Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Elliott J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
From June 9th thru June 13th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy Radiological Assistance Program (DOE RAP) Region-3 participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response exercise at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC, RAP, and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Montgomery, Alabama. The exercise was designed to allowed members of the DOE RAP Region-3 team to collect soil, water, vegetation and air samples from SRS and submit them through an established FRMAC hotline. Once received and processed through the hotline, FRMAC delivered the samples to the EPA MERL for sample preparation and laboratory radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential improvements in each step of the processes. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability between FRMAC and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The observations and lessons-learned from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.
Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Elliott J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.
In the event of a major radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) will coordinate the federal agencies that have various statutory responsibilities. The FRMAC is responsible for coordinating all environmental radiological monitoring, sampling, and assessment activities for the response. This manual describes the FRMAC’s response activities in a radiological incident. It also outlines how FRMAC fits in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the National Response Framework (NRF) and describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the affected areas. In the event of a potential or existing major radiological incident, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is responsible for establishing and managing the FRMAC during the initial phases.
Shanks, Sonoya T.; Ted Redding; Lynn Jaussi; Allen, Mark B.; Fournier, Sean Donovan; Leonard, Elliott J.
The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) relies on accurate and defensible analytical laboratory data to support its mission. Therefore, FRMAC must ensure that the environmental analytical laboratories providing analytical services maintain an ongoing capability to provide accurate analytical results to DOE. It is undeniable that the more Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) measures required of the laboratory, the less resources that are available for analysis of response samples. Being that QA and QC measures in general are understood to comprise a major effort related to a laboratory’s operations, requirements should only be considered if they are deemed “value-added” for the FRMAC mission. This report provides observations of areas for improvement and potential interoperability opportunities in the areas of Batch Quality Control Requirements, Written Communications, Data Review Processes, Data Reporting Processes, along with the lessons learned as they apply to items in the early phase of a response that will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA assets.
The Turbo FRMAC (TF) software program is the software implementation of the science and methodologies utilized in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The software automates the calculations described in volumes 1 of "The Federal Manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency" (2015 version). In the event of the intentional or accidental release of radioactive material, the software is used to guide and govern the response of the Federal, State, Local, and Tribal governments. The manual, upon which the software is based, is unclassified and freely available on the Internet.
FRMAC-93 simulated a radiological accident at the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant, 25 miles north of Omaha, Nebraska. The exercise involved the state Iowa and Nebraska, NRC as the lead Federal agency, FRMAC (Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center), and several federal agencies with statutory emergency responsibility. FRMAC-93 was a major 2-day field exercise designed to determine the effectiveness, coordination, and operations of a DOE-managed FRMAC. Other objectives were to ensure that appropriate priorities were established and assistance was provided to the states and the lead Federal agency by FRMAC. Day 1 involved the Fort Calhoun evaluated plume phase exercise. On Day 2, the flow of data, which was slow initially, improved so that confidence of states and other federal responders in FRMAC support capabilities was high. The impact and lessons learned from FRMAC-93 provided the necessary impetus to make organizational and operational changes to the FRMAC program, which were put into effect in the DOE exercise FREMONT at Hanford 3 months later
Laiche, Thomas P.
FRMAC was born out of circumstances 25 years ago when 17 federal agencies descended on the states with good intention during the Three-Mile Island nuclear power plant incident. At that time it quickly became evident that a better way was needed to support state and local governments in their time of emergency and recovery process. FRMAC's single voice of Federal support coordinates the multiple agencies that respond to a radiological event. Over the years, FRMAC has exercised, evaluated, and honed its ability to quickly respond to the needs of our communities. As the times have changed, FRMAC has expanded its focus from nuclear power plant incidents, to threats of a terrorist radiological dispersal device (RDD), to the unthinkable - an Improvised nuclear device (IND). And just as having the right tools are part of any trade, FRMAC's tool set has and is evolving to meet contemporary challenges - not just to improve the time it takes to collect data and assess the situation, but to provide a quality and comprehensive product that supports a stressed decision maker, responsible for the protection of the public. Innovations in the movement of data and information have changed our everyday lives. So too, FRMAC is capitalizing on industry innovations to improve the flow of information: from the early predictive models, to streamlining the process of getting data out of the field; to improving the time it takes to get assessed products in to the hands of the decision makers. FRMAC is focusing on the future through the digital age of electronic data processing. Public protective action and dose avoidance is the challenge.
NSTec Environmental Restoration
Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requirements. This organizational structure under NIMS is focused by the mission responsibilities and interface requirements following the premise to provide emergency responders with a flexible yet standardized structure for incident response activities. The coordination responsibilities outlined in the NRP are based on the NIMS
NSTec Environmental Restoration
Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt a National Incident Management System (NIMS)/Incident Command System (ICS) and use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation programs and activities, as well as in support of those actions taken to assist state and local entities. This system provides a consistent nationwide template to enable federal, state, local, and tribal governments, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity, including acts of catastrophic terrorism. This document identifies the operational concepts of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center's (FRMAC) implementation of the NIMS/ICS response structure under the National Response Plan (NRP). The construct identified here defines the basic response template to be tailored to the incident-specific response requirements. FRMAC's mission to facilitate interagency environmental data management, monitoring, sampling, analysis, and assessment and link this information to the planning and decision staff clearly places the FRMAC in the Planning Section. FRMAC is not a mitigating resource for radiological contamination but is present to conduct radiological impact assessment for public dose avoidance. Field monitoring is a fact-finding mission to support this effort directly. Decisions based on the assessed data will drive public protection and operational requirements. This organizational structure under NIMS is focused by the mission responsibilities and interface requirements following the premise to provide emergency responders with a flexible yet standardized structure for incident response activities. The coordination responsibilities outlined in the NRP are based on the
The purpose of this overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) operations is to describe the FRMAC response to a major radiological emergency and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the immediate boundaries of the radiological emergency site. In the event of a major radiological emergency, Federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the State(s) and a designed Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all Federal radiological assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide monitoring and assessment results for their immediate use in decision making. The Federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated Federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities
The purpose of this overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) operations is to describe the FRMAC response to a major radiological emergency and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the immediate boundaries of the radiological emergency site. In the event of a major radiological emergency, Federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the State(s) and a designed Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all Federal radiological assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide monitoring and assessment results for their immediate use in decision making. The Federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated Federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities.
In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states
In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states.
In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.
In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas
The purpose of this Management Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is to explain the federal preparation for a radiological accident and to describe the subsequent response activities which provide radiological monitoring and assessment outside the boundaries of the monitoring which support the radiological accident site. In the event of a radiological accident, federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the accident scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the state(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA) that all federal technical assistance is fully supporting their efforts to protect the public and will provide these monitoring results in a working data center for immediate use by the state(s) and LFA decision makers. The federal agencies do not relinquish their statutory responsibilities. However, the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibility
Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan
Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.
Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.
The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces
Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Tsuda, Yuichi; Ogawa, Naoko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro
Mars Moon eXplorer (MMX) is JAXA's next candidate flagship mission to be launched in the early 2020s. MMX will explore the Martian moons and return a sample from Phobos. This paper presents the mission analysis work, focusing on the transfer legs and comparing several architectures, such as hybrid options with chemical and electric propulsion modules. The selected baseline is a chemical-propulsion Phobos sample return, which is discussed in detail with the launch- and return-window analysis. The trajectories are optimized with the jTOP software, using planetary ephemerides for Mars and the Earth; Earth re-entry constraints are modeled with simple analytical equations. Finally, we introduce an analytical approximation of the three-burn capture strategy used in the Mars system. The approximation can be used together with a Lambert solver to quickly determine the transfer Δ v costs.
Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.
The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.
The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.
The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis is to define the problem to be addressed by the PUREX mission, and to lay the ground work for further system definition. The mission analysis is an important first step in the System Engineering (SE) process. This report presents the results of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis. The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to prepare PUREX for Decontamination and Decommissioning within a five year time frame. This will be accomplished by establishing a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the PUREX Plant, that can be preserved for a 10-year horizon. During deactivation, appropriate portions of the safety envelop will be maintained to ensure deactivation takes place in a safe and regulatory compliant manner
This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors' facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission
This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.
Among the maintenance resources, the spare parts are the most difficult to predict. Items in the space systems are very different from the point of view of reliability, cost, weight, volume, etc. The different combinations of spares make different contribution to the: mission success, spare investment, volume occupied and weight. Hence, the selection of spares for a mission planned must take into account all of these features. This paper presents the generic mission success driven sparing model developed, for the complex space systems. The mathematical analysis used in the model enables the user to select the most suitable selection of the spare package for the mission planned. The illustrative examples presented clearly demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of the model introduced.
Bartram, B.W.; Vaughan, F.R.; Englehart, D.R.W.
The use of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide on the Space Shuttle-launched Ulysses mission implies some level of risk due to potential accidents. This paper describes the method used to quantify risks in the Ulysses mission Final Safety Analysis Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The starting point for the analysis described herein is following input of source term probability distributions from the General Electric Company. A Monte Carlo technique is used to develop probability distributions of radiological consequences for a range of accident scenarios thoughout the mission. Factors affecting radiological consequences are identified, the probability distribution of the effect of each factor determined, and the functional relationship among all the factors established. The probability distributions of all the factor effects are then combined using a Monte Carlo technique. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) by mission sub-phase, phase, and the overall mission. The CCDFs show the total probability that consequences (calculated health effects) would be equal to or greater than a given value
The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.
Orsini, Leonardo; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.
Plasma brake is an innovative propellantless propulsion system concept that exploits the Coulomb collisions between a charged tether and the ions in the surrounding environment (typically, the ionosphere) to generate an electrostatic force orthogonal to the tether direction. Previous studies on the plasma brake effect have emphasized the existence of a number of different parameters necessary to obtain an accurate description of the propulsive acceleration from a physical viewpoint. The aim of this work is to discuss an analytical model capable of estimating, with the accuracy required by a preliminary mission analysis, the performance of a spacecraft equipped with a plasma brake in a (near-circular) low Earth orbit. The simplified mathematical model is first validated through numerical simulations, and is then used to evaluate the plasma brake performance in some typical mission scenarios, in order to quantify the influence of the system parameters on the mission performance index.
Kuhn, A. E.
Mission 3B is designed as a payload retrieval mission with both shuttle launch and orbiter landing to take place at the western test range. The mission is designed for direct rendezvous with a passive satellite in a 100 NMI circular orbit with an inclination of 104 degrees. The ascent portion of mission 3B is described as well as the trajectory simulation.
McCarthy, Jessica A.; Cervantes, Benjamin W.; Daugherty, Sarah C.; Arroyo, Felipe; Mago, Divyang
The legacy communications link analysis software currently used at Wallops Flight Facility involves processes that are different for command destruct, radar, and telemetry. There is a clear advantage to developing an easy-to-use tool that combines all the processes in one application. Link Analysis in the Mission Planning Lab (MPL) uses custom software and algorithms integrated with Analytical Graphics Inc. Satellite Toolkit (AGI STK). The MPL link analysis tool uses pre/post-mission data to conduct a dynamic link analysis between ground assets and the launch vehicle. Just as the legacy methods do, the MPL link analysis tool calculates signal strength and signal- to-noise according to the accepted processes for command destruct, radar, and telemetry assets. Graphs and other custom data are generated rapidly in formats for reports and presentations. STK is used for analysis as well as to depict plume angles and antenna gain patterns in 3D. The MPL has developed two interfaces with the STK software (see figure). The first interface is an HTML utility, which was developed in Visual Basic to enhance analysis for plume modeling and to offer a more user friendly, flexible tool. A graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB (see figure upper right-hand corner) is also used to quickly depict link budget information for multiple ground assets. This new method yields a dramatic decrease in the time it takes to provide launch managers with the required link budgets to make critical pre-mission decisions. The software code used for these two custom utilities is a product of NASA's MPL.
Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.
Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.
Full Text Available Thermal analysis and control design are prerequisite essential to design the satellite. In the space environment, it makes satellite survive from extreme hot and cold conditions. In recent years CubeSat mission is developed for many kinds of purpose. Triplet Ionospheric Observatory (TRIO–CubeSat for Ion, Neutral, Electron, MAgnetic fields (CINEMA is required to weigh less than 3 kg and operate on minimal 3 W power. In this paper we describe the thermal analysis and control design for TRIO-CINEMA mission. For this thermal analysis, we made a thermal model of the CubeSat with finite element method and NX6.0 TMG software is used to simulate this analysis model. Based on this result, passive thermal control method has been applied to thermal design of CINEMA. In order to get the better conduction between solar panel and chassis, we choose aluminum 6061-T6 for the material property of standoff. We can increase the average temperature of top and bottom solar panels from -70°C to -40°C and decrease the average temperature of the magnetometer from +93°C to -4°C using black paint on the surface of the chassis, inside of top & bottom solar panels, and magnetometer.
Riesenweber, S.D.; Fritz, R.L.; Shipley, L.E.
The Mission Analysis Report describes the requirements and constraints associated with the Transfer Waste Function as necessary to support the Manage Tank Waste, Retrieve Waste, and Process Tank Waste Functions described in WHC-SD-WM-FRD-020, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document and DOE/RL-92-60, Revision 1, TWRS Functions and Requirements Document, March 1994. It further assesses the ability of the ''initial state'' (or current cross-site transfer system) to meet the requirements and constraints
This paper gives a general outline of the NATO Defense Requirements Review (DRR) and how mission analysis has been used to provide a consistent and detailed approach to the decomposition of complex military missions...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a state of the art spacecraft mission design tool under active development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a state of the art spacecraft mission design tool under active development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)....
Prime data from chemical analysis experiments, of Surveyor 5, 6, and 7 are critically examined and analyzed. This and associated laboratory work has given final chemical composition results for the lunar regolith at three locations. The conclusions made on the basis of the preliminary examinations of the data are confirmed and extended.
This report defines the mission for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Transition Project (PFPTP) using a systems engineering approach. This mission analysis will be the basis for the functional analysis which will further define and break down the mission statement into all of the detailed functions required to accomplish the mission. The functional analysis is then used to develop requirements, allocate those requirements to functions, and eventually be used to design the system. This report: presents the problem which will be addressed, defines PFP Transition Project, defines the overall mission statement, describes the existing, initial conditions, defines the desired, final conditions, identifies the mission boundaries and external interfaces, identifies the resources required to carry out the mission, describes the uncertainties and risks, and discusses the measures which will be used to determine success
Cork, M.J.; Turi, J.A.
The Galileo spacecraft will explore the Jupiter system and Ulysses will fly by Jupiter en route to a polar orbit of the sun. Both spacecraft are powered by general purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). As a result of the Challenger accident and subsequent mission reprogramming, the Galileo and Ulysses missions' safety analysis had to be repeated. In addition to presenting an overview of the safety analysis status for the missions, this paper presents a brief review of the missions' objectives and design approaches, RTG design characteristics and development history, and a description of the safety analysis process. (author)
Proposed method to calculate FRMAC intervention levels for the assessment of radiologically contaminated food and comparison of the proposed method to the U.S. FDA's method to calculate derived intervention levels
Kraus, Terrence D.; Hunt, Brian D.
This report reviews the method recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for calculating Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) and identifies potential improvements to the DIL calculation method to support more accurate ingestion pathway analyses and protective action decisions. Further, this report proposes an alternate method for use by the Federal Emergency Radiological Assessment Center (FRMAC) to calculate FRMAC Intervention Levels (FILs). The default approach of the FRMAC during an emergency response is to use the FDA recommended methods. However, FRMAC recommends implementing the FIL method because we believe it to be more technically accurate. FRMAC will only implement the FIL method when approved by the FDA representative on the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health.
The US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted State(s) and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division (M ampersand A) is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC M ampersand A and the content and preparation of the manual
Path on Task Network Box Diagram ...................................... 18 Figure 15. Slack Time on a Gantt Chart...Headquarters JMP Statistical Software MC Mission Command PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique R Statistical Programming Language RPG-7 Rocket... software package designed to create DES by implementing event graph models as Java codes. This application is designed and is still being developed by
This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).
This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997)
Baskett, R.L.; Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.
The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) can provide several emergency response resources in response to a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident if requested by a state or local agency. The primary FRERP technical resources come from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Most of the FRMAC assets are located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. In addition, the primary atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment asset, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In the early stages of a response, ARAC relies on its automatic worldwide meteorological data acquisition via the Air Force Global Weather Center (AFGWC). The regional airport data are supplemented with data from on-site towers and sodars and the National Oceanographic ampersand Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) field-deployable real-time rawinsonde system. ARAC is prepared with three-dimensional regional-scale diagnostic dispersion model to simulate the complex mixed fission product release from a reactor accident. The program has been operational for 18 years and is presently developing its third generation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system, improvements in its diagnostic dispersion models, addition of a new hybrid-particle source term, and implementation of a mesoscale prognostic model. AS these new capabilities evolve, they will be integrated into the FRMAC's field-deployable assets
Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.
Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the
Cano, Juan L.; Sanchez, Mariano; Cornara, Stefania; Carnelli, Ian
The Don Quijote Phase-A study is a definition study funded by ESA and devoted to the analysis of the possibilities to deflect a Near Earth Object (NEO) in the range of 300-800 m diameter. DEIMOS Space S.L. and EADS Astrium have teamed up within this study to form one of the three consortia that have analyzed these aspects for ESA. Target asteroids for the mission are 1989 ML, 2002 AT4 and Apophis. This paper presents the mission analysis activities within the consortium providing: low-thrust interplanetary rendezvous Orbiter trajectories to the target asteroids, ballistic interplanetary trajectories for the Impactor, Orbiter arrival description at the asteroids, Orbiter stable orbits characterization at the asteroid, deflection determination by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) as well as the mission timelines and overall mission scenarios.
This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site's Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy's (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to extend current ground-based Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool to more effectively...
Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.; Chung, P.W.H.
Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.
radiological materials from: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities, Space Craft Launches, Weapon (Department of Defence or DOE) Transportation, Weapon Production Facilities, Spacecraft Re-entry (domestic or foreign), Terrorist Incidents, High-Level Waste Transportation, Nuclear Power Plants. Key to the FRERP would be the establishment of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Development and implementation was assigned to DOE as the agency most capable of providing sufficient resources, assets, and support. In 1987, DOE subsequently assigned programmatic responsibility, with limited funding, to the Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, Nevada. (author)
Eggl, Siegfried; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Bancelin, David; Cano, Juan L.; Cichocki, Filippo
Even though mankind believes to have the capabilities to avert potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can validate this claim. Such a deflection demonstration attempt has to be cost effective, easy to validate, and safe in the sense that harmless asteroids must not be turned into potentially hazardous objects. Uncertainties in an asteroid's orbital and physical parameters as well as those additionally introduced during a mitigation attempt necessitate an in depth analysis of deflection mission designs in order to dispel planetary safety concerns. We present a post mitigation impact risk analysis of a list of potential kinetic impactor based deflection demonstration missions proposed in the framework of the NEOShield project. Our results confirm that mitigation induced uncertainties have a significant influence on the deflection outcome. Those cannot be neglected in post deflection impact risk studies. We show, furthermore, that deflection missions have to be assessed on an individual basis in order to ensure that asteroids are not inadvertently transported closer to the Earth at a later date. Finally, we present viable targets and mission designs for a kinetic impactor test to be launched between the years 2025 and 2032.
This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure
Analysis of the accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography. Mission (SRTM) height models using International Global. Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network. Manas Mukul, Vinee Srivastava and Malay Mukul. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(6) cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary data ...
Ma, Y.; Trivedi, K.S.
The purpose of this paper is to describe an efficient Boolean algebraic algorithm that provides exact solution to the unreliability of a multi-phase mission system where the configurations are described through fault trees. The algorithm extends and improves the Boolean method originally proposed by Somani and Trivedi. By using the Boolean algebraic method, we provide an efficient modeling approach which avoids the state space explosion and the mapping problems that are encountered by the Markov chain approach. To calculate the exact solution of the phased-mission system with deterministic phase durations, we introduce the sum of disjoint phase products (SDPP) formula, which is a phased-extension of the sum of disjoint products (SDP) formula. Computationally, the algorithm is quite efficient because it calls an SDP generation algorithm in the early stage of the SDPP computation. In this way, the phase products generated in the early stage of the SDPP formula are guaranteed to be disjoint. Consequently, the number of the intermediate phase products is greatly reduced. In this paper, we also consider the transient analysis of the phased-mission system. Special care is needed to account for the possible latent failures at the mission phase change times. If there are more stringent success criteria just after a mission phase change time, an unreliability jump would occur at that time. Finally, the algorithm has been implemented in the software package SHARPE. With SHARPE, the complexities of the phased-mission system is made transparent to the potential users. The user can conveniently specify a phased-mission model at a high level (through fault trees) and analyze the system quantitatively
Wolfe, R. R.
An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.
Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley
This Appendix summarizes the results of a Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc. report to the In-Space propulsion research group of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that was authored by Taylor et al. in 2003. The subject of this report is the technological maturity, readiness, and capability of the photon solar sail to support space-exploration missions. Technological maturity for solar photon sail concepts is extremely high high for rectangular (or square) solar sail configurations due to the historical development of the rectangular design by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). L'Garde Inc., ILC Dover Inc., DLR, and many other corporations and agencies. However, future missions and mission analysis may prove that the rectangular sail design is not the best architecture for achieving mission goals. Due to the historical focus on rectangular solar sail spacecraft designs, the maturity of other architectures such as hoop-supported disks, multiple small disk arrays, parachute sails, heliogyro sails, perforated sails, multiple vane sails (such as the Planetary Society's Cosmos 1), inflated pillow sails, etc., have not reached a high level of technological readiness. (Some sail architectures are shown in Fig. A.1.) The possibilities of different sail architectures and some possible mission concepts are discussed in this Appendix.
This document summarizes the mission analysis performed on the Integrated Dynamic Modeling and Management System (IDMMS). The IDMMS will be developed to provide the modeling and analysis capability required to understand the TWRS system behavior in terms of the identified TWRS performance measures. The IDMMS will be used to demonstrate in a verified and validated manner the satisfactory performance of the TWRS system configuration and assurance that the requirements have been satisfied.
This document summarizes the mission analysis performed on the Integrated Dynamic Modeling and Management System (IDMMS). The IDMMS will be developed to provide the modeling and analysis capability required to understand the TWRS system behavior in terms of the identified TWRS performance measures. The IDMMS will be used to demonstrate in a verified and validated manner the satisfactory performance of the TWRS system configuration and assurance that the requirements have been satisfied
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Sierra, Mary Jane
The success of future long-duration exploration missions (LDEMs) will be determined largely by the extent to which mission-critical personnel possess and effectively exercise essential teamwork competencies throughout the entire mission lifecycle (e.g., Galarza & Holland, 1999; Hysong, Galarza, & Holland, 2007; Noe, Dachner, Saxton, & Keeton, 2011). To ensure that such personnel develop and exercise these necessary teamwork competencies prior to and over the full course of future LDEMs, it is essential that a teamwork training curriculum be developed and put into place at NASA that is both 1) comprehensive, in that it targets all teamwork competencies critical for mission success and 2) structured around empirically-based best practices for enhancing teamwork training effectiveness. In response to this demand, the current teamwork-oriented training needs analysis (TNA) was initiated to 1) identify the teamwork training needs (i.e., essential teamwork-related competencies) of future LDEM crews, 2) identify critical gaps within NASA’s current and future teamwork training curriculum (i.e., gaps in the competencies targeted and in the training practices utilized) that threaten to impact the success of future LDEMs, and to 3) identify a broad set of practical nonprescriptive recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of NASA’s teamwork training curriculum in order to increase the probability of future LDEM success.
Wood, Eric G.; Chang, George W.; Chen, Fannie C.
The Multi-Mission Power Analysis Tool (MMPAT) simulates a spacecraft power subsystem including the power source (solar array and/or radioisotope thermoelectric generator), bus-voltage control, secondary battery (lithium-ion or nickel-hydrogen), thermostatic heaters, and power-consuming equipment. It handles multiple mission types including heliocentric orbiters, planetary orbiters, and surface operations. Being parametrically driven along with its user-programmable features can reduce or even eliminate any need for software modifications when configuring it for a particular spacecraft. It provides multiple levels of fidelity, thereby fulfilling the vast majority of a project s power simulation needs throughout the lifecycle. It can operate in a stand-alone mode with a graphical user interface, in batch mode, or as a library linked with other tools. This software can simulate all major aspects of a spacecraft power subsystem. It is parametrically driven to reduce or eliminate the need for a programmer. Added flexibility is provided through user-designed state models and table-driven parameters. MMPAT is designed to be used by a variety of users, such as power subsystem engineers for sizing power subsystem components; mission planners for adjusting mission scenarios using power profiles generated by the model; system engineers for performing system- level trade studies using the results of the model during the early design phases of a spacecraft; and operations personnel for high-fidelity modeling of the essential power aspect of the planning picture.
Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min
NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.
De Angelis, G; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Tripathi, R K; Wilson, J W
An analysis for manned missions targeted to the Jovian system has been performed in the framework of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program on Human Exploration beyond Mars. The missions were targeted to the Jupiter satellite Callisto. The mission analysis has been divided into three main phases, namely the interplanetary cruise, the Jupiter orbital insertion, and the surface landing and exploration phases. The interplanetary phase is based on departure from the Earth-Moon L1 point. Interplanetary trajectories based on the use of different propulsion systems have been considered, with resulting overall cruise phase duration varying between two and five years. The Jupiter-approach and the orbital insertion trajectories are considered in detail, with the spacecraft crossing the Jupiter radiation belts and staying around the landing target. In the surface exploration phase the stay on the Callisto surface is considered. The satellite surface composition has been modeled based on the most recent results from the GALILEO spacecraft. In the transport computations the surface backscattering has been duly taken into account. Particle transport has been performed with the HZETRN heavy ion code for hadrons and with an in-house developed transport code for electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. The obtained doses have been compared to dose exposure limits. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perino, Scott V.; Bayandor, Javid; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Armand, Sasan C.
Development of an Earth entry vehicle and the methodology created to evaluate the vehicle's impact landing response when returning to Earth is reported. NASA's future Mars Sample Return Mission requires a robust vehicle to return Martian samples back to Earth for analysis. The Earth entry vehicle is a proposed solution to this Mars mission requirement. During Earth reentry, the vehicle slows within the atmosphere and then impacts the ground at its terminal velocity. To protect the Martian samples, a spherical energy absorber called an impact sphere is under development. The impact sphere is composed of hybrid composite and crushable foam elements that endure large plastic deformations during impact and cause a highly nonlinear vehicle response. The developed analysis methodology captures a range of complex structural interactions and much of the failure physics that occurs during impact. Numerical models were created and benchmarked against experimental tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The postimpact structural damage assessment showed close correlation between simulation predictions and experimental results. Acceleration, velocity, displacement, damage modes, and failure mechanisms were all effectively captured. These investigations demonstrate that the Earth entry vehicle has great potential in facilitating future sample return missions.
Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min
NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.
The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook
Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent
NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding
Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan
The Earth's gravitational field from the Next-Generation Gravimetry Mission (NGGM) and the Improved-Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Improved-GRACE) complete up to degree and order 120 is recovered by a closed-loop numerical simulation using different orbital altitudes of 325 and 300 km, different orbital inclinations of 96.78° and 89° and different inter-satellite ranges of 10 and 50 km. The preferred orbit parameters of the future twin Improved-GRACE satellites are proposed based on the results of the simulations in this study. The research results show: (1) In order to achieve the scientific objectives, which require that the accuracy of the next-generation Earth gravity field models is at least one order of magnitude better than that of the current gravity models, the orbit design at an altitude of 300 ± 50 km is recommended for the future Improved-GRACE mission. This altitude is determined by a trade-off analysis between the recovery accuracy of the gravity field and the operational lifetime of the satellite system. (2) Because the accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field from NGGM with an orbital inclination of 96.78° will be decreased due to a lack of the observation data in the polar areas, we propose that a near-polar orbit (inclination of 89° ± 2°) is a preferable selection for the future twin Improved-GRACE satellites. (3) The future Improved-GRACE mission has to adopt an inter-satellite range of 50 ± 10 km, because the common signals of the Earth's gravitational field between the twin NGGM satellites will be substantially eliminated with a shorter inter-satellite range of 10 km. With these orbit design parameters, the Earth's gravitational field from the Improved-GRACE mission is precisely recovered complete up to degree and order 120 with a cumulative geoid height error of about 0.7 mm.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers in the fields of mission design, navigation, and operations often require the availability of mission design tools via a low-level application programming...
DTM; SRTM. Abstract. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) carried out in February 2000 has provided near global topographic data that has been widely used in many fields of earth sciences. The mission goal of an absolute vertical ...
Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl
The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.
Pederson, Dylan, M.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey, S.
in the velocity direction. Roll steering is particularly attractive for a recently proposed mission that involves a spiral trajectory from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (E-M L1). During the spiral, the spacecraft will spend over 300 days experiencing the full spectrum of near-earth environments and solar array pointing conditions. An extensive study of the application of SEP (and roll steering) to this spiral mission is included, highlighting the ultimate goal of reduced vehicle cost and mass. Tools used for this analysis include the Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (Refs. 1 and 2) (SPACE) electrical power systems code, and SEP trajectory simulation tools developed at NASA Glenn Research Center.
On 8 August 1975, the COS-B spacecraft was launched successfully from the Western Test Range (Delta Program Mission No. 113). The launch vehicle was a three stage Extended Long Tank Delta DSV-3P-11B vehicle. Postflight analyses performed in connection with flight are presented. Vehicle trajectory, stage performance, vehicle reliability and the propulsion, guidance, flight control, electronics, mechanical and structural systems are evaluated.
Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon
With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.
Draeger, B. G.; Joyner, J. A.
A detailed performance evaluation of the Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module design was provided in support of OFT-1 ascent and OFT-1 intact launch aborts. The evaluation method used compared ARD results against results obtained using the full-up Space Vehicle Dynamic Simulations program under the same conditions. Results were presented for each of the three major ARD math models: (1) the ascent numerical integrator; (2) the mass model, and (3) the second stage predictor as well as the total ARD module. These results demonstrate that the baselined ARD module meets all design objectives for mission control center orbital flight test launch/abort support.
Kuhn, A. E.
A dispersion analysis considering 3 sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for the baseline reference mission (BRM) 1 of the space shuttle orbiter. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for the BRM 1. State vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated 3 sigma uncertainties were studied. The dispersions were determined at major mission events and fixed times from lift-off (time slices) and the results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a 3 sigma level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves. A computer program is given that was used for dynamic flight simulations of the space shuttle orbiter.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ESTO 2030 Science Vision envisions the future of Earth Science to be characterized by 'many more distributed observations,' and 'formation-flying [missions that]...
Melnick, Gary J.
The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.
Ono, Masahiro; Nicholas, Austin; Alibay, Farah; Parrish, Joseph
This paper introduces a new trade analysis software called the Space Mission Architecture and Risk Analysis Tool (SMART). This tool supports a high-level system trade study on a complex mission, such as a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, in an intuitive and quantitative manner. In a complex mission, a common approach to increase the probability of success is to have redundancy and prepare backups. Quantitatively evaluating the utility of adding redundancy to a system is important but not straightforward, particularly when the failure of parallel subsystems are correlated.
Knight, Russell L.; McLaren, David A.; Hu, Steven
Mission design and analysis presents challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, automated planning tools are used that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations, while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. This approach was applied to the DESDynl mission design using the CLASP planning system, but since this adaptation, many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP, and the DESDynl mission concept has undergone drastic changes. The software produces mission evaluation products, such as memory highwater marks, coverage percentages, given a mission design in the form of coverage targets, concept of operations, spacecraft parameters, and orbital parameters. It tries to overcome the lack of fidelity and timeliness of mission requirements coverage analysis during mission design. Previous techniques primarily use Excel in ad hoc fashion to approximate key factors in mission performance, often falling victim to overgeneralizations necessary in such an adaptation. The new program allows designers to faithfully represent their mission designs quickly, and get more accurate results just as quickly.
Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range
Africa, Australia and North America comply with the SRTM mission absolute vertical accuracy of 16 m. (with 90% confidence)/RMSE ∼10 m. However .... Group for International Agricul- ture Research Consortium for Spatial Information ... SRTM data should directly impact the result. Hence, it is important to understand the ...
Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle
A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…
The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.
Matney, M. L.; Boyd, J. F.; Covington, P. A.; Leano, H. J.; Pierson, D. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.
The Shuttle experiences unique air contamination problems because of microgravity and the closed environment. Contaminant build-up in the closed atmosphere and the lack of a gravitational settling mechanism have produced some concern in previous missions about the amount of solid and volatile airborne contaminants in the Orbiter and Spacelab. Degradation of air quality in the Orbiter/Spacelab environment, through processes such as chemical contamination, high solid-particulate levels, and high microbial levels, may affect crew performance and health. A comprehensive assessment of the Shuttle air quality was undertaken during STS-40 and STS-42 missions, in which a variety of air sampling and monitoring techniques were employed to determine the contaminant load by characterizing and quantitating airborne contaminants. Data were collected on the airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, microorganisms, and particulate matter collected on Orbiter/Spacelab air filters. The results showed that STS-40/42 Orbiter/Spacelab air was toxicologically safe to breathe, except during STS-40 when the Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer unit was releasing noxious gases in the middeck. On STS-40, the levels of airborne bacteria appeared to increase as the mission progressed; however, this trend was not observed for the STS-42 mission. Particulate matter in the Orbiter/Spacelab air filters was chemically analyzed in order to determine the source of particles. Only small amounts of rat hair and food bar (STS-40) and traces of soiless medium (STS-42) were detected in the Spacelab air filters, indicating that containment for Spacelab experiments was effective.
Harter, B.; De Wolfe, A. W.; Putnam, B.; Brain, D.; Chaffin, M.
The Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has been collecting data at Mars since September 2014. We have developed new software tools for exploring and analyzing the science data. Our open-source Python toolkit for working with data from MAVEN and other missions is based on the widely-used "tplot" IDL toolkit. We have replicated all of the basic tplot functionality in Python, and use the bokeh and matplotlib libraries to generate interactive line plots and spectrograms, providing additional functionality beyond the capabilities of IDL graphics. These Python tools are generalized to work with missions beyond MAVEN, and our software is available on Github. We have also been exploring 3D graphics as a way to better visualize the MAVEN science data and models. We have constructed a 3D visualization of MAVEN's orbit using the CesiumJS library, which not only allows viewing of MAVEN's orientation and position, but also allows the display of selected science data sets and their variation over time.
This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.
Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck
The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.
Bauer, R. B.
A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.
Zhang, Yang; Prescott, Darren
Due to the environments in which they will operate, future autonomous systems must be capable of reconfiguring quickly and safely following faults or environmental changes. Past research has shown how, by considering autonomous systems to perform phased missions, reliability analysis can support decision making by allowing comparison of the probability of success of different missions following reconfiguration. Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) offer fast, accurate reliability analysis that cou...
DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Advanced Integrated Multi-sensor Surveillance (AIMS) Mission, Function, Task Analysis Kevin Baker and Gord Youngson CAE...Canada This page intentionally left blank. Advanced Integrated Multi-sensor Surveillance (AIMS) Mission, Function, Task Analysis Kevin Baker...les principaux opérateurs. Il est recommandé d’en tenir compte durant l’intégration du système AIMS aux projets du FWSAR et du CP-140 du PIMPA
Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Advanced Integrated Multi-sensor Surveillance (AIMS) Mission, Function, Task Analysis Kevin Baker and...sensor Surveillance (AIMS) Mission, Function, Task Analysis Kevin Baker Gord Youngson CAE Professional Services CAE Professional Services 1135...d’en tenir compte durant l’intégration du système AIMS aux projets du FWSAR et du CP-140 du PIMPA. Baker, K. and Youngson, G. 2007. Advanced
Williams, Jessica L.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.; You, Tung-Han
The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will perform soil moisture content and freeze/thaw state observations from a low-Earth orbit. The observatory is scheduled to launch in October 2014 and will perform observations from a near-polar, frozen, and sun-synchronous Science Orbit for a 3-year data collection mission. At launch, the observatory is delivered to an Injection Orbit that is biased below the Science Orbit; the spacecraft will maneuver to the Science Orbit during the mission Commissioning Phase. The delta V needed to maneuver from the Injection Orbit to the Science Orbit is computed statistically via a Monte Carlo simulation; the 99th percentile delta V (delta V99) is carried as a line item in the mission delta V budget. This paper details the simulation and analysis performed to compute this figure and the delta V99 computed per current mission parameters.
Nickel, Craig; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen; Dichmann, Donald; Parker, Joel
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.
Nickel, Craig; Parker, Joel; Dichmann, Don; Lebois, Ryan; Lutz, Stephen
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will be injected into a highly eccentric Earth orbit and fly 3.5 phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby to enter a mission orbit with lunar 2:1 resonance. Through the phasing loops and mission orbit, the trajectory is significantly affected by lunar and solar gravity. We have developed a trajectory design to achieve the mission orbit and meet mission constraints, including eclipse avoidance and a 30-year geostationary orbit avoidance requirement. A parallelized Monte Carlo simulation was performed to validate the trajectory after injecting common perturbations, including launch dispersions, orbit determination errors, and maneuver execution errors. The Monte Carlo analysis helped identify mission risks and is used in the trajectory selection process.
Willis, P. A.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Kehl, F.
Our team has been developing all components required for liquid-based analysis on planetary missions. Here we summarize our progress in this area, and highlight enhancements to science return on NASA missions that these technologies could provide.
Lutzky, D.; Schafer, J.
The MAESTRO system is a mission analysis tool designed to present to the user information necessary to make the various decisions required in the design and execution of a spaceflight mission. The system was designed so that it can be used in both the pre-launch mission planning phase of a mission and during the flight as an in-flight decision making tool. A description of each of the following modes is presented: (1) trajectory propagation mode; (2) retro-fire determination mode; (3) midcourse analysis determination mode; (4) Monte Carlo mode; (5) verification mode; (6) orbit stability mode; and (7) post injection trim mode. A description of the inputs necessary to run the program mode is given along with a sample case.
Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter
On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where
The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.
Williams, Trevor W.
The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will fly four spinning spacecraft in formation in highly elliptical orbits to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. This paper describes the development of an MMS launch window tool that uses the orbitaveraged Variation of Parameter equations as the basis for a semi-analytic quantification of the dominant oblateness and lunisolar perturbation effects on the MMS orbit. This approach, coupled with a geometric interpretation of all of the MMS science and engineering constraints, allows a scan of 180(sup 2) = 32,400 different (RAAN, AOP) pairs to be carried out for a specified launch day in less than 10 s on a typical modern laptop. The resulting plot indicates the regions in (RAAN, AOP) space where each constraint is satisfied or violated: their intersection gives, in an easily interpreted graphical manner, the final solution space for the day considered. This tool, SWM76, is now used to provide launch conditions to the full fidelity (but far slower) MMS simulation code: very good agreement has been observed between the two methods.
Full Text Available Modern scientific space missions pose high requirements on the accuracy of the prediction and the analysis of satellite motion. On the one hand, accurate orbit propagation models are needed for the design and the preparation of a mission. On the other hand, these models are needed for the mission data analysis itself, thus allowing for the identification of unexpected disturbances, couplings, and noises which may affect the scientific signals. We present a numerical approach for Solar Radiation Pressure modelling, which is one of the main contributors for nongravitational disturbances for Earth orbiting satellites. The here introduced modelling approach allows for the inclusion of detailed spacecraft geometries, optical surface properties, and the variation of these optical surface properties (material degradation during the mission lifetime. By using the geometry definition, surface property definitions, and mission definition of the French MICROSCOPE mission we highlight the benefit of an accurate Solar Radiation Pressure modelling versus conventional methods such as the Cannonball model or a Wing-Box approach. Our analysis shows that the implementation of a detailed satellite geometry and the consideration of changing surface properties allow for the detection of systematics which are not detectable by conventional models.
Software systems were designed and developed for data management, data acquisition, interactive visualization and analysis of solar arrays, tethered objects, and large object space plasma interactions...
Johnson, Jeffrey R.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the problems that non-mission researchers have in accessing data to use in their analysis of Mars. The increasing complexity of Mars datasets results in custom software development by instrument teams that is often the only means to visualize and analyze the data. The solutions to the problem are to continue efforts toward synergizing data from multiple missions and making the data, s/w, derived products available in standardized, easily-accessible formats, encourage release of "lite" versions of mission-related software prior to end-of-mission, and planetary image data should be systematically processed in a coordinated way and made available in an easily accessed form. The recommendations of Mars Environmental GIS Workshop are reviewed.
Gould, G. J.
The Space Station-based Customer Servicing Facility service bay requirements for service accommodation to the Initial Orbit Capability (IOC) and far-term Station Accommodation Test Sets (SETS) missions are analyzed using the developed mission traffic model. Analysis results are presented which indicate that one servicing bay will be sufficient to accommodate IOC customer servicing requirements. Growth servicing requirements indicate that an additional servicing bay will be needed for accommodation of the far-term SATS mission payloads. Even though the level of total mission accommodation is below 100 percent for one bay at IOC and two bays during growth operations, the levels are such that operational work-around exists so that additional servicing bays will not be required.
Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies play a critical role in healthcare economy. Articulating mission statement of a Pharmaceutical company results in guiding strategies and activities of the firm. In this survey, mission statements of Iranian, Turkish, Indian and American pharmaceutical companies are analyzed. By using content analysis, frequencies of nine elements of the mission statement according to Fred R. David including: customers, product/service, market, technology, survival/growth/profitability, philosophy, self-perception, public image and employee were investigated. 98 mission statements of pharmaceutical companies (32 iranain companies, 16 Turkish companies, 30 Indian companies, and 20 American companies were analyzed. Simple correspondence analysis was used to extract the perceptual map. Results indicate that two dimensions of perceptual map include: focus of mission (throughput or input/output, and focus of mission elements (market or support. Iranian companies placed on the quarter of throughput /support, American and Turkish companies placed on the quarter of throughput/market. Indian companies placed on the quarter of input and output/market.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop and demonstrate an integrated total-system risk and reliability analysis approach that is based on dynamic, probabilistic simulation. This...
Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer
This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…
Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.
The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.
Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tung, Ramona H.; Lee, Charles H.
In this paper, we describe the development roadmap and discuss the various challenges of an evolvable and extensible multi-mission telecom planning and analysis framework. Our long-term goal is to develop a set of powerful flexible telecommunications analysis tools that can be easily adapted to different missions while maintain the common Deep Space Communication requirements. The ability of re-using the DSN ground models and the common software utilities in our adaptations has contributed significantly to our development efforts measured in terms of consistency, accuracy, and minimal effort redundancy, which can translate into shorter development time and major cost savings for the individual missions. In our roadmap, we will address the design principles, technical achievements and the associated challenges for following telecom analysis tools (i) Telecom Forecaster Predictor - TFP (ii) Unified Telecom Predictor - UTP (iii) Generalized Telecom Predictor - GTP (iv) Generic TFP (v) Web-based TFP (vi) Application Program Interface - API (vii) Mars Relay Network Planning Tool - MRNPT.
The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.
Sagdeev, R.Z.; Managadze, G.G.; Shutyaev, I.Yu.; Timofeev, P.P.; Szegoe, K.
Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)
Marr, Greg C.
Differencing multiple, simultaneous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) one-way Doppler passes can yield metric tracking data usable for orbit determination for (low-cost) spacecraft which do not have TDRSS transponders or local oscillators stable enough to allow the one-way TDRSS Doppler tracking data to be used for early mission orbit determination. Orbit determination error analysis results are provided for low Earth orbiting spacecraft for various early mission tracking scenarios.
Boerema, Albert J.
Using student achievement data from British Columbia, Canada, this study is an exploration of the differences that lie within the private school sector using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze the data. The analysis showed that when controlling for language, parents' level of educational attainment, and prior achievement, the private school…
Marius Costel Esi
Full Text Available The economic activity goals reveal a number of aspects which express the need for re-evaluating the way in which the dynamics analysis values may be correlated with the wording business mission. Under these conditions, managerial undertaken strategies at the level of business may be validated in so far as they reveal purpose/ objectives assumed/ undertaken by decision makers (particularly top-managers. Moreover, compliance with eligibility criteria according to which management strategies are reflected, should be aimed at in our opinion improving decision-making process. But such a decision-making process involves an understanding of the judicious economic actors/ labor with regard to the way in which it is possible to analyze the dynamics values in relation to formulation of business organization's mission. In these circumstances, a first objective of this research is analysis dynamics values in the context of formulation of business mission. In this way, by this approach, we strive to show you those conditionings that make it possible formulation of business mission in relation to organizational culture. On the other hand, a second objective that we have in view is given of the way in which is to bring about the process of defining and statement of organizational mission, a process linked to the size of axiological mission statement of business organization. This status as a matter of fact, in the light of the analysis we take into account, a business model in which the objectives, strategies, organization mission business become materialized in so far as that contextuality venture is validated in relation to socio-economic prospects. Therefore, the existence of phenomena such as social and economic situation involves a series of connections between different levels of displacing of the organization of business which provides, in fact, its legitimacy
Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede
This paper proposes a novel mission-profile-based reliability analysis approach for stress on bond wires in Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET power modules using statistics and thermo-mechanical FEM analysis. In the proposed approach, both the operational and environmental thermal stresses are taken...... and the mechanical stress on bond wires is consequently extracted by finite-element simulations. In the final step, the considered mission profile is translated in a stress sequence to be used for Rainflow counting calculation and lifetime estimation....
These slides describe the data analysis methods that are used to determine inputs for probabilistic risk models supporting the Space Shuttle Program. Other applications can follow a similar path probably using different data sources. Statistical approaches are different and not addressed here. Topics included here: 1) Prior Distribution; 2) Likelihood Data; 3) Bayesian Updating; and 4) Uncertainty and Error. Note: This is a high-level discussion and is not intended to be a tutorial.
The first part of this paper presents the PSpice models including their respective variable parameters at SBS and cell level. Then the second part of the paper introduces to the reader the model parameters that were chosen and identified to perform Monte Carlo Analysis simulations. The third part reflects some MCA results for a VES16 battery module. Finally the reader will see some other simulations that were performed by re-using the battery model for an another Saft battery cell type (MP XTD for a specific space application, at high temperature.
Brieda, Lubos; Barrie, Alexander; Hughes, David; Errigo, Therese
NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) is an unmanned constellation of four identical spacecraft designed to investigate magnetic reconnection by obtaining detailed measurements of plasma properties in Earth's magnetopause and magnetotail. Each of the four identical satellites carries a suite of instruments which characterize the ambient ion and electron energy spectrum and composition. Some of these instruments utilize microchannel plates and are sensitive to particulate contamination. In this paper, we analyze the transport of particulates during pre-launch, launch and ascent events, and use the analysis to obtain quantitative predictions of contamination impact on the instruments. Viewfactor calculation is performed by considering the gravitational and aerodynamic forces acting on the particles.
Berry, Kevin; Sutter, Brian; May, Alex; Williams, Ken; Barbee, Brent W.; Beckman, Mark; Williams, Bobby
The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in late 2018. After several months in formation with and orbit about the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx will fly a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid s surface to obtain a regolith sample. This paper describes the mission design of the TAG sequence and the propulsive maneuvers required to achieve the trajectory. This paper also shows preliminary results of orbit covariance analysis and Monte-Carlo analysis that demonstrate the ability to arrive at a targeted location on the surface of RQ36 within a 25 meter radius with 98.3% confidence.
Thrasher, Chard W.
NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle as a key component of the Constellation program which will provide safe and reliable transportation to the International Space Station, back to the moon, and later to Mars. The risks and costs of the Ares I must be significantly lowered, as compared to other manned launch vehicles, to enable the continuation of space exploration. It is essential that safety be significantly improved, and cost-effectively incorporated into the design process. This paper justifies early and effective safety analysis of complex space systems. Interactions and dependences between design, logistics, modeling, reliability, and safety engineers will be discussed to illustrate methods to lower cost, reduce design cycles and lessen the likelihood of catastrophic events.
Verroi, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Fineschi, S.; Antonucci, E.
METIS is the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy for the ESA Solar Orbiter. Its target is the solar corona from a near-Sun orbit in two different spectral bands: the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and the VL visible light band. METIS adopts a novel inverted externally occulted configuration, where the disk light is shielded by an annular occulter, and an annular aspherical mirror M1 collects the signal coming from the corona. After M1 the coronal light passes through an internal occulter and is then reflected by a second annular mirror M2 toward a narrow filter for the 121.6 nm HI line selection. The visible light reflected by the filter is used to feed a visible light (580 - 640 nm) polarimetric channel. The photospheric light passing through the entrance aperture is back-rejected by a spherical rejection mirror. Since the coronal light is enormously fainter than the photospheric one, a very tough suppression is needed for the internal stray light, in particular the requirement for the stray light suppression is more stringent in the VL than in the UV, because the emission of the corona with respect to the disk emission is different in the two cases, and the requirements are a suppression of at least 10-9 times for the VL and a suppression of at least 10-7 times for the UV channel. This paper presents the stray light analysis for this new coronographic configuration. The complexity of the optomechanical design of METIS, combined with the faintness of the coronal light with respect to the solar disk noise, make a standard ray tracing approach not feasible because it is not sufficient to stop at the first generation of scattered rays in order to check the requirements. Also scattered rays down to the fourth generation must be treated as sources of new scattering light, to analyze the required level of accuracy. If used in a standard ray tracing scattering analysis, this approach is absolutely beyond the computational capabilities today available
Shane R. Cloude
Full Text Available We investigate multichannel imaging radar systems employing coherent combinations of polarimetry and interferometry (Pol-InSAR. Such systems are well suited for the extraction of bio- and geophysical parameters by evaluating the combined scattering from surfaces and volumes. This combination leads to several important differences between the design of Pol-InSAR sensors and conventional single polarisation SAR interferometers. We first highlight these differences and then investigate the Pol-InSAR performance of two proposed spaceborne SAR systems (ALOS/PalSAR and TerraSAR-L operating in repeat-pass mode. For this, we introduce the novel concept of a phase tube which enables (1 a quantitative assessment of the Pol-InSAR performance, (2 a comparison between different sensor configurations, and (3 an optimization of the instrument settings for different Pol-InSAR applications. The phase tube may hence serve as an interface between system engineers and application-oriented scientists. The performance analysis reveals major limitations for even moderate levels of temporal decorrelation. Such deteriorations may be avoided in single-pass sensor configurations and we demonstrate the potential benefits from the use of future bi- and multistatic SAR interferometers.
Krieger, Gerhard; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos Panagiotis; Cloude, Shane R.
We investigate multichannel imaging radar systems employing coherent combinations of polarimetry and interferometry (Pol-InSAR). Such systems are well suited for the extraction of bio- and geophysical parameters by evaluating the combined scattering from surfaces and volumes. This combination leads to several important differences between the design of Pol-InSAR sensors and conventional single polarisation SAR interferometers. We first highlight these differences and then investigate the Pol-InSAR performance of two proposed spaceborne SAR systems (ALOS/PalSAR and TerraSAR-L) operating in repeat-pass mode. For this, we introduce the novel concept of a phase tube which enables (1) a quantitative assessment of the Pol-InSAR performance, (2) a comparison between different sensor configurations, and (3) an optimization of the instrument settings for different Pol-InSAR applications. The phase tube may hence serve as an interface between system engineers and application-oriented scientists. The performance analysis reveals major limitations for even moderate levels of temporal decorrelation. Such deteriorations may be avoided in single-pass sensor configurations and we demonstrate the potential benefits from the use of future bi- and multistatic SAR interferometers.
Fermin, Caroline P.
This research study was an exploratory analysis to determine if a relationship existed between mission attachment and job satisfaction of emergency nonprofit domestic violence shelter/transitional housing workers. The study examined if the perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes were different between entry-level, middle-level, and senior-level…
Lutzky, D.; Bjorkman, W. S.
The Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program known as MAESTRO is described. MAESTRO is an all FORTRAN, block style, computer program designed to perform various mission control tasks. This manual is a guide to MAESTRO, providing individuals the capability of modifying the program to suit their needs. Descriptions are presented of each of the subroutines descriptions consist of input/output description, theory, subroutine description, and a flow chart where applicable. The programmer's manual also contains a detailed description of the common blocks, a subroutine cross reference map, and a general description of the program structure.
Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana Sun-Earth L1 libration point mission and for the science data collection phase of a future Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission. The Triana spacecraft was nominally to be released by the Space Shuttle in a low Earth orbit, and this analysis focuses on that scenario. From the release orbit a transfer trajectory insertion (TTI) maneuver performed using a solid stage would increase the velocity be approximately 3.1 km/sec sending Triana on a direct trajectory to its mission orbit. The Triana mission orbit is a Sun-Earth L1 Lissajous orbit with a Sun-Earth-vehicle (SEV) angle between 4.0 and 15.0 degrees, which would be achieved after a Lissajous orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver at approximately launch plus 6 months. Because Triana was to be launched by the Space Shuttle, TTI could potentially occur over a 16 orbit range from low Earth orbit. This analysis was performed assuming TTI was performed from a low Earth orbit with an inclination of 28.5 degrees and assuming support from a combination of three Deep Space Network (DSN) stations, Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid and four commercial Universal Space Network (USN) stations, Alaska, Hawaii, Perth, and Santiago. These ground stations would provide coherent two-way range and range rate tracking data usable for orbit determination. Larger range and range rate errors were assumed for the USN stations. Nominally, DSN support would end at TTI+144 hours assuming there were no USN problems. Post-TTI coverage for a range of TTI longitudes for a given nominal trajectory case were analyzed. The orbit determination error analysis after the first correction maneuver would be generally applicable to any libration point mission utilizing a direct trajectory.
Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Zimmer, Aline K.; Reijneveld, Johannes P. J.; Dunlop, Kathryn L.; Takahashi, Yu; Tardivel, Simon; Scheeres, Daniel J.
This paper presents a mission analysis comparison of human missions to asteroids using two distinct architectures. The objective is to determine if either architecture can reduce launch mass with respect to the other, while not sacrificing other performance metrics such as mission duration. One architecture relies on chemical propulsion, the traditional workhorse of space exploration. The second combines chemical and electric propulsion into a hybrid architecture that attempts to utilize the strengths of each, namely the short flight times of chemical propulsion and the propellant efficiency of electric propulsion. The architectures are thoroughly detailed, and accessibility of the known asteroid population is determined for both. The most accessible asteroids are discussed in detail. Aspects such as mission abort scenarios and vehicle reusability are also discussed. Ultimately, it is determined that launch mass can be greatly reduced with the hybrid architecture, without a notable increase in mission duration. This demonstrates that significant performance improvements can be introduced to the next step of human space exploration with realistic electric propulsion system capabilities. This leads to immediate cost savings for human exploration and simultaneously opens a path of technology development that leads to technologies enabling access to even further destinations in the future.
Do, Sydney; Owens, Andrew; Ho, Koki; Schreiner, Samuel; de Weck, Olivier
In recent years, the Mars One program has gained significant publicity for its plans to colonize the red planet. Beginning in 2025, the program plans to land four people on Mars every 26 months via a series of one-way missions, using exclusively existing technology. This one-way approach has frequently been cited as a key enabler of accelerating the first crewed landing on Mars. While the Mars One program has received considerable attention, little has been published in the technical literature regarding the formulation of its mission architecture. In light of this, we perform an independent analysis of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan, focusing on the architecture of the life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems, and their impact on sparing and space logistics. To perform this analysis, we adopt an iterative analysis approach in which we model and simulate the mission architecture, assess its feasibility, implement any applicable modifications while attempting to remain within the constraints set forth by Mars One, and then resimulate and reanalyze the revised version of the mission architecture. Where required information regarding the Mars One mission architecture is not available, we assume numerical values derived from standard spaceflight design handbooks and documents. Through four iterations of this process, our analysis finds that the Mars One mission plan, as publicly described, is not feasible. This conclusion is obtained from analyses based on mission assumptions derived from and constrained by statements made by Mars One, and is the result of the following findings: (1) several technologies including ISRU, life support, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are not currently "existing, validated and available" as claimed by Mars One; (2) the crop growth area described by Mars One is insufficient to feed their crew; (3) increasing the crop growth area to provide sufficient food for the crew leads to atmospheric
Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas
The NetLander Network mission concept was designed with up to 10 small landers to perform environmental monitoring on the surface of Mars over a long duty cycle. Each lander would utilize a small Radioisotope Power System (RPS) to generate about 20 to 25 We of electric power. Each small-RPS would use a single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module to generate about 250 Wt of thermal power (BOL), which must be dissipated throughout all phases of the mission. This paper describes a custom concept for a small-RPS, specifically suited for the NetLander, and discusses an analysis of the thermal environment for five phases of the mission. On Earth and on Mars the small-RPS would operate in planetary atmospheres and the waste heat would be removed through a passive radiator. During the cruise phase, including the launch, a fluid loop would provide active cooling to the radiator of the small-RPS and would reject the excess heat through an external radiator. For the entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase the lander would accumulate the excess heat, while building up thermal inertia inside. This analysis provides an initial step towards developing an end-to-end systems approach to better understand the operation of a small-RPS, and to account for the relevant operating phases and environments encountered during a mission.
LeMoigne, J.; Dabney, P.; Foreman, V.; Grogan, P.; Hache, S.; Holland, M. P.; Hughes, S. P.; Nag, S.; Siddiqi, A.
Multipoint measurement missions can provide a significant advancement in science return and this science interest coupled with many recent technological advances are driving a growing trend in exploring distributed architectures for future NASA missions. Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSMs) leverage multiple spacecraft to achieve one or more common goals. In particular, a constellation is the most general form of DSM with two or more spacecraft placed into specific orbit(s) for the purpose of serving a common objective (e.g., CYGNSS). Because a DSM architectural trade-space includes both monolithic and distributed design variables, DSM optimization is a large and complex problem with multiple conflicting objectives. Over the last two years, our team has been developing a Trade-space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C), implemented in common programming languages for pre-Phase A constellation mission analysis. By evaluating alternative mission architectures, TAT-C seeks to minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals. This presentation will describe the overall architecture of TAT-C including: a User Interface (UI) at several levels of details and user expertise; Trade-space Search Requests that are created from the Science requirements gathered by the UI and validated by a Knowledge Base; a Knowledge Base to compare the current requests to prior mission concepts to potentially prune the trade-space; a Trade-space Search Iterator which, with inputs from the Knowledge Base, and, in collaboration with the Orbit & Coverage, Reduction & Metrics, and Cost& Risk modules, generates multiple potential architectures and their associated characteristics. TAT-C leverages the use of the Goddard Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to compute coverage and ancillary data, modeling orbits to balance accuracy and performance. The current version includes uniform and non-uniform Walker constellations as well as Ad-Hoc and precessing constellations, and its
Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Siddens, Aaron
The anticipated NASA Mars Sample Return Mission (MSR) requires a simple and reliable method in which to return collected Martian samples back to earth for scientific analysis. The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is NASA's proposed solution to this MSR requirement. Key aspects of the MMEEV are its reliable and passive operation, energy absorbing foam-composite structure, and modular impact sphere (IS) design. To aid in the development of an EEV design that can be modified for various missions requirements, two fully parametric finite element models were developed. The first model was developed in an explicit finite element code and was designed to evaluate the impact response of the vehicle and payload during the final stage of the vehicle's return to earth. The second model was developed in an explicit code and was designed to evaluate the static and dynamic structural response of the vehicle during launch and reentry. In contrast to most other FE models, built through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) pre-processor, the current model was developed using a coding technique that allows the analyst to quickly change nearly all aspects of the model including: geometric dimensions, material properties, load and boundary conditions, mesh properties, and analysis controls. Using the developed design tool, a full range of proposed designs can quickly be analyzed numerically and thus the design trade space for the EEV can be fully understood. An engineer can then quickly reach the best design for a specific mission and also adapt and optimize the general design for different missions.
The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.
Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.
The six month effort was responsible for the development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs. The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty.
DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato
This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.
The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Phase 1 Financial Analysis is to provide a quantitative and qualitative cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-1946, Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (Swita et al. 1998). The Updated Baseline (Section 3.0) is compared to the current TWRS Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) for fiscal year (FY) 1998 and target budgets for FY 1999 through FY 2011 (Section 4.1). The analysis then evaluates the executability of HNF-1946 (Sections 4.2 through 4.5) and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation (Sections 4.6, 4.7, and 5.0). A sound systems engineering approach was applied to understand and analyze the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal mission. Program and Level 1 Logics were decomposed to Level 8 of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) where logic was detailed, scope was defined, detail durations and estimates prepared, and resource loaded schedules developed. Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages were prepared which include this information and, in addition, defined the enabling assumptions for each task, and the risks associated with performance. This process is discussed in Section 2.1. Detailed reviews at the subactivity within the Level 1 Logic TBR levels were conducted to provide the recommended solution to the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal Mission. Independent cost analysis and risk assessments were performed by members of the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Business Management and Chief Financial Officer organization along with specialists in risk analysis from TRW, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The process evaluated technical, schedule, and cost risk by category (program specific fixed and variable, integrated program, and programmatic) based on risk certainly from high probability well defined to very low probability that is not bounded or priceable as discussed in Section 2.2. The results have been
The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Phase 1 Financial Analysis is to provide a quantitative and qualitative cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-1946, Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (Swita et al. 1998). The Updated Baseline (Section 3.0) is compared to the current TWRS Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) for fiscal year (FY) 1998 and target budgets for FY 1999 through FY 2011 (Section 4.1). The analysis then evaluates the executability of HNF-1946 (Sections 4.2 through 4.5) and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation (Sections 4.6, 4.7, and 5.0). A sound systems engineering approach was applied to understand and analyze the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal mission. Program and Level 1 Logics were decomposed to Level 8 of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) where logic was detailed, scope was defined, detail durations and estimates prepared, and resource loaded schedules developed. Technical Basis Review (TBR) packages were prepared which include this information and, in addition, defined the enabling assumptions for each task, and the risks associated with performance. This process is discussed in Section 2.1. Detailed reviews at the subactivity within the Level 1 Logic TBR levels were conducted to provide the recommended solution to the Phase 1B Retrieval and Disposal Mission. Independent cost analysis and risk assessments were performed by members of the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Business Management and Chief Financial Officer organization along with specialists in risk analysis from TRW, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems. The process evaluated technical, schedule, and cost risk by category (program specific fixed and variable, integrated program, and programmatic) based on risk certainly from high probability well defined to very low probability that is not bounded or priceable as discussed in Section 2.2. The results have been
Brown, Emery N.
The goal of this project is to develop reliable statistical algorithms for on-line analysis of physiologic and neurobehavioral variables monitored during long-duration space missions. Maintenance of physiologic and neurobehavioral homeostasis during long-duration space missions is crucial for ensuring optimal crew performance. If countermeasures are not applied, alterations in homeostasis will occur in nearly all-physiologic systems. During such missions data from most of these systems will be either continually and/or continuously monitored. Therefore, if these data can be analyzed as they are acquired and the status of these systems can be continually assessed, then once alterations are detected, appropriate countermeasures can be applied to correct them. One of the most important physiologic systems in which to maintain homeostasis during long-duration missions is the circadian system. To detect and treat alterations in circadian physiology during long duration space missions requires development of: 1) a ground-based protocol to assess the status of the circadian system under the light-dark environment in which crews in space will typically work; and 2) appropriate statistical methods to make this assessment. The protocol in Project 1, Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral will study human volunteers under the simulated light-dark environment of long-duration space missions. Therefore, we propose to develop statistical models to characterize in near real time circadian and neurobehavioral physiology under these conditions. The specific aims of this project are to test the hypotheses that: 1) Dynamic statistical methods based on the Kronauer model of the human circadian system can be developed to estimate circadian phase, period, amplitude from core-temperature data collected under simulated light- dark conditions of long-duration space missions. 2) Analytic formulae and numerical algorithms can be developed to compute the error in the
... while deployed on missions in three representative climatic regions. The predicted mission profiles for the MTVR and LVS, with and without a M1095 trailer, were quantified to determine their relationship to standard mission profile descriptions...
Huang, Frank; Mayr, Hans; Killeen, Tim; Russell, Jim; Reber, Skip
We report on an analysis of temperature and wind data based respectively on measurements with the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) and TIDI (TIMED Doppler Interferometer) instruments on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics) mission. Comparisons are made with corresponding results obtained from the HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and CLAES (Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer) instruments on the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft. The TIMED and UARS instruments have important common and uncommon properties in their sampling of the data as a function local solar time. For comparison between the data from the two satellite missions, we present the derived diurnal tidal and zonal-mean variations of temperature and winds, obtained as functions of season, latitude, and altitude. The observations are also compared with results from the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM).
This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)
Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Peng, Rui; Pan, Zhusheng
A phased-mission system (PMS) involves multiple, consecutive, non-overlapping phases of operation. The system structure function and component failure behavior in a PMS can change from phase to phase, posing big challenges to the system reliability analysis. Further complicating the problem is the functional dependence (FDEP) behavior where the failure of certain component(s) causes other component(s) to become unusable or inaccessible or isolated. Previous studies have shown that FDEP can cause competitions between failure propagation and failure isolation in the time domain. While such competing failure effects have been well addressed in single-phase systems, only little work has focused on PMSs with a restrictive assumption that a single FDEP group exists in one phase of the mission. Many practical systems (e.g., computer systems and networks), however may involve multiple FDEP groups during the mission. Moreover, different FDEP groups can be dependent due to sharing some common components; they may appear in a single phase or multiple phases. This paper makes new contributions by modeling and analyzing reliability of PMSs subject to multiple FDEP groups through a Markov chain-based methodology. Propagated failures with both global and selective effects are considered. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Reliability of phased-mission systems subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects is modeled. • Multiple independent or dependent functional dependence groups are considered. • Propagated failures with global effects and selective effects are studied. • Four case studies demonstrate generality and application of the proposed Markov-based method.
Full Text Available A numerical analysis of electromagnetic waves around the atmospheric reentry demonstrator (ARD of the European Space Agency (ESA in an atmospheric reentry mission was conducted. During the ARD mission, which involves a 70% scaled-down configuration capsule of the Apollo command module, radio frequency blackout and strong plasma attenuation of radio waves in communications with data relay satellites and air planes were observed. The electromagnetic interference was caused by highly dense plasma derived from a strong shock wave generated in front of the capsule because of orbital speed during reentry. In this study, the physical properties of the plasma flow in the shock layer and wake region of the ESA ARD were obtained using a computational fluid dynamics technique. Then, electromagnetic waves were expressed using a frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain method using the plasma properties. The analysis model was validated based on experimental flight data. A comparison of the measured and predicted results showed good agreement. The distribution of charged particles around the ESA ARD and the complicated behavior of electromagnetic waves, with attenuation and reflection, are clarified in detail. It is suggested that the analysis model could be an effective tool for investigating radio frequency blackout and plasma attenuation in radio wave communication.
Livingston, John M.
NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).
Marr, Clifton T.; Thurman, David A.; Jorgensen, Bruce V.
ABSTRACT Many examples of software architectures exist that support process monitoring and analysis applications which could be applied to enrichment plants in a fashion that supports the Safeguards Mission. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed mature solutions that will provide the framework to support online statistical analysis of enrichment plans and the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Most recently, PNNL has developed a refined architecture and supporting tools that address many of the common problems analysis and modeling environments experience: pipelining, handling large data volumes, and real-time performance. We propose the architecture and tools may be successfully used in furthering the goals of nuclear material control and accountability as both an aid to processing plant owners and as comprehensive monitoring for oversight teams.
Byrnes, D. V.; Carney, P. C.; Underwood, J. W.; Vogt, E. D.
Development, test, conversion, and documentation of computer software for the mission analysis of missions to halo orbits about libration points in the earth-sun system is reported. The software consisting of two programs called NOMNAL and ERRAN is part of the Space Trajectories Error Analysis Programs (STEAP). The program NOMNAL targets a transfer trajectory from Earth on a given launch date to a specified halo orbit on a required arrival date. Either impulsive or finite thrust insertion maneuvers into halo orbit are permitted by the program. The transfer trajectory is consistent with a realistic launch profile input by the user. The second program ERRAN conducts error analyses of the targeted transfer trajectory. Measurements including range, doppler, star-planet angles, and apparent planet diameter are processed in a Kalman-Schmidt filter to determine the trajectory knowledge uncertainty. Execution errors at injection, midcourse correction and orbit insertion maneuvers are analyzed along with the navigation uncertainty to determine trajectory control uncertainties and fuel-sizing requirements. The program is also capable of generalized covariance analyses.
Butler, J.S.; Kapitz, D.; Martin, R.P.; Seifaee, F.; Sundaram, R.K.
The U.S. EPR is a 4590 MWth evolutionary pressurized water reactor that incorporates proven technology with innovative system architecture to provide an unprecedented level of safety. One of the measures of safety is provided by Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). PRA Level 1 concerns the evaluation of core damage frequency based on various initiating events and the success or failure of various plant event mitigation features. Determination of this measure requires mission success criteria, which are used to build the logic that makes up the fault trees and event trees of the Level 1 PRA. Developing mission success criteria for the wide variety of accident sequences modeled in the PRA Level 1 model requires a large number of thermal hydraulic calculations. The MAAP4 code, developed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. and distributed by EPRI, was chosen to perform these calculations because of its fast computation times relative to more sophisticated thermal-hydraulics codes This is a unique application of MAAP4, which was developed specifically for severe accident and PRA Level 2 analysis. As such, a study was performed to assess MAAP4 's thermal-hydraulic response capabilities against AREVA 's S-RELAP5 best-estimate integral systems thermal-hydraulic analysis code. (authors)
The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.
Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.
Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth
Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Thanasis; Giannakis, Omiros; Giamini, Sigiava A.; Vasalos, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.
The time-frequency analysis (TFA) tool is a suite of algorithms based on wavelet transforms and neural networks, tailored to the analysis of Level 1b data from the Swarm mission , . The aim of the TFA tool has been to combine the advantages of multi-spacecraft and ground-based monitoring of the geospace environment in order to analyze and study magnetospheric ultra low frequency (ULF) waves. Additionally, the tool has been offered a useful platform to monitor the wave evolution from the outer boundaries of Earth's magnetosphere through the topside ionosphere down to the surface. Here, we present the revised TFA (R-TFA) tool introducing a new user-friendly interface and presenting a number of applications and capabilities that have not been previously included in the earlier versions of the tool.
Murphy, James R.; Bridger, Alison F.C.; Haberle, Robert M.
We have characterized the near-surface martian wind environment as calculated with a set of numerical simulations carried out with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (Mars GCM). These wind environments are intended to offer future spacecraft missions to the martian surface a data base from which to choose those locations which meet the mission's criteria for minimal near surface winds to enable a successful landing. We also became involved in the development and testing of the wind sensor which is currently onboard the Mars-bound Pathfinder lander. We began this effort with a comparison of Mars GCM produced winds with those measured by the Viking landers during their descent through the martian atmosphere and their surface wind measurements during the 3+ martian year lifetime of the mission. Unexpected technical difficulties in implementing the sophisticated Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme of Haberle et al. (1993) within the Mars GCM precluded our carrying out this investigation with the desired improvement to the model's treatment of the PBL. Thus, our results from this effort are not as conclusive as we had anticipated. As it turns out, similar difficulties have been experienced by other Mars modelling groups in attempting to implement very similar PBL routines into their GCMs (Mars General Circulation Model Intercomparison Workshop, held at Oxford University, United Kingdom, July 22-24, 1996; organized by J. Murphy, J. Hollingsworth, M. Joshi). These problems, which arise due to the nature of the time stepping in each of the models, are near to being resolved at the present. The model discussions which follow herein are based upon results using the existing, less sophisticated PBL routine. We fully anticipate implementing the tools we have developed in the present effort to investigate GCM results with the new PBL scheme implemented, and thereafter producing the technical document detailing results from the analysis tools developed during this
Full Text Available In this research, the ground contact opportunity for the fictitious low lunar orbiter is analyzed to prepare for a future Korean lunar orbiter mission. The ground contact opportunity is basically derived from geometrical relations between the typical ground stations at the Earth, the relative positions of the Earth and Moon, and finally, the lunar orbiter itself. Both the cut-off angle and the orbiter’s Line of Sight (LOS conditions (weather orbiter is located at near or far side of the Moon seen from the Earth are considered to determine the ground contact opportunities. Four KOMPSAT Ground Stations (KGSs are assumed to be Korea’s future Near Earth Networks (NENs to support lunar missions, and world-wide separated Deep Space Networks (DSNs are also included during the contact availability analysis. As a result, it is concluded that about 138 times of contact will be made between the orbiter and the Daejeon station during 27.3 days of prediction time span. If these contact times are converted into contact duration, the duration is found to be about 8.55 days, about 31.31% of 27.3 days. It is discovered that selected four KGSs cannot provide continuous tracking of the lunar orbiter, meaning that international collaboration is necessary to track Korea’s future lunar orbiter effectively. Possible combinations of world-wide separated DSNs are also suggested to compensate for the lack of contact availability with only four KGSs, as with primary and backup station concepts. The provided algorithm can be easily modified to support any type of orbit around the Moon, and therefore, the presented results could aid further progress in the design field of Korea’s lunar orbiter missions.
Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche
The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.
Rogers, Blake A.
investigated to determine if they can be used to find new cycler trajectories, as well as those previously discovered. First order approximations to the relative motion equations are unfruitful for Earth-Mars cyclers because the variation in radial distance from the Sun is too large. However, using optimization techniques, cycling trajectories are found for the Earth-Mars, Earth-Ceres, and Mars-Ceres systems. Experiments showing a seasonal variation of the nuclear decay rates of a number of different nuclei and decay anomalies--- apparently related to solar flares and solar rotation--- have suggested that the Sun may somehow be influencing nuclear decay processes. Recently, there have been searches for such an effect in 238Pu nuclei contained in the radioisotope thermoelectric generators on board the Cassini spacecraft. In this work, that analysis is modified and extended to obtain constraints on anomalous decays of 238Pu over a wider range of models, but these limits cannot be applied to other nuclei if the anomaly is composition-dependent. It is also shown that it may require very high sensitivity for terrestrial experiments to discriminate among some models if such a decay anomaly exists, motivating the consideration of future spacecraft experiments which would require less precision. A mission on which such an experiment could be run is proposed. The proposed mission will take various isotopes on a spacecraft that has a large variation in radial distance and return them to Earth. Two different types of trajectories are considered: one with intermediate Venus flybys and one that injects directly into an Earth-resonant orbit. It is shown that each of these types of trajectories have their relative merits with regards to the scientific objective. The suitability of the upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions to perform this experiment is also investigated.
It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.
Brasoveanu, Dan; Sedlak, Joseph
Analysis of flight data from previous missions indicates that anomalous Sun sensor readings could be caused by Earth albedo interference. A previous Sun sensor study presented a detailed mathematical model of this effect. The model can be used to study the effect of both diffusive and specular reflections and to improve Sun angle determination based on perturbed Sun sensor measurements, satellite position, and an approximate knowledge of attitude. The model predicts that diffuse reflected light can cause errors of up to 10 degrees in Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) measurements and 5 to 10 arc sec in Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) measurements, depending on spacecraft orbit and attitude. The accuracy of these sensors is affected as long as part of the illuminated Earth surface is present in the sensor field of view. Digital Sun Sensors (DSS) respond in a different manner to the Earth albedo interference. Most of the time DSS measurements are not affected, but for brief periods of time the Earth albedo can cause errors which are a multiple of the sensor least significant bit and may exceed one degree. This paper compares model predictions with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) CSS measurements in order to validate and refine the model. Methods of reducing and mitigating the impact of Earth albedo are discussed. ne CSS sensor errors are roughly proportional to the Earth albedo coefficient. Photocells that are sensitive only to ultraviolet emissions would reduce the effective Earth albedo by up to a thousand times, virtually eliminating all errors caused by Earth albedo interference.
Abbaschian, Reza; Chen, F.; Mileham, J. R.; deGroh, H., III; Timchenko, V.; Leonardi, E.; deVahlDavis, G.; Coriell, S.; Cambon, G.
This report summarizes the results of the In situ Monitoring of Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO (Material por l'Etude des Phenomenes Interessant de la Solidification sur Terre et en Orbite) experiment on USMP-4. The report includes microstructural and compositional data obtained during the first year of the post flight analysis, as well as numerical simulation of the flight experiment. Additional analyses are being continued and will be reported in the near future. The experiments utilized MEPHISTO hardware to study the solidification and melting behavior of bismuth alloyed with 1 at% tin. The experiments involved repeated melting and solidification of three samples, each approximately 90 cm long and 6mm in diameter. Half of each sample also included a 2 mm. diameter growth capillary, to assist in the formation of single grain inside. One sample provided the Seebeck voltage generated during melting and freezing processes. Another one provided temperature data and Peltier pulsed demarcation of the interface shape for post flight analysis. The third sample provided resistance and velocity measurements, as well as additional thermal data. The third sample was also quenched at the end of the mission to preserve the interface composition for post flight determination. A total of more than 45cm of directionally solidified alloy were directionally solidified at the end of the flight for post mission structural and compositional characterization. Metallurgical analysis of the samples has shown that the interfacial kinetics play a key role in controlling the morphological stability of faceted alloys. Substantial differences were observed in the Seebeck signal between the ground-based experiments and the space-based experiments. The temperature gradient in the liquid for the ground-based experiments was also significantly lower than the temperature gradient in the liquid for the space-based experiments. Both of these observations indicate significant influence of liquid
During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert
This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.
Full Text Available As universities in Japan gain institutional autonomy in managing internal organizations, independent of governmental control as a result of deregulation and decentralizing reforms, it is becoming increasingly important that the executives and administrators of each institution demonstrate clear and strategic vision and ideas to external stakeholders, in order to maintain financially robust operations and attractiveness of their institutions. This paper considers whether and how the self-image, mission, and vision of universities are perceived and internalized by the management of Japanese universities and empirically examines the determinants of shaping such individual perceptions. The result of our descriptive analysis indicates that the recent government policy to internationalize domestic universities has not shown much progress in the view of university executives in Japan. An increasing emphasis on the roles of serving local needs in research and teaching is rather pursued by these universities. Individual perceptions among Japanese university executives with regard to the missions and functional roles to be played by their institutions are influenced by managerial rank as well as the field of their academic training. A multiple regression analysis reveals that the economy of scale brought out by an expanded undergraduate student enrollment gradually slows down and decelerate executive perceptions, with regard to establishing a globally recognized status in research and teaching. Moreover, Japanese universities with a small proportion of graduate student enrollment, likely opted out from competitions for gaining a greater respect in the global community of higher education between 2005 and 2012. Finally, the management in universities granted with the same amount of external research funds in both studied years responded more passively in 2012 than did in 2005 on the self-assessment of whether having established a status as a global
Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Grella, Samuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Pace, Emanuele; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Micela, Giuseppina
ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three present candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) to be launched in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations from L2 orbit, this mission will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the Solar System. The aim is to enable a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of these exoplanets. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of a suite of instruments: two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.80 µm and four photometric channels (two wide and two narrow band) in the range 0.5 to 1.9 μm. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is based on an eccentric pupil two-mirror classic Cassegrain configuration coupled to a tertiary paraboloidal mirror. An all-aluminum structure has been considered for the telescope layout, and a detailed tolerance analysis has been conducted to assess the telescope feasibility. This analysis has been done including the different parts of the realization and life of the instrument, from integration on-ground to in-flight stability during the scientific acquisitions. The primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned via an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. The heaters will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ±1K thanks to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.
Lang Michael Kpughe
Full Text Available The First World War and its resultant Mandate and Trusteeship systems greatly affected the German mission enterprise in Cameroon. Apart from causing the forceful ousting of German missionaries from Cameroon, the British and the French whom the League of Nations and United Nations successively chose as administering powers within the Mandate and Trusteeship frameworks adopted hostile policies towards German missions. From the beginning of the war to the post-Second World War era, the foundation of German missions was seriously threatened. This paper critically examines the treatment of German missions in both British and French Cameroons during the Mandate and Trusteeship periods, focusing especially on the opposing attitudes of both administering powers towards the missions in their spheres of influence. The paper establishes that the administering powers’ treatment of German missions, which was underpinned by imperial and nationalist exigencies, roiled the attainment of the triple missionization agenda of planting self-supporting, self-governing and self-evangelizing churches. It thus argues that the First World War triggered the mistreatment of German missions, with some missions forced to terminate their activities while others were allowed to continue their mission work under difficult conditions.
Full Text Available The establishment of planetary outposts and habitats on the Moon and Mars will help foster further exploration of the solar system. The crews that operate, live, and work in these artificial constructions will rely on bio-regenerative closed-loop systems and principles, such as algae reactors and higher plant chambers, in order to minimize resupply needs and improve system resiliency. Greenhouse modules will play a major role in closing not only the oxygen, carbon-dioxide, and water supply loops, but also by providing fresh food for the crew. In early mission scenarios, when the habitat is still in its build-up phase, only small greenhouse systems will be deployed, providing a supplemental food strategy. Small quantities of high water content crops (e.g. lettuce, cucumber, tomato will be cultivated, improving the crew’s diet plan with an add-on option to the pre-packed meals. The research results of a 400-day biomass and crew time simulation of an adapted EDEN ISS Future Exploration Greenhouse are presented. This greenhouse is an experimental cultivation system that will be used in an analogue test mission to Antarctica (2018-2019 to test plant cultivation technologies for space. The Future Exploration Greenhouse is a high-level analogue for cultivation systems of early mission scenarios on Moon/ Mars. Applying a net cultivation area of 11.9 m², 11 crops have been simulated. Biomass output values were tailored to a tray cultivation (batch strategy, where 34 trays (0.4x0.6 m have been integrated into the overall production plan. Detailed work procedures were established for each crop according to its production lifecycle requirements. Seven basic crew time requiring work procedures (e.g. seeding, pruning and training, harvesting, cleaning, post-harvesting were simulated. Two cultivation principles were the focus of the analysis: The In-Phase Cultivation approach where all trays start at the same time, and the Shifted Cultivation approach
Orbit Determination (OD) Error Analysis Results for the Triana Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission and for the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) Sun-Earth L2 Libration Point Mission Concept
Marr, Greg C.
The Triana spacecraft was designed to be launched by the Space Shuttle. The nominal Triana mission orbit will be a Sun-Earth L1 libration point orbit. Using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS), orbit determination (OD) error analysis results are presented for all phases of the Triana mission from the first correction maneuver through approximately launch plus 6 months. Results are also presented for the science data collection phase of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Sun-Earth L2 libration point mission concept with momentum unloading thrust perturbations during the tracking arc. The Triana analysis includes extensive analysis of an initial short arc orbit determination solution and results using both Deep Space Network (DSN) and commercial Universal Space Network (USN) statistics. These results could be utilized in support of future Sun-Earth libration point missions.
Holosko, Michael J.; Winkel, Munir; Crandall, Catherine; Briggs, Harold
Organizational mission statements of institutions in higher education have been called into question with respect to their relevance and purpose. This study investigated mission statements of the top 50 "U.S. News & World Report" (2012) ranked schools of social work for their clarity and brevity, content, and relationship to the…
Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea
Purpose: The vision or mission statement of a school outlines the school's purpose and defines the context, goals, and aspirations that govern the institution. Using vision and mission statements, the present descriptive research study investigated trends in Australian secondary schools' priorities. Research Methods: A stratified sample of…
Draper, D. S.
NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.
This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...
Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Levitin, Gregory
This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable phased-mission systems (PMS) subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects. A failure originating from a system component which causes extensive damage to other system components is a propagated failure. When the propagated failure affects all the system components, causing the entire system failure, a propagated failure with global effect (PFGE) is said to occur. However, the failure propagation can be isolated in systems subject to functional dependence (FDEP) behavior, where the failure of a component (referred to as trigger component) causes some other components (referred to as dependent components) to become inaccessible or unusable (isolated from the system), and thus further failures from these dependent components have no effect on the system failure behavior. On the other hand, if any PFGE from dependent components occurs before the trigger failure, the failure propagation effect takes place, causing the overall system failure. In summary, there are two distinct consequences of a PFGE due to the competition between the failure isolation and failure propagation effects in the time domain. Existing works on such competing failures focus only on single-phase systems. However, many real-world systems are phased-mission systems (PMS), which involve multiple, consecutive and non-overlapping phases of operations or tasks. Consideration of competing failures for PMS is a challenging and difficult task because PMS exhibit dynamics in the system configuration and component behavior as well as statistical dependencies across phases for a given component. This paper proposes a combinatorial method to address the competing failure effects in the reliability analysis of binary non-repairable PMS. The proposed method is verified using a Markov-based method through a numerical example. Different from the Markov-based approach that is limited to exponential distribution, the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earth Connection missions like SOHO, or...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earch Connection missions like RHESSI or...
Castellví, Jordi; Corbera, Jordi; Alamús, Ramon
The 3Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit) mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC) to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO) techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped. Since 2012, there has been a fast growing trend to use small satellites, especially nanosatellites, and in particular those following the CubeSat form factor. Small satellites possess intrinsic advantages over larger platforms in terms of cost, flexibility, and scalability, and may also enable constellations, trains, federations, or fractionated satellites or payloads based on a large number of individual satellites at an affordable cost. This work summarizes the mission analysis of 3Cat-3/MOTS, including its payload results, power budget (PB), thermal budget (TB), and data budget (DB). This mission analysis is addressed to transform EO data into territorial climate variables (soil moisture and land cover change) at the best possible achievable spatio-temporal resolution. PMID:29316649
Full Text Available The 3Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped. Since 2012, there has been a fast growing trend to use small satellites, especially nanosatellites, and in particular those following the CubeSat form factor. Small satellites possess intrinsic advantages over larger platforms in terms of cost, flexibility, and scalability, and may also enable constellations, trains, federations, or fractionated satellites or payloads based on a large number of individual satellites at an affordable cost. This work summarizes the mission analysis of 3Cat-3/MOTS, including its payload results, power budget (PB, thermal budget (TB, and data budget (DB. This mission analysis is addressed to transform EO data into territorial climate variables (soil moisture and land cover change at the best possible achievable spatio-temporal resolution.
Castellví, Jordi; Camps, Adriano; Corbera, Jordi; Alamús, Ramon
The ³Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit) mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC) to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO) techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallelepiped. Since 2012, there has been a fast growing trend to use small satellites, especially nanosatellites, and in particular those following the CubeSat form factor. Small satellites possess intrinsic advantages over larger platforms in terms of cost, flexibility, and scalability, and may also enable constellations, trains, federations, or fractionated satellites or payloads based on a large number of individual satellites at an affordable cost. This work summarizes the mission analysis of ³Cat-3/MOTS, including its payload results, power budget (PB), thermal budget (TB), and data budget (DB). This mission analysis is addressed to transform EO data into territorial climate variables (soil moisture and land cover change) at the best possible achievable spatio-temporal resolution.
Da Deppo, Vania; Poletto, Luca; Crescenzio, Giuseppe; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero
METIS, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, is the solar coronagraph foreseen for the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. METIS is conceived to image the solar corona from a near-Sun orbit in three different spectral bands: in the HeII EUV narrow band at 30.4 nm, in the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and in the polarized visible light band (590 - 650 nm). It also incorporates the capability of multi-slit spectroscopy of the corona in the UV/EUV range at different heliocentric heights. METIS is an externally occulted coronagraph which adopts an "inverted occulted" configuration. The Inverted external occulter (IEO) is a small circular aperture at the METIS entrance; the Sun-disk light is rejected by a spherical mirror M0 through the same aperture, while the coronal light is collected by two annular mirrors M1-M2 realizing a Gregorian telescope. To allocate the spectroscopic part, one portion of the M2 is covered by a grating (i.e. approximately 1/8 of the solar corona will not be imaged). This paper presents the error budget analysis for this new concept coronagraph configuration, which incorporates 3 different sub-channels: UV and EUV imaging sub-channel, in which the UV and EUV light paths have in common the detector and all of the optical elements but a filter, the polarimetric visible light sub-channel which, after the telescope optics, has a dedicated relay optics and a polarizing unit, and the spectroscopic sub-channel, which shares the filters and the detector with the UV-EUV imaging one, but includes a grating instead of the secondary mirror. The tolerance analysis of such an instrument is quite complex: in fact not only the optical performance for the 3 sub-channels has to be maintained simultaneously, but also the positions of M0 and of the occulters (IEO, internal occulter and Lyot stop), which guarantee the optimal disk light suppression, have to be taken into account as tolerancing parameters. In the aim of assuring the scientific
Full Text Available Global exposure time distribution through all-sky survey, one of main science missions of KAISTSAT-1, has been simulated. Exposure time distribution has its minimum on the celestial equator and increases with moving to polar regions according to the present mission operation scenario. SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly and the moon can make further decreases of exposure time around the celestial equator. Effects of SAA on all-sky survey exposure time can be compensated with a simple observational scheduling, orbit exchange between orbits allocated to all-sky survey passing through the SAA region and ones allocated to upper atmosphere observations not affected by SAA. It, however, seems that present exposure time distribution is not adequate for the concrete study of the evolution of interstellar medium. A scheme for active time allocation is needed for redistribution of exposure times weighted around the celestial poles, and additional studies on the advanced mission operation and the observational scheduling are also needed.
Moreno-Alvarez, Jose F.; Pena-Godino, Antonio; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Cordoba, Elizabeth; MEDA Team
The Mars 2020 rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Designed to advance high-priority science goals for Mars exploration, the mission will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission will also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is an integrated full suite of sensors designed to address the Mars 2020 mission objectives of characterization of dust size and morphology and surface weather measurements.MEDA system consists of one control unit and 10 separated sensor enclosures distributed in different positions along the Mars 2020 rover. MEDA is composed of an ARM-based control computer with its flight software application, two wind sensors including mixed ASICs inside, five air temperature sensors, one sky pointing camera complemented with 16 photo- detectors looking up and around, one thermal infrared sensor using five measurement bands, one relative humidity sensor, one pressure sensor and the harness that interconnects all of them. It is a complex system intended to operate in one of the harshest environments possible, the Mars surface, for many years to come.This will become a short term reality thanks to the combination of a strong international science team driving the science and system requirements working together with a powerful industrial organization to design and build the instrument. The instrument is being built right now, with its Critical Design Review at the end of 2016, and the flight model to be provided in 2018.This paper summarizes the main scientific objective of the MEDA instrument, the links between the Mission and the MEDA science objectives, and the challenging environmental Mars requirements. It will then focus on the engineered definition of the instrument, showing the overall
Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.
Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Pavone, Marco; Balaram, J. (Bob)
This paper presents a novel risk-constrained multi-stage decision making approach to the architectural analysis of planetary rover missions. In particular, focusing on a 2018 Mars rover concept, which was considered as part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign, we model the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase and the rover traverse phase as four sequential decision-making stages. The problem is to find a sequence of divert and driving maneuvers so that the rover drive is minimized and the probability of a mission failure (e.g., due to a failed landing) is below a user specified bound. By solving this problem for several different values of the model parameters (e.g., divert authority), this approach enables rigorous, accurate and systematic trade-offs for the EDL system vs. the mobility system, and, more in general, cross-domain trade-offs for the different phases of a space mission. The overall optimization problem can be seen as a chance-constrained dynamic programming problem, with the additional complexity that 1) in some stages the disturbances do not have any probabilistic characterization, and 2) the state space is extremely large (i.e, hundreds of millions of states for trade-offs with high-resolution Martian maps). To this purpose, we solve the problem by performing an unconventional combination of average and minimax cost analysis and by leveraging high efficient computation tools from the image processing community. Preliminary trade-off results are presented.
UNCLASSIFIED - Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited AIR FORCE CYBERWORX REPORT 17-001 Functional Mission...FMA process. The #FMA4CSI design sprint brought together over 40 experts from government and industry to focus on this shortcoming and ways to...IST) needs an update to ensure that airmen are being taught how to conduct FMA, why they conduct FMA and how FMA integrates with the deliberate
Polat, Halis C.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In order to accomplish complex and sophisticated missions, small satellites, particularly CubeSat, need a robust and accurate attitude control system. Due to the mass- and volume-constrained design environment of CubeSat, conventional methods are sometimes inadequate to provide needed performance at low altitudes where environmental disturbances are high. This thesis studies exploitation of the most dominant disturbance torque at low a...
Evans, John W.; Groen, Frank; Wang, Lui; Austin, Rebekah; Witulski, Art; Mahadevan, Nagabhushan; Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Lindsey, Nancy
Long duration and complex mission scenarios are characteristics of NASA's human exploration of Mars, and will provide unprecedented challenges. Systems reliability and safety will become increasingly demanding and management of uncertainty will be increasingly important. NASA's current pioneering strategy recognizes and relies upon assurance of crew and asset safety. In this regard, flexibility to develop and innovate in the emergence of new design environments and methodologies, encompassing modeling of complex systems, is essential to meet the challenges.
Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys A. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Urban Security Technology Lab., Manhattan, NY (United States); Musolino, Stephen V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) equipment to provide state and local agencies with scientific guidance on how to effectively use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed by technology manufacturers and purchased by responders for preventive detection and source interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management (CM) response take place, as it is currently the most widely available and fielded radiological instrumentation by state and local agencies. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the most effective way to utilize this class of equipment for consequence management missions. Gaining a better understanding of how PRND equipment can operate and perform for these missions will allow for recommendations on the tactical approach responders can use for consequence management operations. PRND equipment has been placed into service by federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be leveraged to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear event. With several hundred makes and models of PRND equipment, often with significantly different detection capabilities that do not align with their nominal PRND equipment type, development of a streamlined categorization scheme with respect to consequence management missions was the first step to identifying safe and effective uses of PRND equipment for radiological/nuclear incident response.
Castronuovo, Marco M.
The active removal of five to ten large objects per year from the low Earth orbit (LEO) region is the only way to prevent the debris collisions from cascading. Among the three orbital regions near the Earth where most catastrophic collisions are predicted to occur, the one corresponding to a sun-synchronous condition is considered the most relevant. Forty-one large rocket bodies orbiting in this belt have been identified as the priority targets for removal. As part of a more comprehensive system engineering solution, a space mission dedicated to the de-orbiting of five rocket bodies per year from this orbital regime has been designed. The selected concept of operations envisages the launch of a satellite carrying a number of de-orbiting devices, such as solid propellant kits. The satellite performs a rendezvous with an identified object and mates with it by means of a robotic arm. A de-orbiting device is attached to the object by means of a second robotic arm, the object is released and the device is activated. The spacecraft travels then to the next target. The present paper shows that an active debris removal mission capable of de-orbiting 35 large objects in 7 years is technically feasible, and the resulting propellant mass budget is compatible with many existing platforms.
Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.
Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.
FP EXCEEDING 7.8 NM THRESHOLD ................ 59 TABLE 23: LOGISTICS SUPPORT AND SURVEILLANCE MISSION – NFP EXCEEDING 7.8 NM THRESHOLD...68 TABLE 29: SLUNG LOAD TRAINING MISSION – NFP EXCEEDING 7.8 NM THRESHOLD ....................................... 68...added to the Mission Task Library as were the postural sequences specific to each crew position; Flying Pilot (FP), Non-Flying Pilot ( NFP ) and
Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K
Solid-state lasers have held great promise for the generation of high-average-power, high-quality output beams for a number of decades. However, the inherent difficulty of scaling the active solid-state gain media while continuing to provide efficient cooling has limited demonstrated powers to 10X the diffraction limit. Challenges posed by optical distortions and depolarization arising from internal temperature gradients in the gain medium of a continuously cooled system are only increased for laser designs that would attempt to deliver the high average power in the form of high energy pulses (>25J) from a single coherent optical aperture. Although demonstrated phase-locking of multiple laser apertures may hold significant promise for the future scaling of solid-state laser systems,1 the continuing need for additional technical development and innovation coupled with the anticipated complexity of these systems effectively limits this approach for near-term multi-kW laser operation outside of a laboratory setting. We have developed and demonstrated a new operational mode for solid-state laser systems in which the cooling of the gain medium is separated in time from the lasing cycle. In ''heat-capacity'' operation, no cooling takes place during lasing. The gain medium is pumped very uniformly and the waste heat from the excitation process is stored in the solid-state gain medium. By depositing the heat on time scales that are short compared to thermal diffusion across the optical aperture, very high average power operation is possible while maintaining low optical distortions. After a lasing cycle, aggressive cooling can then take place in the absence of lasing, limited only by the fracture limit of the solid-state medium. This mode of operation is ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense
Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.
The science data archive of the Cluster mission is a major contribution of the European Space Agency (ESA) to the International Living With a Star program. Known as the Cluster Active Archive (CAA), its availability since 2006 has resulted in a significant increase of the scientific return of this on-going mission. The Cluster science archive (CSA) has been developed in parallel to CAA over the last few years at the European Space Astronomy Center (ESAC) in Madrid, Spain. It is the long-term science archive of the Cluster mission, developed and managed along with all the other ESA science archives. Publicly opened in November 2013, CSA is available in parallel with CAA during a transition period until CAA public closing in early autumn 2014. Our goal here is to present what has been put in place to help geophysicists in their research. We will first talk about some aspects of the CSA user interface (data visualization including particle distribution; user data profiles) and how users can access data remotely (data streaming in Matlab, or via IDL or Python). The second goal is to present unique value added datasets that are now available on the CSA/CAA. These data have been produced by the scientific community, thanks to two EU FP7 projects: ECLAT and MAARBLE. For instance, the polarization and propagation parameters of ULF Pc waves measured by Cluster and Themis (since 2007) are available and cover more than a decade; along with magnetic spectra of Pc waves measured simultaneously by CHAMP and ground-based magnetometers. These data are clearly an outstanding data resource for low frequency waves researchers. Other datasets will be presented to show that CSA/CAA allow much more than downloading Cluster data from a graphical user interface. It's a single point entry that allows studies from micro-scale physics in the tail (e.g. catalogues of dipolarization fronts), to meso- and large-scale M-I coupling studies (e.g. Cluster magnetic footprints based on T96 and TS05
Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.
The paper describes OSC designs and analyses of AMTEC cells and radioisotope power systems for possible application to NASA close-quote s Europa Orbiter and Pluto Kuiper Express missions, and compares their predicted performance with JPL close-quote s preliminary mission goals. The latest cell and generator designs presented here were the culmination of studies covering a wide variety of generator configurations and operating parameters. The many steps and rationale leading to OSC close-quote s design evolution and materials selection were discussed in earlier publications and will not be repeated here except for a description of OSC close-quote s latest design, including a recent heat source support scheme and cell configuration that have not been described in previous publications. As shown, that heat source support scheme eliminates all contact between the heat source and the AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells, which simplifies the generator close-quote s structural design as well as its fabrication and assembly procedure. An additional purpose of the paper is to describe a revised cell design and fabrication procedure which represent a major departure from previous OSC designs. Previous cells had a uniform diameter, but in the revised design the cell wall beyond the BASE tubes has a greatly reduced diameter. The paper presents analytical performance predictions which show that the revised (open-quotes chimneyclose quotes) cell design yields substantially higher efficiencies than the previous (cylindrical) design. This makes it possible to meet and substantially exceed the JPL-stipulated EOM power goal with four instead of six General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, resulting in a one-third reduction in the heat source mass, cost, and fuel requirements. OSC close-quote s performance predictions were based on its techniques for the coupled thermal, electrical, and fluid flow analyses of AMTEC generators. Those analytical techniques
Information is presented concerning meteorological data and supporting analyses, gross energy consumption patterns and end-use analysis, analysis for industrial applications of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), analysis for residential applications of WECS, analysis for application of WECS to communities remote from utility grids, analysis for agricultural applications of WECS, regional evaluation of the economics of wind turbine generation to the U. S. electric utility district, impact of storage on WECS, financial analysis techniques, and system spacing.
Simons, Rainee N.
NASA's plan to launch several spacecrafts into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.
An appropriate methodology was developed for conducting the mainline activity of the task--a comprehensive survey of near-term (1976--1985) applications for photovoltaic solar energy conversion--and a start was made on the implementation of the methodology. The main emphasis of the first quarter of effort on the task, however, was placed on a quick, preliminary study aimed at the early identification of several promising near-term applications that would make attractive demonstration projects. Four such applications were identified: (a) impressed current corrosion protection of gas well casings, (b) impressed current corrosion protection of gas and oil pipelines, (c) railroad grade crossing signals, and (d) navigation aid buoys. Estimates were made, in each case, of the size of the associated potential market for photovoltaic arrays and of the break-even array price (the array price at which photovoltaic solar energy conversion would be economically competitive with alternative power sources). The estimated market sizes were as high as 1.1 MW/sub pk//yr (in the case of corrosion protection of deep gas wells) and break-even costs ranged from $2/W/sub pk/ to more than $50/W/sub pk/. A start was made on the examination of central station missions for photovoltaic power plants using very high concentration (concentration ratio approx. 1000). Progress was made on the adaptation of computer simulation routines for use in evaluating plant performance and on the computation of the effect of air mass variations on the efficiency of the GaAs cells that are likely to be used in this mission. Also, data on the various elements of social cost resulting from power production were collected from a wide variety of sources. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and supplementary information was obtained through contact with investigators who have studied the various specialized aspects of the overall problem.
Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Emil Tripa, C.; Moore, Jerry F.; Wucher, Andreas; Pellin, Michael J.
A new generation of secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instruments has been developed that is especially designed for laser post-ionization (LPI). These instruments combine high useful yield and high background discrimination. Results presented here demonstrate that these instruments can detect one in every four atoms removed from a samples surface - a greater than one order of magnitude improvement over current large frame secondary ion mass spectrometry instruments. Because of their high sensitivity, these new LPI-SNMS instruments are especially amenable to analysis of samples of limited size and rare one-of-a-kind samples. Such an application is analysis of samples returned to Earth from space by the Genesis and Stardust Discovery missions of NASA
...; assess current environment, perform gap analysis and identify investment alternatives. It also outlines the remaining five steps that would need to be performed in order to complete a full cost benefit analysis (CBA...
Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C. W.
This Parameter Estimation Supplement describes the PEST computer program and gives instructions for its use in determination of lunar gravitation field coefficients. PEST was developed for use in the RAE-B lunar orbiting mission as a means of lunar field recovery. The observations processed by PEST are short-arc osculating orbital elements. These observations are the end product of an orbit determination process obtained with another program. PEST's end product it a set of harmonic coefficients to be used in long-term prediction of the lunar orbit. PEST employs some novel techniques in its estimation process, notably a square batch estimator and linear variational equations in the orbital elements (both osculating and mean) for measurement sensitivities. The program's capabilities are described, and operating instructions and input/output examples are given. PEST utilizes MAESTRO routines for its trajectory propagation. PEST's program structure and subroutines which are not common to MAESTRO are described. Some of the theoretical background information for the estimation process, and a derivation of linear variational equations for the Method 7 elements are included.
Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars
This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.
Román-Colón, Miguel O.; Strahler, Alan H.
We propose an Earth-observation mission Land Observation from Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (LOGEO) to place two spin-scan-stabilized 500-m resolution 9-band VNIR-SWIR imagers in a near-geosynchronous inclined orbit, allowing 15 min observations with a full range of daily sun angles and 30∘ variations in view angle. LOGEO drifts westward at about 4∘ per day, providing geostationary-style coverage for all points on the globe eight times per year. This unique imaging geometry allows accurate retrievals of daily changes in surface bidirectional reflectance, which in turn enhances direct retrieval of biophysical properties, as well as long term and consistent land surface parameters for modeling studies that seek to understand the Earth system and its interactions. For studies of climate and environmental dynamics, LOGEO provides accurate observations of atmospheric aerosols, clouds, as well as other atmospheric constituents across a diverse number of spatial and temporal scales. This collection of land, atmospheric, and climate data products are directly applicable to seven of the nine GEOSS societal benefits areas, providing great opportunities for international collaboration. We also present an overview of LOGEO's systems architecture, as well as top-level design-trade studies and orbital scenarios.
Wolf, Peter; Blanchet, Luc
The Space-Time Explorer and Quantum Equivalence principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) space mission will perform tests of the gravitational redshift in the field of the Sun and the Moon to high precision by frequency comparisons of clocks attached to the ground and separated by intercontinental distances. In the absence of Einstein equivalence principle (EP) violation, the redshift is zero up to small tidal corrections, as the Earth is freely falling in the field of the Sun and Moon. Such tests are thus null tests, allowing us to bound possible violations of the EP. Here we analyze the Sun/Moon redshift tests using a generic EP-violating theoretical framework, with clocks minimally modelled as two-level atoms. We present a complete derivation of the redshift (including both general relativity (GR) and non-GR terms) in a realistic experiment such as the one envisaged for STE-QUEST. We point out and correct an error in previous formalisms linked to the atom’s recoil not being properly taken into account. (paper)
Full Text Available This study investigates the noise level and mission-to-mission stability of Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO neutral atmospheric bending angle data at the UCAR COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC. Data are used from two independently developed RO instruments currently flying in orbit on the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3C and Metop/GRAS (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding missions. The F3C 50 Hz RO data are post-processed with a single-difference excess atmospheric phase algorithm, and the Metop/GRAS 50 Hz closed loop and raw sampling (down-sampled from 1000 Hz to 50 Hz data are processed with a zero-difference algorithm. The standard deviations of the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles from climatology between 60 and 80 km altitude from June–December 2009 are approximately 1.78 and 1.13 μrad, respectively. The F3C standard deviation reduces significantly to 1.44 μrad when single-difference processing uses GPS satellites on the same side of the spacecraft. The higher noise level for F3C bending angles can be explained by additional noise from the reference link phase data that are required with single-difference processing. The F3C and Metop/GRAS mean bending angles differences relative to climatology during the same six month period are statistically significant and have values of −0.05 and −0.02 μrad, respectively. A comparison of ~13 500 collocated F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angle profiles over this six month period shows a similar mean difference of ~0.02 ± 0.02 μrad between 30 and 60 km impact heights that is marginally significant. The observed mean difference between the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles of ~0.02–0.03 μrad is quite small and illustrates the high degree of re-produceability and mission independence of the GPS RO data at high altitudes. Collocated bending angles between two F3C satellites from early in the mission differ on average by up to 0.5% near the surface due to systematically
Chew, B H; Lee, P Y; Ismail, I Z
Personal mission in life can determine the motivation, happiness, career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs) along with improvement in professional/clinical performance of the family physicians. This study explored the personal beliefs, values and goals in the lives of MSs and general practitioners (GPs). Fourth-year MSs at the Universiti Putra Malaysia and GPs who participated in a 2-hour session on 'Ethics in Family Medicine' in 2012 were invited. All the participants submitted the post-session written reflections about their personal missions in life. The written reflections were analysed using thematic analysis. A total of 87 MSs and 31 GPs submitted their written reflections. The authors identified 17 categories from the reflections contained by four themes-good vs. smart doctor, professional improvement vs. self-improvement, self-fulfilment and expressed motivation. The most common categories were "to be a good doctor" (97/330) and "professional improvement" (65/330). Many MSs had expressed motivation and wanted to be a smart doctor as compared to the GPs, whereas a larger number of GPs wished to have a fulfilled life and be a good doctor through professional improvement. The difference between the two student groups might indicate different levels of maturity and life experiences. Medical teachers should engage students more effectively in orientating them towards the essential values needed in medical practice.
Mora, Maria F; Jones, Steve M; Creamer, Jessica; Willis, Peter A
Ocean worlds like Europa and Enceladus in the outer solar system are prime targets in the search for life beyond Earth. Enceladus is particularly interesting due to the presence of a water plume ejecting from the south polar region. The recent discovery of H 2 in the plume, in addition to the presence of previously observed organic compounds, highlights the possibility of life in this moon. The plume provides materials from the underlying ocean that could be collected simply by flying through it. The presence of the plume means that material from the ocean is available for collection during a flyby, without the need for landing or complex sample handling operations such as scooping or drilling. An attractive approach to preserve the organics in particles collected during flyby encounters would be to utilize silica aerogel, the material used to collect particles at hypervelocity during the Stardust mission. Here we demonstrate amino acids can be extracted from aerogel simply by adding water. This simple liquid extraction method could be implemented during a mission prior to analysis with a liquid-based technique like capillary electrophoresis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.
As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).
Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Corso, Alain Jody; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Micela, Giuseppina
ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three present candidates as an M4 ESA mission to be launched in 2026. During its foreseen 3.5 years operation, it will observe spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of known transiting planets in the neighborhood of the Solar System. The aim is to enable a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of these exoplanets. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of a suite of instruments: two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 μm and four photometric channels (two wide and two narrow band) in the range 0.5 to 1.9 μm. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is based on an eccentric pupil two-mirror classic Cassegrain configuration coupled to a tertiary paraboloidal mirror. The temperature of the primary mirror (M1) will be monitored and finely tuned by means of an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ±1 K thanks to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented within the Telescope Control Unit (TCU), a Payload electronics subsystem mainly in charge of the active thermal control of the two detectors owning to the spectrometer. TCU will collect the housekeeping data of the controlled subsystems and will forward them to the spacecraft (S/C) by means of the Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the main Payload's electronic Unit linked to the S/C On Board Computer (OBC).
Full Text Available This paper presents a fault detection and isolation (FDI approach in order to detect and isolate actuators (thrusters and reaction wheels faults of an autonomous spacecraft involved in the rendez-vous phase of the Mars Sample Return (MSR mission. The principal component analysis (PCA has been adopted to estimate the relationships between the various variables of the process. To ensure the feasibility of the proposed FDI approach, a set of data provided by the industrial “high-fidelity” simulator of the MSR and representing the opening (resp., the rotation rates of the spacecraft thrusters (resp., reaction wheels has been considered. The test results demonstrate that the fault detection and isolation are successfully accomplished.
The Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission provided geologists with a detailed digital elevation model of most of Earth's land surface. This new database is used here for structural analysis of grooved surfaces interpreted to be the exhumed footwalls of three active or recently active extensional detachment faults. Exhumed fault footwalls, each with an areal extent of one hundred to several hundred square kilometers, make up much of Dayman dome in eastern Papua New Guinea, the western Gurla Mandhata massif in the central Himalaya, and the northern Tokorondo Mountains in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Footwall curvature in profile varies from planar to slightly convex upward at Gurla Mandhata to strongly convex upward at northwestern Dayman dome. Fault curvature decreases away from the trace of the bounding detachment fault in western Dayman dome and in the Tokorondo massif, suggesting footwall flattening (reduction in curvature) following exhumation. Grooves of highly variable wavelength and amplitude reveal extension direction, although structural processes of groove genesis may be diverse.
Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew
Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre-mission
overall system being developed conceptually “middle-out”. This type of 45 Figure 3.3: Vitech Core’s Schema shows the syntax and semantics for this...launched and recovered via a man- portable method or requiring a pier-side berth. Morphological analysis or boxes was introduced as early as World War II
Polat, Halis C.; Virgili-Llop, Josep; Romano, Marcello
CubeSat missions have evolved, becoming increasingly capable and complex since their first launch. Rela- tively high adoption rates and advances in technology allow mission developers to choose from different orbital altitudes, CubeSat configurations, and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) subsystems. To fulfill particular mis- sion requirements, designers have also developed custom subsystems. In this study, a survey of the attitude con- trol method for each individual launched CubeSat mission ...
critical events. In a detailed analysis of the email corpus of the Enron Corporation, Diesner and Carley (2005; see also Murshed et al. 2007) found that...established contacts and formal roles. The Enron crisis is instructive as a network with a critical period of failure. Other researchers have also found...Diesner, J., Frantz, T. L., & Carley, K. M. (2005). Communication networks from the Enron email corpus “It’s always about the people. Enron is no
fear being left vulnerable. Australia , Canada, and Great Britain have been countries at the forefront of public management reform . Part of their...2008. This process of reform has forced Australia to take a hard look at what its national security policy should look like and how it can best be...United States and Australia : A Comparative Analysis By: Hunter D. Washburn June 2011 Advisors: Douglas A. Brook Kathryn J. Aten
In Section 1.0, an overview of the Financial Analysis was provided and summarized in Table 1 for both the Retrieval and Disposal program and the TWRS project life cycle. A table recaps the pre-Phase 1B analysis budget requirements as discussed in previous sections. Another table in this section shows a similar build-up of costs and the impact of proposed offsets and increases to the pre-Phase 1B analysis. The issues concerning the increased requirements in FY 1998/1999 and the recommended adjustments were discussed. The Phase 1B Program as recommended is achievable. Specific recommendations are as follows: (a) Adopt the revised project baseline as presented in the cited tables; (b) Incorporate the $248.5 million in allowances for risk into the baseline; (c) Develop detailed action plans to realize the costs reduction opportunities; (d) Incorporate site indirect and benefits reduction rates into baseline; (e) Delay non-critical path scope which can be moved beyond FY 1999, as indicated: and (f) Renegotiate the Tri-Party Agreement milestones associated with the current compliance unfunded list for FY 1998
Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.
In Section 1.0, an overview of the Financial Analysis was provided and summarized in Table 1 for both the Retrieval and Disposal program and the TWRS project life cycle. A table recaps the pre-Phase 1B analysis budget requirements as discussed in previous sections. Another table in this section shows a similar build-up of costs and the impact of proposed offsets and increases to the pre-Phase 1B analysis. The issues concerning the increased requirements in FY 1998/1999 and the recommended adjustments were discussed. The Phase 1B Program as recommended is achievable. Specific recommendations are as follows: (a) Adopt the revised project baseline as presented in the cited tables; (b) Incorporate the $248.5 million in allowances for risk into the baseline; (c) Develop detailed action plans to realize the costs reduction opportunities; (d) Incorporate site indirect and benefits reduction rates into baseline; (e) Delay non-critical path scope which can be moved beyond FY 1999, as indicated: and (f) Renegotiate the Tri-Party Agreement milestones associated with the current compliance unfunded list for FY 1998.
Charles A. Gainer, Chief ARI FIELD UNIT AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA and Harold F. O’Neil, Jr., Director TRAINING RESEARCH LABORATORY"’..DT’ -w JN2 7 1984 LAM...Resources Organization AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 4330 East West Highway, Suite 900 2Q263731A792 Bethesda, Maryland 20814 II CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...analysis, Mr. " .Thomas Folks who helped design some of the computer software, and Mrs. H Jackie Allums and Mrs. Dorothy Churchman who assisted in the
Leonard, S. L.; Breisacher, P.; Munjal, P. K.; Neiss, J. A.
A discussion is presented of the most significant problems associated with the production and deployment of photovoltaic arrays. The principal chemical compounds to be used in the manufacture of silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium sulfide photovoltaic arrays are discussed with respect to physical and chemical properties, sources of the raw materials required to extract or synthesize these materials, the methods of manufacture, storage and handling in large quantities, transportation restrictions, spills, leaks, ignition and explosion. A discussion of safety hazards associated with the finished products is followed by an analysis of the toxicological properties of all raw, refined, and finished chemical species involved. The principal tool used in the evaluation of incentive strategies was a new Public Utility Financial Analysis and Planning Model which is described in some detail. After adaptation to match the characteristics of photovoltaic plants, it was used in the comparative evaluation of six different incentive strategies. The candidate strategies, the rationale for their selection, and the results of the comparative evaluation are presented. An account is given of an attempt to assess the full non-internalized costs of coal-fired power generation. A detailed description is given of the various damage elements and their associated societal costs for coal production, coal transportation, and coal-fired power generation. (MHR)
Ingham, Michel D.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Moncada, Alex C.
It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer s intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering methodology called State Analysis, which provides a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using State Analysis and how these requirements inform the design of the system software, using representative spacecraft examples.
The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic . Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C . When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane . These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants . Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth . Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) , coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument . Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of perchlorates. Even if the source of the organic carbon detected is still unknown, the chlorine source was likely Martian. Two mechanisms have been hypothesized for the formation of soil
Colwell, C. L.
The details of the orbiter altitude attainable at the approach and landing tests (ALT) interface determined by the approach and landing shuttle engineering simulation (manned) were documented. The analysis culminated in the verification of the trends observed in a similar analysis performed previously on the space vehicle dynamics simulation (unmanned). Altitude variations attributable to pilot steering variability ranged between 492 ft higher to 383 ft lower. The requirement for this parametric analysis is first elaborated. The specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to determine the orbiter altitude at the ALT interface are then presented, followed by the results of the analytical approach and the conclusions and recommendations.
Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and
Rodgers, D. J.; Fox, N. J.; Kusterer, M. B.; Turner, F. S.; Woleslagle, A. B.
Scheduled to launch in July 2018, the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) will orbit the Sun for seven years, making a total of twenty-four extended encounters inside a solar radial distance of 0.25 AU. During most orbits, there are extended periods of time where PSP-Sun-Earth geometry dramatically reduces PSP-Earth communications via the Deep Space Network (DSN); there is the possibility that multiple orbits will have little to no high-rate downlink available. Science and housekeeping data taken during an encounter may reside on the spacecraft solid state recorder (SSR) for multiple orbits, potentially running the risk of overflowing the SSR in the absence of mitigation. The Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource (SPADER) has been developed to provide the science and operations teams the ability to plan operations accounting for multiple orbits in order to mitigate the effects caused by the lack of high-rate downlink. Capabilities and visualizations of SPADER are presented; further complications associated with file downlink priority and high-speed data transfers between instrument SSRs and the spacecraft SSR are discussed, as well as the long-term consequences of variations in DSN downlink parameters on the science data downlink.
NSTec Aerial Measurement System
The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a federal emergency response asset whose assistance may be requested by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies to respond to a nuclear or radiological incident. It is an interagency organization with representation from the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other federal agencies. FRMAC, in its present form, was created in 1987 when the radiological support mission was assigned to the DOE’s Nevada Operations Office by DOE Headquarters. The FRMAC asset, including its predecessor entities, was created, grew, and evolved to function as a response to radiological incidents. Radiological emergency response exercises showed the need for a coordinated approach to managing federal emergency monitoring and assessment activities. The mission of FRMAC is to coordinate and manage all federal radiological environmental monitoring and assessment activities during a nuclear or radiological incident within the United States in support of state,local, tribal governments, DHS, and the federal coordinating agency. Radiological emergency response professionals with the DOE’s national laboratories support the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), the Aerial MeasuringSystem (AMS), and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). These teams support the FRMAC to provide: Atmospheric transport modeling; Radiation monitoring; Radiological analysis and data assessments; and Medical advice for radiation injuries In support of field operations, the FRMAC provides geographic
Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco
This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.
Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation
Glenn, G. M.
A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.
Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde
A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In
Hellesen, Denzil L
.... The IAV methodology proposes that accurate valuation for an Information Asset (InfoA) is the convergence of information tangible, intangible, and flow attributes to form a functional entity that enhances mission capability...
In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.
Vitale, S.; De Santis, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Cafarella, L.; Palangio, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Favali, P.
From 2000 to 2005 two geophysical exploration missions were undertaken in the Tyrrenian deep sea floor at depth between -2000 and -3000 m in the framework of the European-funded GEOSTAR Projects. The considered missions in this work are GEOSTAR-2 and ORION-GEOSTAR-3 with the main scientific objective of investigating the deep-sea floor by means of an automatic multiparameter benthic observatory station working continuously from around 5 to 12 months each time. During the two GEOSTAR deep sea floor missions, scalar and vector magnetometers acquired useful magnetic data both to improve global and regional geomagnetic reference models and to infer specific geo electric information about the two sites of magnetic measurements by means of a forward modelling.
Castellví, Jordi; Camps, Adriano; Corbera, Jordi; Alamús, Ramon
The 3Cat-3/MOTS (3: Cube, Cat: Catalunya, 3: 3rd CubeSat mission/Missió Observació Terra Satèl·lit) mission is a joint initiative between the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (UPC) to foster innovative Earth Observation (EO) techniques based on data fusion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) and optical payloads. It is based on a 6U CubeSat platform, roughly a 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm parallel...
Full Text Available Drugs play an important role in improving health of the population. Medicinal plants help in addressing the health issues of a large section of the population – especially the low and middle-income people. However, there are some concerns about the supply, efficacy and safety in using them. This study reviews India's major initiative toward medicinal plants namely, the National Mission on Medicinal Plants to meet medicinal plants challenges. The study analyzed the mission's probable shortcomings due to its design and operational details. This study used “content analysis” approach for analysis of mission's publicly available documents, viz. “Operational guidelines” and its two amendments. The study identified prevalent 28 shortcomings in the original document related to clarity of the document; accountability, transparency and stakeholders' representation. These challenges were partially addressed in two amendments, which indicate persistence of shortcomings in design and operational details. The mission can help in improving and strengthening the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy program by addressing those shortcomings.
The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.
Compernolle, Steven; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Langerock, Bavo; Granville, José; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Rasson, Olivier; De Mazière, Martine; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Niemeijer, Sander
Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), to be launched in 2017 as the first atmospheric composition satellite of the Copernicus programme, carries as payload the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) developed by The Netherlands in close cooperation with ESA. Designed to measure Earth radiance and solar irradiance in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, TROPOMI will provide Copernicus with observational data on atmospheric composition at unprecedented geographical resolution. The S5P Mission Performance Center (MPC) provides an operational service-based solution for various QA/QC tasks, including the validation of S5P Level-2 data products and the support to algorithm evolution. Those two tasks are to be accomplished by the MPC Validation Data Analysis Facility (VDAF), one MPC component developed and operated at BIRA-IASB with support from S[&]T and NILU. The routine validation to be ensured by VDAF is complemented by a list of validation AO projects carried out by ESA's S5P Validation Team (S5PVT), with whom interaction is essential. Here we will introduce the general architecture of VDAF, its relation to the other MPC components, the generic and specific validation strategies applied for each of the official TROPOMI data products, and the expected output of the system. The S5P data products to be validated by VDAF are diverse: O3 (vertical profile, total column, tropospheric column), NO2 (total and tropospheric column), HCHO (tropospheric column), SO2 (column), CO (column), CH4 (column), aerosol layer height and clouds (fractional cover, cloud-top pressure and optical thickness). Starting from a generic validation protocol meeting community-agreed standards, a set of specific validation settings is associated with each data product, as well as the appropriate set of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) to which it will be compared. VDAF collects FRMs from ESA's Validation Data Centre (EVDC) and from other sources (e.g., WMO's GAW, NDACC and TCCON). Data
Ansari, Homa; Goel, Kanika; Parizzi, Alessandro; Sudhaus, Henriette; Adam, Nico; Eineder, Michael
We assess the reliability of space-borne InSAR-derived deformation source parameters for volcanic and seismic events, with special focus on the future L-band data of the proposed Tandem-L mission [1-3]. Using representative simulation cases, the influence of certain characteristics of the InSAR measurements on the source model parameter precision is quantified. The performance drivers are assessed from two aspects: the data acquisition geometry as well as the measurement noise; in particular ...
to proceed to the next step. At the completion of each step the cubesat enters a "telecom mode" in which the attitude is commanded so that the... cubesat inertial attitude and position. Successful completion of the mission validates a range of technologies that can be used for debris removal from...orbital and attitude maneuver commands are generated on board the cubesat instead of being pre- loaded by ground control. The team emphasizes that
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Mission Operations project will develop understanding of the impacts of increasing communication time delays on mission operations and develop...
Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.
In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond (NASA Vision for Space Exploration, 2004): The Lewis and Clark Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean; The Expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in the early 18th century; The Expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew; Supplies brought on the mission were limited (mainly a mass/weight issue rather than cost), therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization approach, including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty) was necessary for crew survival. The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar to what Lewis and Clark's crew experienced, as environments will be hostile and unforgiving if problems arise and aren't resolved quickly. The analysis provided in this research paper is relevant because the Lewis and Clark Expedition needed to move extensively and with minimal supplies. Polar remote settings, which were analyzed extensively, were different from this expedition due to the fact that these missions did not encompass extensive movement of crew facilities and supplies and were more like space missions orbiting the Earth. Using past space station results of performance on orbit in correlation with a
The Sensors 2000! Program, in support of the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office at NASA Ames Research Center developed a suite of bioinstrumentation hardware for use on the Joint US/Russian Bion I I Biosatellite Mission (December 24, 1996 - January 7, 1997). This spaceflight included 20 separate experiments that were organized into a complimentary and interrelated whole, and performed by teams of US, Russian, and French investigators. Over 40 separate parameters were recorded in-flight on both analog and digital recording media for later analysis. These parameters included; Electromyogram (7 ch), Electrogastrogram, Electrooculogram (2 ch), ECG/EKG, Electroencephlogram (2 ch), single fiber firing of Neurovestibular afferent nerves (7 ch), Tendon Force, Head Motion Velocity (pitch & yaw), P02 (in vivo & ambient), temperature (deep body, skin, & ambient), and multiple animal and spacecraft performance parameters for a total of 45 channels of recorded data. Building on the close cooperation of previous missions, US and Russian engineers jointly developed, integrated, and tested the physiologic instrumentation and data recording system. For the first time US developed hardware replaced elements of the Russian systems resulting in a US/Russian hybrid instrumentation and data system that functioned flawlessly during the 14 day mission.
Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.
Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia
Patt, Frederick S.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Gregg, Watson W.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Indest, A. W. (Editor)
An analysis of orbit propagation models was performed by the Mission Operations element of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project, which has overall responsibility for the instrument scheduling. The orbit propagators selected for this analysis are widely available general perturbations models. The analysis includes both absolute accuracy determination and comparisons of different versions of the models. The results show that all of the models tested meet accuracy requirements for scheduling and data acquisition purposes. For internal Project use the SGP4 propagator, developed by the North American Air Defense (NORAD) Command, has been selected. This model includes atmospheric drag effects and, therefore, provides better accuracy. For High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) ground stations, which have less stringent accuracy requirements, the publicly available Brouwer-Lyddane models are recommended. The SeaWiFS Project will make available portable source code for a version of this model developed by the Data Capture Facility (DCF).
Gould, Dana C.
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of spaceborne remote sensing instruments developed by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for monitoring global distribution of aerosols and gaseous constituents using the solar occultation approach. SAGE III will provide global profiles of atmospheric aerosol, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen trioxide, temperature, and chlorine dioxide in the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere. The instrument is designed to be completely self-calibrating making it well-suited for long-term monitoring of atmospheric species which are important for global change study. To help achieve the desired long-term global coverage, three instruments have been built for different missions. The thermal design of SAGE III is primarily passive using surface finishes and high thermal resistance spacers. Active thermal control consists of operational and survival heaters along with a thermoelectric cooler to maintain the CCD detector temperature within tolerances. While the overall thermal design is consistent among the three instruments, some modifications were necessary to meet the individual mission requirements. The first SAGE III instrument is scheduled for launch on the Russian built METEOR-3M spacecraft in December 2000. This 2.5-ton spacecraft is 5 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter and will fly a sun-synchronous, polar orbit at an altitude of 1020 km. The second instrument will fly on the International Space Station using an EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Pallet Adapter. This flight has been particularly challenging for designers because of the constraints of the ISS as well as the differences in program schedules (the SAGE instrument has been fabricated and delivered while the EXPRESS project has yet to reach PDR.) For example, the attitude of the ISS can vary substantially making solar occultation difficult. To overcome this, a
Jyoti K Parikh
Full Text Available Women play a crucial role in many activities essential for coping with climate change. Indian women appear to be more vulnerable than men to differential impacts of climate change because they share most of the household managing responsibilities but have limited access to participation in decision making and governance. Most of the policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation do not specifically address the vulnerability of women. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC, formulated to shape future discourse of climate change adaptation and development, recognizes the differential impacts of climate change on society, but incorporates merely a few gender specific measures. The paper suggests gender specific measures for each mission of the NAPCC to make the adaptation and development process more inclusive and sustainable in India.
Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert
On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010
Vecere, Annibale; Marsigli, Chiara; Martina, Mario; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Monteiro, Ricardo
The study presented here, is focused on a comparative analysis of the precipitation estimates produced by the new NASA mission, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, and precipitation data from the Italian rain gauge network (managed by the Italian Civil Protection and provided by ARPA Emilia-Romagna) for three floods occurred in Italy between September and October 2015. In particular, among the different types of available GPM's products, the so called Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data, which provides rainfall estimates combining data from all passive-microwave instruments in the GPM constellation, has been used. The satellite data is provided into half-hourly 0.1° x 0.1° fields, and, for the present study, an 18 hours latency (so called Near Real Time, Late Run) has been considered. The final goal of the study is to assess the reliability and the accuracy of GPM's precipitation estimates in order to use them as a hazard input for a Rapid Flood Loss Estimation methodology in countries were no precipitation data from a national (or local) rain gauge network is available. The analysis is aimed at comparing both the spatial distribution and statistical properties of the two above mentioned precipitation datasets.
...) scenarios in terms of specific learning objectives linked to mission-essential competencies and to the underlying knowledge, skills, and experiences that are required for successful combat performance...
Downing, John; Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Rodriquez-Canabal, Jose; Conde, Rich; Guo, Yanping; Kelley, Jeff; Kirby, Karen
This paper will document the mission design and mission analysis performed for NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (IHS) and ESA's Solar Orbiter (SolO) missions, which were conceived to be launched on separate expendable launch vehicles. This paper will also document recent efforts to analyze the possibility of launching the Inner Heliospheric Sentinels and Solar Orbiter missions using a single expendable launch vehicle, nominally an Atlas V 551.
Öhman, Teemu; Kring, David A.
Kepler is a 31 km diameter Copernican age complex impact crater located on the nearside maria of the Moon. We used Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter imagery and topographic data in combination with Kaguya terrain camera and other image data sets to construct a new geomorphologic sketch map of the Kepler crater, with a focus on impact melt-rich lithologies. Most of the interior melt rocks are preserved in smooth and hummocky floor materials. Smaller volumes of impact melt were deposited in rim veneer, interior and exterior ponds, and lobe-like overlapping flows on the upper crater wall. Based on shadow lengths, typical flows of melt-rich material on crater walls and the western rim flank are ˜1-5 m thick, and have yield strengths of ˜1-10 kPa. The melt rock distribution is notably asymmetric, with interior and exterior melt-rich deposits concentrated north and west of the crater center. This melt distribution and the similarly asymmetric ray distribution imply a slightly less than 45° impact trajectory from the southeast. The exposed wall of Kepler displays distinct layering, with individual layers having typical thicknesses of ˜3-5 m. These are interpreted as flows of Procellarum mare basalts in the impact target. From the point of view of exploration, numerous fractures and pits in the melt-rich floor materials not only enable detailed studies of melt-related processes of impact crater formation, but also provide potential shelters for longer duration manned lunar missions.
Watson, K. (Principal Investigator); Hummer-Miller, S.; Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Krohn, M. D.; Podwysocki, M. H.; Pohn, H. H.; Raines, G. L.; Rowan, L. C.
Heat Capacity Mapping Mission thermal-inertia images of a diversity of terrains and geologic settings were examined in conjunction with topographic, geologic, geophysical, and LANDSAT data. The images were found to have attributes similar to bedrock maps. In the Cascades region, two new features were identified and a method was developed to characterize regional terranes using linear feature data. Two northeast-trending Lineaments were discovered in the Overthrust Belt of Montana and Idaho. The longer of the two extends from the Idaho-Oregon border, through the Idaho batholith and across the Lewis thrust. It coincides, along segments, with mapped faults and an aeromagnetic pattern change. A major lineament crossing the Colorado Plateau and the Southern Rocky Mountians was detected on several thermal-inertial images and evidence was found for the existence of a geologic discontinuity. Vegetation-covered areas in Richfield and the Silver City quadrangle (Arizona and New Mexico) displayed thermal-inertia differences within heavily vegetation areas although no apreciable correlation was found between vegetation cover and thermal inertia. Resistant ridges and knolls have high thermal inertias and thermal-inertia contrasts occurred at lithologic and fault contacts. In the heavy vegetated Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona, a Lithologic unit obscured on LANDSAT MSS data due to the vegetation cover, exhibited a thermal-inertia contrast with its surroundings.
This work deals with the design of a gamma-ray spectrometer for the remote analysis of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces and was performed in the frame of a mission scenario to explore the planet Mercury. The research studies consisted first in characterizing the detection performances of a gamma-ray spectrometer using a high-purity germanium crystal cooled actively at cryogenic temperatures. The high energy resolution of the detector allows an accurate measurement of the chemical composition for the main elements from oxygen to uranium. Thereafter the studies dealt with the critical issues addressed for the use of such a detector onboard a mission to the inner solar system. The radiation damage caused by solar protons in germanium crystals was investigated by experimental and numerical means. It has been shown that the detector resolution begins getting damaged for proton fluences over 5*10 8 p/cm 2 . An annealing session where the crystal is heated up to 80 C degrees for a 4-day period allows the detector to get back a sufficient resolution. Annealing over 100 C degrees gives back the detector its initial resolution. Finally, a numerical thermal model of the instrument as well as some tests on a thermal mockup were performed to validate the thermal design of the instrument
Ibarra, A.; Calle, I.; Gabriel, C.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.
We present here the beta version of the Remote Interface to SAS Analysis (RISA), a web service-based system that allows users the analysis of XMM-Newton data making use of all of the existing SAS functionalities. RISA takes advantage of GRID architecture to run SAS, achieving high performance in resource management. We are also making the SAS remote analysis compatible with present and future VO standards.
Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja
CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.
Military Space Mission Design and Analysis in a Multi-Body Environment: An Investigation of High-Altitude Orbits as Alternative Transfer Paths, Parking Orbits for Reconstitution, and Unconventional Mission Orbits
resulting in more debris . This domino effect is known as Kessler’s syndrome . This overpopulation of space may eventually force space users out of...board to perform a conventional transfer to the desired geostationary orbit. At this point, Asia Satellite Communications Ltd. declared the mission a
We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future
Rocco, David A.
Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.
Kebukawa, Y.; Aoki, J.; Ito, M.; Kawai, Y.; Okada, T.; Matsumoto, J.; Yano, H.; Yurimoto, H.; Terada, K.; Toyoda, M.; Yabuta, H.; Nakamura, R.; Cottin, H.; Grand, N.; Mori, O.
The Solar Power Sail (SPS) mission is one of candidates for the upcoming strategic middle-class space exploration to demonstrate the first outer Solar System journey of Japan. The mission concept includes in-situ sampling analysis of the surface and subsurface (up to 1 m) materials of a Jupiter Trojan asteroid using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The candidates for the HRMS are multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MULTUM) type and Cosmorbitrap type. We plan to analyze isotopic and elemental compositions of volatile materials from organic matter, hydrated minerals, and ice (if any), in order to understand origin and evolution of the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. It will provide insights into planet formation/migration theories, evolution and distribution of volatiles in the Solar System, and missing link between asteroids and comets on evolutional. The HRMS system allows to measure H, N, C, O isotopic compositions and elemental compositions of molecules prepared by various pre-MS procedures including stepwise heating up to 600ºC, gas chromatography (GC), and high-temperature pyrolysis with catalyst to decompose the samples into simple gaseous molecules (e.g., H2, CO, and N2) for isotopic ratio analysis. The required mass resolution should be at least 30,000 for analyzing isotopic ratios for simple gaseous molecules. For elemental compositions, mass accuracy of 10 ppm is required to determine elemental compositions for molecules with m/z up to 300 (as well as compound specific isotopic compositions for smaller molecules). Our planned analytical sequences consist of three runs for both surface and subsurface samples. In addition, `sniff mode' which simply introduces environmental gaseous molecules into a HRMS will be done by the system.
Jeletic, James F.
The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.
Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
, especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...... at night, the impact of PV sites on the economic value of the inverter is assessed. This analysis can be useful in choosing between conventional reactive power compensation devices or PV inverters for injecting reactive power to the grid....
Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.
Schrijver, J.; Jakimiec, J.; Sylwester, J.; Lemen, J.R.; Mewe, R.; Bentley, R.D.; Fludra, A.; Sylwester, B.
We have investigated differential emission measure (DEM) distribution of hot flare plasma (T>10 MK) using SMM X-ray data from Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS). We have found that the analysis provide a very sensitive test of consistency of observational data
Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David
&MA, Structures and Environments, GNC, Orion, the Crew Office, Flight Operations, and Ground Operations by assessing performance of the M&FM algorithms in terms of their ability to reduce Loss of Mission and Loss of Crew probabilities. In addition, through state machine and diagnostic modeling, analysis efforts investigate a broader suite of failure effects and detection and responses that can be tested in VMET and confirm that responses do not create additional risks or cause undesired states through interactive dynamic effects with other algorithms and systems. VMET further contributes to risk reduction by prototyping and exercising the M&FM algorithms early in their implementation and without any inherent hindrances such as meeting FSW processor scheduling constraints due to their target platform - ARINC 653 partitioned OS, resource limitations, and other factors related to integration with other subsystems not directly involved with M&FM. The plan for VMET encompasses testing the original M&FM algorithms coded in the same C++ language and state machine architectural concepts as that used by Flight Software. This enables the development of performance standards and test cases to characterize the M&FM algorithms and sets a benchmark from which to measure the effectiveness of M&FM algorithms performance in the FSW development and test processes. This paper is outlined in a systematic fashion analogous to a lifecycle process flow for engineering development of algorithms into software and testing. Section I describes the NASA SLS M&FM context, presenting the current infrastructure, leading principles, methods, and participants. Section II defines the testing philosophy of the M&FM algorithms as related to VMET followed by section III, which presents the modeling methods of the algorithms to be tested and validated in VMET. Its details are then further presented in section IV followed by Section V presenting integration, test status, and state analysis. Finally, section VI
Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.
This paper presents an analysis of the potential mission capability using space reactor bimodal systems for planetary missions. Missions of interest include the Main belt asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. The space reactor bimodal system, defined by an Air Force study for Earth orbital missions, provides 10 kWe power, 1000 N thrust, 850 s Isp, with a 1500 kg system mass. Trajectories to the planetary destinations were examined and optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories were selected. A conceptual design for a spacecraft using the space reactor bimodal system for propulsion and power, that is capable of performing the missions of interest, is defined. End-to-end mission conceptual designs for bimodal orbiter missions to Jupiter and Saturn are described. All missions considered use the Delta 3 class or Atlas 2AS launch vehicles. The space reactor bimodal power and propulsion system offers both; new vision open-quote open-quote constellation close-quote close-quote type missions in which the space reactor bimodal spacecraft acts as a carrier and communication spacecraft for a fleet of microspacecraft deployed at different scientific targets and; conventional missions with only a space reactor bimodal spacecraft and its science payload. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.
Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.
Full Text Available In this research, components used in mission and vision statements by Turkish Defense Industry Firms and their relations with national defense industry guidance documents are examined. For this reason 87 vision and 79 mission statements which mentioned on the web pages of 148 Turkish Defense Industry Firms’ are taken into consideration. A qualitative research design phenomenology was used and the data were analyzed through content analysis in this study. At the end of the analysis, it is identified that there are common 14 components in vision statements and 13 common components in mission statements. Also it is discovered that some of the components are relevant with components mentioned in the national defense industry guidance documents.
Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.
The first crewed mission, Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2), for the MPCV Orion spacecraft is scheduled for August 2021, and its current mission is to orbit the Moon in a highly elliptical lunar orbit for 3 days. A 21-year scan was performed to identify feasible missions that satisfy the propulsive capabilities of the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) and MPCV Service Module (SM). The mission is divided into 4 phases: (1) a lunar free return trajectory, (2) a hybrid maneuver, during the translunar coast, to lower the approach perilune altitude to 100 km, (3) lunar orbit insertion into a 100 x 10,000 km orbit, and (4) lunar orbit loiter and Earth return to a splashdown off the coast of Southern California. Trajectory data was collected for all feasible missions and converted to information that influence different subsystems including propulsion, power, thermal, communications, and mission operations. The complete 21-year scan data shows seasonal effects that are due to the Earth-Moon geometry and the initial Earth parking orbit. The data and information is also useful to identify mission opportunities around the current planned launch date for EM-2.
Gilland, James H.
The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.
The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.
Golombek, Matthew P.
Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or ``ground truth'' for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/metereology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5°N, 32.8°W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the early environments and conditions on Mars.
Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David
) early in the development lifecycle for the SLS program, NASA formed the M&FM team as part of the Integrated Systems Health Management and Automation Branch under the Spacecraft Vehicle Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). To support the development of the FM algorithms, the VMET developed by the M&FM team provides the ability to integrate the algorithms, perform test cases, and integrate vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle (LV) subsystem models. Additionally, the team has developed processes for implementing and validating the M&FM algorithms for concept validation and risk reduction. The flexibility of the VMET capabilities enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the developed algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models such as MPS, GNC, and others. One of the principal functions of VMET is to validate the M&FM algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the target vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to the flight software test and validation processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts from requirements and test cases into flight software compounded with potential human errors throughout the development and regression testing lifecycle. Risk reduction is addressed by the M&FM group but in particular by the Analysis Team working with other organizations such as S&MA, Structures and Environments, GNC, Orion, Crew Office, Flight Operations, and Ground Operations by assessing performance of the M&FM algorithms in terms of their ability to reduce Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probabilities. In addition, through state machine and diagnostic modeling, analysis efforts investigate a broader suite of failure effects and associated detection and responses to be tested in VMET to ensure reliable failure
Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.
MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission
Prediction of outcome after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: External validation of the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials (IMPACT) and Corticoid Randomisation after Significant Head injury (CRASH) prognostic models
B. Roozenbeek (Bob); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); F.E. Lecky (Fiona); J. Lu (Juan); J. Weir (James); I. Butcher (Isabella); G.S. McHugh (Gillian); G.D. Murray (Gordon); P. Perel (Pablo); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)
textabstractObjective: The International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials and Corticoid Randomisation After Significant Head injury prognostic models predict outcome after traumatic brain injury but have not been compared in large datasets. The objective of this is study is to
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn
"Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...
To investigate the ability of column (or partial column) information to represent surface air quality, results of linear regression analyses between surface mixing ratio data and column abundances for O3 and NO2 are presented for the July 2011 Maryland deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ mission. Data collected by the P-3B aircraft, ground-based Pandora spectrometers, Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and simulations for July 2011 from the CMAQ air quality model during this deployment provide a large and varied data set, allowing this problem to be approached from multiple perspectives. O3 columns typically exhibited a statistically significant and high degree of correlation with surface data (R(sup 2) > 0.64) in the P- 3B data set, a moderate degree of correlation (0.16 columns typically exhibited a low to moderate degree of correlation with surface data in each data set. The results of linear regression analyses for O3 exhibited smaller errors relative to the observations than NO2 regressions. These results suggest that O3 partial column observations from future satellite instruments with sufficient sensitivity to the lower troposphere can be meaningful for surface air quality analysis.
Mookgo S. Kgatle
Full Text Available The article presents a socio-historical analysis of the sections in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM of South Africa from 1908 to the present. In order to achieve this, the article studies the relationship between the South African social politics and the ecclesiastical politics. It demonstrates how the AFM got divided into sections. The sections are the white, mixed race, Indian and black sections. The four sections in the AFM were not equal in power and responsibilities. The white section of the church was the major and domineering section of the AFM. Although other sections like mixed race and Indian were also inferior to the white section, the black section was the most inferior and marginalised section. The article also studies how the divisions in the AFM were addressed and solved. The purpose is to demonstrate how the church that was once divided into sections according to racial groups was able to move into unity.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article makes a valuable scholarly contribution to the ongoing research on the history of the AFM in the field of church history. It juxtaposes church history with the problems facing society today like racial segregation and how such problems can be addressed and solved.
.... The simulation and analysis support a UAV Battlelab initiative to test the operational effects of proposed changes in Predator performance and UAV capability to perform in an Active SEAD mission...
.... Analysis efforts examine the effect of speed, endurance, and weather susceptibility on UAV operational effectiveness and the effects of radar cross section, threat density, and threat lethality on UAV Active SEAD mission performance.
Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury
This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User
Haberle, R. M.
Pascal is a Mars Climate Network Mission that is being developed for NASA's Mars Scout Program. The mission would establish a network of 18 science weather stations distributed across the entire surface of Mars that operates for 3-10 Mars years (5.6- 18.8 Earth years). Pascal's instrument suite combines entry data from accelerometers and descent cameras, with landed data from pressure, opacity, temperature, wind speed, and water vapor to create a detailed global picture of Martian climate and weather. A panoramic landed camera system acquires images every 30 Sols to monitor changes in the landing environment due to winds. Analysis of data from the science stations, taken as often as once every 15 minutes, will provide a depth of understanding that will vastly increase our knowledge of Mars, and significantly impact site selection for future NASA missions. Pascal is the first mission ever to sample - in situ - the full global diversity of Mars and provide a continuous long-term presence on its surface.
Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.
The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.
Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George
Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (http://nasa.github.io/openmct).
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OverviewGMAT is a feature rich system containing high fidelity space system models, optimization and targeting,built in scripting and programming infrastructure, and...
Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen
Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.
During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the
The thesis 'The Bible and Mission in Faith Perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the Early China Inland Mission' by Christopher E.M. Wigram analysis the hermeneutical assumptions that underlay Hudson Taylor's approach to biblical interpretation, and the significance of his approach for the mission which
KEY INSIGHTS: *The PLA is being assigned and training for an increasing variety of missions, including nontraditional battlefields such as outer space and cyber space, as well as nontraditional functions...
US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...
Lipinski, Ronald J.
Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) has the potential to deliver fast trips to the distant outer planets and to be enabling for orbiter missions to Pluto, the moons of the distant outer planets, and Kuiper belt objects. This paper summarizes results of a mission study for a Pluto Flyby and a Pluto Orbiter. It was concluded that the flyby mission trip time would be about 6-10 years, depending on how lightweight the power system could be made for a given power level. The trip time was not too sensitive to whether the initial condition was earth escape or earth orbit if a larger power system could be assumed for the earth-orbit option because of the larger launch mass that could be used in that case. The trip time for the orbiter mission was projected to be about 9-14 years
Harrison, Jack E.; Pattee, Eldon C.
The Mission Mountains Wilderness occupies an area from the crest of the Mission Range eastward toward the valley of the Swam River in western Montana. A mineral survey of the area was conducted. No evidence of metallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. An intensive search for stratabound copper-silver sulfides in the area found only sporadic and insignificant occurrences in surface strata.
Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran
The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.
or La Violencia . Bogota was nearly destroyed, and the bloodshed spilled into the countryside where it reached its greatest intensity. The machete...role and its commitment to its assigned mission. Army Mission During La Violencia (1948–1962) Of course, it is the army that we are par- ticularly...result was Colombia’s costli- est civil war, termed simply The Violence, or La Violencia . Bogota was nearly destroyed, and the bloodshed spilled into
Full Text Available Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1 the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2 mentions of specific “mission” components; (3 reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products are currently available from 1998 to the present. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission data...
Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.
Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.
Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.; Williams, Jacob; Pedrotty, Samuel M.
Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to cislunar space in the fall of 2019. EM-1 was originally conceived as a lunar free-return mission, but was later changed to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) mission as a precursor to the Asteroid Redirect Mission. To understand the required mission performance (i.e., propellant requirement), a series of trajectory optimization runs was conducted using JSC's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization tool. In order for the runs to be done in a timely manner, it was necessary to employ a parallelization approach on a computing cluster using a new trajectory scan tool written in Python. Details of the scan tool are provided and how it is used to perform the scans and post-process the results. Initially, a scan of daily due east launched EM-1 DRO missions in 2018 was made. Valid mission opportunities are ones that do not exceed the useable propellant available to perform the required burns. The initial scan data showed the propellant and delta-V performance patterns for each launch period. As questions were raised from different subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc.), the mission parameters or data that were of interest to them were added to the scan output data file. The additional data includes: (1) local launch and landing times in relation to sunrise and sunset, (2) length of eclipse periods during the in-space portion of the mission, (3) Earth line of sight from cislunar space, (4) Deep Space Network field of view looking towards cislunar space, and (5) variation of the downrange distance from Earth entry interface to splashdown. Mission design trades can also be performed based on the information that the additional data shows. For example, if the landing is in darkness, but the recovery operations team desires a landing in daylight, then an analysis is performed to determine how to change the mission design
6.2 for the OCD DID identifier. 5.3.3 System Requirements Definition 1. Based on the analysis of user needs, the operational concepts, and other...AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-RS-2015-00012 Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems March 17, 2014 Richard. J. Adams1, Suellen...Final 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-14-C-0001
The highlights of the STS-70 mission are presented in this video. The flight crew consisted of Cmdr. John Hendricks, Pilot Kevin Kregel, Flight Engineer Nancy Curie, and Mission Specialists Dr. Don Thomas and Dr. Mary Ellen Weber. The mission's primary objective was the deployment of the 7th Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS), which will provide a communication, tracking, telemetry, data acquisition, and command services space-based network system essential to low Earth orbital spacecraft. Secondary mission objectives included activating and studying the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R), The Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) studies, the Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4), the Hand-Held, Earth Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES), the Microcapsules in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment, the Windows Experiment (WINDEX), the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment. There was an in-orbit dedication ceremony by the spacecrew and the newly Integrated Mission Control Center to commemorate the Center's integration. The STS-70 mission was the first mission monitored by this new control center. Earth views included the Earth's atmosphere, a sunrise over the Earth's horizon, several views of various land masses, some B/W lightning shots, some cloud cover, and a tropical storm.
Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.
In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities
Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi
The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.
Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim
The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and
Guit, William J.
This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.
Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten
A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer...
Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.
We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.
Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance
Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.
Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer
In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...
Alternatives are balanced to achieve the best overall outcome. Then, once deployed and when things don’t go as expected, the mission aborts, is redefined...cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming
Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.
Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin
Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the
Burch, J. L
The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.
Lynx is an observatory-class mission, featuring high throughput, exquisite angular resolution over a substantial field of view, and high spectral resolution for point and extended X-ray sources. The design requirements provide a tremendous leap in capabilities relative to missions such as Chandra and Athena. Lynx will observe the dawn of supermassive black holes through detection of very faint X-ray sources in the early universe and will reveal the "invisible drivers" of galaxy and structure formation through observations of hot, diffuse baryons in and around the galaxies. Lynx will enable breakthroughs across all of astrophysics, ranging from detailed understanding of stellar activity including effects on habitability of associated planets to population statistics of neutron stars and black holes in the Local Group galaxies, to earliest groups and clusters of galaxies, and to cosmology
Dalton, Bonnie P.
Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.
Zenk, Leslie R.; Seashore Louis, Karen R.
Background/Context: Institutional missions serve many purposes within universities, but most studies focus on how mission points to direction, guidelines, or priorities. However, organizational missions have been shown to have other functions such as instructing members about actions or behaviors that are acceptable. This paper therefore examines…
Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.
-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...
Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.
Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)
The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.
May Also Like” (YMAL) features of popular services like Amazon and Netflix . A mockup interface is shown in Figure 6. A supply agent would enter the...without causing serious harm to the execution of the mission. This idea is based on the technology of the Simian Army, implemented by Netflix and used...very successfully both there and at Amazon . The Netflix Simian Army is designed to force developers to create resilient and robust software
Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)
The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system
Sykes, M. V.; Russell, C. T.; Coradini, A.; Christensen, U.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Konopliv, A. S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Williams, B. G.; Wise, J.; Zuber, M. T.
Dawn, the ninth Discovery mission, will be the first spacecraft to rendezvous with two solar system bodies, the main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. This is made possible by utilizing ion propulsion to reach its targets and to maneuver into (and depart) orbits about these bodies. Vesta and Ceres are two terrestrial protoplanets that have survived since the earliest epoch of the solar system and will provide important insights into planet building processes and their evolution under very different circumstances, with and without water. Dawn carries a double framing camera, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a gamma ray and neutron detector. At Vesta our studies will include the volcanic emplacement of basalts, its differentiation, the possible exposure of its interior near the south pole. At Ceres our studies will include the role of water in its evolution, hydration processes on its surface, and the possible existence of a subsurface ocean. The mission has passed its critical design review and is scheduled to be launched in June 2006 with arrival at Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015. Operation strategies will be presented. Groundbased observations of Vesta, Ceres, and Vesta family members over broad wavelengths, periods and phases will play an important role in detailed mission planning.
Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.
The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.
Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.
In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.
The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.
Chew Boon How
Full Text Available Personal mission in life can determine motivation, happiness, future career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs along with improvement in professional/ clinical performance of the family physicians.1–5 These personal internal qualities are largely represented by the professional functional knowledge base, which can be influenced by personal awareness (pre-propositional impressions that trigger experiential learning and moral principles.6 Physicians often deal with patients with complex medical and social problems.7 Therefore, a physician’s self-understanding, insight into the nature, limitations of the knowledge and capacity of applying it are crucial in professional practice.8
Baratelli, F.; Flipo, N.; Biancamaria, S.; Rivière, A.
The quantification of aquifer contribution to river discharge is of primary importance to evaluate the impact of climatic and anthropogenic stresses on the availability of water resources. Several baseflow estimation methods require river discharge measurements, which can be difficult to obtain at high spatio-temporal resolution for large scale basins. The SWOT satellite mission will provide discharge estimations for large rivers (50 - 100 m wide) even in remote basins. The frequency of these estimations depends on the position and ranges from zero to four values in the 21-days satellite cycle. This work aims at answering the following question: can baseflow be estimated from SWOT observations during the mission lifetime? An algorithm based on hydrograph separation by Chapman's filter was developed to automatically estimate the baseflow in a river network at regional or larger scale (> 10000 km2). The algorithm was first applied using the discharge time series simulated at daily time step by a coupled hydrological-hydrogeological model to obtain the reference baseflow estimations. The same algorithm is then forced with discharge time series sampled at SWOT observation frequency. The methodology was applied to the Seine River basin (65000 km2, France). The results show that the average baseflow is estimated with good accuracy for all the reaches which are observed at least once per cycle (relative bias less than 4%). The time evolution of baseflow is also rather well retrieved, with a Nash coefficient which is more than 0.7 for 94% of the network length. This work provides new potential for the SWOT mission in terms of global hydrological analysis.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP Mission Reports were filed every day that an aircraft flew in support of the experiment. The reports include a short description of the day's mission, its...
Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...
Bartolone, Anthony; Trujillo, Anna
NASA Langley Research Center has been researching ways to improve flight crew decision aiding for systems management. Our current investigation is how to display a wide variety of aircraft parameters in ways that will improve the flight crew's situation awareness. To accomplish this, new means are being explored that will monitor the overall health of a flight and report the current status of the aircraft and forecast impending problems to the pilots. The initial step in this research was to conduct a survey addressing how current glass-cockpit commercial pilots would value a prediction of the status of critical aircraft systems. We also addressed how this new type of data ought to be conveyed and utilized. Therefore, two other items associated with predictive information were also included in the survey. The first addressed the need for system status, alerts and procedures, and system controls to be more logically grouped together, or collocated, on the flight deck. The second idea called for the survey respondents opinions on the functionality of mission status graphics; a display methodology that groups a variety of parameters onto a single display that can instantaneously convey a complete overview of both an aircraft's system and mission health.
Valdivia-Silva, J. E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; McKay, C. P.
C), presented similar ions released to soil type VI, but with some variations at times of peak start or maximum release. The TV-MS trace for soil type IV (PE-287) showed the release of the following ions: 16, 18, 36, 44, 48, and 64. In this soil, the mass 44 showed the highest value at >760°C, probably by thermal decomposition of carbonates at higher temperatures; however at 700ºC, CO2 could result from the decomposition oxidation of refractory organics that have been detected by pyrolisis-GC-MS at 750ºC (4). In contrast, the TV-MS trace for sample soil type III (PE-386), which contains 35 ppm of organic C, showed the release of the following major mass fragments (m/z): 18, 30, 36, 44, 48 and 64 (Figure 1). EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00490, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 Probably, the mass 30 is due to NO that evolves from the thermal oxidation of N-organics at low temperature or degradation of nitrates at high temperatures. Additionally, ion 36 could be due to thermal degradation to chlorides. Our results show interesting ions released from Marslike soils by TV analysis, however soils that have low levels to organic carbon (3-40 ppm), were not detected by this method. If the concentrations of organics in the soils and ice on Mars at the Phoenix landing site are low than 30 ppm, the experiment could fail. Recently, our laboratory investigated the presence of organics in the samples soils by the release of NO (mass 30) at low temperatures using TV-MS (Research submitted). Hence, Phoenix mission could have an option in the searching for organic matter on Mars. These data indicate the importance of the study of Mars-like soils to prevent similar problems in space research.
relevant. For example, a concept of support developed using the Op- erational Logistics Planner is not a complete list of detailed decisions by phase, but...a standard issue green notebook and a good me- chanical pencil. Technology and the analysis and mobilization of data can enable or disrupt mission
Waddell, Patrick G.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.
The SOFIA Airborne Observatory will operate a 2.5 m aperture telescope with the goal of obtaining over 960 successful science hours per year at a nominal altitude of 12.5 km and covering a wavelength range from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm. The observatory platform is comprised of a Boeing 747SP with numerous significant modifications. The ground and flight mission operations architectures and plans are tailored to keep the telescope emissivity low and achieve high observing efficiency.
The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.
Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.
Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.
Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.
Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs
7Ej5j/ IPIP /ipipneo300.htm The full IPIP contains 1,699 items assembled by Dr. Lewis R. Goldberg. The URL for Dr. Goldberg’s IPIP is http...ipip.ori.org/ . The IPIP is in the public domain and its items can be freely downloaded from that site. The IPIP -NEO is not equivalent to the...Differences ~ Mission Statement ~ This IPIP Website is intended to provide rapid access to measures of individual differences, all in the
Mejia, John Freddy; Poveda, German
Diagnostics of prevalent atmospheric conditions during the life cycle of meso-scale convective systems (MCSs) over Colombia and the eastern tropical pacific are developed using satellite data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM), and from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. Atmospheric stability indices such as CAPE, CINE, LI, and equivalent potential temperature are quantified, as well as kinematical indices such as relative vertical vorticity and vertical wind shear. Atmospheric environments associated with MCS are studied for 1998; both as long-term means but also in terms of the seasonal cycle large-scale atmospheric indices are quantified for the most intense precipitation events within MCSs. Relationships between those indices are estimated, and atmospheric conditions are studied for the life cycle of MCSs, including antecedent and subsequent conditions surrounding MCSs activity
Zheng, Gang-yang; Zhang, Zhi-jian; Ye, Quan-liu; Du, Zhi-hao; Ma, Ying-fei; Zhang, Hua-zhi
Highlights: • Minimum Associated Subtask (MAS) and Minimum Effective Component (MEC) are presented in Mission Profile analysis. • Via applying MAS and MEC, Mission Profile plays a more important role in complex system reliability analysis. • Mission Profile has already been used in the reliability analysis of localized Chinese 1000 MW NPP Primary Pump. - Abstract: The traditional Mission Profile analysis did not clarify the accurate concept of minimum subtask and component. However, there are several components, which could be the influencing key element of the system reliability; and there are several subtasks, which could be used as a basic and crucial mission. In this paper, traditional method of Mission Profile has been extended by incorporating two new ideas: Minimum Associated Subtask (MAS) and Minimum Effective Component (MEC). This method of Mission Profile modeling is derived from Chinese 1000 MW NPP Primary Pump localization. A case study on Primary Pump reliability has been presented; then, MAS and MEC have been existed as vital elements in its lifecycle profile construction. By means of MAS and MEC, Mission Profile plays a more important role on complex system (Primary Pump) reliability analysis.
Bradford, Robert N.
Currently, and in the past, dedicated communication circuits and "network services" with very stringent performance requirements are being used to support manned and unmanned mission critical ground operations at GSFC, JSC, MSFC, KSC and other NASA facilities. Because of the evolution of network technology, it is time to investigate using other approaches to providing mission services for space ground operations. The current NASA approach is not in keeping with the evolution of network technologies. In the past decade various research and education networks dedicated to scientific and educational endeavors have emerged, as well as commercial networking providers, that employ advanced networking technologies. These technologies have significantly changed networking in recent years. Significant advances in network routing techniques, various topologies and equipment have made commercial networks very stable and virtually error free. Advances in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing will provide tremendous amounts of bandwidth for the future. The question is: Do these networks, which are controlled and managed centrally, provide a level of service that equals the stringent NASA performance requirements. If they do, what are the implication(s) of using them for critical space based ground operations as they are, without adding high cost contractual performance requirements? A second question is the feasibility of applying the emerging grid technology in space operations. Is it feasible to develop a Space Operations Grid and/or a Space Science Grid? Since these network's connectivity is substantial, both nationally and internationally, development of these sorts of grids may be feasible. The concept of research and education networks has evolved to the international community as well. Currently there are international RENs connecting the US in Chicago to and from Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific rim, Russia and Canada. And most countries in these areas have their
Farrell, R. M.; Rummel, J. A.; Schilling, T. L.
Over 80 investigations were selected recently as candidate experiments for Life Science Spacelab Missions in the 1983-1985 time frame. A payload consisting of perhaps 20 of these experiments will be selected in 1981, approximately two years before the first dedicated Life Sciences Spacelab Mission. Implementation of a carefully designed management process will be a prerequisite for accomplishing the development, flight, and post-flight analysis of a maximum number of these investigations, working within currently approved resources and schedules. This paper provides an overview of the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program, and describes the approach being taken at NASA Headquarters in its planning and implementation.
Balint, Tibor S.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Cutts, James A.; Senske, David A.
Venus, as part of the inner triad with Earth and Mars, represents an important exploration target if we want to learn more about solar system formation and evolution. Comparative planetology could also elucidate the differences between the past, present, and future of these three planets, and can help with the characterization of potential habitable zones in our solar system and, by extension, extrasolar systems. A long lived in situ Venus mission concept, called the Venus Mobile Explorer, was prominently featured in NASA's 2006 SSE Roadmap and supported in the community White Paper by the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Long-lived in situ missions are expected to belong to the largest (Flagship) mission class, which would require both enabling and enhancing technologies beside mission architecture options. Furthermore, extreme environment mitigation technologies for Venus are considered long lead development items and are expected to require technology development through a dedicated program. To better understand programmatic and technology needs and the motivating science behind them, in this fiscal year (FY08) NASA is funding a Venus Flaghip class mission study, based on key science and technology drivers identified by a NASA appointed Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). These mission drivers are then assembled around a suitable mission architecture to further refine technology and cost elements. In this paper we will discuss the connection between the final mission architecture and the connected technology drivers from this NASA funded study, which - if funded - could enable a future Flagship class Venus mission and potentially drive a proposed Venus technology development program.
On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”
Jacobus (Kobus P. Labuschagne
Full Text Available It has often been stated or implied that John Calvin and the Reformers in general were indifferent to or even against mission. The aim of this study is to point out that this understanding is not a true version of the facts. A thorough examination of the theology and actions of John Calvin, evaluated against the background of his times and world, reveals that he was firmly committed to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Lord. Also the theological insights of Calvin and the Reformers not only provided the crucial theological basis to support the future massive missionary expansion of Protestant churches, but necessitate for all times Church mission as a sure consequence of their theology. Calvin’s theology can indeed be described as an ‘essentially missionary theology’. In the heart of Calvin’s theological thinking clearly features the doctrine of justifi cation – because medieval man’s concern for salvation needed to be answered.
The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation
The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the
Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris
We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).
The First World War resulted in serious complexities that had to be surmounted by the missions. In all German territories in Africa that were turned into battle fields as well as in Allied possessions, missionaries suffered at the hands of Allied Forces. This article attempts an analysis of the treatment of the missions during and ...
Stakkestad, Kjell; Fennessey, Richard
The SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) satellite was operated from the Consolidated Space Test Center in Sunnyvale, California from February 1979 to May 1991. It was a spin stabilized vehicle in a highly eccentric orbit that collected data on spacecraft charging. The purpose of such data gathering was to predict and/or model the effects of the Earth's magnetic field on synchronous and near synchronous satellites. During the majority of its lifetime, attitude precession maneuvers were done every 10-15 days to maintain solar panel orientation. Maneuver planning was difficult due to the structural characteristics of SCATHA. It is cylindrically shaped and has seven booms ranging in length from 2 to 50 meters. These precession maneuvers induced predictable nutation that damped out after a few days. Eventually fuel began running low due to these frequent maneuvers. Experiments that had required the spin axis be in the orbit plane had already been turned off or had collected all their data. To increase the vehicle lifetime, the spin axis was moved to ecliptic normal. While this stopped the need for frequent attitude maneuvering (only two per year required now), this movement of the spin axis caused nutation that would not damp out for the remainder of the mission. This phase of the mission, with the ecliptic normal orientation, lasted for approximately three years. Although nutation never damped, data gathering was uninterrupted. In late 1990, when SCATHA's transmitter became seriously degraded, the Air Force decided to turn SCATHA off. This would only be done after the satellite was made 'safe'. The most difficult part of making the vehicle safe was quickly purging the fuel. Several plans were considered. The selected plan was to perform a series of 20 degree attitude precession maneuvers (3 days apart to allow for the worst nutation to damp) until the fuel was depleted. determination software, and an error in the fuel level calculation software. This paper
Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan
Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.
Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra
The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..
, and criticalities are derived. This analysis is extended to Euclidean minimum spanning trees. This thesis aims at enabling increased mission performance by providing means of assessing the robustness and optimality of a mission and methods for identifying critical elements. Examples of the application to mission planning in contested environments, cargo aircraft mission planning, multi-objective mission planning, and planning optimal communication topologies for teams of unmanned aircraft are given.
The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.
The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.
Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Tsuda, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saiki, Takanao; Nakazawa, Satoru
The Hayabusa2 mission journeys to C-type near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1999 JU3) to observe and explore the 900 m-sized object, as well as return samples collected from the surface layer. The Haybusa2 spacecraft developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was successfully launched on December 3, 2014 by an H-IIA launch vehicle and performed an Earth swing-by on December 3, 2015 to set it on a course toward its target Ryugu. Hayabusa2 aims at increasing our knowledge of the early history and transfer processes of the solar system through deciphering memories recorded on Ryugu, especially about the origin of water and organic materials transferred to the Earth's region. Hayabusa2 carries four remote-sensing instruments, a telescopic optical camera with seven colors (ONC-T), a laser altimeter (LIDAR), a near-infrared spectrometer covering the 3-μm absorption band (NIRS3), and a thermal infrared imager (TIR). It also has three small rovers of MINERVA-II and a small lander MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with French space agency CNES. MASCOT has a wide angle imager (MasCam), a 6-band thermal radiator (MARA), a 3-axis magnetometer (MasMag), and a hyperspectral infrared microscope (MicrOmega). Further, Hayabusa2 has a sampling device (SMP), and impact experiment devices which consist of a small carry-on impactor (SCI) and a deployable camera (DCAM3). The interdisciplinary research using the data from these onboard and lander's instruments and the analyses of returned samples are the key to success of the mission.
Domingue, D. L
NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.
All propulsion systems that leave the Earth are based on chemical reactions. Chemical reactions, at best, have an efficiency compared to rest mass of 10-10 (or about 1eV per bond). All the mass in the universe converted to chemical reactions would not propel even a single proton to relativistic speeds. While chemistry will get us to Mars it will not allow interstellar capability in any reasonable mission time. Barring new physics we are left with few realistic solutions. None of our current propulsion systems, including nuclear, are capable of the relativistic speeds needed for exploring the many nearby stellar systems and exo-planets. However recent advances in photonics and directed energy systems now allow us to realize what was only a decade ago, simply science fiction, namely the ability to seriously conceive of and plan for relativistic flight. From fully-functional gram-level wafer-scale spacecraft capable of speeds greater than c/4 that could reach the nearest star in 20 years to spacecraft for large missions capable of supporting human life with masses more than 105 kg (100 tons) for rapid interplanetary transit that could reach speeds of greater than 1000 km/s can be realized. With this technology spacecraft can be propelled to speeds currently unimaginable. Photonics, like electronics, and unlike chemical propulsion is an exponential technology with a current double time of about 20 months. This is the key. The cost of such a system is amortized over the essentially unlimited number of launches. In addition, the same photon driver can be used for many other purposes including beamed energy to power high Isp ion engines, remote asteroid composition analysis and planetary defense. This would be a profound change in human capability with enormous implications. Known as Starlight we are now in a NASA Phase II study. The FY 2017 congressional appropriations request directs NASA to study the feasibility of an interstellar mission to coincide with the 100th
Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.
Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.
The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.
evaluating the effectiveness of deterrence. Each provides persuasive arguments with logical evidence. However, they do not all come to the same conclusions...both a deterrence and assurance mission even though it was not planned or advertised as such. Since the intent of this mission was partly perceived
Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel
Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.
Norko, Michael A; Griffith, Ezra E H; Coleman, Jacquelyn T
The mission of The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, as articulated in its Instructions for Authors, is to be a forum for the exchange of multidisciplinary ideas and thoughtful and respectful scholarly analyses related to the theory and practice of forensic psychiatry. Recent refinements of The Journal's structure and policy can be understood as an effort to articulate a vision for emphasizing vibrant exchange of diverse scholarly activities and ideas expressing the highest levels of professionalism and concern for the ethics of forensic psychiatry and publishing. In this article, we explore the challenges encountered in realizing that vision, including managing the tone and level of discourse, creating structure without inhibiting creativity, demonstrating respect for persons in the use of case report material, expanding and guiding the utilization of peer review, promoting the new voices of authors with less writing experience, defining conflicts of interest for publishing purposes, and maintaining editorial independence in the context of serving organizational needs. We illustrate these challenges with recent experiences, explicating the decisions of the senior editors in an effort to be transparent about The Journal's processes and to encourage feedback from our readers about the adequacy of these practices. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.
This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.
The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs
Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef
A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.
Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.
To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.
Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F. M.; Watkins, M. M.; Bettadpur, S. V.
The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for nearly 16 years. The mission objectives are to observe the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The mass changes observed are related to both the changes within the solid earth and the change within and between the Erath system components. A significant cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequence which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. The fifth reanalysis on the mission data set, the RL05 data, were released in mid-2013. With the planned launch of GRACE Follow-On in early 2018, plans are underway for a reanalysis that will be consistent with the GRACE FO processing standards. The mission is entering the final phases of its operation life with mission end expected to occur in early 2018. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to obtain an overlap with the GRACE FO. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, describe the current operations philosophy and its impact on the science data, discuss the issues related to achieving the GRACE and GRACE FO connection and discuss issues related to science data products during this phase of the mission period.
Andrews, J.D.; Poole, J.; Chen, W.H.
There is currently a significant interest in the use of autonomous vehicles in many industrial sectors. One such example is the ever increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), particularly in military operations. This enables dangerous missions to be accomplished without risk to a pilot. UAVs also have potential civil applications which would require their certification and the demonstration that they are able to respond safety to any potential circumstances. The aircraft would therefore need to be capable of responding safely to the occurrence of component failures, the emergence of threats such as other aircraft in the neighboring airspace, and changing weather conditions. The likelihood that an aircraft will successfully complete any mission can be predicted using phased mission analysis techniques. The predicted mission unreliability can be updated in response to changing circumstances. In the event that the likelihood of mission failure becomes too high then changes have to be made to the mission plan. If these calculations could be carried out fast enough then the quantification procedure could be used to establish an acceptable response to any new conditions. With a view to using the methodology in the context described above, this paper investigates ways in which phased mission analysis can be improved to reduce the calculation time. The methodology improves the processing capability for a UAV phased mission analysis by taking into account the specific characteristics of the fault tree structures which provide the causes of phase failure for a UAV mission. It also carries out as much of the quantification as possible in advance of the mission plan being formulated
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection? In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and
Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.
In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near (∼10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100∼3000 km(electron∼ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.
Taylor, Jennifer; Wookey, James; Teanby, Nick
course of the InSight mission.  - Edwards, Wayne N., Peter G. Brown, and David W. Eaton. "Frequency-Dependent Acoustic-Seismic Coupling of Meteor Shock Waves." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 99.5 (2009): 3055-3066.  - Arrowsmith, Stephen J., et al. "A joint seismic and acoustic study of the Washington State bolide: Observations and modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984-2012) 112.D9 (2007).  - Tauzin, Benoit, et al. "Seismo-acoustic coupling induced by the breakup of the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk Meteor." Geophysical Research Letters (2013).  - Brown, Peter G., et al. "An entry model for the Tagish Lake fireball using seismic, satellite and infrasound records." Meteoritics & Planetary Science37.5 (2002): 661-675.
Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beal, Bill [National Security Technologies, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Okada, Colin [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, Mathew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This goal of this project is to address the current inability to assess the overall error and uncertainty of data products developed and distributed by DOE’s Consequence Management (CM) Program. This is a widely recognized shortfall, the resolution of which would provide a great deal of value and defensibility to the analysis results, data products, and the decision making process that follows this work. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty contribute to the ultimate production of CM data products. Therefore, this project will require collaboration with subject matter experts across a wide range of FRMAC skill sets in order to quantify the types of uncertainty that each area of the CM process might contain and to understand how variations in these uncertainty sources contribute to the aggregated uncertainty present in CM data products. The ultimate goal of this project is to quantify the confidence level of CM products to ensure that appropriate public and worker protections decisions are supported by defensible analysis.
Slutsky, Jacob; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration
The European Space Agency’s LISA Pathfinder was a mission built to demonstrate the technologies essential to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band. ESA recently selected the LISA mission as such a future observatory, scheduled to launch in the early 2030s. LISA Pathfinder launched in late 2015 and concluded its final extended mission in July 2017, during which time it placed the two test masses into free fall and successfully measured the relative acceleration between them to a sensitivity that validates a number of critical technologies for LISA. These include drag-free control of the test masses, low noise microNewton thrusters to control the spacecraft, and sub-picometer-level laser metrology in space. The mission also served as a sensitive probe of the environmenal conditions in which LISA will operate. This poster summarizes the recent analysis results, with an eye towards the implications for the LISA mission.
Shalygina, O. S.; Keller, H. U.; Blum, J.
The Giotto spacecraft (SC) mission was the ESA's first interplanetary mission, that made close-up observations of a comet. The Giotto spaceprobe passed the nucleus of comet Halley at a fly-by distance of only 596 km early on 14 March 1986. During the approach, 2304 images of the comet were taken by the Halley Multicolour Camera (HMC) through different filters. The HMC experiment was a high-resolution imaging system onboard the spin-stabilized SC. Its spin axis was closely aligned with the SC-comet relative-velocity vector. Pointing of the camera was achieved by the spinning motion of the SC for one dimension and by rotation about an axis perpendicular to the spin of the SC for the other dimension. The spin period was about 4 seconds and the nominal imaging resolution was 22 m at 1000 km distance [1, 2]. HMC was taking images in the so-called Time Delay and Integration mode . In this mode, only a narrow part of the CCD detector was uncovered, and vertical scan-out was provided by the spacecraft (and therefore the camera) spinning. During this spinning charges were transferred line-by-line in the same direction. The slit was made wider than 1 pixel, which increased exposure time but degraded the sharpness to some extent. The portion of the sky swept by the exposed lines during image acquisition was a section of an annulus resulting in over-sampling at the end of the exposed lines nearest the SC spin axis and under-sampling at the other end . Several impacts of dust particles on the spacecraft were detected during the fly-by by the analysis of the changes in the SC attitude and spin period . The changes occurred in large steps, requiring many impacts of massive dust particles well above an effective mass of 10 mg, which implies that a significant part of the cometary dust mass is contained in rather large particles. Moreover, since the time of the Giotto mission, large dust particles have been detected in the inner coma of other comets. The coma of comet 103P
Much of the cyber capabilities that enable mission owners to function are outside their influence and often outside their visibility. This situation...mission owner wants, and the nature of risk management. The consequences of these issues are more than academic concerns as they have contributed to...perspective of the user and that of key leaders in positions to exert great influence on the future of cyber in the Air Force. While the Air Force likely
This article analyzes the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate image in the chemical industry through mission slogans. Morsing's (2006) CSR communication framework is adapted for a comparative analysis of the strategies behind mission slogans. By grouping rhetorical strategies in a mission slogan into a mission…
On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active
Full Text Available The intent of this article is to describe—and prescribe—a scientific framework for assuring mission essential functions in a contested cyber environment. Such a framework has profound national security implications as the American military increasingly depends on cyberspace to execute critical mission sets. In setting forth this prescribed course of action, the article will first decompose information systems into atomic processes that manipulate information at all six phases of the information lifecycle, then systematically define the mathematical rules that govern mission assurance.
On September 1 st 2003, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow joined the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, is a state-sponsored scientific institution acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars, their research organizations and through numerous scientific establishments. PAN is a major national scientific advisory body acting via its scientific committees which represent all disciplines of science. There are currently 79 PAN research establishments (institutes and research centers, research stations, botanical gardens and other research units) and a number of auxiliary scientific units (such as archives, libraries, museums, and PAN stations abroad). Our Institute is currently one of the largest research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The mission of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas:1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and physics of mechanisms of nuclear interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, and in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Doctoral Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover, is specifically designed for in situ molecular and isotopic analyses of martian surface materials and atmosphere. It contributes to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions primary scientific goal to characterize the potential past, present or future habitability of Mars. In all of the analyses of solid samples delivered to SAM so far, chlorinated organic compounds have been detected above instrument background levels and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Freissinet et al., 2015; Glavin et al., 2013). While some of these may originate from reactions between oxychlorines and terrestrial organic carbon present in the instrument background (Glavin et al., 2013), others have been demonstrated to originate from indigenous organic carbon present in samples (Freissinet et al., 2015). We present here laboratory calibrations that focused on the analyses performed with the MXT-CLP GC column (SAM GC-5 channel) used for nearly all of the GC-MS analyses of the martian soil samples carried out with SAM to date. Complementary to the mass spectrometric data, gas chromatography allows us to separate and identify the species analyzable in a nominal SAM-GC run time of about 21 min. To characterize the analytical capabilities of this channel within the SAM Flight Model (FM) operating conditions on Mars, and their implications on the detection of organic matter, it is required to perform laboratory experimental tests and calibrations on spare model components. This work assesses the SAM flight GC-5 column efficiency, confirms the identification of the molecules based on their retention time, and enables a better understanding of the behavior of the SAM injection trap (IT) and its release of organic molecules. This work will enable further optimization of the SAM-GC runs for additional samples to be analyzed during the MSL mission.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission is architected as a collaboration of NASA, Industry, and Air Force partners with the objective to advance the technology for propulsion components using...
... exclusively of unmanned vehicles. To properly manage and fully realize the capabilities of this UAV force, a control system must be in place that directs UAVs to targets and coordinates missions in a manner that provides an efficient...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technology required for distributed spacecraft missions (DSM) is currently hamstrung by the lack of a realistic six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) testing platform. A...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...
White, III, Samuel G
...) level mission planning as a whole. Unfortunately, many of these initiatives have fallen short of seamlessly connecting the tactical level mission planning processes with the operational level or providing the unit-level mission...
This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.
Trujillo, Anna C.; Meszaros, Erica
. With a relatively well-defined and simple vocabulary, the operator can input the vast majority of the mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. However, voice input may be more applicable to initial mission specification rather than for critical commands such as the need to land immediately due to time and feedback constraints. It would also be convenient to retrieve relevant mission information using voice input. Therefore, further on-going research is looking at using intent from operator utterances to provide the relevant mission information to the operator. The information displayed will be inferred from the operator's utterances just before key phrases are spoken. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables us to predict the operator's intent and supply the operator's desired information to the interface. This paper also describes preliminary investigations into the generation of the semantic space of UAV operation and the success at providing information to the interface based on the operator's utterances.
Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina
Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....
Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glabb, Louis J.; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John
NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.
Law, E.; Day, B.
NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.
Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.
Luthey, Joe L.; Peralta, Fernando; Pojman, Joan L.
The delay of the Ulysses launch from May 1986 to October 1990, because of the Challenger disaster, has altered both the constraints under which the mission must be designed and the timing of several mission critical events. Safety and launch reliability concerns from the Shuttle have increased the effective launch window to durations greater than one hour. Fortuitously high declinations of the launch asymptote (DLA), of the order of the launch site latitude, ameliorate the impact of the new constraints on the launch window. Target overlays in the first hour of the launch window provide higher departure energies that improve mission performance and avoid a science schedule conflict at second opposition near the time of closest Jupiter approach. The mission design starts with the maximum earth departure energy that the upper stage can deliver within the launch constraints. The Jupiter arrival asymptotes are chosen from the optimal point of mission performance in the mission space defined in the Jupiter B-plane by contours mapped by the science and spacecraft constraints. More than half the orbital energy of the earth-to-Jupiter transfer orbit is lost in the Jupiter flyby, and the Jupiter gravitational assist rotates the orbit plane out of the ecliptic to an inclination of about 80 degrees.
Moore, Megan; Cristofalo, Margaret; Dotolo, Danae; Torres, Nicole; Lahdya, Alexandra; Ho, Leyna; Vogel, Mia; Forrester, Mollie; Conley, Bonnie; Fouts, Susan
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10). Eight major social work roles were identified: investigator, gatekeeper, resource broker, care coordinator, problem solver, crisis manager, advocate, discharge planner. Analyses revealed a complex interplay between ED social work services and multi-layered contexts. Using a social-ecological framework, we identified the interactions between micro or individual level factors, mezzo or local system level factors and macro environmental and systemic factors that play a role in ED interactions and patient services. Macro-level contextual influences were socio-structural forces including socioeconomic barriers to health, social hierarchies that reflected power differentials between providers and patients, and distrust or bias. Mezzo-level forces were limited resources, lack of healthcare system coordination, a challenging hierarchy within the medical model and the pressure to discharge patients quickly. Micro-level factors included characteristics of patients and social workers, complexity of patient stressors, empathic strain, lack of closure and compassion. All of these forces were at play in patient-social worker interactions and impacted service provision. Social workers were at times able to successfully navigate these forces, yet at other times these challenges were insurmountable. A conceptual model of ED social work and the influences on the patient-social worker
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...
Craft, H. G., Jr.
The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.
Evans, Scott; Taber, William; Drain, Theodore; Smith, Jonathon; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Guevara, Michelle; Sunseri, Richard; Evans, James
The Mission analysis, Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment (MONTE) (Sunseri et al. in NASA Tech Briefs 36(9), 2012) is an astrodynamic toolkit produced by the Mission Design and Navigation Software Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It provides a single integrated environment for all phases of deep space and Earth orbiting missions. Capabilities include: trajectory optimization and analysis, operational orbit determination, flight path control, and 2D/3D visualization. MONTE is presented to the user as an importable Python language module. This allows a simple but powerful user interface via CLUI or script. In addition, the Python interface allows MONTE to be used seamlessly with other canonical scientific programming tools such as SciPy, NumPy, and Matplotlib. MONTE is the prime operational orbit determination software for all JPL navigated missions.
Evans, Scott; Taber, William; Drain, Theodore; Smith, Jonathon; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Guevara, Michelle; Sunseri, Richard; Evans, James
The Mission analysis, Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment (MONTE) (Sunseri et al. in NASA Tech Briefs 36(9), 2012) is an astrodynamic toolkit produced by the Mission Design and Navigation Software Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It provides a single integrated environment for all phases of deep space and Earth orbiting missions. Capabilities include: trajectory optimization and analysis, operational orbit determination, flight path control, and 2D/3D visualization. MONTE is presented to the user as an importable Python language module. This allows a simple but powerful user interface via CLUI or script. In addition, the Python interface allows MONTE to be used seamlessly with other canonical scientific programming tools such as SciPy, NumPy, and Matplotlib. MONTE is the prime operational orbit determination software for all JPL navigated missions.
Suzana Miovska Spaseva
Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.
IAEA Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) missions are designed to assist Member States in evaluating the status of their national infrastructure for the introduction of a nuclear power programme. INIR missions are conducted upon request from the Member State. Each INIR mission is coordinated and led by the IAEA and conducted by a team of IAEA staff and international experts drawn from Member States which have experience in different aspects of developing and deploying nuclear infrastructure. INIR missions cover the 19 infrastructure issues described in Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1, published in 2007 and revised in 2015, and the assessment is based on an analysis of a self-evaluation report prepared by the Member State, a review of the documents it provides and interviews with its key officials. Phase 1 INIR missions evaluate the status of the infrastructure to achieve Milestone 1 (Ready to make a knowledgeable commitment to a nuclear power programme). Phase 2 INIR missions evaluate the status of the infrastructure to achieve Milestone 2 (Ready to invite bids/negotiate a contract for the first nuclear power plant). From 2009 to 2014, 14 IAEA INIR missions and follow-ups were conducted in States embarking on a nuclear power programme and one State expanding its programme. During this time, considerable experience was gained by the IAEA on the conduct of INIR missions, and this feedback has been used to continually improve the overall INIR methodology. The INIR methodology has thus evolved and is far more comprehensive today than in 2009. Despite the limited number of INIR missions conducted, some common findings were identified in Member States embarking on nuclear power programmes. This publication summarizes the results of the missions and highlights the most significant areas in which recommendations were made
Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald
To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed
Kruger P. du Preez
Full Text Available The article argues in favour of an all-embracing missional framework for curriculum development for theological institutions. When the curriculum of a subject such as ecclesiologyhas a missional hermeneutic, it will naturally lead to missional congregations. The authors use issues raised by the Network for African Congregational Theology (NetACT institutions and the decisions of the Third Lausanne Congress in Cape Town (2010 as reference points in this article. They argue for a broad understanding of the concept �missional� and are of the opinion that curricula that are integrative, normative, contextual and missional will lead to spiritual maturity and will result in a positive impact on church and society as a whole. The missio Deias the work of the Trinitarian God is seen as being God�s initiative. The incarnational modelof Jesus Christ forms the basis for a theology and missiology where humility, vulnerability and servanthood play a pivotal role in curricula. An appeal is made for holistic missions with a strong emphasis on social engagement and the inclusion of community development. The Holy Spirit is seen as the empowering presence of the missio Dei, and the role of pneumatologyin missional curriculum development is underscored. Theological institutes should become�proclamation� institutions. Curricula should be ecumenical by nature and should include reaching the unreached and unengaged people groups. Theological education by extension is presented as an alternative way of decent ralised theological education.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article calls for theology to be done with a missional hermeneutic, both intradisciplinarily and interdisciplinarily. The article involves theology and education and calls for all disciplines dealing with community development to collaborate.
Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen
Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether
Hoffman, Stephen J.; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, B. Kent; Watts, Kevin
In an on-going effort to make human Mars missions more affordable and sustainable, NASA continues to investigate the innovative leveraging of technological advances in conjunction with the use of accessible Martian resources directly applicable to these missions. One of the resources with the broadest utility for human missions is water. Many past studies of human Mars missions assumed a complete lack of water derivable from local sources. However, recent advances in our understanding of the Martian environment provides growing evidence that Mars may be more "water rich" than previously suspected. This is based on data indicating that substantial quantities of water are mixed with surface regolith, bound in minerals located at or near the surface, and buried in large glacier-like forms. This paper describes an assessment of what could be done in a "water rich" human Mars mission scenario. A description of what is meant by "water rich" in this context is provided, including a quantification of the water that would be used by crews in this scenario. The different types of potential feedstock that could be used to generate these quantities of water are described, drawing on the most recently available assessments of data being returned from Mars. This paper specifically focuses on sources that appear to be buried quantities of water ice. (An assessment of other potential feedstock materials is documented in another paper.) Technologies and processes currently used in terrestrial Polar Regions are reviewed. One process with a long history of use on Earth and with potential application on Mars - the Rodriguez Well - is described and results of an analysis simulating the performance of such a well on Mars are presented. These results indicate that a Rodriguez Well capable of producing the quantities of water identified for a "water rich" human mission are within the capabilities assumed to be available on the Martian surface, as envisioned in other comparable Evolvable
Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky
Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.
This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.
Kwert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeff
Exploration Life Support (ELS) is a current project under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The ELS Project plans, coordinates and implements the development of advanced life support technologies for human exploration missions in space. Recent work has focused on closed loop atmosphere and water systems for long duration missions, including habitats and pressurized rovers. But, what are the critical questions facing life support system developers for these and other future human missions? This paper explores those questions and how progress in the development of ELS technologies can help answer them. The ELS Project includes the following Elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems, Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing, which includes the Sub-Elements Flight Experiments and Integrated Testing. Systems engineering analysis by ELS seeks to optimize overall mission architectures by considering all the internal and external interfaces of the life support system and the potential for reduction or reuse of commodities. In particular, various sources and sinks of water and oxygen are considered along with the implications on loop closure and the resulting launch mass requirements. Systems analysis will be validated through the data gathered from integrated testing, which will demonstrate the interfaces of a closed loop life support system. By applying a systematic process for defining, sorting and answering critical life support questions, the ELS project is preparing for a variety of future human space missions
The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.
Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona
Advanced Project Excellence in Research and Enterprise), supported by Italian Ministry of Research and University (MIUR), and specifically in its STRONG sub-project (Systems Technology and Research National Global Operations) and related to the theme of space exploration and access to space. From this statement, a Primary Mission Objective (i.e. to perform satellites taxi between LEO and the operational orbit) and a Constraint can be derived (i.e.to use Italian space assets). Also in the mission concept has been underlined the necessity to rely on Italian space assets. This particular part of the mission statement is influenced by the stakeholders' analysis and will drive the systems configurations and design. In addition, considering stakeholders' analysis, VEGA launcher is considered as baseline and is one of the main constraints for the systems design.
Kumaş, A. E.
By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.
Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Zuo, Wei; Tan, Xu; Wen, Weibin; Li, Han; Mu, Lingli; Su, Yan; Zhang, Hongbo; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan
The Chang'e 3 (CE-3) mission was implemented as the first lander/rover mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP). After its successful launch at 01:30 local time on December 2, 2013, CE-3 was inserted into an eccentric polar lunar orbit on December 6, and landed to the east of a 430 m crater in northwestern Mare Imbrium (19.51°W, 44.12°N) at 21:11 on December 14, 2013. The Yutu rover separated from the lander at 04:35, December 15, and traversed for a total of 0.114 km. Acquisition of science data began during the descent of the lander and will continue for 12 months during the nominal mission. The CE-3 lander and rover each carry four science instruments. Instruments on the lander are: Landing Camera (LCAM), Terrain Camera (TCAM), Extreme Ultraviolet Camera (EUVC), and Moon-based Ultraviolet Telescope (MUVT). The four instruments on the rover are: Panoramic Camera (PCAM), VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), Active Particle induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), and Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). The science objectives of the CE-3 mission include: (1) investigation of the morphological features and geological structures of and near the landing area; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of mineral and chemical composition of and near the landing area; and (3) exploration of the terrestrial-lunar space environment and lunar-based astronomical observations. This paper describes the CE-3 objectives and measurements that address the science objectives outlined by the Comprehensive Demonstration Report of Phase II of CLEP. The CE-3 team has archived the initial science data, and we describe data accessibility by the science community.
Quattrone, P. D.
Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.
Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.
Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.
Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano
The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP)   project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre
Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay
A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.
The analysis on Earth of materials returned from other solar system bodies, and beyond, is likely one of the most effective ways for us to learn about the origins, history, and present state of the universe outside of our home planet. In the past, the Apollo missions were able to return large quantities of material from the Moon, while missions currently flying (Genesis and Stardust) intend to return much smaller quantities of material. Planned and conceptualized future missions (cf., MUSES-C) intend to return a wide variety of samples such as those from a near-Earth asteroid, the surface and atmosphere of Mars , and perhaps once more from the Earth's Moon. In some cases, the bodies targeted for sample return missions may have the capability of harboring indigenous life, while in other cases there is scant possibility of that. Considerations in determining the potential for extraterrestrial contamination from sample return missions have been studied, and include such factors as the availability of liquid water in or on the target body, the availability of m tabolicallye useful energy sources, the likelihood that organic matter was available, and the overall temperature and radiation history of the sampled areas. Also of note is the potential that the natural influx to Earth of that materials in question (e.g., meteorites, etc.) might overwhelm the ability of a targeted sample-return mission to contribute something novel to the Earth's environment. Missions thought to pose a risk of extraterrestrial biological contamination are subject to a containment provision that may be very difficult to implement on a single, moderate-cost mission, but such steps are necessary to protect both our own planet and the health of solar-system exploration missions and the science they can do.
Clark, K.; Stankov, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; van Houten, T.
Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)— would be an international mission that would achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System be-fore settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupi-ter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and charac-terize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM would fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Coun-cil's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vi-sion for exploration of the outer solar system. The De-cadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission tar-get. EJSM would uniquely addresse several of the cen-tral themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM would investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Gany-mede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geo-logical, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupi-ter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant plan-ets and their satellites would be
The development of wind energy systems in the U.S. is discussed under the following headings: baseline power systems; assessment of wind potential; identification of high potential applications; electric utilities; residential application; paper industry application; agriculture application; and remote community applications.
The principal objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for wind energy conversion systems on a national scale, (2) identify high-potential applications for WECS, (3) define functional, performance, operational, and cost goals for WECS, (4) evaluate the impact of the wide-scale deployment of WECS on energy users, and (5) identify the institutional and non-technical problems associated with the acceptance of wind energy systems. The study concentrated on broad applications of WECS over large geographic areas encompassing the entire United States. Emphasis was placed on identifying and exploring high-aggregate energy users who have significant potential to utilize wind energy in place of other alternatives.
Initial assessment and treatment of refugees in the Mediterranean Sea (a secondary data analysis concerning the initial assessment and treatment of 2656 refugees rescued from distress at sea in support of the EUNAVFOR MED relief mission of the EU).
Kulla, M; Josse, F; Stierholz, M; Hossfeld, B; Lampl, L; Helm, M
As a part of the European Union Naval Force - Mediterranean Operation Sophia (EUNAVFOR Med), the Federal Republic of Germany is contributing to avoid further loss of lives at sea by supplying two naval vessels. In the study presented here we analyse the medical requirements of such rescue missions, as well as the potential benefits of various additional monitoring devices in identifying sick/injured refugees within the primary onboard medical assessment process. Retrospective analysis of the data collected between May - September 2015 from a German Naval Force frigate. Initial data collection focused on the primary medical assessment and treatment process of refugees rescued from distress at sea. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analysis were performed. The study has received a positive vote from the Ethics Commission of the University of Ulm, Germany (request no. 284/15) and has been registered in the German Register of Clinical Studies (no. DRKS00009535). A total of 2656 refugees had been rescued. 16.9 % of them were classified as "medical treatment required" within the initial onboard medical assessment process. In addition to the clinical assessment by an emergency physician, pulse rate (PR), core body temperature (CBT) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were evaluated. Sick/injured refugees displayed a statistically significant higher PR (114/min vs. 107/min; p refugee boats. A cut-off value of clinical importance could not be found. Predominant diagnoses have been dermatological diseases (55.4), followed by internal diseases (27.7) and trauma (12.1 %). None of the refugees classified as "healthy" within the primary medical assessment process changed to "medical treatment required" during further observation. The initial medical assessment by an emergency physician has proved successful. PR, CBT and SpO2 didn't have any clinical impact to improve the identification of sick/injured refugees within the primary onboard assessment process.
Gendron, Gerald; Roberts, David; Poole, Donold; Aquino, Anna
This paper proposes a cyber security modeling and simulation roadmap to enhance mission assurance governance and establish risk reduction processes within constrained budgets. The term mission assurance stems from risk management work by Carnegie Mellon's Software Engineering Institute in the late 19905. By 2010, the Defense Information Systems Agency revised its cyber strategy and established the Program Executive Officer-Mission Assurance. This highlights a shift from simply protecting data to balancing risk and begins a necessary dialogue to establish a cyber security roadmap. The Military Operations Research Society has recommended a cyber community of practice, recognizing there are too few professionals having both cyber and analytic experience. The authors characterize the limited body of knowledge in this symbiotic relationship. This paper identifies operational and research requirements for mission assurance M&S supporting defense and homeland security. M&S techniques are needed for enterprise oversight of cyber investments, test and evaluation, policy, training, and analysis.
Gómez, G; Simo, C; Masdemont, J
This book studies several problems related to the analysis of planned or possible spacecraft missions. It is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the computation of quasiperiodic solutions for the motion of a spacecraft near the equilateral points of the Earth-Moon system. The second chapter gives a complete description of the orbits near the collinear point, L 1 , between the Earth and the Sun in the restricted three-body problem (RTBP) model. In the third chapter, methods are developed to compute the nominal orbit and to design and test the control strategy for the qua
Zubrin, R.; Mondt, J.
This paper presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of the NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. The radiological hazard associated with using Earth gravity assists on such missions was examined and shown to be small compared to that currently accepted on Earth fly-by missions involving RTGs. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive options for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Delgado, Luis G.
This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.
Giuliano, J. A.
Pluto is the smallest, outermost and last-discovered planet in the Solar System and the only one that has never been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. Pluto and its relatively large satellite Charon are the destinations of a proposed spacecraft mission for the next decade, being developed for NASA by scientists and engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Laser Weapon Simulation MIL AASPEM II (MIL II) Man-In-the-Loop Air-to-Air System Performance Evaluation Model RADGUNS* Radar Directed Gun System...Missions Laser Library • Test Reports • Symposia Proceedings • Analyses • Vulnerability Reports • Laser Weapon Reports • High Power Microwave Reports
Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.
Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006
Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others
Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.
Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.
In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies
Graham, L.; Fries, M.; Hamilton, J.; Landis, R.; John, K.; O'Hara, W.
Use of the Deep Space Gateway provides a hub for a reusable planetary sample return vehicle for missions to gather star dust as well as samples from various parts of the solar system including main belt asteroids, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars moon.
Initially, the international community was very enthusiastic about the use of UN peacekeeping to ensure the delivery of humanitarian aid and to restore order. ..... A mission for peace should not be conceived of as a form of intervention designed to solve the social, political, and economic problems of a polarized society.
Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.
An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate
A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander
Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.
EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in
Ferri, A.; Anselmi, A.; Scoon, G. E. N.
Aim of this paper is to summarise the 1-year study performed by Alenia Aerospazio in close co-operation with the European Space Agency, on the Mercury Cornerstone System and Technology Study, as a part of Horizon 2000+ Scientific Programme plan. ESA's definition study towards a mission to Mercury conceives the launch of a S/C in 2009, on a two to three years journey, plus a one-year scientific observations and data take. The mission's primary objectives are manyfolded, aiming at approaching basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of Mercury: identify and map the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, measure the topography of surface landforms, define the gravitational field, investigate particles and magnetic fields. The mission is also intended to resolve the librational state of the planet, in a system experiment requiring high accuracy inertial attitude (arcsecond level) and orbit (m-level) reconstitution. This experiment will allow to infer whether Mercury has a molten core, which is crucial to theories of magnetic field generation, and theories of the thermal history of terrestrial type planets. A hard-lander is planned to perform in-situ surface geochemical analysis. The mission is expected to provide scientists with a global portrait of Mercury returning about 1200 Gbits of scientific data, during a 1-year observation phase. The crucial aspects of the spacecraft design have to do with the high-temperature and high-radiation environment. Thermal control is achieved by a combination of orbit selection, attitude law, and special design provisions for IR shielding and HT insulation. Ad-hoc design provisions are envisaged for power and antenna mechanisms. Though the conceptual objectives of this industrial study focused on system architectures and enabling technologies for a "Cornerstone" class mission, in this paper emphasis is given on the scientific payload aspects.
C. P. Escoubet
Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.
Michael Purucker; Sabaka, T.J.; Richard Holme
Complete text of publication follows. While planning for the ESA Swarm mission has been a primary focus of geomagnetism over the past decade, the long time lags necessary for satellite missions dictate that planning for the next mission begin even before the launch of Swarm. Swarm will measure, for the first time, the E-W gradient of the magnetic field. In 2006, NASA launched a minisatellite magnetometer constellation mission (ST-5) to test technologies and software. The ST-5 constellation made the first along-track gradient measurements. One of the concepts under consideration for missions after Swarm is to systematically measure spatial gradients. The radial gradient could be measured using either an 'uncontrolled' fleet of satellites at different altitudes and local times, or by two or more satellites in a cartwheel configuration. Small-scale static features (degrees > 13) of the core field remain unknown because of their overlap with the crustal field, but they are of critical importance in core flow modeling. To what extent can small-scale features of the core field be separated from longer-wavelength crustal fields using radial gradients? We discuss this question in the context of a model study in which we attempt to recover separate core and crustal fields. The long wavelength crustal field model input is based on the seismic 3SMAC model, updated using MF-6. The core field model input is based on CHAOS-2. We will discuss the extent to which such a separation is ill-posed, and dependent on details of the parameterization. We will also discuss the extent to which such a separation is affected by the presence of annihilators.
Fiehler, Douglas I.; McNutt, Ralph L.
The Innovative Interstellar Explorer, studied under a NASA Vision Mission grant, examined sending a probe to a heliospheric distance of 200 Astronomical Units (AU) in a "reasonable" amount of time. Previous studies looked at the use of a near-Sun propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and fission reactor powered electric propulsion systems for propulsion. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer's mission design used a combination of a high-energy launch using current launch technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and electric propulsion powered by advanced radioisotope power systems to reach 200 AU. Many direct and gravity assist trajectories at several power levels were considered in the development of the baseline trajectory, including single and double gravity assists utilizing the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). A detailed spacecraft design study was completed followed by trajectory analyses to examine the performance of the spacecraft design options.
Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.
Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.
Sharaf, Omran; Amiri, Sarah; AlMheiri, Suhail; Alrais, Adnan; Wali, Mohammad; AlShamsi, Zakareyya; AlQasim, Ibrahim; AlHarmoodi, Khuloud; AlTeneiji, Nour; Almatroushi, Hessa; AlShamsi, Maryam; AlAwadhi, Mohsen; McGrath, Michael; Withnell, Pete; Ferrington, Nicolas; Reed, Heather; Landin, Brett; Ryan, Sean; Pramann, Brian
United Arab Emirates (UAE) has entered the space exploration race with the announcement of Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), the first Arab Islamic mission to another planet, in 2014. Through this mission, UAE is to send an unmanned probe, called Hope probe, to be launched in summer 2020 and reach Mars by 2021 to coincide with UAE's 50th anniversary. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit that has a periapsis altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapsis altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. The mission is designed to (1) characterize the state of the Martian lower atmosphere on global scales and its geographic, diurnal and seasonal variability, (2) correlate rates of thermal and photochemical atmospheric escape with conditions in the collisional Martian atmosphere, and (3) characterize the spatial structure and variability of key constituents in the Martian exosphere. These objectives will be met by four investigations with diurnal variability on sub-seasonal timescales which are (1) determining the three-dimensional thermal state of the lower atmosphere, (2) determining the geographic and diurnal distribution of key constituents in the lower atmosphere, (3) determining the abundance and spatial variability of key neutral species in the thermosphere, and (4) determining the three-dimensional structure and variability of key species in the exosphere. EMM will collect these information about the Mars atmospheric circulation and connections through a combination of three distinct instruments that image Mars in the visible, thermal infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths and they are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI), the Emirates Mars InfraRed Spectrometer (EMIRS), and the EMM Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS). EMM has passed its Mission Concept Review (MCR), System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) phases. The mission is led by Emiratis from Mohammed
Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian
The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of customer‑focused mission statements on customer satisfaction in selected cell phone manufacturing companies in the United States. The study employed content analysis for the mission statement and data from America customer satisfaction index (ACSI. In analysing our data, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result showed that product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image mission statement components are strongly positively correlated with customer satisfaction. Customer, survival, growth and profitability and market mission statement components are insignificantly negatively correlated with customer satisfaction. The study, therefore, recommends that companies that want to remain competitive by enhancing customer satisfaction should formulate mission statements from a customer perspective so that they include product and service, technology, philosophy, self‑concept, and public image components. The main limitation of the study represents the sample size and structure. This study empirically investigated the correlation and association of nine mission statement components with customer satisfaction.
Queila Regina Souza Matitz
Full Text Available The religious origin of organizational behavior is not easy to recognize, nor are the implications of the Christian heritage of concepts and ideas as applied to organizations. This paper seeks to remedy this by investigating the theological roots of the mission concept. Our central argument is that corporate mission statements are sometimes used as manipulative communicative tools which seek organizational legitimacy through the rhetorical inclusion of secularized Christian values. We find in Koselleck’s (1985 Conceptual History theoretical arguments by which to evaluate the bridge between theological and corporate concepts of mission. Then, we discuss mission as a theological concept, showing how it developed in modern societies and how its discursive use in business can be evaluated. With an analysis based on Habermas’ (1985 work, we conclude that, as a communicative tool, a corporate mission statement helps organizations manipulate meanings about their purposes and legitimacy in Christianity-based societies. This process reveals how the mission concept contributes to increase organizational sacralization and represents a powerful tool for improving a corporation´s social image and as a consequence may induce social consent.
Haberle, R. M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.
The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least 1 Mars year if not longer. Pascal is a Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta II-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in
Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff
The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.
The proposed Xenia mission will, for the first time, chart the chemical and dynamical state of the majority of baryonic matter in the universe. using high-resolution spectroscopy, Xenia will collect essential information from major traces of the formation and evolution of structures from the early universe to the present time. The mission is based on innovative instrumental and observational approaches: observing with fast reaction gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a high spectral resolution. This enables the study of their (star-forming) environment from the dark to the local universe and the use of GRBs as backlight of large-scale cosmological structures, observing and surveying extended sources with high sensitivity using two wide field-of-view x-ray telescopes - one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution.
The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.
Tawara, Y.; Sakurai, I.; Furuzawa, A.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Hoshino, A.; Akamatsu, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Masui, K.; Yoshino, T.; Hagihara, T.; Kimura, S.; Yoshitake, H.
We present the current status of a small X-ray mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor), consisting of a 4-stage X-ray telescope and an array of TES microcalorimeters, cooled with mechanical coolers, with a total weight of about 400 kg. The mission will perform survey observations of warm-hot intergalactic medium using OVII and OVIII emission lines, with the energy coverage up to 1.5 keV. The wide field of view of about 50' diameter, superior energy resolution close to 2 eV FWHM, and very low background will together enable us a wide range of science for diffuse X-ray sources. We briefly describe the current status of the development of the satellite, and the subsystems.
This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.
Krivanek, Robert; Havel, Radim
Highlights: • During the period 2005–mid 2015, 22 SALTO peer review missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART missions were conducted. • Analysis of these mission results and main trends observed are gathered in this paper. • The main task of the assessment performed was to evaluate and give a weight to the evaluation. • Results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions with LTO module are summarized. • The SALTO peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper builds on paper “Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results”, NED8070, presented in Nuclear Engineering and Design in September 2014. This paper presents the analysis of SALTO mission results and main trends observed so that all the most important results of SALTO missions are gathered in one paper. The paper also includes the results of LTO module reviews performed in the frame of OSART missions where applicable as well as follow-up missions. This paper is divided in three main Sections. Section 1 provides brief introduction to SALTO peer review service. Section 2 provides overview of performed SALTO missions and LTO modules of OSART missions performed between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 3 summarizes the most significant observations and trends resulting from the missions between 2005 and mid-2015. Section 4 summarizes the results of SALTO follow-up missions as well as OSART follow-up missions.
Obtaining a measure of the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) is among the top goals of cosmology in the beginning of the twenty-first century. Detection of BAOs offers the possibility to test the standard cosmological model, by providing strong constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The EUCLID-NIS mission proposes to measure BAOs by mapping the 3D distribution of baryons at intermediate redshift, 1 micromirror devices (DMD) from Texas Instruments.
This is the crew patch for the Shuttle Endeavor STS-113 mission, the 16th American assembly flight, and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS). STS-113 mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five back to Earth, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. Also, more than 2,500 pounds (1,134 kilograms) of cargo were transferred between the Shuttle and Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A and returned 11 days later on December 4, 2002. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour docked to the ISS during the installation of the P1 truss with the gold astronaut symbol in the background. The seven stars at the top left center of the patch are the seve brightest stars in the constellation Orion. They represent the combined seven crew members (four Shuttle and three Expedition Six). The three stars to the right of the astronaut symbol represent the returning Expedition Five crew members. The Roman Numeral CXIII represents the mission number 113.
This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...
The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.
Zwitter, Tomaž, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Quasars are often considered to be point-like objects. This is largely true and allows for an excellent alignment of the optical positional reference frame of the ongoing ESA mission Gaia with the International Celestial Reference Frame. But presence of optical jets in quasars can cause shifts of the optical photo-centers at levels detectable by Gaia. Similarly, motion of emitting blobs in the jet can be detected as proper motion shifts. Gaia's measurements of spectral energy distribution for around a million distant quasars is useful to determine their redshifts and to assess their variability on timescales from hours to years. Spatial resolution of Gaia allows to build a complete magnitude limited sample of strongly lensed quasars. The mission had its first public data release in September 2016 and is scheduled to have the next and much more comprehensive one in April 2018. Here we briefly review the capabilities and current results of the mission. Gaia's unique contributions to the studies of quasars are already being published, a highlight being a discovery of a number of quasars with optical jets.
Van Holtz, R. C.
The project organisation of IRAS is described, showing the tasks assigned to each project group during post-launch operations. The satellite is described, emphasizing the detectors. In the task division, the role of the U.S. is to construct the telescope and survey instrument, launch the satellite, process final science data for the survey instrument, and provide certain standard satellite items. The Netherlands construct the spacecraft and three additional instruments, integrates and tests the overall satellite, and designs and participates in the development of the operational system. The U.K. provides the operational control center and primary tracking station, generates a system for preliminary science analysis of the survey data, provides housekeeping analysis software and science data distribution software, and staffs the control center operations. The teams involved in mission planning and operations, and their roles, are identified, and a block diagram of the operations organisation is presented.
Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Kassebom, M.; Ziegler, B.; Mahal, S.; Greinacher, R.; Holsten, S.; Borowy, C.
This paper covers the current OHB-System AG activities in the field of Earth Observation with small satellites ranging from science and research towards commercial and security missions. Very highresolution, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, as well as very high resolution SAR mission concepts are presented including the following projects: The SAR-Lupe constellation generates very high resolution SAR images for military reconnaissance purposes. It is developed by OHB-System and reaches full in-orbit deployment in 2008. EnMAP - featuring an innovative hyperspectral sensor systems for the detailed and global analysis of eco-system parameters. Very high resolution SAR and Optical Constellations of 1m resolution are currently investigated for emergency response and disaster management, which require a fast system response-time. Data Relay from GEO relaxes the typical EO bottle-neck in downloading data. Therefore it enables an increase of LEO observation time and reduces image ageing as well as system response time by direct EO satellite tasking. Ocean-Colour from GEO shall be a sustainable source for intra-daily observations of coastal zones for environment monitoring, fishery management and coastal water pollution. Next Generation very high resolution missions below 1m resolution are proposed for reconnaissance and dual-use applications for commercial customers. New services and products are under development for a range of applications, including hyperspectral data exploitation, data fusion with in-situ systems for maritime environment, security as well as for air quality services. The realisation of an end-user oriented infrastructure - including space and ground segment - for commercial Earth observation is a key element of OHB-System's Earth observation activities.
Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David
paper describes a complete transportation architecture including the analysis of transportation element options and sensitivities including: transportation element mass to surface landed mass; lander propellant options; and mission crew size. Based on this analysis, initial design concepts for the launch vehicle, crew module and lunar lander are presented. The paper also describes how the dual launch lunar mission architecture would fit into a more general overarching human space exploration philosophy that would allow expanded application of mission transportation elements for missions beyond the Earth-moon realm.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox is designed to significantly reduce the resources and time spent on designing missions in multi-body gravitational...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...
Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.
The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...
Derz, Uwe; Seboldt, Wolfgang
The Mars sample return mission is a flagship mission within ESA's Aurora program and envisioned to take place in the timeframe of 2020-2025. Previous studies developed a mission architecture consisting of two elements, an orbiter and a lander, each utilizing chemical propulsion and a heavy launcher like Ariane 5 ECA. The lander transports an ascent vehicle to the surface of Mars. The orbiter performs a separate impulsive transfer to Mars, conducts a rendezvous in Mars orbit with the sample container, delivered by the ascent vehicle, and returns the samples back to Earth in a small Earth entry capsule. Because the launch of the heavy orbiter by Ariane 5 ECA makes an Earth swing by mandatory for the trans-Mars injection, its total mission time amounts to about 1460 days. The present study takes a fresh look at the subject and conducts a more general mission and system analysis of the space transportation elements including electric propulsion for the transfer. Therefore, detailed spacecraft models for orbiters, landers and ascent vehicles are developed. Based on that, trajectory calculations and optimizations of interplanetary transfers, Mars entries, descents and landings as well as Mars ascents are carried out. The results of the system analysis identified electric propulsion for the orbiter as most beneficial in terms of launch mass, leading to a reduction of launch vehicle requirements and enabling a launch by a Soyuz-Fregat into GTO. Such a sample return mission could be conducted within 1150-1250 days. Concerning the lander, a separate launch in combination with electric propulsion leads to a significant reduction of launch vehicle requirements, but also requires a large number of engines and correspondingly a large power system. Therefore, a lander performing a separate chemical transfer could possibly be more advantageous. Alternatively, a second possible mission architecture has been developed, requiring only one heavy launch vehicle (e.g., Proton). In that
Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.
The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the Swarm science objectives, the mission concept, the scientific instrumentation, and the expected contribution to the ILWS programme will be summarized. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR....
Fennell, J. F.
This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.
Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.
Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.
This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.
The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission 2007 in India and Mission Swaabhimaan in Nepal. Telecentre stakeholders in Bangladesh would like to replicate the methodology used in Mission 2007, ...
Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.
The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.
Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus
The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for
Batalha, Natalie M
The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system.
Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.
Cliquet, Elisa; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Masson, Frederic; Roux, Jean-Pierre; Paris, Nicolas; Cazale, Brice; Manifacier, Laurent; Poinot-Salanon, Christine
Nuclear propulsion has been studied for many decades. The power density of nuclear fission is much higher than chemical process, and for missions to outer solar system requiring several hundred of kilowatts, or for flexible manned missions to Mars requiring several megawatts, nuclear electric propulsion might be the only option offering a reasonable mass in low earth orbit. Despite the existence of low power experiences - SNAP10 in the 60's or Buk/Topaz in the 60-80's - no high power reactor has been developed: investment cost, long term time frame, high technological challenges and radioactive hazards are the main challenges we must overtake. However, it seems reasonable to look at the technical challenges that have to be overcome for a next generation of nuclear electric systems for space exploration. This paper will present some recent studies going on in France, on space reactors for exploration. Three classes of power have been considered: 10kWe, 100kWe, and several megawatts. Available data from previous studies and developments performed in Russia, USA], and Europe, have been collected and gave us a large overview of potential technical solutions. This was the starting point of a trade-off analysis aiming at the selection of the best options, with regards to the technological readiness level in France and Europe. The resulting preliminary designs will be presented and critical technologies needing maturation activities will be highlighted. (author)
DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a satellite mission of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) dedicated to high energy cosmic ray detections. Since its successful launch on December 17th, 2015 a large amount of cosmic ray data has been collected. With relatively large acceptance, DAMPE is designed to detect electrons (and positrons) up to 10 TeV with unprecedented energy resolution to search for new features in the cosmic ray electron plus positron (CRE) spectrum. It will also study cosmic ray nuclei up to 100 TeV with good precision, which will bring new input to the study of their still unknown origin and their propagation through the Galaxy. In this talk, the DAMPE mission will be introduced, together with some details of the construction and on-ground calibration of the detector subsystems. The in-orbit detector commissioning, calibration and operation will be described. First data analysis results, including the recently published CRE spectrum from 25 GeV to 4.6 TeV based on the data collected i...
Ancilla Systems, Inc., Elk Grove Village, Il, developed a mission-based performance evaluation program to provide tangible evidence of mission fulfillment and ensure the provision of high-quality healthcare. the program--Characteristics of Service--translates the language of healthcare action and evaluates corporate culture to ensure that it fulfills the expectations of its sponsor. The nine Characteristics of Service are: Respect for the dignity of all persons. Orientation toward the family unit. Quality and personalized services. Local health systems with a spectrum of services responsive to the unique needs of the community. Formal and informal partnerships with physicians. Active participation and collaboration with related community service agencies and other healthcare providers. Faithfulness to Catholic identity through close relationships with Church and religious institute resources. Effective political advocacy through education. Research and development of innovative approaches to healthcare. In establishing the behavior standards that would exemplify the characteristics, program developers used terms that correspond to specific, observable, measurable performance. All healthcare facilities are evaluated on how well they meet the behavior standards. The evaluation process includes data collection, analysis, and a final report. Data collection begins with a review of regular hospital-conducted surveys, which provide quantifiable information to measure performance against key expected behaviors. Additional data are derived from medical staff development plans and the monthly quality assurance audit. On-site surveys fill information gaps that remain after all written reports are collected.
Immel, T. J.; England, S. L.; Mende, S. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Englert, C. R.; Edelstein, J.; Frey, H. U.; Korpela, E. J.; Taylor, E. R.; Craig, W. W.; Harris, S. E.; Bester, M.; Bust, G. S.; Crowley, G.; Forbes, J. M.; Gérard, J.-C.; Harlander, J. M.; Huba, J. D.; Hubert, B.; Kamalabadi, F.; Makela, J. J.; Maute, A. I.; Meier, R. R.; Raftery, C.; Rochus, P.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Stephan, A. W.; Swenson, G. R.; Frey, S.; Hysell, D. L.; Saito, A.; Rider, K. A.; Sirk, M. M.
The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space environment. This connection is made in the ionosphere, which has long been known to exhibit variability associated with the sun and solar wind. However, it has been recognized in the 21st century that equally significant changes in ionospheric conditions are apparently associated with energy and momentum propagating upward from our own atmosphere. ICON's goal is to weigh the competing impacts of these two drivers as they influence our space environment. Here we describe the specific science objectives that address this goal, as well as the means by which they will be achieved. The instruments selected, the overall performance requirements of the science payload and the operational requirements are also described. ICON's development began in 2013 and the mission is on track for launch in 2018. ICON is developed and managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, with key contributions from several partner institutions.
Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.
The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and,
Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques
Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.
Patel, Falgun and Jain, Noopur 2005, SOXS/PRL Technical document, “Software Development for data Processing and Analysis of Data from Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission. Onboard GSAT-2 Spacecraft”. Shimuzu, T. 1995, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, 47, 251. Sylwester, J., Farnik, F., Likin, O., Kordylewski, Z., ...
Starting from the analysis of the theoretical drawbacks of classical pedagogy stretching from Johann Friedrich Herbart to John Dewey, this paper advocates that educational research in China in the new century should take on a theory mission that calls for the classification of the knowledge of educational theory and the definition of its…
Jun 9, 2015 ... education; they were disciplined and principled; they enjoyed music; they worked hard for an everlasting peace on earth; and they were zealous ... of Southern Africa (MCSA), and to argue that memories of the departed can be used as missional lessons. Data collection and analysis. Information was ...
Olsen, Poul Erik Holmdahl; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Olsen, Nils
In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of ESA's Swarm constellation mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. The Swarm ESL/SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, derives...
pleasure from viewing great paintings in art museums simply for their visual and compositional aesthetics. But, when accompanied by an art expert, we can see deeper into them and learn to cultivate that appreciation. With the background of dimensional analysis given in Box 1, we can take a relook at the comet mission.
Conclusion: This study showed that the knowledge of injection safety was poor among the nurses in mission hospitals in Benin City but their practice of ... is exposed to hazards of unsafe injections by unsafe waste disposal practices such as ... 13 computer software was used for analysis of data obtained from respondents.
US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Uganda has been interrupted several times due to Uganda's turbulent history since independence. Mission Director Richard Podol explains that because USAID is not a major donor to Uganda, an effort is made to maximize effectiveness by being cautious about how agency money is spent. USAID looks for critical gaps that are not being filled by other donor programs yet are essential to the development of Uganda at present and in the future. 1 such area is export promotion. Another area is macroeconomic reform. Agricultural rehabilitation is a major factor in the mission's strategy to restore Uganda prosperity. USAID has a package of interrelated projects that work to increase agricultural production and improve processing and marketing, all supported by appropriate economic policies. In 1983, USAID began to fund the Manpower for Agriculture Development (MFAD) Project to assist the MInistry of Agriculture and Makerere University in strengthening their agricultural research and training capabilities. Also designed to increase food production is USAID's 6-year and $20 million Cooperative Agriculture and Agribusiness Support project. IN the health sector, USAID's Family Health Initiatives project works cooperatively with US and international organizations in supporting the MInistry of Health and Ugandan private organizations in their efforts to implement family planning policies and programs. The missions' oral rehydration project is being implemented throughout Uganda to reduce child mortality and severe cases of childhood illness caused by diarrheal diseases. The US in 1986 made pledges toward the budget for UGanda's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program. Podol maintains that while there has been significant economic and political progress, the primary issue continues to be political, i.e,, can full peace be restored to Uganda.
Spilker, Thomas R.
A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.
Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.
general public into the thrill of NASA science. Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, students and the general public sees the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Cross-curricular elements include examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. Dawn Education and Public Outreach will share out perspectives and lessons learned, backed by extensive evaluation examining the efficacy of the mission's efforts.
A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground experiment designs; onboard life support and test systems; ground and flight health monitoring; flight monkey selection and transport to the launch site; inflight procedures and data collection; postflight examinations and experiments; and assessment of results.
This draft 1988 amendment to the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose is to inform the Congress of the DOE's plans for implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. This document is being submitted in draft form to Federal agencies, states, previously affected Indian Tribes, affected units of local government, and the public. After the consideration of comments, this amendment will be revised as appropriate and submitted to the Congress. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.
The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.
Borucki..., William J.; Koch, David; Buchhave, Lars C. Astrup
The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet’s surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler...... is one of the lowest-density planets (~0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets....
Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros
Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....
The Advanced Mission Concepts and Technologies Office (Mission Technologies Office, MTO for short) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of ESA is entrusted with research and development of innovative mission operations concepts systems and provides operations support to special projects. Visions of future missions and requests for improvements from currently flying missions are the two major sources of inspiration to conceptualize innovative or improved mission operations processes. They include monitoring and diagnostics, planning and scheduling, resource management and optimization. The newly identified operations concepts are then proved by means of prototypes, built with embedded, enabling technology and deployed as shadow applications in mission operations for an extended validation phase. The technology so far exploited includes informatics, artificial intelligence and operational research branches. Recent outstanding results include artificial intelligence planning and scheduling applications for Mars Express, advanced integrated space weather monitoring system for the Integral space telescope and a suite of growing client applications for MUST (Mission Utilities Support Tools). The research, development and validation activities at the Mission technologies office are performed together with a network of research institutes across Europe. The objective is narrowing the gap between enabling and innovative technology and space mission operations. The paper first addresses samples of technology infusion cases with their lessons learnt. The second part is focused on the process and the methodology used at the Mission technologies office to fulfill its objectives.
Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.
The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or
Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and
Nasa has a new vision for space exploration in the 21. Century encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space long duration missions is a critical design driver. Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance for the new vision. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information about the interaction of ions with materials, electronics and tissues. We have discussed some of the state-of-the-art cross sections database at Nasa and have demonstrated the role nuclear interaction plays in space missions. The impact of the cross sections on space missions has been shown by the assessment of dose exposure on Moon surface behind a number of materials with increasing hydrogen contents known to be a better radiation shielding material. In addition we have examined an approach to introduce reliability based design methods into shield evaluation and optimization procedure as a means to assess and control the uncertainties in shield design. Applications to Lunar missions for short and long-term duration display a large impact on the design outcome and the choice of the materials. For short duration missions all the examined materials have similar performance. However, for career astronauts who are exposed to longer duration space radiation over the period of time the choice of material plays a very critical role. Computational procedures based on deterministic solution of the Boltzmann equation are well suited for such procedures allowing optimization processes to be implemented, evaluation of biologically important rare events,and rapid analysis of possible shield optimization outcomes resulting from the biological model uncertainty parameter space
Cornelius (Nelus J.P. Niemandt
Full Text Available This article investigated the challenges associated with being a missional church in an everchanging world and possible patterns to live missionally in new contexts. The need for Christian missions to be radically contextual in facing up to these changes provided the basis for this study to build on the importance of context and the ways in which the early church in Acts reinvented itself continually in facing up to new challenges, opportunities, peoples, cultures and questions. The way in which the faith community emerged as a church when it became aware of its boundary-breaking mission was explored by using the seven phases in the development of the mission of the church, as identified by Bevans and Schroeder in their groundbreaking theology of missions. By reflecting on these seven phases, this article formulated patterns for a missional church.
Iusupova, A K; Gushchin, V I; Shved, D M; Cheveleva, L M
The article deals with a pilot investigation into the audio communication of cosmonauts with ground controllers. The purpose was to verify in space flight the patterns and trends revealed in model tests of intergroup communication, and to pinpoint the signature of multinational crew communication with 2 national mission control centers (MCCs). The investigation employed authors' content-analysis adapted to the scenario of long-duration mission. The investigation resulted in a phenomenon of double-loop ground-orbit communication, divergence, difference in opinion predictable from the concept formulated by G.T.Beregovoi. Also, there was a notable difference of expressions used by controllers of 2 MCCs.
The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observes light in the 905-1187 Å region with high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 20,000). FUSE was launched on 24 June 1999 and the early observations have yielded significant results in several areas of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. The sensitivity is sufficient to examine reddened lines of sight within the Milky Way as well as active galactic nuclei and QSOs for absorption line studies of both Milky Way and extragalactic gas clouds. This spectral region contains a number of important scientific diagnostics, including O VI, H I, D I, and the strong electronic transitions of the H2 and HD molecules. The instrument has four coaligned prime-focus telescopes and Rowland spectrographs with microchannel plate detectors. Two channels use Al:LiF coatings for optimum reflectivity from ~ 1000 to 1187 Å and the other two use SiC coatings for optimized throughput between 905 and 1105 Å. The gratings were holographically ruled to largely correct for astigmatism and to minimize scattered light. The detectors have KBr photocathodes and use photon counting to achieve good quantum efficiency with low background signal. The primary mission duration is three years; an extended mission phase is planned. A majority of the observing time is allocated to guest observers. (http://fuse.pha.jhu.edu)
A JOICFP 2-member mission visited Bangladesh during August 9-22 to monitor the progress of cooperative projects in Narsingdhi and Feni districts, implemented by the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), and to discuss the implementation of Postal Savings for International Voluntary Aid (POSIVA) funds. POSIVA is in its 4th year of providing funds to Bangladesh. The Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) Japan Representative joined the mission on a study tour during August 9-17 to directly observe reproductive health and family planning, women's empowerment, and micro-credit at the grassroots level. The representative hopes to raise the Japanese public's awareness of international nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnerships in order to encourage them to help rural populations in developing countries. The offices of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the International Secretariat of Partners in Population and Development, UNFPA, Population Council, OECF, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the Grammin Bank were visited, as well as the project areas of Panchdona and Dhalia Unions of the Integrated Family Development Project. ODA assistance should be strengthened to improve grassroots activities, with a focus upon women's empowerment, maternal and child health, and alleviating poverty through NGOs working together with communities. A project to build capacity in reproductive health in Jessore District is described.
Full Text Available This paper presents a development of an open-source flight planning tool for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS that is dedicated to high-precision photogrammetric mapping. This tool contains planning functions that are usually available in professional mapping systems for manned aircrafts as well as new features related to GPS signal masking in complex (e.g. mountainous terrain. The application is based on the open-source Java SDK (Software Development Kit World Wind from NASA that contains the main geospatial components facilitating the development itself. Besides standard planning functions known from other mission planners, we mainly focus on additional features dealing with safety and accuracy, such as GPS quality assessment. The need for the development came as a response for unifying mission planning across different platforms (e.g. rotary or fixed wing operating over terrain of different complexity. A special attention is given to the user interface, that is intuitive to use and cost-effective with respect to computer resources.
Gandor, F.; Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.
This paper presents a development of an open-source flight planning tool for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) that is dedicated to high-precision photogrammetric mapping. This tool contains planning functions that are usually available in professional mapping systems for manned aircrafts as well as new features related to GPS signal masking in complex (e.g. mountainous) terrain. The application is based on the open-source Java SDK (Software Development Kit) World Wind from NASA that contains the main geospatial components facilitating the development itself. Besides standard planning functions known from other mission planners, we mainly focus on additional features dealing with safety and accuracy, such as GPS quality assessment. The need for the development came as a response for unifying mission planning across different platforms (e.g. rotary or fixed wing) operating over terrain of different complexity. A special attention is given to the user interface, that is intuitive to use and cost-effective with respect to computer resources.
Shields, W.; Halecki, Anthony; Chung, Manh; Clarke, Ken; Frankle, Kevin; Kassemkhani, Fariba; Kuhlhoff, John; Lenzini, Josh; Lobdell, David; Morgan, Sam
A key component in ensuring America's status as a leader in the global community is its active pursuit of space exploration. On the twentieth anniversary of Apollo 11, President George Bush challenged the nation to place a man on the moon permanently and to conduct human exploration of Mars in the 21st century. The students of the FAMU/FSU College of Engineering hope to make a significant contribution to this challenge, America's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), with their participation in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program. The project selected by the 1991/1992 Aerospace Design group is the design of an Extended Mission Rover (EMR) for use on the lunar surface. This vehicle will serve as a mobile base to provide future astronauts with a 'shirt-sleeve' living and working environment. Some of the proposed missions are planetary surface exploration, construction and maintenance, hardware setup, and in situ resource experimentation. This vehicle will be put into use in the 2010-2030 time frame.
The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...