consistently between these two distinct amphibian clades. While frogs and newts had similar cutaneous bacterial richness, their bacterial composition strongly differed. Average Jaccard distances between frogs and newts were over 0.5, while between species within these groups distances were only 0.387 and 0.407 for frogs and newts, respectively. At the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, 31 taxa exhibited significantly different relative abundances between frogs and newts. This finding suggests that chemical or physical characteristics of these amphibians' mucosal environments provide highly selective conditions for bacterial colonizers. Multi-omics analyses of hosts and their microbiota as well as directed efforts to understand chemical differences in the mucosal environments (e.g. pH), and the specificities of host-produced compounds against potential colonizers will help to better understand this intriguing pattern. PMID:28484639

  17. Behaviour of Australian rainforest stream frogs may affect the transmission of chytridiomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Alford, Ross A

    2007-08-13

    The amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been implicated in mass mortalities, population declines and extinctions of amphibians around the world. In almost all cases, amphibian species that have disappeared or declined due to chytridiomycosis coexist with non-declining species. One reason why some species decline from chytridiomycosis and others do not may be interspecific differences in behaviour. Host behaviour could either facilitate or hinder pathogen transmission, and transmission rates in the field are likely to vary among species according the frequency of factors such as physical contact between frogs, contact with infected water and contact with environmental substrates containing B. dendrobatidis. We tracked 117 frogs (28 Litoria nannotis, 27 L. genimaculata and 62 L. lesueuri) at 5 sites where B. dendrobatidis is endemic in the rainforest of tropical northern Queensland and recorded the frequency of frog-to-frog contact and the frequency of contact with stream water and environmental substrates. Frequency of contact with other frogs and with water were highest in L. nannotis, intermediate in L. genimaculata and lowest in L. lesueueri. Environmental substrate use also differed among species. These species-specific opportunities for disease transmission were correlated with conservation status: L. nannotis is the species most susceptible to chytridiomycosis-related declines and L. lesueuri is the least susceptible. Interspecific variation in transmission probability may, therefore, play a large role in determining why chytridiomycosis drives some populations to extinction and not others.

  18. Propulsive efficiency of frog swimming with different feet and swimming patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizhuang, Fan; Wei, Zhang; Bowen, Yuan; Gangfeng, Liu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aquatic and terrestrial animals have different swimming performances and mechanical efficiencies based on their different swimming methods. To explore propulsion in swimming frogs, this study calculated mechanical efficiencies based on data describing aquatic and terrestrial webbed-foot shapes and swimming patterns. First, a simplified frog model and dynamic equation were established, and hydrodynamic forces on the foot were computed according to computational fluid dynamic calculations. Then, a two-link mechanism was used to stand in for the diverse and complicated hind legs found in different frog species, in order to simplify the input work calculation. Joint torques were derived based on the virtual work principle to compute the efficiency of foot propulsion. Finally, two feet and swimming patterns were combined to compute propulsive efficiency. The aquatic frog demonstrated a propulsive efficiency (43.11%) between those of drag-based and lift-based propulsions, while the terrestrial frog efficiency (29.58%) fell within the range of drag-based propulsion. The results illustrate the main factor of swimming patterns for swimming performance and efficiency. PMID:28302669

  19. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  20. Chemical camouflage--a frog's strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Brede, Christian; Hirschfeld, Mareike; Schmitt, Thomas; Favreau, Philippe; Stöcklin, Reto; Wunder, Cora; Mebs, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus). The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression.

  1. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the mucous glands in captive Archey's frogs (Leiopelma archeyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S D; Berger, L; Harvey, C; Alley, M R; Bishop, P J; Speare, R

    2017-05-01

    To describe the gross and light microscopic characteristics of skin lesions observed on the ventral skin of captive Archey's frogs (Leiopelma archeyi) between 2000 and 2012, and to investigate their occurrence, possible aetiology and association with survival. Postmortem skin samples were obtained for histological evaluation from 37 frogs, with and without skin lesions, that died while in captivity at Auckland Zoo between 2000 and 2012. Four frogs with skin lesions were biopsied under general anaesthesia and samples used for both light and transmission electron microscopy. The records of 94 frogs held at the University of Otago and Auckland Zoo between 2000-2012 were reviewed, which included some frogs recently collected from the wild. Information about the occurrence of skin lesions, and mortality associated with skin lesions was collated. Grossly the skin lesions varied in appearance; most were circular, pale grey papules, which measured from hyperplasia of the dermal mucous glands. The aetiology of this adenomatous hyperplasia is unknown, but factors associated with the captive environment are the most likely cause. This is the first description of adenomatous hyperplasia of the cutaneous mucous glands in amphibians.

  2. Chemical camouflage--a frog's strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark-Oliver Rödel

    Full Text Available Whereas interspecific associations receive considerable attention in evolutionary, behavioural and ecological literature, the proximate bases for these associations are usually unknown. This in particular applies to associations between vertebrates with invertebrates. The West-African savanna frog Phrynomantis microps lives in the underground nest of ponerine ants (Paltothyreus tarsatus. The ants usually react highly aggressively when disturbed by fiercely stinging, but the frog is not attacked and lives unharmed among the ants. Herein we examined the proximate mechanisms for this unusual association. Experiments with termites and mealworms covered with the skin secretion of the frog revealed that specific chemical compounds seem to prevent the ants from stinging. By HPLC-fractionation of an aqueous solution of the frogs' skin secretion, two peptides of 1,029 and 1,143 Da were isolated and found to inhibit the aggressive behaviour of the ants. By de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of both peptides consisting of a chain of 9 and 11 residues, respectively, was elucidated. Both peptides were synthesized and tested, and exhibited the same inhibitory properties as the original frog secretions. These novel peptides most likely act as an appeasement allomone and may serve as models for taming insect aggression.

  3. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  4. Treatment of skin-invading capillarid nematode in a colony of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, G.E.; Jared, D.W.

    1977-08-01

    Pathological effects of a capillarid nematode on the skin of Xenopus are described. Eight frogs infested with the parasite were treated with thiabendazole in the aquarium water. Histological examinations of the skin of these frogs showed that the parasites had been eliminated. No toxicity was observed as a result of the drug therapy. (HLW)

  5. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  7. Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Emily

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.

  8. Antimicrobial properties of the skin secretions of frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan J. Esterhuyse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance results in increased morbidity and mortality, and increased health-care costs. Therefore the need to develop new classes of antibiotics is indispensable. Antimicrobial peptides are a relatively new class of potential antibiotics which are fast acting, possess broad-spectrum activity and are able to escape many of the currently known mechanisms of drug resistance. They have been shown to be active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, enveloped viruses and even cancer cells. However, toxicity to healthy host cells remains a concern and has affected the clinical development of therapeutics based on antimicrobial peptides. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in research focused on antimicrobial peptides from frogs and the challenges in conducting research in this area in southern Africa. An extensive literature review of relevant articles published between 1980 and the present was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Sabinet, Elsevier and GoogleScholar. There has been little research done on anurans from southern Africa which are endemic to the region, and there is therefore a need to focus on this group for the purposes of bioprospecting for potentially new antimicrobial peptide compounds.

  9. A serine proteinase inhibitor from frog eggs with bacteriostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaoping; Yu, Haining; Yang, Xinbo; Rees, Huw H; Liu, Jingze; Lai, Ren

    2008-01-01

    By Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, Resource Q anionic exchange and C4 reversed phase liquid high performance liquid chromatography, a proteinase inhibitor protein (Ranaserpin) was identified and purified from the eggs of the odour frog, Rana grahami. The protein displayed a single band adjacent to the molecular weight marker of 14.4 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The inhibitor protein homogeneity and its molecular weight were confirmed again by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis gave this inhibitor protein an m/z of 14422.26 that was matched well with the result from SDS-PAGE. This protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor targeting multiple proteinases including trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. Ranaserpin inhibited the proteolytic activities of trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. It has an inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 6.2 x 10(-8) M, 2.7 x 10(-7) M and 2.2 x 10(-8) M for trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin, respectively. This serine proteinase inhibitor exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). It was suggested that ranaserpin might act as a defensive role in resistance to invasion of pests or pathogens. This is the first report of serine proteinase inhibitor and its direct defensive role from amphibian eggs.

  10. Novel analgesic peptides from the tree frog of Hyla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuqin; Li, Zhengtao; Liu, Han; He, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Jieqiong; Che, Jing; Li, Cheng; Chen, Wenlin; Lai, Ren; Liu, Jingze

    2014-04-01

    Two novel analgesic peptides (Analgesin-HJ, FWPVI-NH2 and Analgesin-HJ(I5T), FWPVT-NH2) were identified from the skin of the tree frog, Hyla japonica. There are 171 amino acid residues in the precursor encoding analgesin-HJs. The precursor contains 10 copies of mature peptide, which include 9 copies of analgesin-HJ and one copy of analgesin-HJ(I5T). Results from analgesic experiments using mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking, and thermal pain test indicated that this two peptides exerted comparable analgesic activities with morphine. In addition, they had ability to inhibit inflammatory factor secretion induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Considering their easy production, storage, transfer and potential analgesic activity, analgesin-HJs might be exciting leading compounds or templates for the development of novel analgesic agent. In addition, this study might facilitate to understand skin defensive mechanism of amphibians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobacterial Arthritis and Synovitis in Painted Reed Frogs (Hyperolius marmoratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, M; Koeppel, K; Michel, A; Mitchell, E

    2017-02-20

    Several species of atypical mycobacteria have been isolated from wild and captive amphibians. In captive anurans, cutaneous and visceral mycobacteriosis are common and can result in significant mortality, particularly when animals are immunocompromised. Mycobacterial arthritis and synovitis are reported rarely in amphibians. We describe 20 cases in painted reed frogs (Hyperolius marmoratus), which presented with cachexia, limb paresis or paralysis or 'spindly leg syndrome'. Histopathology revealed multifocal histiocytic to granulomatous synovitis affecting appendicular, rib or spinal intervertebral joints. Periarticular granulomata, granulomatous cellulitis and skeletal muscle atrophy, necrosis and degeneration were also present. In one case, granulomatous spinal osteomyelitis was recorded. Ziehl-Neelsen stains showed large numbers of acid-fast bacteria in macrophages and histiocytes. The mycobacterial isolates obtained from culture were identified as members of the Mycobacterium chelonae complex (either M. chelonae or Mycobacteriumabscessus). This was confirmed by 5'-16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing. In 17 cases mycobacterial lesions were present only in the joints and skeleton, highlighting the importance of not ruling out mycobacterial infection on the basis of absence of cutaneous or visceral lesions.

  12. Connectin filaments in stretched skinned fibers of frog skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of highly stretched skinned frog semi-tendinous muscle fibers revealed that connectin, an elastic protein of muscle, is located in the gap between actin and myosin filaments and also in the region of myosin filaments except in their centers. Electron microscopic observations showed that there were easily recognizable filaments extending from the myosin filaments to the I band region and to Z lines in the myofibrils treated with antiserum against connectin. In thin sections prepared with tannic acid, very thin filaments connected myosin filaments to actin filaments. These filaments were also observed in myofibrils extracted with a modified Hasselbach-Schneider solution (0.6 M KCl, 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, 2 mM ATP, 2 mM MgCl2, and 1 mM EGTA) and with 0.6 M Kl. SDS PAGE revealed that connectin (also called titin) remained in extracted myofibrils. We suggest that connectin filaments play an important role in the generation of tension upon passive stretch. A scheme of the cytoskeletal structure of myofibrils of vertebrate skeletal muscle is presented on the basis of our present information of connectin and intermediate filaments. PMID:6384237

  13. Immune challenges and visual signalling in tree frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprat, Julia L.; Lengagne, Thierry; Mondy, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    In animals, mate-choice is often based on sexual signals that carry information and help the receiver make the best choice to improve the receiver's fitness. Orange visual sexual signals have been hypothesised to carry immune information because they are often due to carotenoid pigments which are also involved in immunity response. Although many studies have focused on the direct relationships between coloration and immunocompetence, few studies have simultaneously studied immunocompetent response and coloration variation after an immune challenge. We tested this hypothesis on starved and ad libitum-fed males of the European tree frog Hyla arborea. Our results show that male coloration is not a reliable indicator of its immune response capacity in this species. However, after an immune challenge induced by a PHA ( Phaseolus vulgaris phytohaemagglutinin) injection, starved males presented a significant coloration loss and this alteration was related to the immune response intensity. Taken together, these results suggest that the brighter (lighter) coloration may be used as a cue by female to exclude males with a recent immune challenge, due to diseases or parasites for example.

  14. A short peptide from frog skin accelerates diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Duan, Zilei; Tang, Jing; Lv, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqiang; Lai, Ren

    2014-10-01

    Delayed wound healing will result in the development of chronic wounds in some diseases, such as diabetes. Amphibian skins possess excellent wound-healing ability and represent a resource for prospective wound-healing promoting compounds. A potential wound-healing promoting peptide (CW49; amino acid sequence APFRMGICTTN) was identified from the frog skin of Odorrana grahami. It promotes wound healing in a murine model with a full-thickness dermal wound in both normal and diabetic animals. In addition to its strong angiogenic ability with respect to the upregulation of some angiogenic proteins, CW49 also showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic wounds, which was very important for healing chronic wounds. CW49 had little effect on re-epithelialization, resulting in no significant effect on wound closure rate compared to a vehicle control. Altogether, this indicated that CW49 might accelerate diabetic wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and preventing any excessive inflammatory response. Considering its favorable traits as a small peptide that significantly promotes angiogenesis, CW49 might be an excellent candidate or template for the development of a drug for use in the treatment of diabetic wounds.

  15. Properties of motor units of the frog iliofibularis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, A R; Proske, U

    1979-01-01

    The tension developed by single motor units of the iliofibularis muscle of the frog Litoria aurea was recorded in response to single-shock and repetitive stimulation of motor axons. The majority of units in each muscle, 13 on the average, were of the twitch type; an additional 4 units were slow or tonic. It appeared that slow units comprised a single homogeneous population, but two types of twitch units could be recognized: small fatigue-resistant units with long twitch times to peak (20--40 ms) and larger, fatigable units with briefer times to peak (16--27 ms). Evidence from a comparison of unit tetanic tensions indicated the presence of polyneuronal innervation of both slow and twitch muscle fibers. The relatively low incidence of polyneuronal innervation of twitch fibers in iliofibularis, when compared with a muscle like sartorius (9), was attributed to the difference in lengths of muscle fibers in the two muscles. It was argued that slow muscle fibers probably receive a multiterminal as well as polyneuronal innervation, with the terminals of any one axon lying widely spaced along the muscle fiber.

  16. Regeneration of frog twitch and slow muscle fibers after mincing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Emser, W

    1985-10-01

    Iliofibularis muscles of Rana temporaria were minced and allowed to regenerate in the iliofibularis or the sartorius bed of the same frog. Regenerated muscles were examined for the presence of slow muscle fibers using electrophysiologic, histochemical, and contractile parameters. Muscle regeneration from sartorius mince was also studied. Regeneration was more successful from iliofibularis than from sartorius mince, and the iliofibularis bed was more favorable for regeneration than the sartorius bed for both types of muscle. Twitch fibers regenerated within a few months, but slow fibers could not be identified earlier than 14 months after muscle destruction. Slow muscle fibers regenerated only from iliofibularis mince, both orthotopically and heterotopically. All regenerates capable of maintaining a K-contracture contained histochemically identified slow fibers; the membrane properties of electrophysiologically identified slow fibers were normal. It is concluded that slow muscle fibers regenerate only from the remnants of a muscle that contains slow fibers. The results are discussed with respect to the role of innervating nerve fibers.

  17. Birds and frogs selected papers, 1990-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2015-01-01

    This book is a sequel to the volume of selected papers of Dyson up to 1990 that was published by the American Mathematical Society in 1996. The present edition comprises a collection of the most interesting writings of Freeman Dyson, all personally selected by the author, from the period 1990–2014. The five sections start off with an Introduction, followed by Talks about Science, Memoirs, Politics and History, and some Technical Papers. The most noteworthy is a lecture entitled Birds and Frogs to the American Mathematical Society that describes two kinds of mathematicians with examples from real life. Other invaluable contributions include an important tribute to C. N. Yang written for his retirement banquet at Stony Brook University, as well as a historical account of the Operational Research at RAF Bomber Command in World War II provocatively titled A Failure of Intelligence. The final section carries the open-ended question of whether any conceivable experiment could detect single gravitons to provide d...

  18. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick, E-mail: choihc@ucmail.uc.edu; Ebersbacher, Charles F. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States); Myung, Nosang V. [University of California, Riverside, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States); Montemagno, Carlo D., E-mail: montemcd@ucmail.uc.edu [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  19. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Myung, Nosang V.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2012-09-01

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  20. Fitness consequences of parental compatibility in the frog Crinia georgiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2008-04-01

    Theory suggests that multiple mating by females can evolve as a mechanism for acquiring compatible genes that promote offspring fitness. Genetic compatibility models predict that differences in fitness among offspring arise from interactions between male and female haplotypes. Using a cross-classified breeding design and in vitro fertilization, we raised families of maternal and paternal half-siblings of the frog Crinia georgiana, a species with a polyandrous breeding system and external fertilization. After controlling for variation in maternal provisioning, we found significant effects of interacting parental haplotypes on fertilization success, and nonadditive genetic effects on measures of offspring fitness such as embryo survival, and survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis. Additive genetic variation due to males and females was negligible, and not statistically significant for any of the fitness traits measured. Combinations of parental haplotypes that resulted in high rates of fertilization produced offspring with higher embryo survival and rapid juvenile development. We suggest that a gamete recognition mechanism for selective fertilization by compatible sperm may promote offspring fitness in this system.

  1. Dielectrospectroscopic monitoring of early embryogenesis in single frog embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Koji; Irimajiri, Akihiko

    2000-11-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy has been used to monitor the early embryogenesis of frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs. The dielectric spectra of a single egg in suspension over the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz were collected at various stages of its development. The uncleaved egg showed a dielectric dispersion with a narrow distribution of relaxation times. After the first cleavage, the dielectric spectra were mainly composed of two subdispersions. In the cleavage process, up to the morula stage, changes in the spectra were quantitatively simulated by the `cell-aggregate' model in which the embryo is regarded as a concentrated suspension of shell-spheres that correspond to the blastomeres (i.e. the cells within the embryo). In the stages from the morula to the blastula, the changes in the dielectric spectra were explained as due to a reduction in the size of the blastomere accompanied by an expansion of the blastocoel (i.e. the central cavity in the embryo) using the `vesicle-inclusion' model that is a cell aggregate covered with a less conducting shell corresponding to the outermost layer of tightly interconnected cells.

  2. Dietary alkaloid sequestration in a poison frog: an experimental test of alkaloid uptake in Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantak, Maggie M; Grant, Taran; Reinsch, Sherri; McGinnity, Dale; Loring, Marjorie; Toyooka, Naoki; Saporito, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    Several lineages of brightly colored anurans independently evolved the ability to secrete alkaloid-containing defensive chemicals from granular glands in the skin. These species, collectively referred to as 'poison frogs,' form a polyphyletic assemblage that includes some species of Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Myobatrachidae, Bufonidae, and Eleutherodactylidae. The ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods has been demonstrated experimentally in most poison frog lineages but not in bufonid or eleutherodactylid poison frogs. As with other poison frogs, species of the genus Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) consume large numbers of mites and ants, suggesting they might also sequester defensive alkaloids from dietary sources. To test this hypothesis, fruit flies dusted with alkaloid/nutritional supplement powder were fed to individual Melanophryniscus stelzneri in two experiments. In the first experiment, the alkaloids 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine 235B' and decahydroquinoline were administered to three individuals for 104 days. In the second experiment, the alkaloids 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 239Q and decahydroquinoline were given to three frogs for 153 days. Control frogs were fed fruit flies dusted only with nutritional supplement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed that skin secretions of all experimental frogs contained alkaloids, whereas those of all control frogs lacked alkaloids. Uptake of decahydroquinoline was greater than uptake of 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine, and uptake of 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine was greater than uptake of decahydroquinoline, suggesting greater uptake efficiency of certain alkaloids. Frogs in the second experiment accumulated a greater amount of alkaloid, which corresponds to the longer duration and greater number of alkaloid-dusted fruit flies that were consumed. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that bufonid poison frogs sequester alkaloid-based defenses from dietary

  3. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  4. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.

  5. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V.; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species. PMID:26466534

  6. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  7. Extremely abundant antimicrobial peptides existed in the skins of nine kinds of Chinese odorous frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Peptide agents are regarded as hopeful candidates to solve life-threatening resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to classic antibiotics due to their unique action mechanisms. Peptidomic and genomic investigation of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibian skin secretions can provide a large amount of structure-functional information to design peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. In the present study, we identified a large number of AMPs from the skins of nine kinds of Chinese odorous frogs. Eighty AMPs were purified from three different odorous frogs and confirmed by peptidomic analysis. Our results indicated that post-translational modification of AMPs rarely happened in odorous frogs. cDNAs encoding precursors of 728 AMPs, including all the precursors of the confirmed 80 native peptides, were cloned from the constructed AMP cDNA libraries of nine Chinese odorous frogs. On the basis of the sequence similarity of deduced mature peptides, these 728 AMPs were grouped into 97 different families in which 71 novel families were identified. Out of these 728 AMPs, 662 AMPs were novel and 28 AMPs were reported previously in other frog species. Our results revealed that identical AMPs were widely distributed in odorous frogs; 49 presently identified AMPs could find their identical molecules in different amphibian species. Purified peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against 4 tested microbe strains. Twenty-three deduced peptides were synthesized and their bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hemolytic, immunomodulatory and insulin-releasing activities, were evaluated. Our findings demonstrate the extreme diversity of AMPs in amphibian skins and provide plenty of templates to develop novel peptide antibiotics.

  8. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  9. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  10. The Australasian frog family Ceratobatrachidae in China, Myanmar and Thailand: discovery of a new Himalayan forest frog clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, Fang; JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; JIN, Jie-Qiong; SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; LI, Cheng; Jens, V. VINDUM; Rafe, M. BROWN; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to study the systematic affinities and specieslevel phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic anurans variably assigned to the genera Ingerana or Limnonectes (family Dicroglossidae), we collected new molecular sequence data for five species including four Himalayan taxa, Limnonectes xizangensis, Lim. medogensis, Lim. alpine, Ingerana borealis and one southeast Asian species, I. tasanae, and analyzed these together with data from previous studies involving other ostensibly related taxa. Our surprising results demonstrate unequivocally that Lim. xizangensis, Lim. medogensis and Lim. alpine form a strongly supported clade, the sister-group of the family Australasian forest frog family Ceratobatrachidae. This discovery requires an expansion of the definition of Ceratobatrachidae and represents the first record of this family in China. These three species are distinguished from the species of Ingerana and Limnonectes by the: (1) absence of interdigital webbing of the foot, (2) absence of terminal discs on fingers and toes, (3) absence of circumarginal grooves on the fingers and toes, and (4) absence of tarsal folds. Given their phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness, we assign them to the oldest available generic name for this clade, Liurana Dubois 1987, and transfer Liurana from Dicroglossidae to the family Ceratobatrachidae. In contrast, Ingerana tasanae was found to be clustered with strong support with the recently described genus Alcalus (Ceratobatrachidae), a small clade of otherwise Sundaic species; this constitutes a new record of the family Ceratobatrachidae for Myanmar and Thailand. Finally, Ingerana borealis clustered with the "true" Ingerana (family Dicroglossidae), for which the type species is I. tenasserimensis. PMID:26828029

  11. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  12. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Freeman J.

    2010-11-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article.

  13. A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar

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    Angelica Crottini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included G. azzurrae, G. corvus and G. pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingy sp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35–43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus. The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha.

  14. Breeding chorus indices are weakly related to estimated abundance of boreal chorus frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Muths, E.; Kissel, A.M.; Scherer, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Call surveys used to monitor breeding choruses of anuran amphibians generate index values that are frequently used to represent the number of male frogs present, but few studies have quantified this relationship. We compared abundance of male Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata), estimated using capture–recapture methods in two populations in Colorado, to call index values derived from automated recordings. Single index values, such as might result from large monitoring efforts, were unrelated to population size. A synthetic call saturation index (CSI), the daily proportion of the maximum possible sum of index values derived from multiple recordings, was greater in larger populations, but the relationship was not highly predictive.

  15. Introducing the Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics knowledge base, FROG-kb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeevan Haseena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online tools and databases based on multi-allelic short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs are actively used in forensic teaching, research, and investigations. The Fst value of each CODIS marker tends to be low across the populations of the world and most populations typically have all the common STRP alleles present diminishing the ability of these systems to discriminate ethnicity. Recently, considerable research is being conducted on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to be considered for human identification and description. However, online tools and databases that can be used for forensic research and investigation are limited. Methods The back end DBMS (Database Management System for FROG-kb is Oracle version 10. The front end is implemented with specific code using technologies such as Java, Java Servlet, JSP, JQuery, and GoogleCharts. Results We present an open access web application, FROG-kb (Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics-knowledge base, http://frog.med.yale.edu, that is useful for teaching and research relevant to forensics and can serve as a tool facilitating forensic practice. The underlying data for FROG-kb are provided by the already extensively used and referenced ALlele FREquency Database, ALFRED (http://alfred.med.yale.edu. In addition to displaying data in an organized manner, computational tools that use the underlying allele frequencies with user-provided data are implemented in FROG-kb. These tools are organized by the different published SNP/marker panels available. This web tool currently has implemented general functions possible for two types of SNP panels, individual identification and ancestry inference, and a prediction function specific to a phenotype informative panel for eye color. Conclusion The current online version of FROG-kb already provides new and useful functionality. We expect FROG-kb to grow and expand in capabilities and welcome input from the forensic community in

  16. A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis) frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottini, Angelica; Glaw, Frank; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Jenkins, Richard K.B.; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Randrianantoandro, Christian; Randrianirina, Jasmin E.; Andreone, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included Gephyromantis azzurrae, Gephyromantis corvus and Gephyromantis pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingy sp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35–43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus.The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha. PMID:21594161

  17. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort in the Oregon Cascade Mountain Range. We surveyed 91 sites using a rotating frame design in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species' core extant range. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, and life stage, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time of each survey.

  18. Pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in marbled water frog Telmatobius marmoratus: first record from Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, John; Lindquist, Erik; Craig, Heather; Luthman, Kyle

    2014-11-13

    The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines worldwide but has not been well-studied among Critically Endangered amphibian species in Bolivia. We sampled free-living marbled water frogs Telmatobius marmoratus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Isla del Sol, Bolivia, for Bd using skin swabs and quantitative polymerase chain reactions. We detected Bd on 44% of T. marmoratus sampled. This is the first record of Bd in amphibians from waters associated with Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. These results further confirm the presence of Bd in Bolivia and substantiate the potential threat of this pathogen to the Critically Endangered, sympatric Titicaca water frog T. culeus and other Andean amphibians.

  19. Introducing the Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics knowledge base, FROG-kb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Online tools and databases based on multi-allelic short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) are actively used in forensic teaching, research, and investigations. The Fst value of each CODIS marker tends to be low across the populations of the world and most populations typically have all the common STRP alleles present diminishing the ability of these systems to discriminate ethnicity. Recently, considerable research is being conducted on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be considered for human identification and description. However, online tools and databases that can be used for forensic research and investigation are limited. Methods The back end DBMS (Database Management System) for FROG-kb is Oracle version 10. The front end is implemented with specific code using technologies such as Java, Java Servlet, JSP, JQuery, and GoogleCharts. Results We present an open access web application, FROG-kb (Forensic Research/Reference on Genetics-knowledge base, http://frog.med.yale.edu), that is useful for teaching and research relevant to forensics and can serve as a tool facilitating forensic practice. The underlying data for FROG-kb are provided by the already extensively used and referenced ALlele FREquency Database, ALFRED (http://alfred.med.yale.edu). In addition to displaying data in an organized manner, computational tools that use the underlying allele frequencies with user-provided data are implemented in FROG-kb. These tools are organized by the different published SNP/marker panels available. This web tool currently has implemented general functions possible for two types of SNP panels, individual identification and ancestry inference, and a prediction function specific to a phenotype informative panel for eye color. Conclusion The current online version of FROG-kb already provides new and useful functionality. We expect FROG-kb to grow and expand in capabilities and welcome input from the forensic community in identifying datasets and

  20. Three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne (Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Günther

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the microhylid frog genus Choerophryne from the mountains and foothills of southern and northeastern Papua New Guinea. All three species lack elongated snouts and all are arboreal calling from elevated perch sites between ~1 and 10 m above the forest floor. Advertisement calls and habitat preferences are described for each species. Descriptions of these three frogs brings the total number of Choerophryne recognized to 34 but numerous additional species undoubtedly remain to be discovered in poorly-surveyed mountainous regions of New Guinea.

  1. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  2. 青蛙放养个体大小对稻蛙共育效益的影响%Effect of Frog Size on Rice-frog Symbiosis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞光荣; 袁德明

    2014-01-01

    In rice-frog symbiosis system, the anti-insect effect of frog can not only improve the rice quality but also increase the profit of frog raising. Most frog released in this system is usually small with single weight less than 100 g. Experiments were conducted to ex-plore the influences of frog weight on anti-insect effect and raising profit. The results showed that released with single frog weight of 75 g can reach the profit level as that of the single frog weight of 100 g.%稻蛙共育是一种新的生态稻作模式,高产高效,但在青蛙繁育过程中,由于个体差异,造成稻田可套养时单体质量低于100 g的青蛙数量较多。针对这一情况,笔者对稻田放养单体质量低于100 g青蛙对治虫、养殖效益的影响开展了对比试验。结果表明,稻蛙共育中采用单体质量75g的青蛙放养是可行的,能基本达到100 g单体质量青蛙的放养效果。

  3. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost

  4. Light-dependent magnetic compass in Iberian green frog tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego-Rasilla, Francisco Javier; Luengo, Rosa Milagros; Phillips, John B.

    2010-12-01

    Here, we provide evidence for a wavelength-dependent effect of light on magnetic compass orientation in Pelophylax perezi (order Anura), similar to that observed in Rana catesbeiana (order Anura) and Notophthalmus viridescens (order Urodela), and confirm for the first time in an anuran amphibian that a 90° shift in the direction of magnetic compass orientation under long-wavelength light (≥500 nm) is due to a direct effect of light on the underlying magnetoreception mechanism. Although magnetic compass orientation in other animals (e.g., birds and some insects) has been shown to be influenced by the wavelength and/or intensity of light, these two amphibian orders are the only taxa for which there is direct evidence that the magnetic compass is light-dependent. The remarkable similarities in the light-dependent magnetic compasses of anurans and urodeles, which have evolved as separate clades for at least 250 million years, suggest that the light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism is likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of the Lissamphibia (Early Permian, ~294 million years) and, possibly, much earlier. Also, we discuss a number of similarities between the functional properties of the light-dependent magnetic compass in amphibians and blue light-dependent responses to magnetic stimuli in Drosophila melanogaster, which suggest that the wavelength-dependent 90° shift in amphibians may be due to light activation of different redox forms of a cryptochrome photopigment. Finally, we relate these findings to earlier studies showing that the pineal organ of newts is the site of the light-dependent magnetic compass and recent neurophysiological evidence showing magnetic field sensitivity in the frog frontal organ (an outgrowth of the pineal).

  5. A potential wound healing-promoting peptide from frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mu, Lixian; Tang, Jing; Shen, Chuanbin; Gao, Chen; Rong, Mingqiang; Zhang, Zhiye; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Haining; Lai, Ren

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic, complex, and well-organized process that requires the orchestration of many different cell types and cellular processes. Transforming growth factor β1 is an important factor that plays a key role during wound healing. Amphibian skin has been proven to possess excellent wound healing ability, whilst no bioactive substrate related to it has ever been identified. Here, a potential wound healing-promoting peptide (AH90, ATAWDFGPHGLLPIRPIRIRPLCG) was identified from the frog skin of Odorrana grahami. It showed potential wound healing-promoting activity in a murine model with full thickness dermal wound. AH90 promoted release of transforming growth factor β1 through activation of nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways, while inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibited the process. In addition, the effects of AH90 on Smads family proteins, key regulators in transforming growth factor β1 signaling pathways, could also be inhibited by transforming growth factor β1 antibody. Altogether, this indicated that AH90 promoted wound healing by inducing the release of transforming growth factor β1. This current study may facilitate the understanding of effective factors involved in the wound repair of amphibians and the underlying mechanisms as well. Considering its favorable traits as a small peptide that greatly promoting generation of endogenous wound healing agents (transforming growth factor β1) without mitogenic effects, AH90 might be an excellent template for the future development of novel wound-healing agents.

  6. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further.

  7. Dry-season retreat and dietary shift of the dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Born

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal rainfall affects tropical forest dynamics and behaviorof species that are part of these ecosystems. The positive correlation between amphibian activity patterns and rainfall has been demonstrated repeatedly. Members of Dendrobatidae, a clade of Neotropical dart-poison frogs, are well known for their habitat use and behavior during the rainy season, but their behavior during the dry season has received little attention. We studied habitat use and diet of the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates tinctorius in French Guiana during the rainy and dry seasons. Unlike many other dendrobatid frogs, D. tinctorius does not maintain territories for the entire rainy season. Both sexes colonize recently formed canopy-gaps and stay in these forest patches for only a few weeks. The frogs inthese patches consume a great diversity of prey, consisting of ants, beetles, wasps, insect larvae, and mites. During the dry season, frogs move to retreat sites in mature forest, such as palm bracts and tree holes. The frogs are less active and consume fewer prey items in the dry season, and they consume fewer wasps and insect larvae, but more termites. Ants are the most common prey items during both the wet and dry seasons. We discuss the effects of shifts in seasonal habitat use on the territorial behavior of dendrobatid frogs.

  8. Relying on known or exploring for new? Movement patterns and reproductive resource use in a tadpole-transporting frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina B. Beck

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals relying on uncertain, ephemeral and patchy resources have to regularly update their information about profitable sites. For many tropical amphibians, widespread, scattered breeding pools constitute such fluctuating resources. Among tropical amphibians, poison frogs (Dendrobatidae exhibit some of the most complex spatial and parental behaviors—including territoriality and tadpole transport from terrestrial clutches to ephemeral aquatic deposition sites. Recent studies have revealed that poison frogs rely on spatial memory to successfully navigate through their environment. This raises the question of when and how these frogs gain information about the area and suitable reproductive resources. To investigate the spatial patterns of pool use and to reveal potential explorative behavior, we used telemetry to follow males of the territorial dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis during tadpole transport and subsequent homing. To elicit exploration, we reduced resource availability experimentally by simulating desiccated deposition sites. We found that tadpole transport is strongly directed towards known deposition sites and that frogs take similar direct paths when returning to their home territory. Frogs move faster during tadpole transport than when homing after the deposition, which probably reflects different risks and costs during these two movement phases. We found no evidence for exploration, neither during transport nor homing, and independent of the availability of deposition sites. We suggest that prospecting during tadpole transport is too risky for the transported offspring as well as for the transporting male. Relying on spatial memory of multiple previously discovered pools appears to be the predominant and successful strategy for the exploitation of reproductive resources in A. femoralis. Our study provides for the first time a detailed description of poison frog movement patterns during tadpole transport and corroborates

  9. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  10. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2009-08-07

    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  11. Clinal patterns in genetic variation for northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): Conservation status and population histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Craig A.; Fisher, Justin D.L.; McLean, Kyle I.

    2016-01-01

    The security of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) varies spatially with populations east and west of North Dakota considered as secure and at risk, respectively. We used genetic markers to characterize the conservation status of northern leopard frog populations across North Dakota. We used multiple regression analyses and model selection to evaluate correlations of expected heterozygosity (HE) with the direct and additive effects of: i) geographic location,ii) wetland density and iii) average annual precipitation. There was lower genetic diversity in the western portion of the state due to lower levels of diversity for populations southwest of the Missouri River. This may reflect a refugial/colonization signature for the only non-glaciated area of North Dakota. Genetic diversity was also positively associated with wetland densities which is consistent with the reliance of this species on a mosaic of wetlands. Our findings suggest that populations in the southwestern part of North Dakota are of higher conservation concern, a finding consistent with the higher risk noted for northern leopard frog populations in most states west of North Dakota. Our findings also pose the hypothesis that climate change induced changes in wetland densities will reduce genetic diversity of northern leopard frog populations.

  12. Spontaneous tyrosinase mutations identified in albinos of three wild frog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ikuo; Tagami, Masataka; Fujitani, Takeshi; Ogata, Mitsuaki

    2017-06-30

    The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1. Albinos from the former two P. nigromaculatus populations were also associated with splicing variants of mRNA that lacked either exons 2-4 or exon 4. In the other two frog species examined, missense mutations that resulted in amino acid substitutions from glycine to arginine and glycine to aspartic acid were identified in exons 1 and 3, respectively. The two glycines in F. kawamurai and G. rugosa, and the lysine deleted in one P. nigromaculatus albino, were highly conserved in vertebrates, which suggested that they were critically important to tyrosinase function. In fact, the glycine of G. rugosa is located within a predicted copper-binding domain. The five mutations identified in the present study are candidates for causing the albinic phenotypes, and, if directly confirmed, they are all unique to the vertebrates, which suggests that molecular analysis of albino frogs could contribute to research on albinos in humans and vertebrates by providing new information about tyrosinase structure and transcript processing.

  13. Bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yan; Du, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Mu, Yun-Song; Zhang, Ai-Qian; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-You; Yan, Shi-Shuai; Li, Yan; Wei, Rong-Guo; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2011-08-01

    To investigate bioaccumulation, maternal transfer and elimination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in amphibians, we collected adult frogs (Rana limnocharis) from a rice field in an e-waste recycling site in China. We found that ∑PBDEs in the whole frogs and various tissues (brain, liver, testis and egg) ranged from 17.10 to 141.11 ng g(-1) wet weight. Various tissues exhibited a similar PBDE congener profile, which was characterized by intermediate brominated congeners (BDE-99 and BDE-153) as the largest contributors, with less lower brominated congeners (BDE-28 and BDE-47) and higher brominated congeners (BDE-209). The maternal transfer capacity of PBDEs declined with the increase in bromine numbers of PBDE congeners. We suggest that the bromine atom number (the molecular size, to some degree) might be a determining factor for the maternal transport of a PBDE congener rather than K(ow) (Octanol-Water partition coefficient), which expresses a compound's lipophilicity. ∑PBDEs concentrations in frogs decreased over time during a depuration period of 54 days when these wild frogs were brought to the lab from the e-waste recycling site. The half-life of ∑PBDEs was 35 days, with about 14 days for BDE-47, and 36 and 81 days for BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively. The data shows that the elimination of PBDEs has no essential difference from aquatic and terrestrial species.

  14. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  15. Use of olfactory cues by newly metamorphosed wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) during emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Popescu, Viorel D.; Brodie, Bekka S.; Hunter, Malcom L.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile amphibians are capable of long-distance upland movements, yet cues used for orientation during upland movements are poorly understood. We used newly metamorphosed Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate: (1) the existence of innate (i.e., inherited) directionality, and (2) the use of olfactory cues, specifically forested wetland and natal pond cues during emigration. In a circular arena experiment, animals with assumed innate directionality did not orient in the expected direction (suggested by previous studies) when deprived of visual and olfactory cues. This suggests that juvenile Wood Frogs most likely rely on proximate cues for orientation. Animals reared in semi-natural conditions (1500 l cattle tanks) showed a strong avoidance of forested wetland cues in two different experimental settings, although they had not been previously exposed to such cues. This finding is contrary to known habitat use by adult Wood Frogs during summer. Juvenile Wood Frogs were indifferent to the chemical signature of natal pond (cattle tank) water. Our findings suggest that management strategies for forest amphibians should consider key habitat features that potentially influence the orientation of juveniles during emigration movements, as well as adult behavior.

  16. Balancing a cline by influx of migrants: a genetic transition in water frogs of eastern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Hansjürg; Beerli, Peter; Uzzell, Thomas; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Schreiber, Robert; Plötner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Variation patterns of allozymes and of ND3 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA reveal a zone of genetic transition among western Palearctic water frogs extending across northeastern Greece and European Turkey. At the western end of the zone, allozymes characteristic of Central European frogs known as Pelophylax ridibundus predominate, whereas at the eastern end, alleles characteristic of western Anatolian water frogs (P. cf. bedriagae) prevail. The ND3 haplotypes reveal 2 major clades, 1 characteristic of Anatolian frogs, the other of European; the European clade itself has distinct eastern and western subclades. Both the 2 major clades and the 2 subclades overlap within the transition zone. Using Bayesian model selection methods, allozyme data suggest considerable immigration into the Nestos River area from eastern and western populations. In contrast, the ND3 data suggest that migration rates are so high among all locations that they form a single panmictic unit; the best model for allozymes is second best for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Nuclear markers (allozymes), which have roughly 4 times as deep a coalescent history as mtDNA data and thus may reflect patterns over a longer time, indicate that eastern and western refugial populations have expanded since deglaciation (in the last 10,000 years) and have met near the Nestos River, whereas the mtDNA with its smaller effective population size has already lost the signal of partitioning into refugia.

  17. Tolerance of Frogs among High School Students: Influences of Disgust and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Medina-Jerez, William; Coleman, Joy; Fancovicová, Jana; Özel, Murat; Fedor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians play an important role in the functioning of ecosystems and some of them inhabit human gardens where they can successfully reproduce. The decline of amphibian diversity worldwide suggests that people may play a crucial role in their survival. We conducted a cross-cultural study on high school students' tolerance of frogs in Chile,…

  18. Chloramphenicol with fluid and electrolyte therapy cures terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with chytridiomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sam; Speare, Rick; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2012-06-01

    Terminal changes in frogs infected with the amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) include epidermal degeneration leading to inhibited epidermal electrolyte transport, systemic electrolyte disturbances, and asystolic cardiac arrest. There are few reports of successful treatment of chytridiomycosis and none that include curing amphibians with severe disease. Three terminally ill green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) with heavy Bd infections were cured using a combination of continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution for 14 days, parenteral isotonic electrolyte fluid therapy for 6 days, and increased ambient temperature to 28 degrees C for 14 days. All terminally ill frogs recovered rapidly to normal activity levels and appetite within 5 days of commencing treatment. In contrast, five untreated terminally ill L. caerulea with heavy Bd infections died within 24-48 hr of becoming moribund. Subclinical infections in 15 experimentally infected L. caerulea were cured within 28 days by continuous shallow immersion in 20 mg/L chloramphenicol solution without adverse effects. This is the first known report of a clinical treatment protocol for curing terminally ill Bd-infected frogs.

  19. Pesticide Distributions and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs, Rana Muscosa and Rana Sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in th...

  20. Accumulation of pesticides in pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  1. Expression analysis and identification of antimicrobial peptide transcripts from six North American frog species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura S.; Fellers, Gary M.; Marranca, Jamie Marie; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Frogs secrete antimicrobial peptides onto their skin. We describe an assay to preserve and analyze antimicrobial peptide transcripts from field-collected skin secretions that will complement existing methods for peptide analysis. We collected skin secretions from 4 North American species in the field in California and 2 species in the laboratory. Most frogs appeared healthy after release; however, Rana boylii in the Sierra Nevada foothills, but not the Coast Range, showed signs of morbidity and 2 died after handling. The amount of total RNA extracted from skin secretions was higher in R. boylii and R. sierrae compared to R. draytonii, and much higher compared to Pseudacris regilla. Interspecies variation in amount of RNA extracted was not explained by size, but for P. regilla it depended upon collection site and date. RNA extracted from skin secretions from frogs handled with bare hands had poor quality compared to frogs handled with gloves or plastic bags. Thirty-four putative antimicrobial peptide precursor transcripts were identified. This study demonstrates that RNA extracted from skin secretions collected in the field is of high quality suitable for use in sequencing or quantitative PCR (qPCR). However, some species do not secrete profusely, resulting in very little extracted RNA. The ability to measure transcript abundance of antimicrobial peptides in field-collected skin secretions complements proteomic analyses and may provide insight into transcriptional mechanisms that could affect peptide abundance.

  2. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  3. Mimetic Divergence and the Speciation Continuum in the Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Mullerian...

  4. BIOMETRIC STUDY TO RANA RIDIBUNDA FROG SPECIES NEARNESS TO TIMISOARA LOCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Speciality literature provides little informations regarding Rana ridibunda frogbiometry. For supply this gap we studied the size and weight of 54 frogs sampled fromnearby Timişoara area ponds.The mean body lenght was 8,08 ± 0,54 cm for the females and respectively 6,17 ± 0,45cm for the males. Before evisceration on a par females weighted 62,28 ± 12,87 g andthe males 22,46 ± 5,3 g whereas after this action the carcase weighted 43,89 ± 8,91 gin the case of females and respectively 18,45 ± 4,42 g in the case of male lake frog. Themean leg lenght measured 12,59 ± 0,68 cm for female frogs and 9,78 ± 0,66 cm in thecase of male frogs. The hind stylopodium was estimated on a par as 13,23 ± 2,57 g forfemales and 5,33 ± 1,26 g for the males.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of acidic pH on four subtropical frog species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... 117 species of frog are known in South Africa, and a combina- tion of both ... and species extinctions have been reported with more regular- ity since the ... a chronic exposure period (4 weeks +), by comparing the size of tadpoles ...... American Biology Teacher 49 (6) 342–347. http://dx.doi. org/10.2307/ ...

  6. Mortality and morbidity in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) associated with construction noise and vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen A; Cowan, Andrea M; Luong, Richard; Green, Sherril L

    2012-03-01

    In Spring 2008, 175 adult female Xenopus laevis were exposed to construction-related vibrations that caused overt water rippling in the frog tanks. The 3 affected tanks were custom-built static, 300-gal 'pond-style' tanks that sat on the floor of the housing room. The water in the tank developed visible ripples as a result of the vibrations transmitted through the floor during jack-hammering in an adjacent room that was approximately 10 ftaway. All frogs in the tanks displayed buoyancy problems, excessive air gulping, and skin sloughing; ultimately 7 frogs died. In addition, these 7 animals were bloated, and 5 of these 7 had regurgitated and everted their stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity, resulting in airway obstruction and death. Gross pathologic findings included regurgitation and eversion of the stomach of the distal portion of the esophagus into the oral cavity, obstruction of the airway, and lung overinflation. No significant histologic lesions were observed. Construction vibrations transmitted through the water appeared to have disrupted the mechanoreceptive function of the lateral line system, resulting in overstimulation of the noxious feeding response, regurgitation, and eversion of the stomach and distal esophagus into the oral cavity and subsequent suffocation due to airway obstruction. After immediate cessation of the jack-hammering and relocation of the remaining frogs, no additional morbidities or mortalities occurred.

  7. Evidence for selection on coloration in a Panamanian poison frog : a coalescent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Jason L.; Maan, Martine E.; Cummings, Molly E.; Summers, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Aim The strawberry poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, has undergone a remarkable radiation of colour morphs in the Bocas del Toro archipelago in Panama. This species shows extreme variation in colour and pattern between populations that have been geographically isolated for <10,000 years. While previous

  8. Effect of magnetic fields on green color formation in frog skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Kashiwagi, A.; Iwasaka, M.

    2017-05-01

    The present work is focused on a dynamic and efficient optical control system that is made possible by investigation of the body surfaces of various animals. Specifically, we expect Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) skin to provide a model for a flexible display device actuator mechanism. Tree frogs change body color from their original green to other colors in response to background colors. The color formation is controlled not only by chromatophores, but also by guanine microcrystals in iridophores. We collected sample microcrystals from the frog's dorsal skin and made a model display sheet using the green skin layers. The transparent chamber that contained the crystal suspension was layered to enhance light reflection. Sheet color was observed while the angle of light incidence was varied, with and without magnetic field exposure at 0.3 T. A slight increase in red and green intensity was detected. Additionally, reflected intensity increased with increasing angle of incidence. These results indicate that the guanine crystal platelets in frog skin can efficiently switch the reflected light direction under application of a magnetic field. This in turn suggests that a several-micron-sized microcrystal of this type is a candidate material for development of flexible optical chips for ambient light control.

  9. Prevalence of Spirometra mansoni in dogs, cats, and frogs and its medical relevance in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Hong

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: A high sparganum infection rate was observed in the wild frogs sold in agricultural product markets in Guangzhou. The infection was also serious in cats and dogs in Guangdong Province. With lifestyles and eating habits resulting in sparganum infection, it is necessary to focus on market management and community education in order to prevent the transmission of this disease in Guangzhou.

  10. Conservation Needs of Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius Frogs of the Andes of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo Ariadne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that Andean frogs of the genera Batrachophrynus and Telmatobius have under-gone severe population declines across much of their geographical range, with several factors (e.g., pollu-tion, habitat degradation and destruction, climate change, disease and harvesting potentially involved in these declines. However, positive identification and quantification of these factors, as well as that of their interactions, are needed in order to better inform future conservation action. Peru is considered a hotspot for these frogs; it is home to at least 40 percent of all known species of Telmatobius and 100 percent of all known species of Batrachophrynus. An assessment of the current state of conservation knowledge of these Andean frogs in this country is provided, including data from both the Global Amphibian Assess-ment, and Peru′s Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales, with special attention to those factors that may affect population status. Specific research and conservation recommendations for these frogs and their habitats are suggested.

  11. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  12. Accumulation of pesticides in Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) from California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Fellers, Gary M; Kleeman, Patrick M; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    Pesticides are receiving increasing attention as potential causes of amphibian declines, acting singly or in combination with other stressors, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use pesticides in tissue. The authors examined potential exposure and accumulation of currently used pesticides in pond-breeding frogs (Pseudacris regilla) collected from 7 high elevations sites in northern California. All sites sampled are located downwind of California's highly agricultural Central Valley and receive inputs of pesticides through precipitation and/or dry deposition. Whole frog tissue, water, and sediment were analyzed for more than 90 current-use pesticides and pesticide degradates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two fungicides, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole, and one herbicide, simazine, were the most frequently detected pesticides in tissue samples. Median pesticide concentration ranged from 13 µg/kg to 235 µg/kg wet weight. Tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin were the only 2 compounds observed frequently in frog tissue and sediment. Significant spatial differences in tissue concentration were observed, which corresponded to pesticide use in the upwind counties. Data generated indicated that amphibians residing in remote locations are exposed to and capable of accumulating current-use pesticides. A comparison of P. regilla tissue concentrations with water and sediment data indicated that the frogs are accumulating pesticides and are potentially a more reliable indicator of exposure to this group of pesticides than either water or sediment.

  13. Active tension changes in frog skeletal muscle during and after mechanical extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteveldt, H. van; Crowe, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Isolated frog sartorious muscle at 4°C has been used to study the phenomenon whereby tetanically stimulated muscle, subjected to a mechanical extension, yields an active tension which is greater than that obtained during an isometric contraction in which the muscle is stretched prior to stimulation.

  14. No Flower Shall Wither; or, Horticulture in the Kingdom of the Frogs. The Cutting Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated educators, struggling with the mandates of "No Child Left Behind" will immediately identify with the hero of this allegory. Horace is a small frog, who has a passion for gardening, and watching flowers bloom. As soon as he comes of age, Horace decides to pursue his great love of nurturing tender blooming things. He studies, diligently,…

  15. Design and Dynamic Model of a Frog-inspired Swimming Robot Powered by Pneumatic Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ji-Zhuang; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Peng-Cheng; Cai, He-Gao; Liu, Gang-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Pneumatic muscles with similar characteristics to biological muscles have been widely used in robots, and thus are promising drivers for frog inspired robots. However, the application and nonlinearity of the pneumatic system limit the advance. On the basis of the swimming mechanism of the frog, a frog-inspired robot based on pneumatic muscles is developed. To realize the independent tasks by the robot, a pneumatic system with internal chambers, micro air pump, and valves is implemented. The micro pump is used to maintain the pressure difference between the source and exhaust chambers. The pneumatic muscles are controlled by high-speed switch valves which can reduce the robot cost, volume, and mass. A dynamic model of the pneumatic system is established for the simulation to estimate the system, including the chamber, muscle, and pneumatic circuit models. The robot design is verified by the robot swimming experiments and the dynamic model is verified through the experiments and simulations of the pneumatic system. The simulation results are compared to analyze the functions of the source pressure, internal volume of the muscle, and circuit flow rate which is proved the main factor that limits the response of muscle pressure. The proposed research provides the application of the pneumatic muscles in the frog inspired robot and the pneumatic model to study muscle controller.

  16. Effects of forest fragmentation and habitat degradation on West African leaf-litter frogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Veith, M.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat degradation alters the dynamics and composition of anuran assemblages in tropical forests. The effects of forest fragmentation on the composition of anuran assemblages are so far poorly known. We studied the joint influence of forest fragmentation and degradation on leaf-litter frogs. We spe

  17. The Frog Pond Revisited: High School Academic Context, Class Rank, and Elite College Admission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Hale, Lauren E.; Chung, Chang Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors test a "frog-pond" model of elite college admission proposed by Attewell, operationalizing high school academic context as the secondary school-average SAT score and number of Advanced Placement tests per high school senior. Data on more than 45,000 applications to three elite universities show that a high…

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Frog Pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans Ecovar Liflandii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, Nicholas J.; Doig, Kenneth D.; Medema, Marnix H.; Chen, Honglei; Haring, Volker; Moore, Robert; Seemann, Torsten; Stinear, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, a previously undiscovered mycobacterium resembling Mycobacterium ulcerans (the agent of Buruli ulcer) was reported in an outbreak of a lethal mycobacteriosis in a laboratory colony of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. This mycobacterium makes mycolactone and is one of several stra

  19. Role of calcium and vesicle-docking proteins in remobilising dormant neuromuscular junctions in desert frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavidis, Nickolas A; Hudson, Nicholas J; Choy, Peng T; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Franklin, Craig E

    2008-01-01

    Despite prolonged immobility the desert frog, Cyclorana alboguttata, suffers little impairment in muscle function. To determine compensatory mechanisms at neuromuscular junctions, transmitter release was examined along primary terminals in C. alboguttata iliofibularis muscle. Using extracellular recording we found the amplitudes of evoked endplate currents were significantly smaller in dormant frogs. In active frogs we identified two negatively sloping proximal-distal gradients of transmitter frequency and quantal content; a shallow proximal-distal gradient with low probability of transmitter release (0.6). During aestivation, only a shallow gradient was identified. The high probability release sites in control frogs were inhibited during aestivation by a mechanism that could be reversed by (1) increasing the extracellular calcium concentration, and (2) increasing the frequency of stimulation. This suggests that transmitter vesicles are available during aestivation but not released. We quantified expression of messenger RNA transcripts coding for the transmitter vesicle-docking proteins synaptotagmin 1, syntaxin 1B and UNC-13. All three were rare transcripts maintained at control values during aestivation. Neuromuscular remobilisation after dormancy in C. alboguttata is more likely a product of rapidly reversible physiologic mechanisms than reorganisations of the neuromuscular transcriptome.

  20. Classification of the intrafusal muscle fibres in the frog muscle spindle: histochemical and immunofluorescent studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, A; Fujitsuka, N; Sokabe, M; Naruse, K; Nomura, K; Diwan, F H; Ito, F

    1990-01-01

    Intrafusal muscle fibres from bull-frog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were classified into three types using the histochemical, immunofluorescent and morphological characteristics, with reference to the extrafusal muscle fibres, which were classified into five types in accordance with Rowlerson & Spurway (1988). Immunofluorescent reactions with antibodies against slow or fast myosins obtained from anterior or posterior latissimus dorsi muscles (ALD or PLD), respectively,...

  1. The Lombard effect in male ultrasonic frogs: Regulating antiphonal signal frequency and amplitude in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun-Xian; Xu, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic communication in noisy environments presents a significant challenge for vocal animals because noise can interfere with animal acoustic signals by decreasing signal-to-noise ratios and masking signals. Birds and mammals increase call intensity or frequency as noise levels increase, but it is unclear to what extend this behavior is shared by frogs. Concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) have evolved the capacity to produce various calls containing ultrasonic harmonics and to communicate beside noisy streams. However, it is largely unclear how frogs regulate vocalization in response to increasing noise levels. We exposed male frogs to various levels of noise with playback of conspecific female courtship calls and recorded antiphonal signals and spontaneous short calls. Males were capable of rapidly adjusting fundamental frequency and amplitude of antiphonal signals as noise levels increased. The increment in fundamental frequency and amplitude was approximately 0.5 kHz and 3 dB with every 10 dB increase in noise level, indicating the presence of noise-dependent signal characteristics. Males showed the noise-tolerant adaption in response to female calls in noise level from 40 to 90 dB SPL. The results suggest that the noise-dependent signal characteristics in O. tormota have evolved as a strategy to cope with varying torrent noise. PMID:27345957

  2. Pesticide Distributions and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs, Rana Muscosa and Rana Sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in th...

  3. Tolerance of Frogs among High School Students: Influences of Disgust and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Medina-Jerez, William; Coleman, Joy; Fancovicová, Jana; Özel, Murat; Fedor, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians play an important role in the functioning of ecosystems and some of them inhabit human gardens where they can successfully reproduce. The decline of amphibian diversity worldwide suggests that people may play a crucial role in their survival. We conducted a cross-cultural study on high school students' tolerance of frogs in Chile,…

  4. Sexual dichromatism in frogs: natural selection, sexual selection and unexpected diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rayna C.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dichromatism, a form of sexual dimorphism in which males and females differ in colour, is widespread in animals but has been predominantly studied in birds, fishes and butterflies. Moreover, although there are several proposed evolutionary mechanisms for sexual dichromatism in vertebrates, few studies have examined this phenomenon outside the context of sexual selection. Here, we describe unexpectedly high diversity of sexual dichromatism in frogs and create a comparative framework to guide future analyses of the evolution of these sexual colour differences. We review what is known about evolution of colour dimorphism in frogs, highlight alternative mechanisms that may contribute to the evolution of sexual colour differences, and compare them to mechanisms active in other major groups of vertebrates. In frogs, sexual dichromatism can be dynamic (temporary colour change in males) or ontogenetic (permanent colour change in males or females). The degree and the duration of sexual colour differences vary greatly across lineages, and we do not detect phylogenetic signal in the distribution of this trait, therefore frogs provide an opportunity to investigate the roles of natural and sexual selection across multiple independent derivations of sexual dichromatism. PMID:22993253

  5. Two new species of fanged frogs from Peninsular Malaysia (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Belabut, Daicus M; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2014-11-03

    Taxonomic status of fanged frogs from the Peninsular Malaysia, previously assigned to Limnonectes kuhlii, is assessed using genetic and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes revealed that the fanged frogs from the Peninsula form a monophyletic group and are clearly divergent from other species previously, or even now, assigned to L. kuhlii from Mainland Southeast Asia. In both mtDNA and nuDNA phylogeny, the Malay Peninsula clade diverges into two lineages, one from north (Larut Hill, Perak, and Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu) and another from south (Genting Highlands, Pahang, and Gombak, Selangor). These lineages are separated by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between some other species of L. kuhlii-like frogs. Although the two lineages are very similar morphologically, they are distinguishable in several morphological traits and are considered heterospecific. We therefore describe them as L. utara sp. nov. and L. selatan sp. nov. These new species differ from all other species of kuhlii-like frogs from Mainland Southeast Asia by the surface of tibia, which is densely covered by large warts. 

  6. Space use of Amazonian poison frogs: Testing the reproductive resource defense hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    In most Anuran species, space use includes a lek mating system with defense of a calling site for only a short time period during an individual's lifespan. In contrast, territoriality over a longer time period by one or both of the sexes has been reported in all studied dendrobatid frogs. In most de

  7. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W R Retallick

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  8. Endemic infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus in a frog community post-decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, Richard W R; McCallum, Hamish; Speare, Rick

    2004-11-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous frog species worldwide. In Queensland, Australia, it has been proposed as the cause of the decline or apparent extinction of at least 14 high-elevation rainforest frog species. One of these, Taudactylus eungellensis, disappeared from rainforest streams in Eungella National Park in 1985-1986, but a few remnant populations were subsequently discovered. Here, we report the analysis of B. dendrobatidis infections in toe tips of T. eungellensis and sympatric species collected in a mark-recapture study between 1994 and 1998. This longitudinal study of the fungus in individually marked frogs sheds new light on the effect of this threatening infectious process in field, as distinct from laboratory, conditions. We found a seasonal peak of infection in the cooler months, with no evidence of interannual variation. The overall prevalence of infection was 18% in T. eungellensis and 28% in Litoria wilcoxii/jungguy, a sympatric frog that appeared not to decline in 1985-1986. No infection was found in any of the other sympatric species. Most importantly, we found no consistent evidence of lower survival in T. eungellensis that were infected at the time of first capture, compared with uninfected individuals. These results refute the hypothesis that remnant populations of T. eungellensis recovered after a B. dendrobatidis epidemic because the pathogen had disappeared. They show that populations of T. eungellensis now persist with stable, endemic infections of B. dendrobatidis.

  9. Investigation of longitudinal profile of rigid frogs on reinforced concrete sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Orlovs’kyi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effect of longitudinal profile of rigid frogs of type R65 mark 1/11 on reinforced concrete sleepers on the interaction in the ‘wheel-rail’ system in the zone of rolling surface irregularities is investigated.

  10. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .2. Temperature dependence of inner ear function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a casca

  11. CARCINOMA IN THE LEOPARD FROG: ITS PROBABLE CAUSATION BY A VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucké, Balduin

    1938-01-01

    An epithelial tumor with acidophilic intranuclear inclusions frequently occurs in the kidneys of leopard frogs. This tumor usually has the appearance of an infiltrating and destructive adenocarcinoma, which, when large, not uncommonly metastasizes; less often it is more orderly and adenomatous. When inoculated as living fragments or cell suspensions into the lymph sacs, the cranial cavity, or the abdomen, no significant local growth results and the implanted material is resorbed. However, in approximately 20 per cent of the frogs surviving inoculation for more than 6 months, tumors develop in the kidney, which are like the "spontaneous" neoplasms. The incidence far exceeds that in the controls. Desiccated and glycerinated tumor injected into the abdomen gives the same result as inoculation with living tumor; in somewhat over 20 per cent of animals surviving more than 6 months kidney tumors occur. In alien species of frogs, no such tumors are produced by inoculation either with living or with desiccated tumor. These experiments indicate the probability that the kidney tumor of the leopard frog is caused by an inclusion-forming, organ-specific virus. PMID:19870798

  12. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  13. Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely…

  14. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described.

  15. Scalpel or Mouse? A Statistical Comparison of Real and Virtual Frog Dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tina R.; Cross, Victor E.

    2004-01-01

    A statistical comparison of real and virtual frog dissections methods has been made. A study was designed to test whether students in high school AP biology class performed equally well using both methods or one method was better than the other.

  16. Input-output characteristics of the tectorial membrane in the frog basilar papilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2010-01-01

    The basilar papilla (BP) in the frog inner ear is a relatively simple auditory receptor. Its hair cells are embedded in a stiff support structure, with the stereovilli connecting to a flexible tectorial membrane (TM). Acoustic energy passing the papilla presumably causes displacement of the TM,

  17. Tuning of the Tectorial Membrane in the Basilar Papilla of the Northern Leopard Frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, R. L. M.; Segenhout, J. M.; van Dijk, P.

    The basilar papilla (BP) in the frog inner ear is a relatively simple auditory receptor. Its hair cells are embedded in a stiff support structure, with the stereovilli connecting to a flexible tectorial membrane (TM). Acoustic energy passing the papilla presumably causes displacement of the TM,

  18. Calcium Release in Frog Cut Twitch Fibers Exposed to Different Ionic Environments under Voltage Clamp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Chiu Shuen

    1999-01-01

    Calcium release was measured in highly stretched frog cut twitch fibers mounted in a double Vaseline-gap voltage clamp chamber, with the internal solution containing 20 mM EGTA plus 0.4 or 1.8 mM added calcium...

  19. Effects of forest fragmentation and habitat degradation on West African leaf-litter frogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Veith, M.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat degradation alters the dynamics and composition of anuran assemblages in tropical forests. The effects of forest fragmentation on the composition of anuran assemblages are so far poorly known. We studied the joint influence of forest fragmentation and degradation on leaf-litter frogs. We

  20. Historical biogeography of Western Palaearctic pelobatid and pelodytid frogs: a molecular phylogenetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veith, M.; Fromhage, L.; Kosuch, J.; Vences, M.

    2006-01-01

    Spadefoot toads (Pelobates) and Parsley frogs (Pelodytes) are an enigmatic group of Western Palaearctic anurans. In the genus Pelobates, a fossorial lifestyle has enforced a conserved bauplan that masks their intraspecific evolutionary history. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and

  1. Expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in frog embryo and developing gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Furusawa, S; Matsuda, H; Takase, M; Nakamura, M

    2001-07-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), originally identified as an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates expression of genes encoding cytochrome P-450 steroid hydroxylases, is an essential transcriptional factor for adrenal and gonadal development in mammals. Since sex steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in the sex determination of frogs, it is of interest to know how SF-1 gene expression is regulated during the sexual development of this organism. A previous study isolated the cDNA of the frog Rana rugosa SF-1 (rrSF-1) and found sexual differences in its gene expression in adult frogs; positive in testis and negative in ovary (Kawano et al., 1998). This study examined rrSF-1 gene expression in frog embryos and developing and mature gonads by immunohistochemical staining using anti-rrSF-1 protein antibody for protein localization and by in situ hybridization analysis for mRNA transcription. The results obtained in this study indicated that cells expressing SF-1 that originate in the mesoderm and endoderm probably migrate into the developing gonad via the dorsal mesentery, genital ridge, and mesorchium or mesovarium. Thus, SF-1 may play an important role in gonadal development in amphibians.

  2. APPLICATION OF FROG EMBRYO TERATOGENESIS ASSAY-XENOPUS TO ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An expert workshop recently was convened to consider the FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus) as a screening method for identifying the potential development toxicity of single chemicals and chemical mixtures. Comparison of FETAX data with acute toxicity data from tes...

  3. [Ploidy and genetic structure of hybrid populations of water frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex (Amphibia, Ranidae) of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu

    2010-01-01

    The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.

  4. Active Solute Transport across Frog Skin and Epithelial Cell Systems According to the Association-Induction Hypothesis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD A136 163 ACTIVE SOLUTE TRANSPORT ACROSS FROG SKIN AND EPITHELIAL 1/1 CELL SYSTEMS ACCO..(U) PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA DEPT OF MOLECULAR...TEST CHART fi4TIOtM4. @I*AU OF STA’dAftOS. 43- A ACTIVE SOWTE TRANSPORT ACROSS FROG SKIN AND EPITH-IAL CELL SYSTEMS AC:ORC:NG TO THE ASSOCIATION...taken full account of the difference between unifacial solid cells typified by human red blood cells, frog muscle and squid awn, and bifacial hollow

  5. Sticking like sticky tape: tree frogs use friction forces to enhance attachment on overhanging surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Samuel, Diana; Yao, Ning; Wang, Zhongyuan; Barnes, W Jon P; Federle, Walter; Kappl, Michael; Dai, Zhendong

    2013-03-06

    To live and clamber about in an arboreal habitat, tree frogs have evolved adhesive pads on their toes. In addition, they often have long and slender legs to facilitate not only long jumps, but also to bridge gaps between leaves when climbing. Both adhesive pads and long limbs are used in conjunction, as we will show in this study. Previous research has shown that tree frogs change from a crouched posture (where the limbs are close to the body) to a sprawled posture with extended limbs when clinging on to steeper inclines such as vertical or overhanging slopes. We investigated this change in posture in White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by challenging the frogs to cling onto a tiltable platform. The platform consisted of an array of 24 three-dimensional force transducers, which allowed us to measure the ground reaction forces of the frogs during a tilt. Starting from a crouched resting position, the normal forces on the forelimbs changed sign and became increasingly negative with increasing slope angle of the platform. At about 106° ± 12°, tilt of the platform the frogs reacted by extending one or two of their limbs outwards. At a steeper angle (131° ± 11°), the frogs spread out all their limbs sideways, with the hindlimbs stretched out to their maximum reach. Although the extension was strongest in the lateral direction, limbs were significantly extended in the fore-aft direction as well. With the extension of the limbs, the lateral forces increased relative to the normal forces. The large contribution of the in-plane forces helped to keep the angle between the force vector and the platform small. The Kendall theory for the peeling of adhesive tape predicts that smaller peel angles lead to higher attachment forces. We compare our data with the predictions of the Kendall model and discuss possible implications of the sliding of the pads on the surface. The forces were indeed much larger for smaller angles and thus can be explained by peeling theory.

  6. Effects on seventh-grade students' achievement and science anxiety of alternatives to conventional frog dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Christine Susan

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study in a suburban school district was to investigate and compare the level of learning and long-term retention of frog internal anatomy between seventh-grade students using an interactive CD tutorial, a desktop microworld, and conventional frog dissection. Students' anxiety toward science was also compared across the three treatment groups and between genders. Additional data on the students' preferred learning style were used to explore possible interaction effects with their respective instructional activity. Subjects participating in the study were all seventh-grade students in one junior-high school, numbering 280 in total. Classes were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction for the dissection of a frog: a CD-tutorial dissection, a desktop microworld dissection, and a conventional dissection. The Conventional treatment was the traditional physical dissection using a preserved frog specimen and lab dissection tools. The CD-Tutorial treatment was the interactive tutorial Digital Frog from Digital Frog International. The Microworld treatment was a desktop microworld environment composed of Operation Frog on CD supplemented with other programs to provide additional avenues for learning. Data collection and testing occurred prior to treatment, one day after treatment, and three months after treatment. Data collected showed mixed results for all measures taken. The differences in achievement gained favoring the conventional treatment from pretest to both posttests appear to have leveled out somewhat over time. Although anxiety levels declined for both genders after treatment, females continued to report significantly higher science anxiety than males. There appears to be a relationship between treatment and gender in terms of effect on science anxiety. For all three measures taken--pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest--no significant difference in achievement by learning style was observed. Learning style alone does not

  7. [Bio-acoustic investigations in the green frog, rana esculenta (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Manfred

    1969-07-01

    1. At a pond near Tübingen, West-Germany, the calling period of the green frog, Rana esculenta, lasts for a period ranging from the middle to the end of April, to the beginning to the end of July. The calling period is parted because of two changes in the behavior of calling and the changing number of the calling groups in: pre spawning period, spawning period and post spawning period. 2. Male frogs form calling groups. The males of each group cry in a rhythmic chorus. 3. The calling activity is influenced by 3 external factors, weather, water temperature and temperature of the air. The dependance of calling activity by these factors is not linear. During a period of good weather the calling activity increases daily. During a period of bad weather there is a daily decrease. The highest calling activity is on sunny days with a water temperature of between 17.5 and 22°C plus or minus 1 degree. From this level the activity falls with decreasing or increasing water temperature asymptotic to zero. The lower limit of calling activity ranges from 10 to 12°C, the upper one by 36.5 plus or minus 0.5°C. With the growing increase of air temperature the number of calls per time period falls asymptotic to zero. 4. The male green frog emits 6 calls; one mating call, two territorial calls, two release calls and one distress call. The calls consist of impulses, which, in the case of the mating call, are arranged to characteristic impulse-groups. The female green frog also emits calls, but no mating calls. 5. The parameters of mating and territorial calls are influenced by the water temperature. With increasing water temperature the duration of calls decreases linear, on the other hand the sequence of impulses and the repetition rate of impulse-groups show a positive linear regression. Also the size of the frog influences the calling parameters. With the increase of body length the duration of mating calls and territorial calls decreases and the sequence of impulses increases

  8. Hibernal habitat selection by Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a northern New England montane landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Poikilothermic species, such as amphibians, endure harsh winter conditions via freeze-tolerance or freeze-avoidance strategies. Freeze-tolerance requires a suite of complex, physiological mechanisms (e.g., cryoprotectant synthesis); however, behavioral strategies (e.g., hibernal habitat selection) may be used to regulate hibernaculum temperatures and promote overwintering survival. We investigated the hibernal ecology of the freeze-tolerant Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in north-central Maine. Our objectives were to characterize the species hibernaculum microclimate (temperature, relative humidity), evaluate hibernal habitat selection, and describe the spatial arrangement of breeding, post-breeding, and hibernal habitats. We monitored 15 frogs during two winters (2011/12: N = 10; 2012/13: N = 5), measured hibernal habitat features at micro (2 m) and macro (10 m) spatial scales, and recorded microclimate hourly in three strata (hibernaculum, leaf litter, ambient air). We compared these data to that of 57 random locations with logistic regression models, Akaike Information Criterion, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Hibernaculum microclimate was significantly different and less variable than leaf litter, ambient air, and random location microclimate. Model averaging indicated that canopy cover (−), leaf litter depth (+), and number of logs and stumps (+; microhabitat only) were important predictors of Wood Frog hibernal habitat. These habitat features likely act to insulate hibernating frogs from extreme and variable air temperatures. For example, decreased canopy cover facilitates increased snowpack depth and earlier snowpack accumulation and melt. Altered winter temperature and precipitation patterns attributable to climate change may reduce snowpack insulation, facilitate greater temperature variation in the underlying hibernacula, and potentially compromise Wood Frog winter survival.

  9. The hormonal regulation of color changes in the sexually dichromatic frog Buergeria robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zih-Jing; Lue, Sheng-I; Tsai, May-Jywan; Yu, Teng-Lang; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lee, Chia-Hun; Huang, Wei-Tung; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    During the breeding season, dynamic changes in body coloration are regularly observed in the male brown tree frog Buergeria robusta. This study investigated the hypothesis that this sexual dichromatism in male B. robusta is mediated through hormonal regulation. Frogs were exogenously injected with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2). This manipulation revealed that the body coloration (hue, brightness, and saturation) of the male frog increased significantly (i.e., the brilliant yellow color developed) in response to T but not in response to E2. Concurrently, the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the pituitary gland were reduced in frogs whose coloration was pale brown on a yellow background. In particular, the weakest expressions of BDNF, PACAP, and PACAP type II receptors (VPAC-1R) were found in male frogs with a brilliant yellow body color during the breeding season regardless of background color. These changes may decrease α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production associated with the PACAP receptors (VPAC-1R), resulting in the aggregation of black pigment in melanophores and the production of a brilliant yellow body color. The effects of hormones on skin coloration were further examined in isolated skin in vitro. The results of this investigation showed that the dispersion of xanthophores was stimulated by T or prolactin (PRL) and that the melanophores were aggregated by melatonin (MEL) but not by E2. Furthermore, yellow pigments in the xanthophores were significantly dispersed following the PRL+T treatment. In the T+MEL, PRL+MEL, and T+PRL+MEL treatments, xanthophores were dispersed, and melanophores were aggregated and subsequently moved to the low spongiosum layer of the dorsal skin, causing the increase in yellow coloration. These results reveal that multiple hormones play major roles in the regulation of the brilliant yellow coloration of male B. robusta by

  10. Application and assessment of ultrasonic inspection methods for flaw detection and characterization of manganese steel frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinson, A.; Diaz, A.; Prowant, M.

    2011-04-01

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) has a long and successful history of application across a wide array of industries, including nuclear, aerospace, and transportation sectors. In coarse-grained, cast Manganese (Mn) steel frog components, NDE/inspection challenges are encountered both in-field (after the frogs have been installed on a rail line) and at the manufacturing facilities during post-fabrication QA/QC activities. Periodically inherently flawed frogs are received from a manufacturer, and put into service, as most railroad operators do not have a means to conduct pre-service examinations on received components. Accordingly, there is a need for a pre-service inspection system that can provide a rapid, cost-effective and non-intrusive inspection capability for detection of defects, flaws, and other anomalies in frog components, in order to avoid premature initiation of cracks or failures of these components during service. This study focused on evaluating use of a volumetric phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) method to monitor fabrication quality assurance. In this preliminary assessment of using PA-UT, data were acquired at a frequency of 2.0 MHz on a known, flawed Mn steel frog component directly from a manufacturing facility. The component contained flaws commonly found as a result of the manufacturing process of these cast rail components. The data were analyzed and the anomalies were detected, localized and characterized. Results were compared against baseline radiographic data. A detection metric was reported in the form of signal-to-noise values.

  11. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.

    2015-01-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species’ range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  12. Potassium currents in auditory hair cells of the frog basilar papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, M S; Narins, P M

    1999-06-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to identify and characterize ionic currents in isolated hair cells of the leopard frog basilar papilla (BP). This end organ is responsible for encoding the upper limits of a frog's spectral sensitivity (1.25-2.0 kHz in the leopard frog). Isolated BP hair cells are the smallest hair cells in the frog auditory system, with spherical cell bodies typically less than 20 microm in diameter and exhibiting whole-cell capacitances of 4-7 pF. Hair cell zero-current resting potentials (Vz) varied around a mean of -65 mV. All hair cells possessed a non-inactivating, voltage-dependent calcium current (I(Ca)) that activates above a threshold of -55 mV. Similarly all hair cells possessed a rapidly activating, outward, calcium-dependent potassium current (I(K)(Ca)). Most hair cells also possessed a slowly activating, outward, voltage-dependent potassium current (I(K)), which is approximately 80% inactive at the hair cell Vz, and a fast-activating, inward-rectifying potassium current (I(K1)) which actively contributes to setting Vz. In a small subset of cells I(K) was replaced by a fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent potassium current (I(A)), which strongly resembled the A-current observed in hair cells of the frog sacculus and amphibian papilla. Most cells have very similar ionic currents, suggesting that the BP consists largely of one homogeneous population of hair cells. The kinetic properties of the ionic currents present (in particular the very slow I(K)) argue against electrical tuning, a specialized spectral filtering mechanism reported in the hair cells of birds, reptiles, and amphibians, as a contributor to frequency selectivity of this organ. Instead BP hair cells reflect a generalized strategy for the encoding of high-frequency auditory information in a primitive, mechanically tuned, terrestrial vertebrate auditory organ.

  13. Caffeine potentiation of calcium release in frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, M; Ribalet, B; Vergara, J

    1986-06-01

    The effects of caffeine at concentrations up to 3 mM were studied on Ca signals obtained using the metallochromic Ca indicator dyes Arsenazo III and Antipyrylazo III in cut frog skeletal muscle fibres mounted in a triple Vaseline-gap chamber and stimulated by voltage clamp or action potential. The peak amplitude of the transient absorbance change due to Ca2+ release following action potential stimulation is potentiated by an amount dependent on caffeine concentration up to 0.5 mM, and by a concentration-independent amount between 0.5 and 2 mM. At 3 mM-caffeine, the potentiation is reduced, and the Ca signal can have a smaller amplitude than under the control condition. The time course of the rising phase of the Ca signal is preserved by the potentiating effect of caffeine; however, the decay rate of the Ca signal is increasingly slowed at caffeine concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. No substantial change was found in the resting myoplasmic Ca2+ level at caffeine concentrations near 0.5 mM. Even if the free Ca2+ concentration in the presence of this level of caffeine were to increase by 0.04 microM (the threshold of detectability), the calculated potentiation of the Ca signal due to increased partial saturation of intracellular Ca2+ buffers would amount to only about 7%. This value is significantly less than the amount of potentiation observed (up to 40%) following action potentials at caffeine levels of 0.5 mM and above. Experiments made with the impermeant potentiometric dye NK2367 show no alteration by caffeine of the electrical properties of the tubular system. Caffeine at up to moderate concentrations causes a substantial increase in the maximal Ca2+ release obtained following large depolarizations. The voltage dependence of the Ca2+ release is characterized by a caffeine concentration-dependent shift towards more negative membrane potentials. The potentiation of Ca2+ release by caffeine was found to be independent of the external free Ca2+ level. The

  14. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  15. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its core range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We surveyed 93 sites in a rotating frame design (2010–13) in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species’ core extant range. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site (local extinction) and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy. This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species.

  16. Altitudinal variation in body size and age structure of the Sauter’s frog Rana sauteri in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Fu-Hsiung; Hsieh, Yi-Shan; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2014-01-01

    .... Altitudinal variations in body size, age, and growth rate of the Sauter’s frog Rana sauteri were investigated with skeletochronology at six sites along the altitudinal gradients from 330 to 2,320...

  17. Yolk proteins from nematodes, chickens, and frogs bind strongly and preferentially to left-handed Z-DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Krishna; B P Kennedy; J H van de Sande; J D McGhee

    1988-01-01

    Yolk proteins purified from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, from the frog Xenopus laevis, and from chicken eggs all have the unexpected property of binding strongly and preferentially to a left...

  18. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide as an in vivo regulator of cardiac function in Rana ridibunda frog

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iliyana V. Ivanova; Rudolf Schubert; Dessislava B. Duridanova; Thomas B. Bolton; Lubomir T. Lubomirov; Hristo S. Gagov

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CART peptide on cardiac performance and on the physiological signalling pathways involved using Rana ridibunda frog heart preparations in vivo...

  19. [Involution of gonadotrophic cells of the pituitary gland in the male frog, Rana esculenta, after section of the pituitary stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legait, H; Helas, G

    1976-01-01

    One and two months after section of the hypophyseal stalk in the male frog. Rana esculenta, and involution of numerous gonadotrophic cells, contrasting with the normal aspect of the eosinophilic cells can be observed.

  20. The Actions of Eserine-Like Compounds upon Frog's Nerve-Muscle Preparations, and the Blocking of Neuromuscular Conduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. L. Cowan

    1940-01-01

    The actions of prostigmine, eserine, and the dimethylcarbamic ester of 8-hydroxymethylquinolinium methylsulphate upon the frog's isolated nervesartorius preparation have been examined by a method developed by Lucas (1911...

  1. Managing habitat to slow or reverse population declines of the Columbia spotted frog in the Northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Richard D. Scherer,

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of habitat management actions is critical to adaptive management strategies for conservation of imperiled species. We quantified the response of a Great Basin population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) to multiple habitat improvement actions aimed to reduce threats and reverse population declines. We used mark-recapture data for 1,394 adult frogs that had been marked by state, federal, and university biologists in 9 ponds representing a single population over a 16-year period from 1997 to 2012. With the use of demographic models, we assessed population-level effects of 1) a grazing exclosure constructed around 6 stock ponds that had been used to water livestock for decades before being fully fenced in 2003, and 2) the construction of 3 new stock ponds in 2003 to provide alternative water sources for livestock and, secondarily, to provide additional frog habitat. These management actions were implemented in response to a decline of more than 80% in population size from 1997 to 2002. We found evidence that excluding cattle from ponds and surrounding riparian habitats resulted in higher levels of frog production (more egg masses), higher adult frog recruitment and survival, and higher population growth rate. We also found that frogs colonized the newly constructed stock ponds within 3 years and frogs began breeding in 2 of them after 5 years. The positive effects of the cattle exclosure and additional production from the new ponds, although notable, did not result in full recovery of the population even 9 years later. This slow recovery may be partly explained by the effects of weather on recruitment rates, particularly the negative effects of harsher winters with late springs and higher fall temperatures. Although our findings point to potential successes of habitat management aimed at slowing or reversing rapidly declining frog populations, our study also suggests that recovering from severe population declines can take

  2. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Jie; Liang, Dan; Hillis, David M.; Cannatella, David C.; Zhang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Frogs (Anura) are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates and comprise nearly 90% of living amphibian species. Their worldwide distribution and diverse biology make them well-suited for assessing fundamental questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation. However, despite their scientific importance, the evolutionary history and tempo of frog diversification remain poorly understood. By using a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, including 88-kb characters from 95 nuclear genes of 156 frog species, in conjunction with 20 fossil-based calibrations, our analyses result in the most strongly supported phylogeny of all major frog lineages and provide a timescale of frog evolution that suggests much younger divergence times than suggested by earlier studies. Unexpectedly, our divergence-time analyses show that three species-rich clades (Hyloidea, Microhylidae, and Natatanura), which together comprise ∼88% of extant anuran species, simultaneously underwent rapid diversification at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary (KPB). Moreover, anuran families and subfamilies containing arboreal species originated near or after the KPB. These results suggest that the K–Pg mass extinction may have triggered explosive radiations of frogs by creating new ecological opportunities. This phylogeny also reveals relationships such as Microhylidae being sister to all other ranoid frogs and African continental lineages of Natatanura forming a clade that is sister to a clade of Eurasian, Indian, Melanesian, and Malagasy lineages. Biogeographical analyses suggest that the ancestral area of modern frogs was Africa, and their current distribution is largely associated with the breakup of Pangaea and subsequent Gondwanan fragmentation. PMID:28673970

  3. Larval exposure to predator cues alters immune function and response to a fungal pathogen in post-metamorphic wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Buck, Julia C; Gervasi, Stephanie; Blaustein, Andrew R; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Bier, Mark E; Hempel, John; Relyea, Rick A

    2013-09-01

    For the past several decades, amphibian populations have been decreasing around the globe at an unprecedented rate. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungal pathogen that causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, is contributing to amphibian declines. Natural and anthropogenic environmental factors are hypothesized to contribute to these declines by reducing the immunocompetence of amphibian hosts, making them more susceptible to infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced in the granular glands of a frog's skin are thought to be a key defense against Bd infection. These peptides may be a critical immune defense during metamorphosis because many acquired immune functions are suppressed during this time. To test if stressors alter AMP production and survival of frogs exposed to Bd, we exposed wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles to the presence or absence of dragonfly predator cues crossed with a single exposure to three nominal concentrations of the insecticide malathion (0, 10, or 100 parts per billion [ppb]). We then exposed a subset of post-metamorphic frogs to the presence or absence of Bd zoospores and measured frog survival. Although predator cues and malathion had no effect on survival or size at metamorphosis, predator cues increased the time to metamorphosis by 1.5 days and caused a trend of a 20% decrease in hydrophobic skin peptides. Despite this decrease in peptides determined shortly after metamorphosis, previous exposure to predator cues increased survival in both Bd-exposed and unexposed frogs several weeks after metamorphosis. These results suggest that exposing tadpoles to predator cues confers fitness benefits later in life.

  4. Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bigler, Laurent; Marschang, Rachel

    2012-10-23

    While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae) collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

  5. Tool path planning of hole-making operations in ejector plate of injection mould using modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Dalavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of hole-making operations in manufacturing industry plays a vital role. Tool travel and tool switch planning are the two major issues in hole-making operations. Many industrial applications such as moulds, dies, engine block, automotive parts etc. requires machining of large number of holes. Large number of machining operations like drilling, enlargement or tapping/reaming are required to achieve the final size of individual hole, which gives rise to number of possible sequences to complete hole-making operations on the part depending upon the location of hole and tool sequence to be followed. It is necessary to find the optimal sequence of operations which minimizes the total processing cost of hole-making operations. In this work, therefore an attempt is made to reduce the total processing cost of hole-making operations by applying relatively new optimization algorithms known as shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm for the determination of optimal sequence of hole-making operations. An industrial application example of ejector plate of injection mould is considered in this work to demonstrate the proposed approach. The obtained results by the shuffled frog leaping algorithm and proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are compared with each other. It is seen from the obtained results that the results of proposed modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm are superior to those obtained using shuffled frog leaping algorithm.

  6. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  7. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  8. Alterations of biochemical parameters in malformed Indian rice frogs, Rana limnocharis from Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Wu, Jui-Pin; Huang, Da-Ji

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that cause malformed frogs in upstream Kaoping river (KP site) and Tungkang river (T site) of Southern Taiwan. In this experiment, the activities of monooxygenase (MO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) as well as the concentration of vitellogenin (Vg) in the liver were measured. Results show that activities of MO, GST and AchE, and Vg levels in normal frogs (male/female) were 0.09 +/- 0.02/0.09+/-0.01 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.12 +/- 0.04/0.13 +/- 0.04 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 6.13 +/- 2.69/6.01 +/- 2.09 U mg(-1) protein and 0.87 +/- 0.42/2.18 +/- 0.50 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively. Activities of MO, GST and AchE, and Vg levels in malformed frogs (male/female) were 0.15 +/- 0.04/0.21 +/- 0.07 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.27 +/- 0.08/0.30 +/- 0.12 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 4.59 +/- 2.71/5.19 +/- 3.74 U mg(-1) protein and 1.46 +/- 0.61/3.15 +/- 0.88 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively in KP site, and were 0.16 +/- 0.69/0.1 +/- 80.07 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 0.21 +/- 0.07/0.24 +/- 0.08 deltaA min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 5.13 +/- 4.58/3.94 +/- 1.33 U mg(-1) protein and 2.23 +/- 1.47/4.11 +/- 1.63 microg mg(-1) protein, respectively in T site. These results indicate that male and female malformed frogs in both rivers upstream are found with higher activities. No significant difference in AchE activity was found between normal and malformed frogs in this investigation. It is therefore reasonable to speculate that the organic chemicals released from agricultural activities are presumable the main factors that lead to the malformation of frogs.

  9. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  10. EFFECTS OF 2-PAM AND EA 1814 ON NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION. I. EFFECTS OF 2-PAM AND EA 1814 ON THE FROG RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PREPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contracture of the isolated frog Rectus abdominis muscle was used to study pharmacological properties of 2-PAM (2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide) and...example, concentrations of 2-PAM in excess of 4 x 10 to the -5th power M potentiate contractures of the frog rectus muscle elicited by acetylcholine...2-PAM inhibits the response to the depolarizing agents, decamethonium and carbamylcholine, which are not susceptible to hydrolysis by the ChE of frog

  11. Characteristics of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) oviposition sites in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several western ranid frogs possess a unique strategy of breeding communally over a short temporal window and reusing oviposition sites between years. However, little is published on the characteristics of oviposition sites selected by these explosive breeders. The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is native to northwestern North America and is of conservation concern in the southern portions of its range. As part of a study examining relationships between livestock grazing and R. luteiventris habitat, we assessed characteristics of the species' oviposition sites in 25 fishless ponds in northeastern Oregon. Oviposition sites were generally in shallow water (<25 cm) close to shore and tended to be in the northeastern portion of ponds. Oviposition sites were found more frequently over heavily vegetated substrates and in areas of less substrate slope and shade than random points in littoral zones. We did not quantify temperature differences within ponds, but the patterns we documented are consistent with preferential use of warmer microhabitats for oviposition.

  12. Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2015-02-10

    The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus.

  13. Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; Yeager, Justin; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations.

  14. Bioaccumulation of selenium by snakes and frogs in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Hothem, R.L.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Livers of gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from Kesterson Reservoir (Merced County, California) contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (11.1 .mu.g/g, dry weight) than those from two nearby reference sites (2.05 and 2.14 .mu.g/g). Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) collected from the San Luis Drain at Kersterson Reservoir also contained significantly higher mean selenium concentrations (45.0 .mu.g/g) than those from nearby reference sites (6.22 .mu.g/g). The high levels of selenium bioaccumulation in these snakes and frogs at Kersterson Reservoir reflected the elevated levels found in their food organisms. We did not examine that snakes or frogs from Kesterson for signs of ill health, but the concentrations we found were sufficiently high to warrant concern about potential adverse effects in these animals and their predators.

  15. Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on cellular cation composition in frog kidney proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, S; Cemerikic, D

    2000-06-01

    Effects of cumene hydroperoxide were studied on the peritubular membrane potential and cellular cation composition in frog kidney proximal tubular cells. After perfusion of isolated frog kidneys for 30 min with 1.3x10(-4) mol l(-1) cumene hydroperoxide Ringer solution, the peritubular membrane potential gradually declined. The ouabain-like effects were demonstrated on cell Na and K activities after 1 h of perfusion with cumene hydroperoxide. The peritubular apparent transference number for potassium was decreased. Intracellular pH was not altered in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. Intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration increased slowly and moderately. The concentration of the malondialdehyde in the kidney homogenates, measured as an index of lipid peroxidation, was increased. A previously observable effect of cumene hydroperoxide on the peritubular membrane potential was prevented by oxygen radical scavengers.

  16. Depth perception in frogs and toads a study in neural computing

    CERN Document Server

    House, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. ...

  17. DDT exposure of frogs: A case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2016-09-01

    Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between DDT in the eggs of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. This suggests that the DDT we found in frogs may have contributed to DDT loadings higher in the food web. These findings, combined with other studies from this area, support the need to reduce and eventually move away from DDT in malaria control safely and sustainably.

  18. Assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna: new evidence from lizards and frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Macey, J; Schulte, James A; Strasburg, Jared L; Brisson, Jennifer A; Larson, Allan; Ananjeva, Natalia B; Wang, Yuezhao; Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Darwin first recognized the importance of episodic intercontinental dispersal in the establishment of worldwide biotic diversity. Faunal exchange across the Bering Land Bridge is a major example of such dispersal. Here, we demonstrate with mitochondrial DNA evidence that three independent dispersal events from Asia to North America are the source for almost all lizard taxa found in continental eastern North America. Two other dispersal events across Beringia account for observed diversity among North American ranid frogs, one of the most species-rich groups of frogs in eastern North America. The contribution of faunal elements from Asia via dispersal across Beringia is a dominant theme in the historical assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna. PMID:17148411

  19. Wet adhesion with application to tree frog adhesive toe pads and tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-09-19

    Strong adhesion between solids with rough surfaces is only possible if at least one of the solids is elastically very soft. Some lizards and spiders are able to adhere (dry adhesion) and move on very rough vertical surfaces due to very compliant surface layers on their attachment pads. Flies, bugs, grasshoppers and tree frogs have less compliant pad surface layers, and in these cases adhesion to rough surfaces is only possible because the animals inject a wetting liquid into the pad-substrate contact area, which generates a relative long-range attractive interaction due to the formation of capillary bridges. In this presentation I will discuss some aspects of wet adhesion for tree frogs and give some comments related to tire applications.

  20. Myofibrils Bear Most of the Resting Tension in Frog Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Alan; Law, Douglas J.

    1985-12-01

    The tension that develops when relaxed muscles are stretched is the resting (or passive) tension. It has recently been shown that the resting tension of intact skeletal muscle fibers is equivalent to that of mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Laser diffraction measurements of sarcomere length have now been used to show that the exponential relation between resting tension and sarcomere length for whole frog semitendinosus muscle is similar to that of single fibers. Slack sarcomere lengths and the rates of stress relaxation in these muscles were similar to those in skinned fibers, and sarcomere length remained unchanged during stress relaxation, as in skinned fibers. Thus, in intact semitendinosus muscle of the frog up to a sarcomere length of about 3.8 micrometers, resting tension arises, not in the connective tissue as is commonly thought, but in the elastic resistance of the myofibrils.

  1. [An analysis of the functional heterogeneity of the sensory motor neuron synapse of the frog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditiatev, A E

    1989-01-01

    Four models of the amplitude fluctuations of postsynaptic potentials have been compared. Better agreement of convolution of the two binomial distributions and beta-model as compared to the binomial model is demonstrated. The beta-model is based on the assumption that the probability of the transmitter quantum release is a random variable which has beta distribution. The number of the quantum generators estimated by the beta-model is close to the number of synaptic boutons in the sensory-motor synapses of the frog. Investigation of this model has shown that the number of generators estimated by the binomial model may be interpreted as the number of transmitter release sites functioning with probabilities exceeding 0.2. Results obtained confirm the hypothesis concerning the functional heterogeneity of release sites at the frog interneuronal synapses.

  2. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    as well as on how habitat quality is affected by patch structure. Although fragmentation is generally thought to have negative effects on connectivity, the results suggest that, depending on patch structure and habitat quality, positive effects on connectivity may occur. The second manuscript uses a light...... for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... must be expected to have implication on both local and regional persistence; the former due to habitat destruction, the latter because of disrupted dispersal between subpopulations due to barrier effects. The result of the project was the development of the model presented in this thesis. The model...

  3. A genetic component of resistance to fungal infection in frog embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvik, Jörgen; Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-22

    The embryo has traditionally been considered to completely rely upon parental strategies to prevent threats to survival posed by predators and pathogens, such as fungi. However, recent evidence suggests that embryos may have hitherto neglected abilities to counter pathogens. Using artificial fertilization, we show that among-family variation in the number of Saprolegnia-infected eggs and embryos in the moor frog, Rana arvalis, cannot be explained by maternal effects. However, analysed as a within-females effect, sire identity had an effect on the degree of infection. Furthermore, relatively more eggs and embryos were infected when eggs were fertilized by sperm from the same, compared with a different, population. These effects were independent of variation in fertilization success. Thus, there is likely to be a significant genetic component in embryonic resistance to fungal infection in frog embryos. Early developmental stages may show more diverse defences against pathogens than has previously been acknowledged.

  4. [Volutionary reorganizations of ontogenesis in related frog species of the family Myobatrachidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnitskiĭ, A G

    2010-01-01

    Literary data on the comparative embryology of Australian endemic frogs of the family Myobatrachidae have been considered. Six main types of development have been recognized, the important criteria for which are egg size, the site of embryo and tadpole development (in water or on land), the character of larval nutrition (exotrophic or endotrophic), the occurrence of direct development, brooding, etc. An attention has been also paid to the character of the early cleavage process in the embryos of various species. The peculiarities of ontogeny in Myobatrachidae are compared with those in representatives of other families in the order Anura. The perspectives of some further embryological studies of this Australian frog family have been outlined.

  5. Snake venom-like waprin from the frog of Ceratophrys calcarata contains antimicrobial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daixi; Wang, Yuwei; Wei, Lin; Ye, Huahu; Liu, Huan; Wang, Ling; Liu, Rui; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren

    2013-02-10

    A 255-bp cDNA encoding an 84-amino acid residue (aa) precursor protein containing 8 half-cysteines was cloned from the skin of the frog, Ceratophrys calcarata. By sequence comparison and signal peptide prediction, the precursor was predicted to release a 63-aa mature peptide with amino acid sequence, NVTPATKPTPSKPGYCRVMDELILCPDPPLSKDLCKNDSDCPGAQKCCYRTCIMQCLPPIFRE. The mature was named ceratoxin. Ceratoxin shares significant sequence similarity with the toxin family of waprins containing the whey acidic protein-type (WAP) four-disulfide core domain found in snake venoms. Antimicrobial and trypsin-inhibitory abilities of recombinant ceratoxin were tested. Recombinant ceratoxin showed strong antimicrobial activities against wide spectrum of microorganisms including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. It had no serine protease-inhibitory activity. The current results suggested that the snake venom-like waprin with antimicrobial activities in the frog skin plays a role in innate immunity.

  6. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  7. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  8. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  9. Disentangling genetic vs. environmental causes of sex determination in the common frog, Rana temporaria

    OpenAIRE

    Merilä Juha; Miura Ikuo; Matsuba Chikako

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding of sex ratio dynamics in a given species requires understanding its sex determination system, as well as access for reliable tools for sex identification at different life stages. As in the case of many other amphibians, the common frogs (Rana temporaria) do not have well differentiated sex chromosomes, and an identification of individuals' genetic sex may be complicated by sex reversals. Here, we report results of studies shedding light on the sex determinat...

  10. A Leap-Frog Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations in Metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J., Waters, J. W., Machorro, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Numerical simulation of metamaterials play a very important role in the design of invisibility cloak, and sub-wavelength imaging. In this paper, we propose a leap-frog discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the time-dependent Maxwell’s equations in metamaterials. Conditional stability and error estimates are proved for the scheme. The proposed algorithm is implemented and numerical results supporting the analysis are provided.

  11. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Dall'Acqua Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57% and 18/107 (17% animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1% and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27. The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations.

  12. Carryover aquatic effects on survival of metamorphic frogs during pond emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    In organisms with complex life cycles, physiological stressors during early life stages may have fitness-level impacts that are delayed into later stages or habitats. We tested the hypothesis that body size and date of metamorphosis, which are highly responsive to aquatic stressors, influence post-metamorphic survival and movement patterns in the terrestrial phase of an ephemeral pond-breeding frog by examining these traits in two populations of northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora aurora). To increase variation of body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability for 314 of 1045 uniquely marked tadpoles and estimated the probability that frogs survived and emigrated using concentric rings of drift fencing surrounding ponds and Bayesian capture-recapture modeling. The odds of surviving and emigrating from the ponds to the innermost drift fences, ???12 m, increased by factors of 2.20 (95% credibility intervals 1.39-4.23) and 2.54 (0.94-4.91) with each millimeter increase in snout-vent length and decreased by factors of 0.91 (0.85-0.96) and 0.89 (0.80-1.00) with each day's delay in metamorphosis for the two ponds. The odds of surviving and moving to the next ring of fencing, 12 m to ???40 m from the ponds, increased by a factor of 1.20 (0.45-4.06) with each millimeter increase in size. Our results demonstrated that body size and timing of metamorphosis relate strongly to the performance of newly metamorphosed frogs during their initial transition into terrestrial habitat. Carryover effects of aquatic stressors that reduce size and delay metamorphosis may have population-level impacts that are not expressed until terrestrial stages. Since changes in both aquatic and terrestrial systems are implicated in many amphibian declines, quantifying both immediate and delayed effects of stressors on demographic rates is critical to sound management. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Populations, pools, and peccaries: simulating the impact of ecosystem engineers on rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Ringler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    “Ecosystem engineering” describes habitat alteration by an organism that affects another organism; such nontrophic interactions between organisms are a current focus in ecological research. Our study quantifies the actual impact an ecosystem engineer can have on another species by using a previously identified model system—peccaries and rainforest frogs. In a 4-year experiment, we simulated the impact of peccaries on a population of Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae) by installing an array o...

  14. The use of singleplex and nested PCR to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-living frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Selene Dall'Acqua; Burke, Julieta Catarina; de Paula, Catia Dejuste; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to cause diseases in amphibians, and in the past few years one of the most reported has been Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. This fungus was first reported in Brazil in 2005; following this, other reports were made in specimens deposited in museum collections, captive and free-living frogs. The aim of this study was to compare singleplex and nested-PCR techniques to detect B. dendrobatidis in free-living and apparently healthy adult frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sample collection area was a protected government park, with no general entrance permitted and no management of the animals there. Swabs were taken from the skin of 107 animals without macroscopic lesions and they were maintained in ethanol p.a. Fungal DNA was extracted and identification of B. dendrobatidis was performed using singleplex and nested-PCR techniques, employing specific primers sequences. B. dendrobatidis was detected in 61/107 (57%) and 18/107 (17%) animals, respectively by nested and singleplex-PCR. Nested-PCR was statistically more sensible than the conventional for the detection of B. dendrobatidis (Chi-square = 37.1; α = 1%) and the agreement between both techniques was considered just fair (Kappa = 0.27). The high prevalence obtained confirms that these fungi occur in free-living frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest with no macroscopic lesions, characterizing the state of asymptomatic carrier. We concluded that the nested-PCR technique, due to its ease of execution and reproducibility, can be recommended as one of the alternatives in epidemiological surveys to detect B. dendrobatidis in healthy free-living frog populations. PMID:26273273

  15. The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Antwain M; Papich, Mark G; Felt, Stephen A; Long, Charles T; McKeon, Gabriel P; Bond, Emmitt S; Torreilles, Stéphanie L; Luong, Richard H; Green, Sherril L

    2010-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in adult female Xenopus laevis after single-dose administration (10 mg/kg) by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. Frogs were evaluated at various time points until 8 h after injection. Plasma was analyzed for antibiotic concentration levels by HPLC. We computed pharmacokinetic parameters by using noncompartmental analysis of the pooled concentrations (naive pooled samples). After intramuscular administration of enrofloxacin, the half-life was 5.32 h, concentration maximum was 10.85 μg/mL, distribution volume was 841.96 mL/kg, and area under the time-concentration curve was 57.59 μg×h/mL; after subcutaneous administration these parameters were 4.08 h, 9.76 μg/mL, 915.85 mL/kg, and 47.42 μg×h/mL, respectively. According to plasma pharmacokinetics, Xenopus seem to metabolize enrofloxacin in a manner similar to mammals: low levels of the enrofloxacin metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were detected in the frogs' habitat water and plasma. At necropsy, there were no gross or histologic signs of toxicity after single-dose administration; toxicity was not evaluated for repeated dosing. The plasma concentrations reached levels considered effective against common aquatic pathogens and suggest that a single, once-daily dose would be a reasonable regimen to consider when treating sick frogs. The treatment of sick frogs should be based on specific microbiologic identification of the pathogen and on antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  16. Niche breadth and geographical range: ecological compensation for geographical rarity in rainforest frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Yvette M; Williams, Stephen E.; Ross A Alford; Waycott, Michelle; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between diet specialization and geographical range in Cophixalus, a genus of microhylid frogs from the Wet Tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. The geographical ranges of these species vary from a few square kilometres in species restricted to a single mountain top to the entire region for the widespread species. Although macroecological theory predicts that species with broad niches should have the largest geographical ranges, we found the opposite: geo...

  17. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  18. Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium. E-C coupling implications

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Birefringence signals from mammalian and frog hearts were studied. The period between excitation and the onset of contraction in which optical signals were free of movement artifact was determined by changes in scattered incandescent light and changes in laser diffraction patterns. The birefringence signal preceding contraction was found to behave as a change in retardation and was not contaminated measurably by linear dichroic or isotropic absorption changes. There were two components of the...

  19. Efficient enantio- and diastereodivergent synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 251O and trans-223B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Naoki; Zhou, Dejun; Nemoto, Hideo; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Garraffo, H Martin; Spande, Thomas F; Daly, John W

    2009-09-04

    An efficient and flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids 251O and trans-223B has been achieved by using for both alkaloids an enantiodivergent process starting from the common lactam 1. The relative stereochemistry of 251O and trans-223B was determined to be 7 (R = n-C(7)H(15), R' = n-Pr) and 14 by the present enantioselective synthesis.

  20. Preliminary report on self-healing minefield (frogs) concepts and utility in battle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to determine battlefield effectiveness of the self-healing minefield (''Frogs'') concept system compared to basecases of the standard AP/AT (anti-personnel/anti-tank) mixed minefield, the AT (anti-tank) pure minefield, and no minefields. This involves tactical modeling where a basecase with and without mines is compared to the concept system. However, it is first necessary to establish system characteristics and behavior of the Frog mine and minefield in order to do the tactical modeling. This initial report provides emerging insights into various minefield parameters in order to allow better program definition early in the conceptual development. In the following sections of this report, we investigate the self-healing minefield's ground pattern and several concepts for movement (''jump'') of a mine. Basic enemy breaching techniques are compared for the different mine movement concepts. These results are then used in the (Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation) JCATS tactical model to evaluate minefield effects in a combat situation. The three basecases and the Frogs concept are used against a North Korean mechanized rifle battalion and outcomes are compared. Preliminary results indicate: (1) Possible breaching techniques for the self-healing minefield were proposed and compared through simulation modeling. Of these, the best breaching counter to the self-healing minefield is the ''wide-lane'' breach technique. (2) Several methods for mine movement are tested and the optimal method from this group was selected for use in the modeling. However, continued work is needed on jump criteria; a more sophisticated model may reduce the advantage of the breach counter. (3) The battle scenario used in this study is a very difficult defense for Blue. In the three baseline cases (no mines, AT mines only, and mixed AT/AP minefield), Blue loses. Only in the Frog case does Blue win, and

  1. A genetic component of resistance to fungal infection in frog embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Sagvik, Jörgen; Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    The embryo has traditionally been considered to completely rely upon parental strategies to prevent threats to survival posed by predators and pathogens, such as fungi. However, recent evidence suggests that embryos may have hitherto neglected abilities to counter pathogens. Using artificial fertilization, we show that among-family variation in the number of Saprolegnia-infected eggs and embryos in the moor frog, Rana arvalis, cannot be explained by maternal effects. However, analysed as a wi...

  2. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  3. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  4. Effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis cues on wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpole activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine F. Buttermore

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the changes in activity of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles exposed to combinations of visual, chemical, and mechanical cues of the invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis. We also examined whether the responses of the tadpoles to the predator cues were influenced by the short-term accumulation of chemical cues in the experimental container. In our experiment, the activity of wood frog (L. sylvaticus tadpoles was not affected by the presence of various cues from mosquitofish. Our experiment demonstrated that the repeated use of trial water can influence the activity level of tadpoles, regardless of the predator cue treatment used. Tadpoles in the first trial tended to be less active than tadpoles in subsequent trials. This effect does not appear to be mediated by the accumulation of predator cues since there was no significant interaction term. Our results suggest that short-term accumulation of predator chemical cues do not affect the behavior of wood frog tadpoles: however, our results suggest that the repeated use of the same water in consecutive trials may affect tadpole behavior, perhaps through the accumulation of conspecific chemical cues.

  5. Widespread occurrence of the chytrid fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on oregon spotted frogs (rana pretiosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been associated with amphibian declines in multiple continents, including western North America. We investigated Bd prevalence in Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa), a species that has declined across its range in the Pacific Northwest. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin swabs indicated that Bd was prevalent within populations (420 of 617 juvenile and adults) and widespread among populations (36 of 36 sites) where we sampled R. pretiosa in Oregon and Washington. We rarely detected Bd in R. pretiosa larvae (2 of 72). Prevalence of Bd in postmetamorphic R. pretiosa was inversely related to frog size. We found support for an interactive effect of elevation and sampling date on Bd: prevalence of Bd generally increased with date, but this effect was more pronounced at lower elevations. We also found evidence that the body condition of juvenile R. pretiosa with Bd decreased after their first winter. Our data indicate that some Oregon spotted frog populations are currently persisting with relatively high Bd prevalence, but the risk posed by Bd is unknown. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  6. Population structure of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) is strongly affected by the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W.C.; Blouin, M.S.; Corn, P.S.; Maxell, B.A.; Pilliod, D.S.; Amish, S.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape features such as mountains, rivers, and ecological gradients may strongly affect patterns of dispersal and gene flow among populations and thereby shape population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. The landscape may have a particularly strong effect on patterns of dispersal and gene flow in amphibians because amphibians are thought to have poor dispersal abilities. We examined genetic variation at six microsatellite loci in Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) from 28 breeding ponds in western Montana and Idaho, USA, in order to investigate the effects of landscape structure on patterns of gene flow. We were particularly interested in addressing three questions: (i) do ridges act as barriers to gene flow? (ii) is gene flow restricted between low and high elevation ponds? (iii) does a pond equal a 'randomly mating population' (a deme)? We found that mountain ridges and elevational differences were associated with increased genetic differentiation among sites, suggesting that gene flow is restricted by ridges and elevation in this species. We also found that populations of Columbia spotted frogs generally include more than a single pond except for very isolated ponds. There was also evidence for surprisingly high levels of gene flow among low elevation sites separated by large distances. Moreover, genetic variation within populations was strongly negatively correlated with elevation, suggesting effective population sizes are much smaller at high elevation than at low elevation. Our results show that landscape features have a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation in Columbia spotted frogs.

  7. Population size and time since island isolation determine genetic diversity loss in insular frog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Supen; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Li, Xianping; Yan, Shaofei; Liu, Xuan; Yang, Ji; Gao, Zengxiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to loss of genetic diversity in fragmented populations is crucial for conservation measurements. Land-bridge archipelagoes offer ideal model systems for identifying the long-term effects of these factors on genetic variations in wild populations. In this study, we used nine microsatellite markers to quantify genetic diversity and differentiation of 810 pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from 24 islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three sites on nearby mainland China and estimated the effects of the island area, population size, time since island isolation, distance to the mainland and distance to the nearest larger island on reduced genetic diversity of insular populations. The mainland populations displayed higher genetic diversity than insular populations. Genetic differentiations and no obvious gene flow were detected among the frog populations on the islands. Hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that only time since island isolation (square-root-transformed) and population size (log-transformed) significantly contributed to insular genetic diversity. These results suggest that decreased genetic diversity and genetic differentiations among insular populations may have been caused by random genetic drift following isolation by rising sea levels during the Holocene. The results provide strong evidence for a relationship between retained genetic diversity and population size and time since island isolation for pond frogs on the islands, consistent with the prediction of the neutral theory for finite populations. Our study highlights the importance of the size and estimated isolation time of populations in understanding the mechanisms of genetic diversity loss and differentiation in fragmented wild populations.

  8. Developmental toxicity of two common corn pesticides to the endangered southern bell frog (Litoria raniformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choung, Catherine B., E-mail: Catherine.Choung@mq.edu.au [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Hyne, Ross V. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Office of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 29, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Mann, Reinier M. [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, University of Technology - Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Stevens, Mark M. [EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Industry and Investment NSW and Charles Sturt University), Yanco Agricultural Institute, Private Mail Bag, Yanco, NSW 2703 (Australia); Hose, Grant C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    To examine the link between corn agriculture and the observed decline of the endangered southern bell frog (SBF), the effects of two corn crop pesticides on larval growth and development were investigated. Tadpoles were exposed to terbufos sulfone (10 {mu}g/L), a major breakdown product of the insecticide terbufos, and the herbicide atrazine (25 {mu}g/L) individually and as a mixture until the completion of metamorphosis. Atrazine did not interact synergistically with terbufos sulfone or result in significant effects on growth and development alone, although there was some indication of accelerated metamorphosis in the pilot study. Terbufos sulfone alone and as a mixture (terbufos/atrazine) significantly slowed larval development and ultimately delayed metamorphosis. The observed developmental effects from an environmentally relevant concentration of terbufos sulfone indicates a risk posed by this persistent degradation product to the endangered SBF, which breeds and develops in the rice bays adjacent to corn fields treated with pesticides. - Highlights: > The effect of terbufos sulfone and atrazine on larval growth and development was investigated. > Terbufos sulfone alone significantly slowed development and delayed metamorphosis of tadpoles. > Atrazine had no observable effects alone nor did it interact synergistically with terbufos sulfone. > The developmental effects indicates a risk to endangered southern bell frogs in the irrigation area. > The results highlight the toxicological importance of some pesticide breakdown products. - A breakdown product of the insecticide terbufos retards development and delays metamorphosis of southern bell frog tadpoles.

  9. Importance of riparian remnants for frog species diversity in a highly fragmented rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, Clara; Pineda, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests undergo continuous transformation to other land uses, resulting in landscapes typified by forest fragments surrounded by anthropogenic habitats. Small forest fragments, specifically strip-shaped remnants flanking streams (referred to as riparian remnants), can be particularly important for the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity within highly fragmented forests. We compared frog species diversity between riparian remnants, other forest fragments and cattle pastures in a tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We found similar species richness in the three habitats studied and a similar assemblage structure between riparian remnants and forest fragments, although species composition differed by 50 per cent. Frog abundance was halved in riparian remnants compared with forest fragments, but was twice that found in pastures. Our results suggest that riparian remnants play an important role in maintaining a portion of frog species diversity in a highly fragmented forest, particularly during environmentally stressful (hot and dry) periods. In this regard, however, the role of riparian remnants is complementary, rather than substitutive, with respect to the function of other forest fragments within the fragmented forest. PMID:20554561

  10. Combined Effects of Pesticides and Trematode Infections on Hourglass Tree Frog Polypedates cruciger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Rohr, Jason R; Navaratne, Ayanthi N; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2016-03-01

    The impact of widespread and common environmental factors, such as chemical contaminants, on infectious disease risk in amphibians is particularly important because both chemical contaminants and infectious disease have been implicated in worldwide amphibian declines. Here we report on the lone and combined effects of exposure to parasitic cercariae (larval stage) of the digenetic trematode, Acanthostomum burminis, and four commonly used pesticides (insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate; herbicides: glyphosate, propanil) at ecologically relevant concentrations on the survival, growth, and development of the common hourglass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger Blyth 1852. There was no evidence of any pesticide-induced mortality on cercariae because all the cercariae successfully penetrated each tadpole host regardless of pesticide treatment. In isolation, both cercarial and pesticide exposure significantly decreased frog survival, development, and growth, and increased developmental malformations, such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and also edema and skin ulcers. The combination of cercariae and pesticides generally posed greater risk to frogs than either factor alone by decreasing survival or growth or increasing time to metamorphosis or malformations. The exception was that lone exposure to chlorpyrifos had higher mortality without than with cercariae. Consistent with mathematical models that suggest that stress should increase the impact of generalist parasites, the weight of the evidence from the field and laboratory suggests that ecologically relevant concentrations of agrochemicals generally increase the threat that trematodes pose to amphibians, highlighting the importance of elucidating interactions between anthropogenic activities and infectious disease in taxa of conservation concern.

  11. Disentangling genetic vs. environmental causes of sex determination in the common frog, Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Chikako; Miura, Ikuo; Merilä, Juha

    2008-01-08

    Understanding of sex ratio dynamics in a given species requires understanding its sex determination system, as well as access for reliable tools for sex identification at different life stages. As in the case of many other amphibians, the common frogs (Rana temporaria) do not have well differentiated sex chromosomes, and an identification of individuals' genetic sex may be complicated by sex reversals. Here, we report results of studies shedding light on the sex determination system and sex ratio variation in this species. A microsatellite locus RtSB03 was found to be sex-linked in four geographically disparate populations, suggesting male heterogamy in common frogs. However, in three other populations examined, no or little evidence for sex-linkage was detected suggesting either ongoing/recent recombination events, and/or frequent sex-reversals. Comparison of inheritance patterns of alleles in RtSB03 and phenotypic sex within sibships revealed a mixed evidence for sex-linkage: all individuals with male phenotype carried a male specific allele in one population, whereas results were more mixed in another population. These results make sense only if we assume that the RtSB03 locus is linked to male sex determination factor in some, but not in all common frog populations, and if phenotypic sex-reversals - for which there is earlier evidence from this species - are frequently occurring.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, sex steroid hormones and liver retinoids in adult male European common frogs Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Mattis; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2006-05-01

    Declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity during the last decades has called for an assessment of possible threats to these animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants and are found in high levels in some populations of wild living amphibians. To evaluate the endocrine disrupting potential of PCBs in adult frogs, Aroclor 1,254 were subcutaneously injected into male European common frogs Rana temporaria. The injected doses ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg body mass, resulting in liver concentrations between 74 and 133,619 microg/kg ww. After 14 days, serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and hepatic retinol (R) and retinylpalmitate (RP) were easured. No dose dependent effects were found on levels of hormones or retinoids. However, a significantly higher within-group variation in the E-T ratio in the exposed groups may indicate that the sex-hormone homeostasis of male R. temporaria is affected by PCBs shortly after arousal from hibernation, but that the effects are subtle and that several different mechanisms are involved. The lack of direct effect on T, E, R and RP may be due to the timing of exposure (shortly after arousal from hibernation), or due to a relatively short exposure time to Aroclor 1,254. Based on the results, we propose that future research should focus on effects of PCBs in relation to the different physiological phases frogs experience throughout the year (hibernation, reproduction etc.).

  13. Identification and characterization of new protein chemoattractants in the frog skin secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Baptiste; Toubeau, Gerard; Falmagne, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2006-11-01

    The vomeronasal organ is a chemosensory organ present in most vertebrates and involved in chemical communication. In the last decade, the deciphering of the signal transduction process of this organ has progressed. However, less is known about the vomeronasal organ ligands and their structure-function relationships. Snakes possess a highly developed vomeronasal system that is used in various behaviors such as mating, predator detection, or prey selection, making this group a suitable model for study of the vomeronasal chemoreception. In this work, we used a proteomics approach to identify and characterize proteins from frog cutaneous mucus proteome involved in prey recognition by snakes of the genus Thamnophis. Herein we report the purification and characterization of two proteins isolated from the frog skin secretome that elicit the vomeronasal organ-mediated predatory behavior of Thamnophis marcianus. These proteins are members of the parvalbumin family, which are calcium-binding proteins generally associated to muscular and nervous tissues. This is the first report that demonstrates parvalbumins are not strictly restricted to intracellular compartments and can also be isolated from exocrine secretions. Purified parvalbumins from frog muscle and mucus revealed identical chemoattractive properties for T. marcianus. Snake bioassay revealed the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) dependence of the bioactivity of parvalbumins. So parvalbumins appear to be new candidate ligands of the vomeronasal organ.

  14. Neuronal intermediate filaments in the developing tongue of the frog Rana esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zuwala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of several neuronal intermediate filament (NIF proteins was investigated in the tongue of metamorphosing tadpoles (stage 38-45 of Gosner and in adult individuals of the frog, Rana esculenta by means of immunohistochemistry. Results showed that nerve fibres at early stages of tongue development expressed peripherin (a NIF protein usually found in differentiating neurones as well as the light- and medium molecular weight NIF polypeptide subunits (NF-L and NF-M, respectively; in the adult frog, peripherin was still found in nerve fibres reaching the fungiform papilla together with NF-M, but NF-L immunoreactivity was absent therein. Clusters of epithelial cells expressing peripherin were found in the early developing tongue before differentiation of taste organs, and NF-L and NF-H immunoreactivities were present in basal (Merkel cells of the adult frog taste disc. Results indicate that neurones innervating the adult frog’s taste disc maintain a certain plasticity in their cytoskeleton and that neuronal-like cells are present in the undifferentiated and differentiated tongue epithelium possibly playing a role in the developing and mature taste organ.

  15. When dinner is dangerous: toxic frogs elicit species-specific responses from a generalist snake predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben; Shine, Richard

    2007-12-01

    In arms races between predators and prey, some evolved tactics are unbeatable by the other player. For example, many types of prey are inedible because they have evolved chemical defenses. In this case, prey death removes any selective advantage of toxicity to the prey but not the selective advantage to a predator of being able to consume the prey. In the absence of effective selection for postmortem persistence of the toxicity then, some chemical defenses probably break down rapidly after prey death. If so, predators can overcome the toxic defense simply by waiting for that breakdown before consuming the prey. Floodplain death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are highly venomous frog-eating elapid snakes native to northern Australia. Some of the frogs they eat are nontoxic (Litoria nasuta), others produce gluelike mucus when seized by a predator (Limnodynastes convexiusculus), and one species (Litoria dahlii) is dangerously toxic to snakes. Both the glue and the toxin degrade within about 20 min of prey death. Adders deal with these prey types in different and highly stereotyped ways: they consume nontoxic frogs directly but envenomate and release the other taxa, waiting until the chemical defense loses its potency before consuming the prey.

  16. Survival costs associated with wood frog breeding migrations: effects of timber harvest and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Thompson, Frank R

    2009-06-01

    Migration presents a trade-off for individuals between the potential fitness benefits of reaching high-quality habitat vs. the potential costs of migration. Within an information-theoretic framework, we examined the costs of migration for adult wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in response to timber harvest and annual weather conditions using Cox proportional-hazard estimates of survival. In 2004 prior to timber harvest, survival did not differ between the inside (0.75, SE = 0.078) and outside (0.73, SE = 0.235) of the circular timber harvest arrays (each 164 m radius). Following timber harvest, survival inside arrays in both 2005 and 2006 (0.22, SE = 0.065; 0.42, SE = 0.139) was lower than survival outside of the arrays and prior to harvest. Sources of mortality included predation in all years and desiccation in the drought year of 2005. The most-supported models for explaining both predation and desiccation risks reflected behaviors as opposed to timber harvest or weather conditions. Both predation and desiccation risks increased when frogs made frequent movements or were located near breeding ponds. Optimal behaviors for reducing predation and desiccation risks were the same before and after timber harvest; however, the survival consequences for not adopting these behaviors were more severe following harvest. Our results provide empirical evidence for (1) the ecological pressures that influence migratory behavior and (2) differential survival in relation to migratory behavior which reveals why frogs move relatively long distances away from breeding sites.

  17. Cryptic female Strawberry poison frogs experience elevated predation risk when associating with an aposematic partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segami Marzal, Julia Carolina; Rudh, Andreas; Rogell, Björn; Ödeen, Anders; Løvlie, Hanne; Rosher, Charlotte; Qvarnström, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences. Our study system, Oophaga pumilio, is an extremely color polymorphic neotropical frog with two distinctive antipredator strategies: aposematism and crypsis. The conspicuous coloration and calling behavior of aposematic males may attract both cryptic and aposematic females, but predation may select against cryptic females choosing aposematic males. We used an experimental approach where domestic fowl were encouraged to find digitized images of cryptic frogs at different distances from aposematic partners. We found that the estimated survival time of a cryptic frog was reduced when associating with an aposematic partner. Hence, predation may act as a direct selective force on female choice, favoring evolution of color assortative mating that, in turn, may strengthen the divergence in coloration that natural selection has generated.

  18. Effect of magnetic fields on green color formation in frog skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kashiwagi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on a dynamic and efficient optical control system that is made possible by investigation of the body surfaces of various animals. Specifically, we expect Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica skin to provide a model for a flexible display device actuator mechanism. Tree frogs change body color from their original green to other colors in response to background colors. The color formation is controlled not only by chromatophores, but also by guanine microcrystals in iridophores. We collected sample microcrystals from the frog’s dorsal skin and made a model display sheet using the green skin layers. The transparent chamber that contained the crystal suspension was layered to enhance light reflection. Sheet color was observed while the angle of light incidence was varied, with and without magnetic field exposure at 0.3 T. A slight increase in red and green intensity was detected. Additionally, reflected intensity increased with increasing angle of incidence. These results indicate that the guanine crystal platelets in frog skin can efficiently switch the reflected light direction under application of a magnetic field. This in turn suggests that a several-micron-sized microcrystal of this type is a candidate material for development of flexible optical chips for ambient light control.

  19. High dispersal in a frog species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W.C.; Greene, A.E.; Corn, P.S.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    Global losses of amphibian populations are a major conservation concern and their causes have generated substantial debate. Habitat fragmentation is considered one important cause of amphibian decline. However, if fragmentation is to be invoked as a mechanism of amphibian decline, it must first be established that dispersal is prevalent among contiguous amphibian populations using formal movement estimators. In contrast, if dispersal is naturally low in amphibians, fragmentation can be disregarded as a cause of amphibian declines and conservation efforts can be focused elsewhere. We examined dispersal rates in Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) using capture–recapture analysis of over 10 000 frogs in combination with genetic analysis of microsatellite loci in replicate basins. We found that frogs had exceptionally high juvenile dispersal rates (up to 62% annually) over long distances (>5 km), large elevation gains (>750 m) and steep inclines (36° incline over 2 km) that were corroborated by genetic data showing high gene flow. These findings show that dispersal is an important life-history feature of some amphibians and suggest that habitat fragmentation is a serious threat to amphibian persistence.

  20. Helpful invaders: Can cane toads reduce the parasite burdens of native frogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity B.L. Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invading species have brought devastating parasites and diseases to their new homes, thereby imperiling native taxa. Potentially, though, invaders might have the opposite effect. If they take up parasites that otherwise would infect native taxa, but those parasites fail to develop in the invader, the introduced species might reduce parasite burdens of the native fauna. Similarly, earlier exposure to the other taxon's parasites might ‘prime’ an anuran's immune system such that it is then able to reject subsequent infection by its own parasite species. Field surveys suggest that lungworm counts in native Australian frogs decrease after the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina, and laboratory studies confirm that native lungworm larvae enter, but do not survive in, the toads. In laboratory trials, we confirmed that the presence of anurans (either frogs or toads in an experimental arena reduced uptake rates of lungworm larvae by anurans that were later added to the same arena. However, experimental exposure to lungworms from native frogs did not enhance a toad's ability to reject subsequent infection by its own lungworm species.