WorldWideScience

Sample records for fringe reduction due

  1. Fringe pattern denoising by image dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J.; Sorzano, C. O. S.; Antonio Quiroga, J.; Estrada, J. C.; Carazo, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    Noise is a key problem in fringe pattern processing, especially in single frame demodulation of interferograms. In this work, we propose to filter the pattern noise using a straightforward, fast and easy to implement denoising method, which is based on a dimensionality reduction approach, in the sense of image rank reduction. The proposed technique has been applied to simulated and experimental ESPI interferograms obtaining satisfactory results.

  2. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  3. Two-dimensional windowed Fourier frames for noise reduction in fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemao, Qian; Soon, Seah Hock

    2005-07-01

    The two-dimensional continuous windowed Fourier transform has been shown to be effective for fringe pattern analysis in our previous work. In this paper, we first estimate the sampling intervals, using frame theory, to discretize the transform. Suitable sampling intervals are estimated as 1/σx and 1/σy, which is verified by simulations. Noise reduction using windowed Fourier frames is then investigated and compared with that using the orthogonal wavelet transform. Due to the coherence of its kernels and fringe patterns and its redundancy, windowed Fourier frames are able to reduce noise more effectively, which is verified by processing both simulated and experimental fringe patterns. The relative errors are reduced by half, in various simulations, from those with orthogonal wavelet filtering.

  4. A comparison of the intensity contours of fringes due to multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 269–274. A comparison of the intensity contours of fringes due to multiple reflection and spatial hole burning in semiclassical theory of laser. RITA MONI BORAH and G D BARUAH. Department of Physics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786 004, India. MS received 13 July 1999; revised 24 November 1999.

  5. A comparison of the intensity contours of fringes due to multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A comparison between spatial burning in the semiclassical theory of laser and the intensity contours of the fringes due to multiple reflections in a Fabry–Perot cavity is presented. The concept of spatial hole burning is also used in a quantum well system.

  6. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Fiber-optic fringe projection with crosstalk reduction by adaptive pattern masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    To enable in-process inspection of industrial manufacturing processes, measuring devices need to fulfill time and space constraints, while also being robust to environmental conditions, such as high temperatures and electromagnetic fields. A new fringe projection profilometry system is being developed, which is capable of performing the inspection of filigree tool geometries, e.g. gearing elements with tip radii of 0.2 mm, inside forming machines of the sheet-bulk metal forming process. Compact gradient-index rod lenses with a diameter of 2 mm allow for a compact design of the sensor head, which is connected to a base unit via flexible high-resolution image fibers with a diameter of 1.7 mm. The base unit houses a flexible DMD based LED projector optimized for fiber coupling and a CMOS camera sensor. The system is capable of capturing up to 150 gray-scale patterns per second as well as high dynamic range images from multiple exposures. Owing to fiber crosstalk and light leakage in the image fiber, signal quality suffers especially when capturing 3-D data of technical surfaces with highly varying reflectance or surface angles. An algorithm is presented, which adaptively masks parts of the pattern to reduce these effects via multiple exposures. The masks for valid surface areas are automatically defined according to different parameters from an initial capture, such as intensity and surface gradient. In a second step, the masks are re-projected to projector coordinates using the mathematical model of the system. This approach is capable of reducing both inter-pixel crosstalk and inter-object reflections on concave objects while maintaining measurement durations of less than 5 s.

  8. Gate induced drain leakage reduction with analysis of gate fringing field effect on high-κ/metal gate CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Esan; Shin, Sunhae; Jung, Jae Won; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    We suggest the optimum permittivity for a high-κ/metal gate (HKMG) CMOS structure based on the trade-off characteristics between the fringing field induced barrier lowering (FIBL) and gate induced drain leakage (GIDL). By adopting the high-κ gate dielectric, the GIDL from the band-to-band tunneling at the interface of gate and lightly doped drain (LDD) is suppressed with wide tunneling width owing to the enhanced fringing field, while the FIBL effects is degenerated as the previous reports. These two effects from the gate fringing field are studied extensively to manage the leakage current of HKMG for low power applications.

  9. Predictions of turbidity due to enhanced sediment resuspension resulting from sea-level rise on a fringing Coral Reef: Evidence from Molokai, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A.S.; Field, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating sea-level rise associated with global climate change will affect sedimentary processes on coral reefs and other shoreline environments by increasing energy and sediment resuspension. On reefs, sedimentation is known to increase coral stress and bleaching as particles that settle on coral surfaces interfere with photosynthesis and feeding, and turbidity induced by suspended sediment reduces incident light levels. Using relationships developed from observations of wave orbital velocity, water-surface elevation, and suspended-sediment concentration on a fringing reef flat of Molokai, Hawaii, predictions of the average daily maximum in suspended-sediment concentration increase from ~11 mg/l to ~20 mg/l with 20 cm sea-level rise. The duration of time concentrations exceeds 10 mg/l increases from 9 to 37. An evaluation of the reduction of wave energy flux through breaking and frictional dissipation across the reef flat shows an increase of ~80 relative to the present will potentially reach the shoreline as sea level increases by 20 cm. Where the shoreline exists on low, flat terrain, the increased energy could cause significant erosion of the shoreline. Considering the sediment budget, the sediment flux is predicted to increase and removal of fine-grained sediment may be expedited on some fringing reefs, and sediment in storage on the inner reef could ultimately be reduced. However, increased shoreline erosion may add sediment and offset removal from the reef flat. The shifts in sediment availability and transport that will occur as result of a modest increase in sea level have wide application to fringing coral reefs elsewhere, as well as other shoreline environments. ?? 2010 the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  10. Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masaki; Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio

    2005-07-01

    We propose a method to reduce the color moire fringes that are attributable to the structure of a color flat-panel display in integral three-dimensional imaging. The method uses two types of optical low-pass filter, diffuser and defocus. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed in an experiment. We describe a way to design these filters with moire's residual energy and video signal energy as indices and demonstrate the validity of the model, which combines two filters to reduce moire fringes.

  11. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  12. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W

    2018-05-15

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of d-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm -1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm -1 . Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B.; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of D-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm-1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm-1. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy.

  14. Effective memory reduction of the novel look-up table with one-dimensional sub-principle fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Man; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2012-05-21

    We propose a novel approach to massively reduce the memory of the novel look-up table (N-LUT) for computer-generated holograms by employing one-dimensional (1-D) sub-principle fringe patterns (sub-PFPs). Two-dimensional (2-D) PFPs used in the conventional N-LUT method are decomposed into a pair of 1-D sub-PFPs through a trigonometric relation. Then, these 1-D sub-PFPs are pre-calculated and stored in the proposed method, which results in a remarkable reduction of the memory of the N-LUT. Experimental results reveal that the memory capacity of the LUT, N-LUT and proposed methods have been calculated to be 149.01 TB, 2.29 GB and 1.51 MB, respectively for the 3-D object having image points of 500 × 500 × 256, which means the memory of the proposed method could be reduced by 103 × 10(6) fold and 1.55 × 10(3) fold compared to those of the conventional LUT and N-LUT methods, respectively.

  15. Relapse of tardive dyskinesia due to reduction in clozapine dose

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Meena; Solanke, Bhupendra; Dakhale, Ganesh; Somani, Abhishek; Waradkar, Pravir

    2009-01-01

    Clozapine is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent, which has been proven efficient against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, with a low propensity to induce tardive dyskinesia (TD). Compared with typical antipsychotics, it has a greater affinity for dopamine D4 than D2 receptors and additional action on serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors. Due to its weak D 2 blocking action, it produces few extra pyramidal side effects and TD is rare. TD is one of the muscular side...

  16. Drag reduction due to interstitial air in a granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Tess; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2013-11-01

    The force experienced by an object while it penetrates a pre-fluidized sand bed strongly depends on the ambient air pressure. In this work we experimentally investigate the influence of interstitial air by systematically varying the penetration velocity and the ambient air pressure and measuring the resulting force required to push the intruder into the sand bed. Counterintuitively, we find that for the intruder to move faster through the bed a lower force is required. We hypothesize that, while the object moves down, sand in front of the intruder is compacted and the air in this compactified region is trapped. At higher penetration velocities air has no time to move out of the way causing a pressure build-up in front of the ball which leads to drag reduction. To test this hypothesis, we perform experiments at reduced ambient air pressures and find that indeed the dependence on the intruder velocity disappears: The measured force is constant and equal to the value of the drag found in the quasi-static limit, which emphasizes the role of air.

  17. Reduction of artefacts due to missing projections using OSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, B.F.; Kyme, A.; Choong, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is well recognised that missing or corrupted projections can result in artefacts. This occasionally occurs due to errors in data transfer from acquisition memory to disk. A possible approach for reducing these artefacts was investigated, Using ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) the iterative reconstruction proceeds by progressively including additional projections until a single iteration is complete. Clinically useful results can be obtained using a small subset size in a single iteration. Stopping prior to the complete iteration so as to avoid inclusion of missing or corrupted data should provide a 'partial' reconstruction with minimal artefacts. To test this hypothesis projections were selectively removed from a complete data set (2, 4, 8, 12 adjacent projections) and reconstructions were performed using both filtered back projection (FBP) and OSEM. To maintain a constant number of sub-iterations in OSEM an equal number of duplicate projections were substituted for the missing projections. Both 180 and 360 degrees reconstructions with missing data were compared with reconstruction for the complete data using sum of absolute differences. Results indicate that missing data causes artefacts for both FBP and OSEM however the severity of artefacts is significantly reduced using OSEM. The effect of missing data is generally greater for 180 degrees acquisition. OSEM is recommended for minimising reconstruction artefacts due to missing projections. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Relapse of tardive dyskinesia due to reduction in clozapine dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Meena; Solanke, Bhupendra; Dakhale, Ganesh; Somani, Abhishek; Waradkar, Pravir

    2009-08-01

    Clozapine is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic agent, which has been proven efficient against the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, with a low propensity to induce tardive dyskinesia (TD). Compared with typical antipsychotics, it has a greater affinity for dopamine D4 than D2 receptors and additional action on serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors. Due to its weak D(2) blocking action, it produces few extra pyramidal side effects and TD is rare. TD is one of the muscular side effects of antipsychotic drugs, especially the older generation like haloperidol. TD does not occur until after many months or years of taking antipsychotic drugs. TD is primarily characterized by abnormal involuntary movements of the tongue, lips or jaw, as well as facial grimacing or extremities that develop in association with the use of antipsychotic medications. TD can be embarrassing to the affected patient in public. The movements disappear during sleep and women are at greater risk than men for developing TD.

  19. Simplified absolute phase retrieval of dual-frequency fringe patterns in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-04-01

    In fringe projection profilometry, a simplified method is proposed to recover absolute phase maps of two-frequency fringe patterns by using a unique mapping rule. The mapping rule is designed from the rounded phase values to the fringe order of each pixel. Absolute phase can be recovered by the fringe order maps. Unlike the existing techniques, where the lowest frequency of dual- or multiple-frequency fringe patterns must be single, the presented method breaks the limitation and simplifies the procedure of phase unwrapping. Additionally, due to many issues including ambient light, shadow, sharp edges, step height boundaries and surface reflectivity variations, a novel framework of automatically identifying and removing invalid phase values is also proposed. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the performances of the proposed method.

  20. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-off between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. We use the vignettes method to estimate individuals' willingness......-to-pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find negative wage-fringe trade-offs, considerable heterogeneity in willingness-to-pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting....

  1. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    detailed data on all monetary as well as nonmonetary rewards, not only for the job chosen but also for alternative offers. In this paper this data predicament is solved by the use of the vignettes method to estimate individuals. willingness to pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find clear...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  2. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  3. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  4. Windowed fringe pattern analyis

    CERN Document Server

    Kemao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    This book provides solutions to the challenges involved in fringe pattern analysis, covering techniques for full-field, noncontact, and high-sensitivity measurement. The primary goal of fringe pattern analysis is to extract the hidden phase distributions that generally relate to the physical quantities being measured. Both theoretical analysis and algorithm development are covered to facilitate the work of researchers and engineers. The information presented is also appropriate as a specialized subject for students of optical and computer engineering.

  5. Robust Fringe Projection Profilometry via Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a robust fringe projection profilometry (FPP) algorithm using the sparse dictionary learning and sparse coding techniques is proposed. When reconstructing the 3D model of objects, traditional FPP systems often fail to perform if the captured fringe images have a complex scene, such as having multiple and occluded objects. It introduces great difficulty to the phase unwrapping process of an FPP system that can result in serious distortion in the final reconstructed 3D model. For the proposed algorithm, it encodes the period order information, which is essential to phase unwrapping, into some texture patterns and embeds them to the projected fringe patterns. When the encoded fringe image is captured, a modified morphological component analysis and a sparse classification procedure are performed to decode and identify the embedded period order information. It is then used to assist the phase unwrapping process to deal with the different artifacts in the fringe images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the robustness of an FPP system. It performs equally well no matter the fringe images have a simple or complex scene, or are affected due to the ambient lighting of the working environment.

  6. Colloid Mobilization and Transport during Capillary Fringe Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead filled column. Confocal images showed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively-charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively-charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively-charged and hydrophilic positively-charged colloids did.

  7. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  8. Optimal fringe angle selection for digital fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song

    2013-10-10

    Existing digital fringe projection (DFP) systems mainly use either horizontal or vertical fringe patterns for three-dimensional shape measurement. This paper reveals that these two fringe directions are usually not optimal where the phase change is the largest to a given depth variation. We propose a novel and efficient method to determine the optimal fringe angle by projecting a set of horizontal and vertical fringe patterns onto a step-height object and by further analyzing two resultant phase maps. Experiments demonstrate the existence of the optimal angle and the success of the proposed optimal angle determination method.

  9. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  10. In-phase and anti-phase interference fringes in rocking curves of resonant X-ray dynamical diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Riichirou; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Yoshizawa, Masami; Hirano, Kenji; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    We have observed the interference fringes that are in phase with each other in the diffracted and transmitted rocking curves of GaAs 200 reflection near the K-absorption edge of As. The fringes are in contrast with the well-known Pendelloesung fringes that are anti-phase with each other in the diffracted and transmitted waves. The origin of the in-phase interference fringe is analyzed to be due to the diffraction only by the imaginary part of the atomic scattering factor. It is also shown that the interference fringes become typical Pendelloesung fringes when the diffraction is caused only by the real part. (author)

  11. Goal Oriented Estimation of Errors due to Modal Reduction in Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Sandeep; Okeke, Chukwudi Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the estimation of errors due to reduction in modal superposition method. Mode superposition methods are used to calculate the dynamic response of linear systems. In modal superposition method, it becomes unnecessary to consider all the modes of a particular system. In generally only a few number of modes contribute significantly to the solution. The main aim of the study is to identify the significant modes required for good approximation. Finally, this study constit...

  12. Fringe pattern denoising via image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming

    2012-02-01

    Filtering off noise from a fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical interferometry. In this Letter, using some suitable function spaces to model different components of a fringe pattern, we propose a new fringe pattern denoising method based on image decomposition. In our method, a fringe image is divided into three parts: low-frequency fringe, high-frequency fringe, and noise, which are processed in different spaces. An adaptive threshold in wavelet shrinkage involved in this algorithm improves its denoising performance. Simulation and experimental results show that our algorithm obtains smooth and clean fringes with different frequencies while preserving fringe features effectively.

  13. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Nomerotski, A.; Fisher-Levine, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y 4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net ''fringe'' pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relative intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. We also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.

  14. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  15. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  16. Fringe field effects in small rings of large acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been renewed interest in the influence of fringe fields on particle dynamics, due to studies that revealed their importance in some cases, as, for example, the proposed Neutrino Factory and muon colliders. In this paper, we present a systematic study of generic fringe field effects. Using as an example a lattice of the proposed Neutrino Factory, we show that fringe fields influence the dynamics of particles at all orders, starting with the linear motion. It is found that the widely used sharp cutoff approximation leads to divergences regardless of the specific fall-off shape of the fields. The results suggest that a careful consideration of fringe field effects in the design stage of small machines for large emittances is always recommended.

  17. Modelling radioiodine transport across a capillary fringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Butler, Adrian P.; Wheater, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Due to its long radioactive half-life, iodine-129 is considered to be an important radionuclide in the context of underground radioactive waste disposal safety assessment. Iodine speciates as iodide (I - ) in reducing conditions and iodate (IO 3 - ) in oxidizing conditions. As iodate is more reactive, it is much less mobile than iodide. Consequently, in considering vertically upward transport within a soil profile, iodine will tend to accumulate at the top of the capillary fringe. In this paper, a model of iodine transport across a capillary fringe is developed by coupling equations for variably saturated flow, oxygen dynamics and rate-limited sorption. Model parameters are obtained by consideration of literature values, calibration on soil column data and other supporting laboratory experiments. The results demonstrate the importance of rate kinetics on the migration and bioavailability of radioiodine in the near-surface environment

  18. Modelling radioiodine transport across a capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Simon A; Butler, Adrian P; Wheater, Howard S

    2008-04-01

    Due to its long radioactive half-life, iodine-129 is considered to be an important radionuclide in the context of underground radioactive waste disposal safety assessment. Iodine speciates as iodide (I-) in reducing conditions and iodate (IO3-) in oxidizing conditions. As iodate is more reactive, it is much less mobile than iodide. Consequently, in considering vertically upward transport within a soil profile, iodine will tend to accumulate at the top of the capillary fringe. In this paper, a model of iodine transport across a capillary fringe is developed by coupling equations for variably saturated flow, oxygen dynamics and rate-limited sorption. Model parameters are obtained by consideration of literature values, calibration on soil column data and other supporting laboratory experiments. The results demonstrate the importance of rate kinetics on the migration and bioavailability of radioiodine in the near-surface environment.

  19. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.56 Fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical...

  20. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 1317... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  1. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1211.525... Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 15a.56 Section 15a.56 Agriculture... Activities Prohibited § 15a.56 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service...

  3. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 618.525 Section 618.525 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  4. 29 CFR 36.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 36.525 Section 36.525 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  5. 14 CFR 1253.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 1253.525 Section 1253.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  6. 6 CFR 17.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 17.525 Section 17.525 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, the term fringe benefits means any medical...

  7. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 2555.525 Section 2555.525 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  8. 49 CFR 25.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 25.525 Section 25.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  9. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  10. 24 CFR 3.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 3.525 Section 3... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  11. 43 CFR 41.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 41.525 Section 41.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  12. 22 CFR 229.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 229.525 Section 229.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  13. 22 CFR 146.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 146.525 Section 146.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  14. 45 CFR 86.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 86.56 Section 86.56 Public... Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.56 Fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  15. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 196.525 Section 196.525... Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  16. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 113.525 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  17. 15 CFR 8a.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 8a.525 Section 8a.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  18. 38 CFR 23.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 23.525... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means...

  19. 31 CFR 28.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 28.525 Section 28... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any...

  20. 28 CFR 54.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 54.525 Section 54.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  1. 40 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  2. 10 CFR 1042.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 1042.525 Section 1042.525 Energy... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life...

  3. 44 CFR 19.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 19.525... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or...

  4. 29 CFR 1604.9 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1604.9 Section 1604.9 Labor Regulations... OF SEX § 1604.9 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits,” as used herein, includes medical, hospital... discriminate between men and women with regard to fringe benefits. (c) Where an employer conditions benefits...

  5. Fringe-projection profilometry based on two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suzhen; Cao, Yiping

    2013-11-01

    In 3D shape measurement, because deformed fringes often contain low-frequency information degraded with random noise and background intensity information, a new fringe-projection profilometry is proposed based on 2D empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD). The fringe pattern is first decomposed into numbers of intrinsic mode functions by 2D-EMD. Because the method has partial noise reduction, the background components can be removed to obtain the fundamental components needed to perform Hilbert transformation to retrieve the phase information. The 2D-EMD can effectively extract the modulation phase of a single direction fringe and an inclined fringe pattern because it is a full 2D analysis method and considers the relationship between adjacent lines of a fringe patterns. In addition, as the method does not add noise repeatedly, as does ensemble EMD, the data processing time is shortened. Computer simulations and experiments prove the feasibility of this method.

  6. Power load reduction due to impurity radiation in ITER-like reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankiewicz, R.; Zagorski, R.

    2001-01-01

    The reduction of power load to divertor target plates is a critical issue for long pulse and high power operation regime for magnetic confinement fusion devices. Thus additional losses are required to spread the power load over a wider area. Significant reduction of the heat load to the divertor plates can be achieved by strong impurities radiation in the SOL (Scrape-off Layer) and the core region. In order to asses correctly the heat load to the divertor plates the core region and SOL have to be treated self-consistently. In recent years the necessity of the self-consistent modelling of the plasma dynamics in the core and the scrape-off layer (SOL) has been widely recognised. In the paper the simple self-consistent model for the core and the SOL has been used. The model consists of 1-D analytical model for SOL plasma and 1-D core radial transport model for heat, bulk ions and impurities and is suitable to fast scans of the parameter space of the tokamak type reactor. The SOL model takes into account the strong variation of plasma parameters along the magnetic fields lines. The energy losses due to Bremsstrahlung and line radiation of sputtered and added impurities as well as alpha particles heating are included into the model. The sputtering phenomena and radiation cooling in the SOL and the core are treated in self-consistent way in the model. The heat transport has been described by the simple local transport model proposed by Mandrekas and Stacey reproducing the global confinement predictions or by the simple mixed Bohm and gyro Bohm model. Calculations have been performed to analyse the influence of the core-SOL coupling due to the production of sputtered impurities and its cooling effect in the new ITER-FEAT design. The problem of the choice of suitable materials for the plasma facing components in the ITER type reactor is also addressed. Analysis have been performed to investigate operating regimes of the reactor with deferent diverter plate materials and

  7. Simulating the evolution of an ethanol and gasoline source zone within the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Freitas, Juliana G; Unger, Andre J A; Barker, James F; Chatzis, John

    2009-02-27

    Blending of ethanol into gasoline as a fuel oxygenate has created the scenario where inadvertent releases of E95 into soil previously contaminated by gasoline may remobilize these pre-existing NAPLs and lead to higher dissolved hydrocarbon (BTEX) concentrations in groundwater. We contribute to the development of a risk-based corrective action framework addressing this issue by conducting two laboratory experiments involving the release of ethanol into a gasoline source zone established in the capillary fringe. We then develop and apply the numerical model CompFlow Bio to replicate three specific experimental observations: (1) depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of the gasoline fuel mixture due to a reduction in the surface tension between the gas and liquid phases, (2) further depression of the capillary fringe by the addition of ethanol, and (3) remobilization of the gasoline fuel mixture LNAPL source zone due to the cosolvent behaviour of ethanol in the presence of an aqueous phase, as well as a reduction in the interfacial tension between the aqueous/non-aqueous phases due to ethanol. While the simulated collapse of the capillary fringe was not as extensive as that which was observed, the simulated and observed remobilized non-aqueous phase distributions were in agreement following ethanol injection. Specifically, injection of ethanol caused the non-aqueous phase to advect downwards toward the water table as the capillary fringe continued to collapse, finally collecting on top of the water table in a significantly reduced area exhibiting higher saturations than observed prior to ethanol injection. Surprisingly, the simulated ethanol and gasoline aqueous phase plumes were uniform despite the redistribution of the source zone. Dissolution of gasoline into the aqueous phase was dramatically increased due to the cosolvency effect of ethanol on the non-aqueous phase source zone. We advocate further experimental studies focusing on eliminating data gaps

  8. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  9. Taking apart the enhanced backscattering cone: Interference fringes from reciprocal paths in multiple light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, Boris P. J.; Ferreira, Flavio P.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Belsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We report the decomposition of the enhanced backscattering cone into its constitutive interference fringes. These fringes are due to the constructive interference between reciprocal paths of any multiply scattered wave after ensemble averaging. An optical setup combining a two-point continuous-wave illumination and matching detection allows the observation of the fringes and, therefore, the quantitative characterization of the Green's function for light propagation between the two points in a multiple-scattering media.

  10. Band gap reduction in GaNSb alloys due to the anion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veal, T.D.; Piper, L.F.J.; Jollands, S.; Bennett, B.R.; Jefferson, P.H.; Thomas, P.A.; McConville, C.F.; Murdin, B.N.; Buckle, L.; Smith, G.W.; Ashley, T.

    2005-01-01

    The structural and optoelectronic properties in GaN x Sb 1-x alloys (0≤x x Sb 1-x epilayers are of high crystalline quality and the alloy composition is found to be independent of substrate, for identical growth conditions. The band gap of the GaNSb alloys is found to decrease with increasing nitrogen content from absorption spectroscopy. Strain-induced band-gap shifts, Moss-Burstein effects, and band renormalization were ruled out by XRD and Hall measurements. The band-gap reduction is solely due to the substitution of dilute amounts of highly electronegative nitrogen for antimony, and is greater than observed in GaNAs with the same N content

  11. Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team

    2012-11-01

    We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  12. In-phase and anti-phase interference fringes in Laue case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Riichirou; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Yoshizawa, Masami; Hirano, Kenji; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    By using X-rays from synchrotron radiation, we measured the rocking curves due to only the imaginary part of the atomic scattering factor in Laue case. The interference fringes are observed which are totally different from the Pendelloesung fringe. The fringes of the diffracted and transmitted rocking curves are in-phase with each other. We studied the origin of the in-phase fringes by using the complex dispersion surface and the electric field in the crystal, and also the relation with a coupled pendulum. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Livelihood trends in Response to Climate Change in Forest Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the forest fringe communities in Ghana where the rural livelihoods of the people have been compromised due to deforestation and climate change is the Offin basin. The removal of forests impacts on local climate, water availability, and livelihoods due to influence of forests on precipitation and water balance. Fluxes ...

  14. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy ...

  15. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution ...

  16. A novel interference fringes software counting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhao; Chen, Benyong; Wu, Xiaowei; Li, Dacheng

    2005-02-01

    Conventional interference fringes counting methods often process two sinusoidal interference signals with a phase difference of π/2 to realize fringe-counting. But when the signals fluctuate in half a period of the signal, the conventional fringe-counting method sometimes produces direction-distinguishing mistakes, then resulting in counting errors. To address the problem, this paper presents a novel interference fringes counting method that uses software to distinguish the forward or backward direction of interference fringe and to count. This fringe-counting method can accurately distinguish the moving direction induced by the fluctuation of interference fringes, so it has the advantages of exact counting, intelligence and reliability. An experimental setup based on a Michelson interferometer is constructed to demonstrate the utility of this fringe-counting method for displacement measurement, and experimental results with a range of 1036mm is presented.

  17. 48 CFR 731.372 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 731.372 Section 731.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....372 Fringe benefits. USAID's policies on certain fringe benefits related to overseas service...

  18. 29 CFR 1620.11 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1620.11 Section 1620.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.11 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” includes, e.g., such terms as medical, hospital, accident, life insurance...

  19. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  20. Phase unwrapping algorithm based on multi-frequency fringe projection and fringe background for fringe projection profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Ma, Yueyang

    2015-01-01

    A phase unwrapping algorithm specially designed for the phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is proposed. It combines a revised dual-frequency fringe projectionalgorithm and a proposed fringe background based quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (FB-QGPUA). Phase demodulated from the high-frequency fringe patterns is partially unwrapped by that demodulated from the low-frequency ones. Then FB-QGPUA is adopted to further unwrap the partially unwrapped phase. Influences of the phase error on the measurement are researched. Strategy to select the fringe pitch is given. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is very robust and efficient. (paper)

  1. Estimate of dose reduction effects due to countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-01-01

    Various countermeasures introduced in Austria after the Chernobyl accident are compared and their effective dose reduction effects evaluated. As expected, the greatest reductions were obtained with counter measures with regard to milk and directly contaminated food. Three of them (prohibition of sale of fresh vegetables, prohibition of feeding cows on fresh grass and selection of low activity milk in the dairies) accounted for more than 70% of the total reduction of exposure by all countermeasures. Other countermeasures contributed little to the reduction of exposure. By all countermeasures combined, the exposure to be theoretically expected was reduced by 30% for the adult and 50% for the one year old infant. The dose reduction of the one year old infant (0.58 mSv) was approximately double that of the adult (0.33 mSv) resulting basically from higher reductions of the 131 I intake by the infant. (author)

  2. Reflectivity reduction of retro-reflector installed in LHD due to plasma surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, N.; Ohtawa, Y.; Ebihara, A.; Akiyama, T.; Tokitani, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Kawahata, K.

    2008-10-01

    Optical reflectivity of the retro-reflector installed in LHD as the first mirror was reduced seriously by plasma wall interaction. In order to understand the mechanism of the reflectivity reduction, optical and material properties of the mirror surfaces have been examined extensively. It was found that the deposited impurity layers caused the serious reduction of the reflectivity. Formation of iron oxide, bulges structure and He bubbles are the major factors for the reflectivity reduction in the wide wave length range. (author)

  3. Mean annual yield reductions of potato due to water deficits for Dutch weather conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Groenwold, J.

    1987-01-01

    In The Netherlands drought causes occasional reductions in yield and quality of potatoes, especially on sandy soils. The mean annual yield loss determines the investments that can be made to prevent the losses. The mean annual loss is determined by the water deficit and the yield reduction per mm

  4. Dispersed Fringe Sensing Analysis - DFSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Redding, David C.; Basinger, Scott A.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Spechler, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersed Fringe Sensing (DFS) is a technique for measuring and phasing segmented telescope mirrors using a dispersed broadband light image. DFS is capable of breaking the monochromatic light ambiguity, measuring absolute piston errors between segments of large segmented primary mirrors to tens of nanometers accuracy over a range of 100 micrometers or more. The DFSA software tool analyzes DFS images to extract DFS encoded segment piston errors, which can be used to measure piston distances between primary mirror segments of ground and space telescopes. This information is necessary to control mirror segments to establish a smooth, continuous primary figure needed to achieve high optical quality. The DFSA tool is versatile, allowing precise piston measurements from a variety of different optical configurations. DFSA technology may be used for measuring wavefront pistons from sub-apertures defined by adjacent segments (such as Keck Telescope), or from separated sub-apertures used for testing large optical systems (such as sub-aperture wavefront testing for large primary mirrors using auto-collimating flats). An experimental demonstration of the coarse-phasing technology with verification of DFSA was performed at the Keck Telescope. DFSA includes image processing, wavelength and source spectral calibration, fringe extraction line determination, dispersed fringe analysis, and wavefront piston sign determination. The code is robust against internal optical system aberrations and against spectral variations of the source. In addition to the DFSA tool, the software package contains a simple but sophisticated MATLAB model to generate dispersed fringe images of optical system configurations in order to quickly estimate the coarse phasing performance given the optical and operational design requirements. Combining MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks), MACOS (JPL s software package for Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical

  5. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Climate forcing and air quality change due to regional emissions reductions by economic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shindell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the air quality (AQ and radiative forcing (RF response to emissions reductions by economic sector for North America and developing Asia in the CAM and GISS composition/climate models. Decreases in annual average surface particulate are relatively robust, with intermodel variations in magnitude typically <30% and very similar spatial structure. Surface ozone responses are small and highly model dependent. The largest net RF results from reductions in emissions from the North America industrial/power and developing Asia domestic fuel burning sectors. Sulfate reductions dominate the first case, for which intermodel variations in the sulfate (or total aerosol optical depth (AOD responses are ~30% and the modeled spatial patterns of the AOD reductions are highly correlated (R=0.9. Decreases in BC dominate the developing Asia domestic fuel burning case, and show substantially greater model-to-model differences. Intermodel variations in tropospheric ozone burden changes are also large, though aerosol changes dominate those cases with substantial net climate forcing. The results indicate that across-the-board emissions reductions in domestic fuel burning in developing Asia and in surface transportation in North America are likely to offer the greatest potential for substantial, simultaneous improvement in local air quality and near-term mitigation of global climate change via short-lived species. Conversely, reductions in industrial/power emissions have the potential to accelerate near-term warming, though they would improve AQ and have a long-term cooling effect on climate. These broad conclusions appear robust to intermodel differences.

  7. Inpainting for Fringe Projection Profilometry Based on Geometrically Guided Iterative Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fringe projection profilometry methods often have difficulty in reconstructing the 3D model of objects when the fringe images have the so-called highlight regions due to strong illumination from nearby light sources. Within a highlight region, the fringe pattern is often overwhelmed by the strong reflected light. Thus, the 3D information of the object, which is originally embedded in the fringe pattern, can no longer be retrieved. In this paper, a novel inpainting algorithm is proposed to restore the fringe images in the presence of highlights. The proposed method first detects the highlight regions based on a Gaussian mixture model. Then, a geometric sketch of the missing fringes is made and used as the initial guess of an iterative regularization procedure for regenerating the missing fringes. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately reconstruct the 3D model of objects even when their fringe images have large highlight regions. It significantly outperforms the traditional approaches in both quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  8. A Novel Method to Remove Fringes for Dispersive Hyperspectral VNIR Imagers Using Back-Illuminated CCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binlin Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive hyperspectral VNIR (visible and near-infrared imagers using back-illuminated CCDs will suffer from interference fringes in near-infrared bands, which can cause a sensitivity modulation as high as 40% or more when the spectral resolution gets higher than 5 nm. In addition to the interference fringes that will change with time, there is fixed-pattern non-uniformity between pixels in the spatial dimension due to the small-scale roughness of the imager’s entrance slit, creating a much more complicated problem. A two-step method to remove fringes for dispersive hyperspectral VNIR imagers is proposed and evaluated. It first uses a ridge regression model to suppress the spectral fringes, and then computes spatial correction coefficients from the object data to correct the spatial fringes. In order to evaluate its effectiveness, the method was used to remove fringes for both the calibration data and object data collected from two VNIR grating-based hyperspectral imagers. Results show that the proposed method can preserve the original spectral shape, improve the image quality, and reduce the fringe amplitude in the 700–1000 nm region from about ±23% (10.7% RMSE to about ±4% (1.9% RMSE. This method is particularly useful for spectra taken through a slit with a grating and shows flexible adaptability to object data, which suffer from time-varying interference fringes.

  9. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  10. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Dose reduction due to the use of pulsed miction-cystourethrography in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettinger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The miction-cystourethrography (MCU) is the most frequently used radiographic method (30-50%) in pediatrics. The absorbed doses were significantly reduced during the last years aimed to realize the ALARA principle. The scope of the work is to study the possibility of a further dose reduction using pulsed radiation systems based on a computer-aided analysis of the dose-time curve during MCU examination.

  12. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E M; Doerner, R P; Nishijima, D; Pigarov, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (∼3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (∼3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (∼2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz. (paper)

  13. A study on the morphological changes due to reduction of WO3 to α-W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.G.; Ra, H.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Morphological changes of intermediate tungstic oxide particles, prepared by reducing WOsub(3) with hydrogen and a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen over the temperature range from 800degC to 1000degC, were studied using scanning electron microscope. Two different morphologies of Wsub(18)Osub(49), bundles of needle crystals and short pole-type particles, were obtained at 800degC, whereas Wsub(18)Osub(49), obtained at 900degC and above, consisted of pale-type particles and fine whiskers. The growth of Wsub(18)Osub(49) particles was faster in the length than the width with increasing reduction temperature. The size and morphologies of Wsub(18)Osub(49) particles were greatly influenced by those of WOsub(3) particles. Transformation of Wsub(18)Osub(49) to WOsub(2) and WOsub(2) to α-W was accompanied by the rounding of Wsub(18)Osub(49) particles and the recrystallization of α-W in spherical shape respectively. Extremely fine α-W powder was obtained by reduction of WOsub(3) powder at 500degC for 4 hrs in hydrogen followed by immediated reduction at 650degC for 1hr. (Author)

  14. Absolute phase map recovery of two fringe patterns with flexible selection of fringe wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiale; Xi, Jiangtao; Zhu, Ming; Cheng, Wenqing; Cheng, Rui; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng

    2014-03-20

    A novel approach is proposed to unwrap the phase maps of two fringe patterns in fringe pattern projection-based profilometry. In contrast to existing techniques, where spatial frequencies (i.e., the number of fringes on a pattern) of the two fringe patterns must be integers and coprime, the proposed method is applicable for any two fringe patterns with different fringe wavelengths (i.e., the number of pixels in a fringe) and thus provides more flexibility in the use of fringe patterns. Moreover, compared to the existing techniques, the proposed method is simpler in its implementation and has better antierror capability. Theoretical analysis and experiment results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Development of a phase counter with real-time fringe jump corrector for heterodyne interferometer on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Okajima, S.; Kawahata, K.

    2005-01-01

    Phase counters, which are used with heterodyne interferometers for plasma density measurements, frequently suffer from phase jumping and cause difficulties for data interpretation. An automatic fringe jump corrector (AFJC) circuit has been developed to compensate for fringe jumps. The AFJC can correct phase jumps automatically in real-time. The AFJC, which is integrated on one chip, is installed on the presently working phase counter circuit. As for the specification of this phase counter the intermediate beat signal is 1 MHz, the phase detection range is 31 fringes with phase resolution of 1/80 of a fringe and the response time of 10 μs. The circuit has been tested on the far infrared (FIR) laser interferometer on LHD. The AFJC works fine to correct fringe jumps, when fringe jumps occurred due to the strong density gradient produced by the hydrogen pellet injection

  16. Review of reduction factors by buildings for gamma radiation from radiocaesium deposited on the ground due to fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Matsuda, Norihiro; Saito, Kimiaki

    2018-07-01

    In order to estimate residents' external dose due to radionuclide exposure resulting from fallout deposit on the ground, the shielding and dose reduction effects provided by structures such as houses and workplaces are taken into account as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. Many works on both calculation and measurement for European and American settlements have been reported and factors such as, shielding factors, protection factors, reduction factors, and location factors have been determined. However, measurement data for Japanese settlements are lacking. Thus, the Japanese government used reduction factors given in the International Atomic Energy Agency documents from American and European settlements when Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident occurred. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation used location factors from European settlements for the same reason. Soon after the FDNPP accident, several measurements and calculations were performed to obtain specific reduction factors for Japanese settlements due to this lack of data. This research reviews previous studies that determined factors such as, shielding factors, protection factors, reduction factors, and location factors and summarizes specific results for Japan. We discuss the issues in determining these factors and in applying them to estimate indoor dose. The contribution of surface contamination to the indoor ambient dose equivalent rate is also discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M. [Statoil, Bergen (Norway)

    1997-08-01

    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  18. Childhood Craniopharyngioma with Hypothalamic Obesity - No Long-term Weight Reduction due to Rehabilitation Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, A. S.; Hoffmann, A.; Gebhardt, U.; Waldeck, E.; Springer, S.; Mueller, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe obesity due to hypothalamic involvement has major impact on prognosis in long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. The long-term effects of rehabilitation efforts on weight development and obesity in these patients are not analyzed up to now. Patients and Methods: 108

  19. Transverse vertical dispersion in groundwater and the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, I D; Grathwohl, P

    2002-09-01

    Transverse dispersion is the most relevant process in mass transfer of contaminants across the capillary fringe (both directions), dilution of contaminants, and mixing of electron acceptors and electron donors in biodegrading groundwater plumes. This paper gives an overview on literature values of transverse vertical dispersivities alpha(tv) measured at different flow velocities and compares them to results from well-controlled laboratory-tank experiments on mass transfer of trichloroethene (TCE) across the capillary fringe. The measured values of transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe region were larger than in fully saturated media, which is credited to enhanced tortuosity of the flow paths due to entrapped air within the capillary fringe. In all cases, the values observed for alpha(tv) were < 1 mm. The new measurements and the literature values indicate that alpha(tv) apparently declines with increasing flow velocity. The latter is attributed to incomplete diffusive mixing at the pore scale (pore throats). A simple conceptual model, based on the mean square displacement and the pore size accounting for only partial diffusive mixing at increasing flow velocities, shows very good agreement with measured and published data.

  20. On Enlarging Unit Capacity due to Loss Reduction of Power Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Takashi; Matsubara, Yoshio

    As the generated heat mainly limits the maximum unit capacity of tank-type power capacitor, it is important to use low loss capacitor elements. This paper describes the developed wide-width element with folded and extended foil electrodes largely improves capacitor loss, and could make possible for cooling design to perform much larger unit capacitors without cooling apparatus such as radiators. The capacitor loss characteristics of three types of element were examined, which became clear the loss reduction of the developed one caused by less current on the electrode foils and by less electrode edge effect. Next, the temperature rise test results of actual large tank-type capacitors drew the empirical equations, which were considered based on the heat transfer engineering. Calculating the temperature rise of tank and inside oil, the bounds of maximum unit capacity could be estimated on the same design policy as the examined.

  1. Risk Reduction Effects Due to the Start Time Extension of EDGs in OPR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Yang, Joon-Eon; Hwang, Mee-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Under the condition that the ECCS rule in Korea will be revised based on the new U.S. 10 CFR 50.46, the risk impact due to the EDG start time extension is analyzed in the present study. This paper is composed of 6 sections. In the section 2, the LOCA break size that cannot be mitigable under the condition of extended EDG start time is obtained from the thermal hydraulic analysis. The section 3 discusses the frequency of the immitigable LOCA and the probability of the LOOP given a LOCA. In the section 4, the effect of the EDG start time extension on its failure probability is discussed with a qualitative manner. Finally, the whole risk change due to the EDG start time extension is calculated in the section 5 with the conclusions given in the section 6

  2. Reduction of solar photovoltaic resources due to air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Wagner, Fabian; Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-11-07

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation is expanding rapidly in China, with total capacity projected to be 400 GW by 2030. However, severe aerosol pollution over China reduces solar radiation reaching the surface. We estimate the aerosol impact on solar PV electricity generation at the provincial and regional grid levels in China. Our approach is to examine the 12-year (2003-2014) average reduction in point-of-array irradiance (POAI) caused by aerosols in the atmosphere. We apply satellite-derived surface irradiance data from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) with a PV performance model (PVLIB-Python) to calculate the impact of aerosols and clouds on POAI. Our findings reveal that aerosols over northern and eastern China, the most polluted regions, reduce annual average POAI by up to 1.5 kWh/m 2 per day relative to pollution-free conditions, a decrease of up to 35%. Annual average reductions of POAI over both northern and eastern China are about 20-25%. We also evaluate the seasonal variability of the impact and find that aerosols in this region are as important as clouds in winter. Furthermore, we find that aerosols decrease electricity output of tracking PV systems more than those with fixed arrays: over eastern China, POAI is reduced by 21% for fixed systems at optimal angle and 34% for two-axis tracking systems. We conclude that PV system performance in northern and eastern China will benefit from improvements in air quality and will facilitate that improvement by providing emission-free electricity. Published under the PNAS license.

  3. Long-term effects of brief hypoxia due to cardiac arrest: Hippocampal reductions and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Vess; Nicola, Raneen; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Goldsher, Dorith; Kapeliovich, Michael; Gilboa, Asaf

    2018-02-21

    To examine the effects of brief hypoxia (memory and executive functions tasks. Patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) (n = 9), who were deemed neurologically intact on discharge, were compared to matched patients with myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 9). A battery of clinical and experimental memory and executive functions neuropsychological tests were administered and MRI scans for all patients were collected. Measures of subcortical and cortical volumes and cortical thickness were obtained using FreeSurfer. Manual segmentations of the hippocampus were also performed. APACHE-II scores were calculated based on metrics collected at admission to ICCU for all patients. Significant differences between the two groups were observed on several verbal memory tests. Both hippocampi were significantly reduced (p memory tasks, including recollection. Hippocampal volumes and several memory measures (but not other cognitive domains) were strongly correlated with APACHE-II scores on admission in the CA group, but not in the MI group CONCLUSIONS: Chronic patients with cardiac arrest who were discharged from hospital in "good neurological condition" showed an average of 10% reduction in hippocampal volume bilaterally and significant verbal memory deficits relative to matched controls with myocardial infarction, suggesting even brief hypoxic periods suffice to lead to specific hippocampal damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  5. A reduction in the asymmetry of ENSO amplitude due to global warming: The role of atmospheric feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun

    2017-08-01

    This study analyzes a reduction in the asymmetry of El Niño Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude due to global warming in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. The multimodel-averaged Niño3 skewness during December-February season decreased approximately 40% in the RCP4.5 scenario compared to that in the historical simulation. The change in the nonlinear relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation is a key factor for understanding the reduction in ENSO asymmetry due to global warming. In the historical simulations, the background SST leading to the greatest precipitation sensitivity (SST for Maximum Precipitation Sensitivity, SST_MPS) occurs when the positive SST anomaly is located over the equatorial central Pacific. Therefore, an increase in climatological SST due to global warming weakens the atmospheric response during El Niño over the central Pacific. However, the climatological SST over this region in the historical simulation is still lower than the SST_MPS for the negative SST anomaly; therefore, a background SST increase due to global warming can further increase precipitation sensitivity. The atmospheric feedbacks during La Niña are enhanced and increase the La Niña amplitude due to global warming.

  6. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  7. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  8. Subspace electrode selection methodology for EEG multiple source localization error reduction due to uncertain conductivity values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Yitembe, Bertrand; Dupre, Luc; Van Keer, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a modification of the subspace correlation cost function and the Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Classification (RAP-MUSIC) method for electroencephalography (EEG) source analysis in epilepsy. This enables to reconstruct neural source locations and orientations that are less degraded due to the uncertain knowledge of the head conductivity values. An extended linear forward model is used in the subspace correlation cost function that incorporates the sensitivity of the EEG potentials to the uncertain conductivity value parameter. More specifically, the principal vector of the subspace correlation function is used to provide relevant information for solving the EEG inverse problems. A simulation study is carried out on a simplified spherical head model with uncertain skull to soft tissue conductivity ratio. Results show an improvement in the reconstruction accuracy of source parameters compared to traditional methodology, when using conductivity ratio values that are different from the actual conductivity ratio.

  9. Reduction of load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic crowns due to cement aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenglin; Wang, Raorao; Mao, Shuangshuang; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how water aging of the resin cement influences the stress distribution in all-ceramic crowns and if there is an increase in the propensity for crown failure. The failure of all-ceramic crowns attributed to cement degradation was explored using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Sectioned all-ceramic crown specimens were fabricated of IPS e.max Ceram/e.max Press (CP) and Vita VM9/Cercon zirconia (VZ), and then stored in either air or distilled water for 30 days. Monotonic contact loads were applied to fracture near the buccal cusp ridge of each sample. Deformation within the crown layers during loading was analyzed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC). A 3D finite element model of the restoration including veneer, core, cement and tooth substrate was developed to evaluate the stress distribution in the crowns before and after cement degradation. There was a significant decrease (pcement water absorption in the CP crowns. In contrast, there was no significant influence of cement aging on fracture modes and fracture loads (p>0.05) in the VZ crowns. Finite element analysis showed that regardless of the crown types, the stress distribution is identical by degradation in Young's modulus of the cement. However, core/substrate debonding results in a change of the stress distribution and a significant increase in the magnitude. Water aging causes reduction of stiffness and bonding strength of cement agents. Degradation in bonding strength and stiffness could potentially lead to stress redistribution in the restored crown and reduce the load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic restorations after years of service. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of fringe orientation for optical fringe patterns with poor quality based on Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Linlin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Tao; Yan, Si

    2010-02-01

    Fringe orientation represents an important property of fringes. The estimation of orientation from a poor quality fringe image is still a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper introduces a new approach for estimating optical fringe orientation with a poor quality image. This approach is based on the power spectrum analysis of the Fourier transform. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm via application to a variety of test cases and comparison with the widely used gradient-based method and accumulate-differences method. The experimental results show that our method is capable of calculating fringe orientation robustly even when the quality of fringe images is considerably low because of high or low density, high noise, and low contrast. Under the same conditions, our accuracy is even better than that obtained with the gradient-based and accumulate-differences methods, especially for fringe images with poor quality.

  11. Making sense of nanocrystal lattice fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Qin Wentao; Moeck, Peter; Mandell, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The orientation dependence of thin-crystal lattice fringes can be gracefully quantified using fringe-visibility maps, a direct-space analog of Kikuchi maps [Nishikawa and Kikuchi, Nature (London) 121, 1019 (1928)]. As in navigation of reciprocal space with the aid of Kikuchi lines, fringe-visibility maps facilitate acquisition of crystallographic information from lattice images. In particular, these maps can help researchers to determine the three-dimensional lattice of individual nanocrystals, to 'fringe-fingerprint' collections of randomly oriented particles, and to measure local specimen thickness with only a modest tilt. Since the number of fringes in an image increases with maximum spatial-frequency squared, these strategies (with help from more precise goniometers) will be more useful as aberration correction moves resolutions into the subangstrom range

  12. Multiplication method for sparse interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-04-04

    Fringe analysis in the interferometry has been of long-standing interest to the academic community. However, the process of sparse fringe is always a headache in the measurement, especially when the specimen is very small. Through theoretical derivation and experimental measurements, our work demonstrates a new method for fringe multiplication. Theoretically, arbitrary integral-multiple fringe multiplication can be acquired by using the interferogram phase as the parameter. We simulate digital images accordingly and find that not only the skeleton lines of the multiplied fringe are very convenient to extract, but also the main frequency of which can be easily separated from the DC component. Meanwhile, the experimental results have a good agreement with the theoretic ones in a validation using the classical photoelasticity.

  13. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  14. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cabrales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Cabrales1, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez2,3, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez3,4, Martha Rodríguez-Morán5, Marcos Intaglietta4, Fernando Guerrero-Romero51La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Hospital Regional No. 1, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 3Faculty of Medicine and Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 5Biomedical Research Unit, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. MexicoObjective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05, when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05.Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be

  15. Marked reductions in visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy achieved by efficient screening and timely treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Nina; Aikkila, Riittaliisa; Korpelainen, Juha; Keskitalo, Antti; Kurikka, Anne; Falck, Aura; Bloigu, Risto; Alanko, Hannu

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. Digital photography with telemedicine connections is a novel way to deliver cost-effective, accessible screening to remote areas. Screening for DR in a mobile eye examination unit (EyeMo) is compared to traditional service models (i.e. local municipal services or a commercial service provider). The quality of images, delays from screening to treatment, the stage of DR, coverage of screening and the rate of visual impairment due to DR are evaluated. EyeMo utilizes telemedicine technology. The electronic databases of the hospital and information from the Finnish Register of Visual Impairment were used to determine delays and the rate of visual impairment. Fourteen thousand eight hundred and sixty-six fundus photographs were taken in EyeMo in 2007-2011. Coverage reached 78% of potential clients. No DR was detected in 43%, mild background retinopathy in 23%, moderate or severe background retinopathy in 31% and proliferative retinopathy in 3% of the evaluations. The quality of images was higher (p screening of DR. Effective screening and timely access to care may indeed have influenced the reduced rate of visual damage. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  17. Color Fringe Correction by the Color Difference Prediction Using the Logistic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Won; Park, Rae-Hong

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new color fringe correction method that preserves the object color well by the color difference prediction using the logistic function. We observe two characteristics between normal edge (NE) and degraded edge (DE) due to color fringe: 1) the DE has relatively smaller R-G and B-G correlations than the NE and 2) the color difference in the NE can be fitted by the logistic function. The proposed method adjusts the color difference of the DE to the logistic function by maximizing the R-G and B-G correlations in the corrected color fringe image. The generalized logistic function with four parameters requires a high computational load to select the optimal parameters. In experiments, a one-parameter optimization can correct color fringe gracefully with a reduced computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed method restores well the original object color in the DE, whereas existing methods give monochromatic or distorted color.

  18. Towards accurate simulation of fringe field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.; Erdelyi, B.; Makino, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study various fringe field effects. Previously, we showed the large impact that fringe fields can have on certain lattice scenarios of the proposed Neutrino Factory. Besides the linear design of the lattice, the effects depend strongly on the details of the field fall off. Various scenarios are compared. Furthermore, in the absence of detailed information, we study the effects for the LHC, a case where the fringe fields are known, and try to draw some conclusions for Neutrino Factory lattices

  19. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  20. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  1. 41 CFR 101-4.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 101-4... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  2. 29 CFR 5.29 - Specific fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specific fringe benefits. 5.29 Section 5.29 Labor Office of... SUBJECT TO THE CONTRACT WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Interpretation of the Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.29 Specific fringe benefits. (a) The act lists all types of fringe...

  3. Fringe pattern denoising using coherence-enhancing diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian; Gao, Wenjing; Lin, Feng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2009-04-15

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is one of the methods measuring the displacement on object surfaces in which fringe patterns need to be evaluated. Noise is one of the key problems affecting further processing and reducing measurement quality. We propose an application of coherence-enhancing diffusion to fringe-pattern denoising. It smoothes a fringe pattern along directions both parallel and perpendicular to fringe orientation with suitable diffusion speeds to more effectively reduce noise and improve fringe-pattern quality. It is a generalized work of Tang's et al.'s [Opt. Lett.33, 2179 (2008)] model that only smoothes a fringe pattern along fringe orientation. Since our model diffuses a fringe pattern with an additional direction, it is able to denoise low-density fringes as well as improve denoising effectiveness for high-density fringes. Theoretical analysis as well as simulation and experimental verifications are addressed.

  4. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  5. Diffracted Fringes of Compound Nucleus Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ideno Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a relation between the energies of nuclear excited levels and its periodic phases for nuclei with A = 14 - 244 in the energy region up to several tens MeV. These levels include neutron and proton resonances, excited levels below neutron and proton separation energies and also vibrational and rotational bands in unstable nuclei. Here we use level periods less than 50 keV. We found that series of parabolic fringes appear in the plots of level energies vs. its periodic phases in various excitation modes. Distinguished fringes can be observed for neutron and proton resonances in nuclei with neutron or proton magic numbers: 37Cl, 59Ni, 61Ni and 62Ni. For neutron and proton resonances in a wide mass range of nuclei, parabolic fringes with the same periods and scales can be observed at the same incident energies. Each fringe is separated by a phase difference of 1/n, where n is an integer. We interpret the parabolic fringes as a result of interference effects based on time; a quantized phase difference of 1/n can be connected to a discrete time delay of wave pulsations. These fringe spectra were compared between different nuclear excitation modes.

  6. Cephalometric Analysis of Modifications of the Mandible Due to Reduction Mandibuloplasty in Patients With Prominent Mandibular Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoping; Xie, Minkai; Hu, Chunbing; Zhou, Bin; Dai, Hao; Zhang, Wenwen

    2017-05-01

    Cephalometry has been used to measure hard and soft facial tissues as well as to conduct the ostectomy to determine the characteristics of the prominent mandibular angles (PMA). The changes produced on the mandibles by reduction mandibuloplasty are not known. The objective of the present study was to identify by cephalometric analysis the anatomical changes of the mandibles that occur in patients with PMA after reduction mandibuloplasty. Forty-two patients with PMA were submitted to cephalometric analysis before, 1 week and 6 months after surgery to evaluate the changes of the mandibles produced by reduction mandibuloplasty. Cephalometry was standardized to obtain descriptive measurements of the dimensions of the mandibles. The modifications of the mandibles due to reduction mandibuloplasty showed a significant change obtained by cephalometry. At 1 week after surgery, the average distance between the gonions decreased 17.70 ± 8.46 mm, the average length of the mandibular ramus reduced 5.84 ± 3.26 mm, the average mandibular body length increased 4.61 ± 2.74 mm, the average gonial angle increased 14.78 ± 6.65°, the average mandibular plane angle increased 10.29 ± 3.82°. At 6 months postoperatively, the first 3 linear measurements increased 3.68 ± 2.91, 1.66 ± 2.51, and 2.10 ± 2.37 mm respectively; however, the last 2 angular measurements reduced 2.86 ± 3.02° and 1.77 ± 2.62° respectively. The results demonstrated that reduction mandibuloplasty can modificate mandibular contouring three-dimensionally. The data of 6 months postoperatively compare to those of the beauty people reported in the literature, there were statistically differences between the linear measurements, but no statistically differences between the angular measurements. Despite bone regeneration result in linear or angular measurements change, postoperative angular shape was predominantly maintained, and the preoperative angular prominence

  7. Adaptive digital fringe projection technique for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; He, Yunbo; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Xingjin

    2016-04-04

    It is a challenge for any optical method to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. This paper presents a new adaptive digital fringe projection technique which avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of objects that has a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Compared to previous high dynamic range 3-D scan methods using many exposures and fringe pattern projections, which consumes a lot of time, the proposed technique uses only two preliminary steps of fringe pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns, by adaptively adjusting the pixel-wise intensity of the projected fringe patterns based on the saturated pixels in the captured images of the surface being measured. For the bright regions due to high surface reflectivity and high illumination by the ambient light and surfaces interreflections, the projected intensity is reduced just to be low enough to avoid image saturation. Simultaneously, the maximum intensity of 255 is used for those dark regions with low surface reflectivity to maintain high SNR. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve higher 3-D measurement accuracy across a surface with a large range of reflectivity variation.

  8. Severe Pain and Edema due to a Widespread Lymphangioma: Disappearance of Symptoms and Reduction of Lesion with Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, Ivano; Zanin, Luca; Marongiu, Ines; Levi, Vincenzo; Chiapparini, Luisa; Rizzi, Michele

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of epidural spinal cord stimulation on chronic neuropathic pain due to failed back surgery syndrome or nerve root lesions is well reported. There is even literature reporting the effects of spinal cord stimulation in controlling peripheral vascular lesions as in peripheral arteriopathies or diabetic neuropathies and in complex regional pain syndrome type II. This is probably due to an effect of epidural spinal cord stimulation, mainly on the parasympathetic nervous system. A 14- year-old boy affected, since birth, by a quickly growing widespread lymphangioma at the pelvis and right thigh, underwent repetitive surgical procedures to try to reduce its extension. Recurrence always occurred. Due to a massive swelling of his right lower limb and a wide painful area all over the pelvis and right lower limb, the patient lost his autonomy and was almost bedridden or wheelchaired. On January 2015 the patient underwent the implant of a low dorsal epidural 8-lead magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible electrode connected to an MRI-compatible stimulator. The patient, 1 month after the implantation, had a complete recover of his autonomy, with a marked shrinkage of his right lower limb and a near disappearance of pain. He resumed the activity of the daily living. One year later, a hip MRI showed partial reduction of the lesion. The patient is still nearly free from pain. This is the first case report of severe chronic pain syndrome due to a widespread lymphangioma successfully treated by means of epidural spinal cord stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian

    2016-01-01

    The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM. (paper)

  10. Principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-11-01

    Fringe tracking is one of the most straightforward techniques for analyzing a single fringe pattern. This work presents a principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique. It uses Gaussian derivatives for estimating fringe gradients and uses hysteresis thresholding for segmenting singular points, thus improving the principal component analysis method. Using it allows us to estimate the principal vectors of fringes from a pattern with high noise. The fringe-tracking procedure is directed by these principal vectors, so that erroneous results induced by noise and other error-inducing factors are avoided. At the same time, the singular point regions of the fringe pattern are identified automatically. Using them allows us to determine paths through which the "seed" point for each fringe skeleton is easy to find, thus alleviating the computational burden in processing the fringe pattern. The results of a numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate this method to be valid.

  11. Effects of diotic fringes on interaural disparity detection (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Detection thresholds were measured for interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) that were carried by probe segments embedded in otherwise diotic broadband noise (fringe). The duration of the probe was varied between 5 and 200 ms, and the duration of the fringe...... was between 5 and 100 ms. Consistent with results of Akeroyd and Bernstein [(2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2516-2526], it was found that a 5-ms fringe placed before a 5-ms probe (forward fringe) led to a larger threshold elevation than a 5-ms fringe placed after the probe (backward fringe). As suggested...... by Akeroyd and Bernstein, this effect was accounted for by a model providing an onset emphasis of a factor of 2. In contrast, for longer probe and fringe durations, which have not been tested before, a backward fringe had a stronger effect than a forward fringe. This surprising effect was accounted...

  12. Fringes in FTIR spectroscopy revisited: understanding and modelling fringes in infrared spectroscopy of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevskikh, Tatiana; Ponossov, Arkadi; Blümel, Reinhold; Lukacs, Rozalia; Kohler, Achim

    2015-06-21

    The appearance of fringes in the infrared spectroscopy of thin films seriously hinders the interpretation of chemical bands because fringes change the relative peak heights of chemical spectral bands. Thus, for the correct interpretation of chemical absorption bands, physical properties need to be separated from chemical characteristics. In the paper at hand we revisit the theory of the scattering of infrared radiation at thin absorbing films. Although, in general, scattering and absorption are connected by a complex refractive index, we show that for the scattering of infrared radiation at thin biological films, fringes and chemical absorbance can in good approximation be treated as additive. We further introduce a model-based pre-processing technique for separating fringes from chemical absorbance by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). The technique is validated by simulated and experimental FTIR spectra. It is further shown that EMSC, as opposed to other suggested filtering methods for the removal of fringes, does not remove information related to chemical absorption.

  13. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  14. The effects of noise-bandwidth, noise-fringe duration, and temporal signal location on the binaural masking-level difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce

    2012-07-01

    The effects of forward and backward noise fringes on binaural signal detectability were investigated. Masked thresholds for a 12-ms, 250-Hz, sinusoidal signal masked by Gaussian noise, centered at 250 Hz, with bandwidths from 3 to 201 Hz, were obtained in N(0)S(0) and N(0)S(π) configurations. The signal was (a) temporally centered in a 12-ms noise burst (no fringe), (b) presented at the start of a 600-ms noise burst (backward fringe), or (c) temporally centered in a 600-ms noise burst (forward-plus-backward fringe). For noise bandwidths between 3 and 75 Hz, detection in N(0)S(0) improved with the addition of a backward fringe, improving further with an additional forward fringe; there was little improvement in N(0)S(π). The binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) increased from 0 to 8 dB with a forward-plus-backward fringe as noise bandwidths increased to 100 Hz, increasing slightly to 10 dB at 201 Hz. This two-stage increase was less pronounced with a backward fringe. With no fringe, the BMLD was about 10-14 dB at all bandwidths. Performance appears to result from the interaction of across-time and across-frequency listening strategies and the possible effects of gain reduction and suppression, which combine in complex ways. Current binaural models are, as yet, unable to account fully for these effects.

  15. Reduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Bacillus Calmette Guerin immunized people is due to training of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The currently used vaccine for prevention of tuberculosis is Bacillus Calmette Guerin, which has been associated with a protective effect of 51% against tuberculosis. New vaccination strategies based on an enhancement of adaptive T-cell based immunity have been unsuccessful in increasing the efficiency of BCG immunisation. The proposed hypothesis is that a reduction of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis infection in Bacillus Calmette Guerin immunized people is due to training of innate immunity. Evidence to support the hypothesis is a systematic review, which showed that BCG protects against M. tuberculosis infection as evident from negative interferon gamma release assay results in BCG immunised exposed people. BCG has been shown to enhance innate immunity in monocytes via nucleotide binding oligomerisation domain 2 receptor activation by muramyldipeptide. An alternative hypothesis may be that T-suppressor cells induced by BCG immunisation may be the reason for the absence of an interferon gamma response mimicking absence of infection in immunized people. In order to test the primary hypothesis an ultra-low dose mouse model of M. tuberculosis infection could be used. Innate immunity could be enhanced by administration of murabutide and groups with and without murabutide enhanced BCG immunisation and with and without elimination of T-suppressor cells compared. The contribution of training of innate immunity in reduction of infection could hereby be demonstrated by treatment of mice prior to immunisation with an inhibitor of epigenetic programming. Confirmation of the hypothesis could provide the foundation of a new approach to an improved vaccine against M. tuberculosis infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    upgraded by further research, could solve. The drivers behind sprawl were fundamentally irrational: they resided in such inchoate urgings as aesthetics, a desire to `live in nature', a longing for personal privacy and social isolation. Correction required the imposition of science-based reason onto the scene, which argued for research. What you propose as a solution depends on how you define the problem. Houses were burning and residents too often dying; this was clearly a threat to public safety, an incitement for political action, and an incentive for research. But what were the causes? Scholarly disciplines and national traditions defined it differently. Europeans thought the issue fundamentally social. The breakdown in the old landscape created a disorder of which free-burning fire was a manifestation. This was in keeping with a long heritage of European thinking that identified fire with unrest and that argued that fire control was primarily a matter of social control. People needed to reassert their presence on the land. Those countries with large public estates such as Australia and the US conceived the problem in a converse way. At issue was the unwise (and unwarranted) encroachment of people into the bush. An ideal response would be to banish people from the fringe regions. Fire is `natural' and belongs in wildlands: it is people who upset the order of things. While government has a duty to shield its citizens from harm, it should not allow such measures to destroy nature preserves or the capacity of fire to propagate through them. People have to learn to `live with' fire. In both cases the prevailing assumption is that science will identify solutions, which society will apply. Yet here we have a case of countries implicitly pointing their national sciences in different directions because of their distinctive histories. It would seem that history as a discipline might also have something to contribute to this discourse both in terms of tracking land use and of

  17. Pendellosung fringes of silicon at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Y.; Eto, T.; Naruoka, H.; Lu, Z.; Okazaki, A.

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure o silicon has been examined by means of X-ray diffraction according to the Pendellosung method. Measurements of the fringe pattern were made for the 111, 220, 113, 004, 331, 224 and 333 diffractions in a temperature range 17-300 K. It is found that the value of the Debye temperature determined from the temperature dependence of the period of Pendellosung fringes is in good agreement with that in the literature except for the first three diffractions; for these with shorter scattering vectors, the value depends on specimen and, in some cases, is smaller than that in the literature and depends on the length of the scattering vector. It is also found that the fringe pattern is stress sensitive, and that the stress can be released at lowest temperatures. This phenomenon of a kind of aging is discussed in connection with a similar effect observed in the high-resolution measurement of the lattice spacing

  18. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  19. Carbon abatement potential of solar home systems in India and their cost reduction due to carbon finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 78 million rural households in India reportedly lack access to grid electricity. About 67 million of them use kerosene for lighting. Government of India is promoting the use of solar home systems (SHS) as one of the options for meeting lighting requirements in households in remote and less inhabited villages. About 363,399 SHS were reportedly disseminated across the country by December 2007. Apart from meeting the basic lighting need of the households, SHS also help in abating the emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by directly displacing the use of kerosene in households that currently use it for lighting. This study has attempted at estimating the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHS in India by studying the potential for their diffusion and the appropriate baseline. Subsequently, the scope for cost reduction to the user due to carbon finance, if received, is also studied. It is found that carbon finance could reduce the effective burden of SHS to the user by 19% if carbon prices were $10/tCO 2 and no transaction costs were involved in getting the carbon revenues. These benefits are also estimated for scenarios where transaction costs are incurred by the project proponent in getting the carbon benefits

  20. Sustainable Urban Fringes - Connecting Urban and Rural : Final report of the SURF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de T.J.N.M. (Theo); Haccoû, H.A. (Huib); Leslie, A. (Allison); Lier, G. (Goos); Littlewood, S. (Stephan); Oldejans, R. (Rolf); Thomas, K. (Kevin); Vries, de B.J. (Bauke); Watt, E. (Emma); Wishardt, M. (Michelle)

    2012-01-01

    What happens at the urban edge and the SURF aspiration to influence it? Projects in the urban fringe Urban fringe governance Integrated policy guidelines and approaches towards urban fringe planning and management The future management of the urban fringe

  1. Fringe Benefits Compensation of Real Estate Agents and Brokers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel T. Winkler; W. Keener Hughen

    2012-01-01

    Fringe benefits compensation offered by employers has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Research in this area has been primarily limited to hourly and salaried employees. This study examines employer-based fringe benefits compensation of real estate agents and brokers. A model is developed that jointly estimates the income, hours worked, and fringe benefits compensation. The findings indicate that fringe benefits increase according to hours worked and the sales professional¡¦s contributio...

  2. 26 CFR 1.132-8 - Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules. 1.132-8... Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules. (a) Application of nondiscrimination rules—(1) General rule. A.... (2) Consequences of discrimination—(i) In general. If an employer maintains more than one fringe...

  3. 29 CFR 4.170 - Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. 4.170 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.170 Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. (a) General. Fringe benefits required under the Act shall be furnished, separate from and in addition to the...

  4. 29 CFR 4.52 - Fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefit determinations. 4.52 Section 4.52 Labor... Procedures § 4.52 Fringe benefit determinations. (a) Wage determinations issued pursuant to the Service... differential, which are considered wages rather than fringe benefits under SCA). Pursuant to Section 4(b) of...

  5. Regional fringe analysis for improving depth measurement in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuang-Che Chang; Tu, Han-Yen; Hsieh, Ching-Huang; Cheng, Chau-Jern; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a regional fringe analysis (RFA) method to detect the regions of a target object in captured shifted images to improve depth measurement in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (PS-FPP). In the RFA method, region-based segmentation is exploited to segment the de-fringed image of a target object, and a multi-level fuzzy-based classification with five presented features is used to analyze and discriminate the regions of an object from the segmented regions, which were associated with explicit fringe information. Then, in the experiment, the performance of the proposed method is tested and evaluated on 26 test cases made of five types of materials. The qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed RFA method can effectively detect the desired regions of an object to improve depth measurement in the PS-FPP system.

  6. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  7. The Work Ethic and Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Phoebe

    Many young mothers who are the sole support of young children work at low-level, low-paying jobs primarily to have the satisfaction of providing for the growth of their children. A job that directly provides child care is exactly what many working mothers are looking for. Employers should realize that provision of child care as a fringe benefit is…

  8. Scanning schemes in white light photoelasticity - Part II: Novel fringe resolution guided scanning scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Ramesh, K.

    2017-05-01

    Varied spatial resolution of isochromatic fringes over the domain influences the accuracy of fringe order estimation using TFP/RGB photoelasticity. This has been brought out in the first part of the work. The existing scanning schemes do not take this into account, which leads to the propagation of noise from the low spatial resolution zones. In this paper, a method is proposed for creating a whole field map which represents the spatial resolution of the isochromatic fringe pattern. A novel scanning scheme is then proposed whose progression is guided by the spatial resolution of the fringes in the isochromatic image. The efficacy of the scanning scheme is demonstrated using three problems - an inclined crack under bi-axial loading, a thick ring subjected to internal pressure and a stress frozen specimen of an aerospace component. The proposed scheme has use in a range of applications. The scanning scheme is effective even if the model has random zones of noise which is demonstrated using a plate subjected to concentrated load. This aspect is well utilised to extract fringe data from thin slices cut from a stereo-lithographic model that has characteristic random noise due to layered manufacturing.

  9. Marker encoded fringe projection profilometry for efficient 3D model acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, B; Lun, P K D; Hsung, Tai-Chiu

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel marker encoded fringe projection profilometry (FPP) scheme for efficient 3-dimensional (3D) model acquisition. Traditional FPP schemes can introduce large errors to the reconstructed 3D model when the target object has an abruptly changing height profile. For the proposed scheme, markers are encoded in the projected fringe pattern to resolve the ambiguities in the fringe images due to that problem. Using the analytic complex wavelet transform, the marker cue information can be extracted from the fringe image, and is used to restore the order of the fringes. A series of simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed scheme. They show that the proposed method can greatly improve the accuracy over the traditional FPP schemes when reconstructing the 3D model of objects with abruptly changing height profile. Since the scheme works directly in our recently proposed complex wavelet FPP framework, it enjoys the same properties that it can be used in real time applications for color objects.

  10. Experimental and numerical evaluation of LNAPL lens and polluted capillary fringe thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effective remediation of light non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) in the subsurface is dependent on predicting the location and geometry of the lens near the tension-saturated pores of the capillary fringe. The objective of this study was to evaluate both the thickness of a lens of light nonaqueous phase liquid spill in the subsurface and the subsequent alteration of the capillary fringe. Two-dimensional (2D) experiments were conducted in a parallel plate glass tank (1 m x 1 m x 5 cm) using Ottawa sand and gasoline. An equation for predicting the vertical thickness based on the displacement pressure in the lateral direction was developed. The model and previously published vertical equilibrium models for predicting the thickness of a lens were tested. The model equations were also used to evaluate changes in the capillary fringe due to capillary pollution. The results provide a means to better understand the behavior of light nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface

  11. Simulated Fizeau ring fringes in transmission through spherical and plane reflected surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present simulated Fizeau ring fringes. These fringes are constructed due to multiple reflection between highly reflected partially transmitted spherical and plane surfaces. The real paths of rays and consequently their amplitudes and phases have been determined when they reached the image plane. This plane is located at a certain distance above the interferometer. In these calculations, the impact of the image plane position, the radius of the spherical surface and the distance between the two surfaces on the fringe intensity distribution are investigated. A quite interesting result of our calculation is that the number of the interfered rays is varied and could be only two, even for a highly reflected surfaces. Three different estimated visualizations are included to give an overview imagination of the impact of the different parameter variation. These could be helpful for researchers for testing of spherical surfaces using interference-based methods.

  12. Feedback-stabilized fractional fringe laser interferometer for plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Robertson, S.

    1979-01-01

    A feedback stabilization technique is described for a fractional fringe interferometer measuring plasma electron densities. Using this technique, a CO 2 laser Michelson interferometer with a pyroelectric detector exhibited a sensitivity of 3.4 x 10 -4 fringe on a 1-ms time scale and, due to acoustic pickup, 1.8 x 10 -2 fringe on a 10-ms time scale. The rise time is 45 μs. Stabilization against slow drifts in mirror distances is achieved by an electromechanically translated mirror driven by a servo system having a 0.2-s response time. A mechanical chopper in one of the two beam paths generates the signal which drives the servo system

  13. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  14. REDUCTION OF FRICTION LOSSES DUE TO THE VORTEX FLOW OF THE MAGNETIC FLUID CAUSED BY THE ADDITIVES OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Labkovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluids are promising lubricating material, in particular, in sliding bearings. With the aid of the magnetic system the magnetic fluid is held in the gap of friction that simplifies the design of the lubrication system sufficiently. It is known that when conventional lubricants (mineral oil, water flow, with increasing of speed of rotation of the inner cylinder the transition of laminar flow in a vortex takes place. This dramatically increases the viscous friction losses. The friction losses in a wide range of speeds and possibilities of their decrease due to the vortex flow of the magnetic fluid in the gap between the cylinders are experimentally studied. It is revealed that when the dimensionless speed – number of Taylor equal to 41.2 – is reached, the slope of the curve of friction torque sharply increases, viscous losses also increase, i. e. there is a change laminar flow to a vortex one. The average temperature in the layer of the magnetic fluid reaches 60 оC. This factor leads to increased evaporation of the carrier liquid (water, mineral oil, which reduces the service life of the lubricant i.e. the magnetic fluid. In order to reduce viscous friction when a vortex flow of magnetic fluids takes place, carbon nanotubes, which are cylinders with a diameter of 5.0 nm and a length of about 0.1 mm, are brought into the magnetic fluid. Carbon nanotubes demonstrate elasticity under transverse bending: they curve under the impact of load, and after its removal they restore their original shape. They are also able to elongate along the axis by 16 % and to return to its original position after removal of the load. The effect of reducing friction (about 30 % with a vortex flow of magnetic fluid by the introduction of carbon nanotubes in a magnetic fluid is experimentally obtained. The likely mechanism of friction reduction is the ability of nanotubes to deform under the influence of pressure pulsations and the velocity of the swirling

  15. Environmental benefits from CO2 reduction, due to modal replacement: Case study on light rail vehicle in Brasilia City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Costa, P.H. da; Alves Teixeira, L.M.; Cardoso Pinheiro, J.; Serra Arruda, F.; Mendonça Brasil, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to measure the reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions in atmosphere by replacing the modal urban bus by Light Rail Vehicle (VLT). In order to accomplish this objective, a case study in Brasilia, Federal District, in the stretch of VLT which passes on Via W-3 South was conducted. The Theory of Externalities that discusses the right to ownership of private and public goods and responsibilities about the positive and negative externalities caused by the agents and individuals of society was used to support the analyses. It was used the Top-Down method, which allowed the calculation the direct emissions of CO2. The values obtained on the reduction of CO2 emissions were converted into values of carbon credits as a way to economically measure such reductions. The results showed a significant reduction in CO2 emissions per year and consequent environmental benefit. (Author)

  16. Quality-guided orientation unwrapping for fringe direction estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Denoising and demodulation are two important procedures to retrieve information from a single closed fringe pattern. Various existing denoising and demodulation techniques require fringe direction/orientation during the processing. Fringe orientation is often easier to obtain but fringe direction is needed in some demodulation techniques. A quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme is proposed to estimate direction from orientation. Two techniques, one based on windowed Fourier ridges and the other based on fringe gradient, are proposed for the quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme. The direction qualities are compared for both simulated and experimental fringe patterns. Their application to demodulation technique is also given.

  17. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Price; Elisabeth Norman

    2008-01-01

    Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002) there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007) and of fringe con...

  18. Informal Land Development on the Urban Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes are an important part of urban growth. In addition to formal land markets, a variety of informal land development methods make urban fringes the most dynamic and complicated areas. The analysis of land transfer and development systems in these areas opens a significant window to understanding the modern processes of urbanization and human and property rights in urban areas in China. This study uses Shanghai as a case study target and identifies specific modes of local land development and investigates how collective participants, government agencies, regulatory policies, and various actors are involved in land development and decision making. The in-depth analysis and case studies indicate that the variety of informal land markets in Shanghai reflects the inherent demands of the market for allocation of land resources within the constraints of the given system and against the given development background. However, conflicts between the mode of the market and the existing institutional constraints reflect the uncoordinated development of the land and the economic and social development around the urban fringe. The empirical results of this paper suggest that government administration should improve the land market system, strengthen the planning of control and guidance, rationalize the distribution of interests in land development, and strengthen the supervision of management of land development enterprises. Instead of fragmented aspects, this paper proposes a systematic analytical approach to understanding the informal land development in a city from an urban planning and land resource management perspective.

  19. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  20. Prediction of the viscosity reduction due to dissolved CO2 of and an elementary approach in the supercritical CO2 assisted continuous particle production of a polyester resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalawade, Sameer P.; Nieborg, Vincent H. J.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of CO2 in a polymer causes plasticization of the polymer and hence, its viscosity is reduced. A model based on the free volume theory has been used for a polyester resin, which shows a considerable reduction in the viscosity due to dissolved M. Therefore, superctitical CO2 has been

  1. Fringe order error in multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping: reason and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Lu

    2015-11-10

    A multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping algorithm (MFPPUA) is important to fringe projection profilometry, especially when a discontinuous object is measured. However, a fringe order error (FOE) may occur when MFPPUA is adopted. An FOE will result in error to the unwrapped phase. Although this kind of phase error does not spread, it brings error to the eventual 3D measurement results. Therefore, an FOE or its adverse influence should be obviated. In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of an FOE are theoretically analyzed and experimentally explored. Methods to correct the phase error caused by an FOE are proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are valid in eliminating the adverse influence of an FOE.

  2. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  3. Thermally induced permeability reduction due to particle migration in sandstones: the effect of temperature on kaolinite mobilisation and aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Yuan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal imbalance in supply and demand of renewable energy requires seasonal storage, which potentially may be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal aquifers to minimize heat loss by advection. A reduction of porosity and permeability is a risk of heating the rock above the in...... the interaction energy between quartz and kaolinite particles for different saturating fluids. The results are compared to the published data addressing the effect of temperature on permeability. This provides a qualitative explanation for the observed changes in permeability with temperature for the tests...

  4. 29 CFR 5.25 - Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits. 5.25... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.25 Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits... contribution or cost of fringe benefits. Only the amount of contributions or costs for fringe benefits which...

  5. Does Gender Influence the Provision of Fringe Benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2011-01-01

    This contribution studies the provision of fringe benefits using a unique survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Analysis of the survey reveals that women who own SMEs are more likely than men who own similar firms to provide employees with fringe benefits such as annual...... and workforce structure, worker recruitment mechanisms, and the degree of unionization. However, these factors cannot fully account for the observed differences in fringe benefits along the “gender of owner” dimension. There remains a sizable and unexplained fringe benefits premium paid to employees in women...

  6. Digital algorithms for parallel pipelined single-detector homodyne fringe counting in laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerucha, Simon; Sarbort, Martin; Hola, Miroslava; Cizek, Martin; Hucl, Vaclav; Cip, Ondrej; Lazar, Josef

    2016-12-01

    The homodyne detection with only a single detector represents a promising approach in the interferometric application which enables a significant reduction of the optical system complexity while preserving the fundamental resolution and dynamic range of the single frequency laser interferometers. We present the design, implementation and analysis of algorithmic methods for computational processing of the single-detector interference signal based on parallel pipelined processing suitable for real time implementation on a programmable hardware platform (e.g. the FPGA - Field Programmable Gate Arrays or the SoC - System on Chip). The algorithmic methods incorporate (a) the single detector signal (sine) scaling, filtering, demodulations and mixing necessary for the second (cosine) quadrature signal reconstruction followed by a conic section projection in Cartesian plane as well as (a) the phase unwrapping together with the goniometric and linear transformations needed for the scale linearization and periodic error correction. The digital computing scheme was designed for bandwidths up to tens of megahertz which would allow to measure the displacements at the velocities around half metre per second. The algorithmic methods were tested in real-time operation with a PC-based reference implementation that employed the advantage pipelined processing by balancing the computational load among multiple processor cores. The results indicate that the algorithmic methods are suitable for a wide range of applications [3] and that they are bringing the fringe counting interferometry closer to the industrial applications due to their optical setup simplicity and robustness, computational stability, scalability and also a cost-effectiveness.

  7. Possible health effects of energy conservation: impairment of indoor air quality due to reduction of ventilation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Chakraborty, S.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the energy needs to heat or cool dwellings have the potential to create new health hazards. Increases in indoor levels of radon and its progeny from the reduction in air exchange rates add a substantial radioactive burden to the general population. Other indoor pollutants reaching critical concentrations in homes with low air exchange rates are CO and NO 2 from unvented combustion in gas stoves and heaters, tobacco smoke, and asbestos fibers. In addition, insulation materials and certain types of furniture may contribute the toxicant formaldehyde diffusing from foam injected walls or chipboard. Risk estimations using linear dose-response relationships show risk factors per kWh saved which are orders of magnitude greater than for a kWh produced by large power plants using coal, oil, gas, or uranium. (author)

  8. A Heuristic Method for the Reduction of the Outage Rate of High-Voltage Substations Due to Atmospheric Overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Christodoulou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequate protection against lightning surges and the limitation of the expected annual failure rate of high-voltage substations are critical issues, in an effort to secure the safety of the equipment and the personnel. Various factors affect the lightning performance of the substations, determining the developed lightning surges and the expected outage rate, i.e., the grounding resistance, the length of the underground cable between the connected overhead transmission line and the power transformer, and the installation position of the arresters. In the current work, a heuristic method is developed to adjust different parameters of high-voltage substations that upgrade their lightning performance. The proposed methodology can be useful to the studies of substations’ designers and engineers, contributing effectively in the reduction or/and elimination of lightning failures.

  9. Reduction of death rate due to acute myocardial infarction in subjects with cancers through systemic restoration of impaired nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwary Ghosh

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive aggregation of platelets at the site of plaque rupture on the coronary artery led to the formation of thrombus which is reported to precipitate acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Nitric oxide (NO has been reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and induce thrombolysis through the in situ formation of plasmin. As the plasma NO level in AMI patients from two different ethnic groups was reduced to 0 µM (median compared to 4.0 µM (median in normal controls, the effect of restoration of the NO level to normal ranges on the rate of death due to AMI was determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The restoration of plasma NO level was achieved by a sticking small cotton pad (10×25 mm containing 0.28 mmol sodium nitroprusside (SNP in 0.9% NaCl to the abdominal skin of the participants using non-toxic adhesive tape which was reported to normalize the plasma NO level. The participants (8,283 were volunteers in an independent study who had different kinds of cancers and did not wish to use any conventional therapy for their condition but opted to receive SNP "pad" for their condition for 3 years. The use of SNP "pad" which normalized (≈4.0 µM the plasma NO level that in consequence reduced the death rate due to AMI, among the participants, was found to be significantly reduced compared to the death due to AMI in normal population. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that the use of SNP "pad" significantly reduced the death due to AMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ctri.nic.in CTRI/2013/12/004236.

  10. Fringe projection profilometry with portable consumer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danji; Pan, Zhipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin

    2018-01-01

    A fringe projection profilometry (FPP) using portable consumer devices is attractive because it can realize optical three dimensional (3D) measurement for ordinary consumers in their daily lives. We demonstrate a FPP using a camera in a smart mobile phone and a digital consumer mini projector. In our experiment of testing the smart phone (iphone7) camera performance, the rare-facing camera in the iphone7 causes the FPP to have a fringe contrast ratio of 0.546, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.6 rad, and nonlinear phase error of 0.08 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.033 rad. In contrast, the FPP using the industrial camera has a fringe contrast ratio of 0.715, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.5 rad, nonlinear phase error of 0.05 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.011 rad. Good performance is achieved by using the FPP composed of an iphone7 and a mini projector. 3D information of a facemask with a size for an adult is also measured by using the FPP that uses portable consumer devices. After the system calibration, the 3D absolute information of the facemask is obtained. The measured results are in good agreement with the ones that are carried out in a traditional way. Our results show that it is possible to use portable consumer devices to construct a good FPP, which is useful for ordinary people to get 3D information in their daily lives.

  11. Singlet-to-triplet interconversion using hyperfine as well as ferromagnetic fringe fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenannt, M; Flatté, M E; Harmon, N J; Wang, F; Kent, A D; Macià, F

    2015-06-28

    Until recently the important role that spin-physics ('spintronics') plays in organic light-emitting devices and photovoltaic cells was not sufficiently recognized. This attitude has begun to change. We review our recent work that shows that spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields that may be present in the organic layer dramatically affect electronic transport properties and electroluminescence efficiency. Competition between spin-dynamics due to these spatially varying fields and an applied, spatially homogeneous magnetic field leads to large magnetoresistance, even at room temperature where the thermodynamic influences of the resulting nuclear and electronic Zeeman splittings are negligible. Spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields are naturally present in many organic materials in the form of nuclear hyperfine fields, but we will also review a second method of controlling the electrical conductivity/electroluminescence, using the spatially varying magnetic fringe fields of a magnetically unsaturated ferromagnet. Fringe-field magnetoresistance has a magnitude of several per cent and is hysteretic and anisotropic. This new method of control is sensitive to even remanent magnetic states, leading to different conductivity/electroluminescence values in the absence of an applied field. We briefly review a model based on fringe-field-induced polaron-pair spin-dynamics that successfully describes several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance and magnetoelectroluminescence. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Telecentric 3D profilometry based on phase-shifting fringe projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Chunyang; Tian, Jindong

    2014-12-29

    Three dimensional shape measurement in the microscopic range becomes increasingly important with the development of micro manufacturing technology. Microscopic fringe projection techniques offer a fast, robust, and full-field measurement for field sizes from approximately 1 mm2 to several cm2. However, the depth of field is very small due to the imaging of non-telecentric microscope, which is often not sufficient to measure the complete depth of a 3D-object. And the calibration of phase-to-depth conversion is complicated which need a precision translation stage and a reference plane. In this paper, we propose a novel telecentric phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry for small and thick objects. Telecentric imaging extends the depth of field approximately to millimeter order, which is much larger than that of microscopy. To avoid the complicated phase-to-depth conversion in microscopic fringe projection, we develop a new system calibration method of camera and projector based on telecentric imaging model. Based on these, a 3D reconstruction of telecentric imaging is presented with stereovision aided by fringe phase maps. Experiments demonstrated the feasibility and high measurement accuracy of the proposed system for thick object.

  13. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  14. Oxygen Transfer in a Fluctuating Capillary Fringe: Impact of Porous Medium Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, C.; Rolle, M.; Cirpka, O. A.; Grathwohl, P.

    2013-12-01

    Mass transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere, across the capillary fringe, to anoxic groundwater is of primary importance for many biogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality. The controlling mechanisms for oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe are the diffusive/dispersive transport as well as mass exchange between entrapped air and groundwater. In addition, the presence of physical heterogeneity in the porous medium may strongly affect the oxygen fluxes. We performed quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments at the laboratory bench-scale to study the effect of a coarse-material inclusion, located in proximity of the water table, on flow and oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe. Flow and transport were monitored under both steady-state and transient flow conditions, the latter obtained by fluctuating the water table. We visually inspected the complex flow field using a dye tracer solution, measured vertical oxygen profiles across the capillary fringe at high spatial resolution, and determined oxygen fluxes in the effluent of the flow-through chamber. Our results show that the coarse-material inclusion significantly affected oxygen transfer during the different phases of the experiments. At steady state, the oxygen flux across the unsaturated/saturated interface was considerably enhanced due to flow focusing in the fully water-saturated coarse lens. During drainage, the capillary barrier effect prevented water to drain from the fine material overlying the coarse lens. The entrapped oxygen-rich aqueous phase contributed to the total amount of oxygen supplied to the system when the water table was raised back to its initial level. In case of imbibition, also pronounced entrapment of air occurred in the coarse lens, causing oxygen to partition between the aqueous and gaseous phases. Thus, we found that oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe was significantly enhanced by the coarse-material inclusion due to flow focusing, the capillary

  15. ESTIMATES OF KRASNOYARSK REGION BUDGET LOSSES DUE TO THE TAX SHORTFALLS FROM BUSINESSES RELATED WITH A TEMPORARY DISABILITY OF SMOKING EMPLOYEES AND THE REDUCTION IN LABOR INTENSITY DUE TO THE SMOKING BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlovich Artuchov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate Krasnoyarsk region budget losses due to the shortfalls of taxes from businesses related with a temporary disability of smoking employees and the reduction of labor intensity due to the smoking breaks in 2011.In our work we used the method of economic losses estimation, developed by Conference Board of Canada.The following results were obtained. The estimation of tax shortfalls due to a temporary disability of smoking employees and decrease of labor intensity due to smoking breaks was carried out. It was obtained that Krasnoyarsk region budget losses as a result of the tax shortfalls are equal to 532.8 million rubles – due to increased sick absence risks among smokers and 3 414.3 million rubles – due to the lack of workers on the workplace during smoking breaks. Thus, it was found that the total budget losses of Krasnoyarsk region in 2011 reach 0.34% of the gross regional product.The obtained results can be used for the assessments of the economic losses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-22

  16. Reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in one-dimensional quantum-dot superlattices due to phonon filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, D. L.; Pokatilov, E. P.; Balandin, A. A.; Fomin, V. M.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2011-10-01

    One dimensional quantum-dot superlattices (1D-QDSLs) consisting of acoustically mismatched materials are demonstrated theoretically to possess sub-1 W m-1 K-1 thermal conductivity in the 50-400 K range of temperatures. We consider coherent Si/Ge 1D-QDSLs, as well as model Si/plastic, Si/SiO2 and Si/SiC 1D-QDSLs. The phonon energy spectra and group velocities are obtained in the framework of the face-centered cubic cell model of lattice dynamics. On this basis, lattice thermal conductivity is calculated. A strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in 1D-QDSL structures in comparison with homogeneous rectangular Si nanowires is explained by the exclusion of phonon modes folded in superlattice segments from the heat flow and by the decelerating action of Ge, SiO2, or plastic materials. Thus, the 1D-QDSL structures act as effective phonon filters, eliminating a significant number of phonon modes from thermal transport. The obtained results imply a perspective of quantum-dot superlattices as thermoelectric materials and thermal insulators.

  17. Is Reduction in Yield Potential of Some Brassicaceous Species Due to Aphid Infestation Associated with the Changes in Stomatal Factors of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Farooq, M.; Abbas, G.; Rehman, H. M.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids cause heavy yield losses to Brassicaceous species by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. In the present study, seasonal activity of aphid population and its impact on some brassicaceous species was assessed. Three brassicaceous species (Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Eruca sativa) were grown in field following standard agricultural practices. Plants of control plots retained aphid free by insecticide spray, whereas treatment plots were freely allowed for aphid infestation. There was also intermediate treatment of partial aphid infestation where insecticidal spray was applied two times. Peak populations of both aphid species were observed in the 2nd week of March during which plant photosynthetic attributes were recorded. At the time of maturity, yield attributes were also recorded. From the results, it is obvious that application of insecticide significantly reduced the aphid populations on the three brassicaceous species and enhanced the crop yield. Yield losses due to aphid infestation were maximal in Brassica campestris followed by B. carinata whereas it was minimal in Eruca sativa. Yield losses in Brassica campestris and B. carinata were due to reduction in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and size of seeds, whereas yield losses due to aphid infestation in Eruca sativa was mainly attributed to reduction in number of pods per plant. Although insecticidal spray reduced the aphid population and increased growth and productivity of all brassicaceous species, it did not change photosynthetic capacity of all plants except in Eruca sativa. Moreover, growth and yield reduction was not associated with stomatal factors of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll contents measured as SPAD values were reduced due to aphid infestation which is positively associated with yield reduction. Insecticidal spray increased chlorophyll contents in these three brassicaceous species by reducing aphid population

  18. Adaptive DFT-Based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedretti Ettore

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA Observatory at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier-transform (DFT calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on offline data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms, using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse. One example of such an application might be to the field of thin-film measurement by ellipsometry, using a broadband light source and a Fourier-transform spectrometer to detect the resulting fringe patterns.

  19. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2003-01-01

    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  20. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  1. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    -industrial and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...

  2. Contrast reduction in digital images due to x-ray induced damage to a TV camera's CCD image receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkalides, D.

    1999-01-01

    The CCD image receptor in a monochrome TV camera was irradiated in the dark with a single-phase 80 kVp narrow beam carrying an additional 0.5 mm Al filter. It was found that the CCD responded to the x-rays with a transient signal which would reach a maximum value at about 70 mR per image frame. The signal's contrast would reach a maximum of about 7%, but was detectable at much lower exposure rates. Continuous irradiation of the CCD image receptor created a 'lesion' at the point of incidence that remained after the x-ray beam was switched off. This signal seemed to be due to permanent damage to the CCD and could be detected after a cumulative exposure of less than 20 R. It was shown that such damage could be created much more effectively if the TV camera was switched off rather than on and the maximum contrast was achieved with about 75 R and 220 R respectively. The maximum contrast achieved was about 8%. Further increase in the cumulative exposure of a particular location on the CCD image receptor was not investigated but it seemed reasonable that much higher contrast values could be reached if irradiation was continued. The latter damage described here was found to persist for at least several weeks and hence it will probably prevent any normal use of the TV camera in the future. (author)

  3. Changes in the Earth’s Spin Rotation due to the Atmospheric Effects and Reduction in Glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Na

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere strongly affects the Earth’s spin rotation in wide range of timescale from daily to annual. Its dominant role in the seasonal perturbations of both the pole position and spinning rate of the Earth is once again confirmed by a comparison of two recent data sets; i the Earth orientation parameter and ii the global atmospheric state. The atmospheric semi-diurnal tide has been known to be a source of the Earth’s spin acceleration, and its magnitude is re-estimated by using an enhanced formulation and an up-dated empirical atmospheric S2 tide model. During the last twenty years, an unusual eastward drift of the Earth’s pole has been observed. The change in the Earth’s inertia tensor due to glacier mass redistribution is directly assessed, and the recent eastward movement of the pole is ascribed to this change. Furthermore, the associated changes in the length of day and UT1 are estimated.

  4. Virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination based on iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Duo; Wang, Zhangying; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-06-01

    Fringe projection profilometry has been widely applied in many fields. To set up an ideal measuring system, a virtual fringe projection technique has been studied to assist in the design of hardware configurations. However, existing virtual fringe projection systems use parallel illumination and have a fixed optical framework. This paper presents a virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination. Using an iterative method to calculate intersection points between rays and reference planes or object surfaces, the proposed system can simulate projected fringe patterns and captured images. A new explicit calibration method has been presented to validate the precision of the system. Simulated results indicate that the proposed iterative method outperforms previous systems. Our virtual system can be applied to error analysis, algorithm optimization, and help operators to find ideal system parameter settings for actual measurements.

  5. Virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination based on iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Duo; Wang, Zhangying; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-01-01

    Fringe projection profilometry has been widely applied in many fields. To set up an ideal measuring system, a virtual fringe projection technique has been studied to assist in the design of hardware configurations. However, existing virtual fringe projection systems use parallel illumination and have a fixed optical framework. This paper presents a virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination. Using an iterative method to calculate intersection points between rays and reference planes or object surfaces, the proposed system can simulate projected fringe patterns and captured images. A new explicit calibration method has been presented to validate the precision of the system. Simulated results indicate that the proposed iterative method outperforms previous systems. Our virtual system can be applied to error analysis, algorithm optimization, and help operators to find ideal system parameter settings for actual measurements. (paper)

  6. Automated Fringe Pattern Acquisition for Portable Laser Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In shearography system one of the most important tasks is the automatic, fast, reliable processing of the fringe patterns to allow real time inspection. Development of digital CCD cameras, the PC (fast and small data acquisition), high power lasers have led to dramatic performance improvements in shearography instruments and systems. This paper concentrates on development of fringe pattern acquisition using digital CCD camera for portable laser shearography system. A new program for fringe pattern processing which incorporates rapid methods for automatic fringe pattern acquisition and filtering has been developed. The algorithm is written using MATLAB. A graphical user interface with several functions was developed to ensure an easy adaptation in custom applications and providing a flexible way for additional functions. The preliminary results show that the developed algorithm can be used to generate good contrast and reliable fringe pattern. (author)

  7. Micro analysis of fringe field formed inside LDA measuring volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A K

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we propose a technique for micro analysis of fringe field formed inside laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measuring volume. Detailed knowledge of the fringe field obtained by this technique allows beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity to be evaluated with greater precision and may be helpful for selection of an appropriate optical element for LDA system operation. A complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume using conventional, as well as holographic optical elements, is presented. Results indicate the qualitative, as well as quantitative, improvement of fringes formed at the measurement volume by holographic optical elements. Hence, use of holographic optical elements in LDA systems may be advantageous for improving accuracy in the measurement. (paper)

  8. Adaptive DFT-based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Pedretti, Ettore; Bregman, Jesse; Mah, Robert W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2004-01-01

    An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) observatory at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs) for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on off-line data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately 2.0 milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms), using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse.

  9. Urban expansion and transportation : the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in the development of China's growing megacities in the transport-related environmental costs due to rapid urban expansion. In light of this issue, the authors examine the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing. Based on household-survey data, the

  10. Manipulation of incoherent and coherent spin ensembles in diluted magnetic semiconductors via ferromagnetic fringe fields; Manipulation inkohaerenter und kohaerenter Spinensembles in verduennt-magnetischen Halbleitern mittels ferromagnetischer Streufelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, Simon

    2009-05-19

    In this thesis it is demonstrated that fringe fields of nanostructured ferromagnets provide the opportunity to manipulate both incoherent and coherent spin ensembles in a dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS). Fringe fields of Fe/Tb ferromagnets with a remanent out-of-plane magnetization induce a local magnetization in a (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se DMS. Due to the sp-d exchange interaction, optically generated electron-hole pairs align their spin along the DMS magnetization. One obtains a local, remanent spin polarization which was probed by spatially resolved, polarization sensitive photoluminescence spectroscopy. Fringe fields from in-plane magnetized Co ferromagnets allow to locally modify the precession frequency of the Manganese magnetic moments of the DMS in an external magnetic field. This was probed by time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. The inhomogeneity of the fringe field leads to a shortening of the ensemble decoherence time and to the effect of a time-dependent ensemble precession frequency. (orig.)

  11. Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

  12. Study of moire fringes using synchrotron X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Jun-ichi

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been shown that X-ray moire fringes are not exactly the projection of the intensity distribution of the wave field on the exit surface of the crystal, but do oscillate along the beam path behind the crystal. Such nonprojectiveness of moire fringes is inexplicable by the conventional understanding of moire fringes, and therefore is of interest from a fundamental viewpoint as well as practical one. In this paper the phenomena of the nonprojectiveness are described on the basis of the latest experimental data obtained by synchrotron radiation. (author)

  13. Wavelength-independent fringe spacing in rainbows from falling neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    For particles with speed upsilon and mass m emitted isotropically from a point source and falling under gravity g, the quantal probability density is dominated by a paraboloidal caustic decorated with paraboloidal interference fringes. Near the caustic, the fringes have a spacing independent of upsilon and hence of wavelength, given by ΔR=3.53897x(h 2 /m 2 g)sup(1/3) for the first two (brightest) fringes at the level of the source. For neutrons in the Earth's field, ΔR=0.02617mm. The effect might be difficult to detect. (author)

  14. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Breaking Characteristics over a Fringing Reef under Monochromatic Wave Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fringing reefs play an important role in protecting the coastal area by inducing wave breaking and wave energy dissipation. However, modeling of wave transformation and energy dissipation on this topography is still difficult due to the unique structure. In the present study, two-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the cross-shore variations of wave transformation, setup, and breaking phenomena over an idealized fringing reef with the 1/40 reef slope and to verify the Boussinesq model under monochromatic wave conditions. One-layer and two-layer model configurations of the Boussinesq model were used to figure out the model capability. Both models predicted well (r2>0.8 the cross-shore variation of the wave heights, crests, troughs, and setups when the nonlinearity is not too high (A0/h0<0.07 in this study. However, as the wave nonlinearity and steepness increase, the one-layer model showed problems in prediction and stability due to the error on the vertical profile of fluid velocity. The results in this study revealed that one-layer model is not suitable in the highly nonlinear wave condition over a fringing reef bathymetry. This data set can contribute to the numerical model verification.

  15. Isochromate fringes simulation by Cassini-like curves for photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, D.; Pietroni, P.; Davi, F.

    2009-01-01

    In optically birefringent uniaxial and biaxial crystals, analyzed by plane polariscope, isochromate interference fringes can be observed. By means of the classical electromagnetic theory a Cassini-like analytical equation of the isochromate fringes, depending on the refraction indexes, has been obtained. The proposed analytical equation is a useful tool to evaluate the internal stress state, as it is related to the isochromate shapes owing to the induced variation of the refraction indexes. Uniaxial crystals can assume complex biaxial behaviour due to particular stress configurations. PbWO 4 (PWO) uniaxial scintillating crystals have been studied. The Cassini-like curves fit well experimental measurements in the case of uniaxial stress. In this research work, a simple model has been proved in the case of strong isochromate fringes distortion due to a stress gradient induced by the bending load. The model fits well the interference pattern, acquired experimentally. This study can pave the way for the quality control on scintillating crystals, used in the fields of high-energy detectors, security and biomedical applications, with complex internal stress state.

  16. 48 CFR 22.406-2 - Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wages, fringe benefits... Contracts Involving Construction 22.406-2 Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime. (a) In computing wages paid... fide fringe benefit. (3) Other contributions or anticipated costs for bona fide fringe benefits to the...

  17. 11 CFR 114.12 - Incorporation of political committees; payment of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of fringe benefits. 114.12 Section 114.12 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.12 Incorporation of political committees; payment of fringe...'s share of the cost of fringe benefits, such as health and life insurance and retirement, for...

  18. Analytical determination of 5th-order transfer matrices of magnetic quadrupole fringing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, B.; Irnich, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fringing-field effects on particle trajectories in magnetic quadrupoles are described to 5th order by fringing-field integrals. It is shown that this method improves the description of fringing-field effects noticeably over the so far known use of third-order fringing-field integrals. (Author)

  19. 29 CFR 4.172 - Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in... particular fringe benefits—in general. Where a fringe benefit determination specifies the amount of the..., as such costs are properly a business expense of the employer. If prevailing fringe benefits for...

  20. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J.; Chauhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO 2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO 2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO 2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO 2 ). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO 2 from fuel consumption

  1. Fringe counting method for synthetic phase with frequency-modulated laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ribun; Sakuyama, Munechika; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2007-01-01

    Fringe counting method with laser diodes (LDs) for displacement measurement has been constructed. Two LDs are frequency modulated by mutually inverted sawtooth currents on an unbalanced two-beam interferometer. The mutually inverted sawtooth-current modulation of LDs produces interference fringe signals with opposite signs for respective wavelengths. The two fringe signals are fed to an electronic mixer to produce a synthetic fringe signal with a reduced sensitivity to the synthetic wavelength. Synthetic fringe pulses derived from the synthetic fringe signal make a fringe counting system possible for faster movement of the tested mirror

  2. Coherent Integrations, Fringe Modeling, and Bootstrapping With the NPOI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Anders M; Mozurkewich, Dave; Schmitt, Henrique; Armstrong, J. T; Gilbreath, G. C; Hindsley, Robert; Pauls, Thomas A; Peterson, Deane M

    2006-01-01

    .... It causes fringes to move on ms time-scales, forcing very short exposures. Because of the semi-random phase shifts, the traditional approach averages exposure power spectra to build signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  3. Straight, conic and circular fringes in single interferogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Interferometry is an important part of optics courses taught at the undergraduate level in universities throughout the world. It is used to explain to students the wave nature of light and is also used to measure parameters like length, refractive index, thickness of test samples and wavelength of light source, etc. The shape of interference fringes (linear, conic or circular) gives vital information about the interfering wavefronts and is used for firsthand visual inspection in optical shop testing and other applications of scientific and engineering importance. The present work describes a simple laboratory technique to generate fringes with different shapes in a single interferogram. This is achieved by using our diffraction-Lloyd mirror interferometer where two portions of the diffracted field are superimposed to generate the interference fringes. The technique is quite helpful in explaining the role of source orientation on the shape of interference fringes to students. (paper)

  4. Closed fringe demodulation using phase decomposition by Fourier basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    We report a new technique for the demodulation of a closed fringe pattern by representing the phase as a weighted linear combination of a certain number of linearly independent Fourier basis functions in a given row/column at a time. A state space model is developed with the weights of the basis functions as the elements of the state vector. The iterative extended Kalman filter is effectively utilized for the robust estimation of the weights. A coarse estimate of the fringe density based on the fringe frequency map is used to determine the initial row/column to start with and subsequently the optimal number of basis functions. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with several noisy fringe patterns. Experimental results are also reported to support the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Fringe consciousness in sequence learning: the influence of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Duff, Simon C

    2006-12-01

    We first describe how the concept of "fringe consciousness" () can characterise gradations of consciousness between the extremes of implicit and explicit learning. We then show that the NEO-PI-R personality measure of openness to feelings, chosen to reflect the ability to introspect on fringe feelings, influences both learning and awareness in the serial reaction time (SRT) task under conditions that have previously been associated with implicit learning (). This provides empirical evidence for the proposed phenomenology and functional role of fringe consciousness in so-called implicit learning paradigms (). Introducing an individual difference variable also helped to identify possible limitations of the exclusion task as a measure of conscious sequence knowledge. Further exploration of individual differences in fringe awareness may help to avoid polarity in the implicit learning debate, and to resolve apparent inconsistencies between previous SRT studies.

  6. Water exclusion from tunnel cavities in the saturated capillary fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Youngs, E. G.; Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Yu. V.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of water flow around a tunnel cavity located in the saturated capillary fringe on top of a very permeable, freely-draining substratum is considered for the critical non-leakage condition when there is uniform vertical downward flow through the upper surface of the saturated region. In this critical condition the soil-water pressure is equal to zero everywhere on the cavity wall that is also a streamline. The conditions at the upper fringe boundary are that the soil-...

  7. Fringe effect of electrical capacitance and resistance tomography sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiangtao; Yang, Wuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Because of the ‘soft-field’ nature, all electrical tomography sensors suffer from electric field distortion, i.e. the fringe effect. In electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensors, small pin electrodes are commonly used. It is well known that the pin electrodes result in severe electric field distortion or the fringe effect, and the sensing region of such an ERT sensor spreads out of the pin electrode plane to a large volume. This is also true for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensors, even though it is less severe because of larger electrodes and grounded end guards used. However, when the length of electrodes in an ECT sensor without guards is reduced to almost the same dimension as those in an ERT sensor, the fringe effect is equally obvious. To investigate the fringe effect of ERT and ECT sensors with and without guards, simulations were carried out with different length of electrodes and the results are compared with the corresponding 2D simulation. It is concluded that ECT and ERT sensors with longer electrodes have less fringe effect. Because grounded end guards are effective in reducing the fringe effect of ECT sensors, we propose to apply grounded guards in ERT sensors and integrate ECT and ERT sensors together. Simulation results reveal that ERT sensors with grounded guards have less fringe effect. While commonly current excitation is used with ERT sensors, we propose voltage excitation instead to apply the grounded guards. The feasibility of this approach has been verified by experiment. Finally, a common structure for reducing the fringe effect is proposed for ECT and ERT sensors for the first time to simplify the sensor structure and reduce the mutual interference in ECT/ERT dual-modality measurements. (paper)

  8. Earthquake response reduction of mid-story isolated system due to semi-active control using magnetorheological rotary inertia mass damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mai; Yoshida, Shohei; Fujitani, Hideo; Sato, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of mid-story isolated buildings and seismic response reduction due to a semi-active control system were investigated using a three-lumped-mass model that simplified the sixteen story building with an isolation layer in the sixth story. A semi-active control method using a rotary inertia mass damper filled with magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) was proposed. The damper shows both mass amplification effect due to rotational inertia and variable damping effect due to the MR fluid. The damping force is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field that is applied to the MR fluid. It is determined by using the electric current, which is calculated by the proposed semi-active control method based on the velocity of the isolation layer relative to the layer just underneath it. Real-time hybrid tests using an actual damper and simulations using a building model were conducted to check the damper model; the test results were in good agreement with the simulation results. The simulation results suggest that the response displacement of the structure above the isolation layer is significantly reduced, without increasing the response acceleration of the entire structure against near-fault pulse and long-period ground motions. The proposed semi-active control using an MR rotary inertia mass damper was confirmed to be effective for mid-story isolated buildings.

  9. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  10. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    2006-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a 137 Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control

  11. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  12. Fringe Capacitance Correction for a Coaxial Soil Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Wanjura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of moisture content is a prime requirement in hydrological, geophysical and biogeochemical research as well as for material characterization and process control. Within these areas, accurate measurements of the surface area and bound water content is becoming increasingly important for providing answers to many fundamental questions ranging from characterization of cotton fiber maturity, to accurate characterization of soil water content in soil water conservation research to bio-plant water utilization to chemical reactions and diffusions of ionic species across membranes in cells as well as in the dense suspensions that occur in surface films. One promising technique to address the increasing demands for higher accuracy water content measurements is utilization of electrical permittivity characterization of materials. This technique has enjoyed a strong following in the soil-science and geological community through measurements of apparent permittivity via time-domain-reflectometry (TDR as well in many process control applications. Recent research however, is indicating a need to increase the accuracy beyond that available from traditional TDR. The most logical pathway then becomes a transition from TDR based measurements to network analyzer measurements of absolute permittivity that will remove the adverse effects that high surface area soils and conductivity impart onto the measurements of apparent permittivity in traditional TDR applications. This research examines an observed experimental error for the coaxial probe, from which the modern TDR probe originated, which is hypothesized to be due to fringe capacitance. The research provides an experimental and theoretical basis for the cause of the error and provides a technique by which to correct the system to remove this source of error. To test this theory, a Poisson model of a coaxial cell was formulated to calculate the effective theoretical extra length caused by the

  13. Analysis techniques of lattice fringe images for quantified evaluation of pyrocarbon by chemical vapor infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaoling; Zhao, Hongxia; Qi, Lehua; Li, Hejun

    2014-10-01

    Some image analysis techniques are developed for simplifying lattice fringe images of deposited pyrocarbon in carbon/carbon composites by chemical vapor infiltration. They are mainly the object counting method for detecting the optimum threshold, the self-adaptive morphological filtering, the node-separation technique for breaking the aggregate fringes, and some post processing algorithms for reconstructing the fringes. The simplified fringes are the foundation for defining and extracting quantitative nanostructure parameters of pyrocarbon. The frequency filter window of a Fourier transform is defined as the circular band that retains only those fringes with interlayer distance between 0.3 and 0.45 nm. Some judge criteria are set to define topological relation between fringes. For example, the aspect ratio and area of fringes are employed to detect aggregate fringes. Fringe coaxality and distance between endpoints are used to judge the disconnected fringes. The optimum values are determined by using the iterative correction techniques. The best cut-off value for the short fringes is chosen only when there is a reasonable match between the mean fringe length and the value measured by X-ray diffraction. The adopted techniques have been verified to be feasible and to have the potential to convert the complex lattice fringe image to a set of distinct fringe structures.

  14. Chronic oiling and long-term effects of the 1986 Galeta spill on fringing mangroves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C.; Burns, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1986, more than 50,000 barrels of crude oil spilled into Bahia las Minas on the central Caribbean coast of Panama, oiling reef flats, sea grasses, coral reefs and mangroves. In August 1986, the authors began a five-year study on the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.) fringe and the plants and animals that live attached to submerged prop roots. This habitat forms an important part of near shore, tropical nursery grounds. In three habitats (wave-washed open shores, channels and lagoons, and interior drainage streams), oil initially coated virtually the entire surface of submerged prop roots and sank more than 20 cm into sediments. Secondary re-oiling was heaviest in sheltered drainage streams where oil continuously leached from sediments, but also occurred on the open coast and in channels. Bivalves in channels and streams were heavily contaminated through at least May 1991. Results show this spill was a chronic source of oil contamination rather than a single point-source event. The epibiota of submerged mangrove roots had not recovered completely in any habitat after five years. Independent of this reduction, the structure of the mangrove fringe significantly changed after oiling, including decreases in the amount of shore fringed with mangroves and in the density and size of submerged prop roots. Overall, the surface area on submerged mangrove roots decreased by 33 percent on the open coast, 38 percent in channels and 74 percent in stream. The combination of chronic re-oiling, damage to epibiotic assemblages, and reductions in the biogenic substrate (submerged prop roots) has decreased the productivity of this tropical nursery area and suggests recovery will be a complex and prolonged process

  15. Sulfur analyses as tracers of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Kwong, Y T John

    2010-05-20

    Analyses of solid-phase sulfur species in soil cores indicate the role of sulfur redox cycling in the fate of a BTEX-rich natural gas condensate plume in a silt-clay aquitard at a gas well site in Alberta, Canada. These analyses confirmed that sulfate reduction has been a key anaerobic electron-accepting process in the plume. The observed concentrations (microg/g sediment) of the reduced solid-phase sulfur components provided evidence regarding the quantity of sulfate that has been reduced over time, and the extent of hydrocarbon plume degradation. The spatial distribution of these phases indicates that degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons linked to sulfate reduction was focused in the capillary fringe, where sulfides and elemental sulfur were the main inorganic sulfur species produced as a result of sulfate reduction. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of metal artifacts due to dental hardware in computed tomography angiography: assessment of the utility of model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kato, Ayumi [Tottori Municipal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Kurosaki, Masamichi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for reduction of metal artifacts due to dental hardware in carotid CT angiography (CTA). Thirty-seven patients with dental hardware who underwent carotid CTA were included. CTA was performed with a GE Discovery CT750 HD scanner and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), ASIR, and MBIR. We measured the standard deviation at the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery that was affected most by dental metal artifacts (SD{sub 1}) and the standard deviation at the common carotid artery that was not affected by the artifact (SD{sub 2}). We calculated the artifact index (AI) as follows: AI = [(SD{sub 1})2 - (SD{sub 2})2]1/2 and compared each AI for FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Visual assessment of the internal carotid artery was also performed by two neuroradiologists using a five-point scale for each axial and reconstructed sagittal image. The inter-observer agreement was analyzed using weighted kappa analysis. MBIR significantly improved AI compared with FBP and ASIR (p < 0.001, each). We found no significant difference in AI between FBP and ASIR (p = 0.502). The visual score of MBIR was significantly better than those of FBP and ASIR (p < 0.001, each), whereas the scores of ASIR were the same as those of FBP. Kappa values indicated good inter-observer agreements in all reconstructed images (0.747-0.778). MBIR resulted in a significant reduction in artifact from dental hardware in carotid CTA. (orig.)

  17. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David J; Eggert, J H; Celliers, P M; Hicks, D G

    2016-03-01

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Doppler velocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measure equation of state (EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. The ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  18. Profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes with RGB encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, J. M.; Servin, M.; Garnica, G.

    2015-05-01

    Here we describe a 2-projectors and 1-camera setup for profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes and red, green, and blue (RGB) multichannel operation. The dual projection configuration for this profilometer is proposed to solve efficiently specular regions and self-occluding shadows due to discontinuities, which are the main drawbacks for a 1-projector 1-camera configuration. This is because the regions where shadows and specular reflections are generated, and the fringe contrast drops to zero, are in general different for each projection direction; thus, the resulting fringe patterns will have complementary phase information. Multichannel RGB operation allows us to work simultaneously with both projectors and to record independently the complementary fringe patterns phase-modulated by the 3D profile of the object under study. In other words, color encoding/decoding reduces the acquisition time respect to one-at-a-time grayscale operation and, in principle, enables the study of dynamic phenomena. The co-phased demodulation method implemented in this work benefits from the complex (analytic) nature of the output signals estimated with most phase demodulation methods (such as the Fourier method, and temporal phaseshifting algorithms). This allowed us to straightforwardly generate a single phase-map well-defined for the entire area of interest. Finally we assessed our proposed profilometry setup by measuring a fractured spherical cap made of (uncoated) expanded polystyrene. The results were satisfactory but in the authors' opinion this must be considered a preliminary report.

  19. Technological aspects and results from the DARWIN fringe sensor predevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Hans; Hofer, Stefan; Stuffler, Timo; Cassaign, Frederic; Mocoeur, Isabelle; Mugnier, Laurent; Barillot, Marc; Salvadé, Yves; Zayer, Igor

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the so-called fringe sensor DWARF - derived from DARWIN AstRonomical Fringe Sensor is to measure all relevant perturbations and to provide real time control data to achieve co-phasing of the freeflying telescopes of the DARWIN system. An overview of the design of the sensor Breadboard (BB), as it has been designed and built at Kayser-Threde as Prime with main partners ONERA and Alcatel Space under ESA contract 17012/03/NL/EC is presented. An extensive test campaign has been carried out at ONERA. The respective optical test setup is outlined and the achieved performances for retrieval of primary and higher order aberrations are presented. As final outcome of the BB study the essential elements to build a fringe sensor (FS) flight model are shortly characterized and the respective development roadmap is sketched.

  20. Phase and fringe order determination in wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    A method to obtain unambiguous surface height measurements using wavelength scanning interferometry with an improved repeatability, comparable to that obtainable using phase shifting interferometry, is reported. Rather than determining the conventional fringe frequency-derived z height directly, the method uses the frequency to resolve the fringe order ambiguity, and combine this information with the more accurate and repeatable fringe phase derived z height. A theoretical model to evaluate the method's performance in the presence of additive noise is derived and shown to be in good agreement with experiments. The measurement repeatability is improved by a factor of ten over that achieved when using frequency information alone, reaching the sub-nanometre range. Moreover, the z-axis non-linearity (bleed-through or ripple error) is reduced by a factor of ten. These order of magnitude improvements in measurement performance are demonstrated through a number of practical measurement examples.

  1. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Qiu, Yaqiong; Li, Yang; Shi, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Near medium intense (NMI) fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated.

  2. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near medium intense (NMI fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated. Keywords: High-power laser beam, Nonlinear propagation, Kerr medium, Small-scale scatterer, Nonlinear imaging

  3. Interferometric characterization of a microaxicon with a single fringe pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Dengfeng; Han, Meirui; Gao, Hui; Du, Zhongxun; Fang, Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    The height and opening angle of a microaxicon are two important factors for the working distance and the field profile of the beam generated by the microaxicon. A simple approach for the characterization of a microaxicon is proposed and demonstrated with the single fringe pattern obtained from a modified Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The geometrical profile, height and opening angle are retrieved from the interference fringe pattern for a quartz microaxicon fabricated by direct laser writing and inductively coupled plasma etching, which are comparably consistent with that measured by an atomic force microscope

  4. Encryption of 3D Point Cloud Object with Deformed Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D point cloud object encryption method was proposed with this study. With the method, a mapping relationship between 3D coordinates was formulated and Z coordinate was transformed to deformed fringe by a phase coding method. The deformed fringe and gray image were used for encryption and decryption with simulated off-axis digital Fresnel hologram. Results indicated that the proposed method is able to accurately decrypt the coordinates and gray image of the 3D object. The method is also robust against occlusion attacks.

  5. Dispersed-fringe-accumulation-based left-subtract-right method for fine co-phasing of a dispersed fringe sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Shengqian; Rao, Changhui

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a dispersed-fringe-accumulation (DFA)-based left-subtract-right (LSR) piston estimation method (DFA-LSR), in which the dispersed fringe image is accumulated in the dispersed direction, and then the LSR method is used to estimate the piston error, is proposed for dispersed fringe sensors (DFS) in the fine co-phasing stage. The DFS is usually used to detect the piston errors (optical path difference) between different segmented mirrors or synthetic aperture telescopes. The DFA-LSR makes up for the shortcomings of the main peak position (MPP) method, which suffers from the constant offset in the pixel counts. The analysis and experiment results show that the proposed method can keep relatively better performance even at the condition of poor signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the MPP method in fine co-phasing stage.

  6. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  7. Phase retrieval from reflective fringe patterns of double-sided transparent objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ghosted’ fringe patterns simultaneously reflected from both the upper and lower sides of a transparent target in the fringe reflection technique are captured for transparent surface 3D shape measurement, but the phase retrieval from the captured ‘ghosted’ fringe patterns is still not solved. A novel method is proposed to solve this issue by using two sets of phase-shifted fringe patterns with slightly different frequencies. The nonlinear least-squares method is used to estimate the fringe phase and modulation from both front and rear interfaces. Several simulations are done to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The influence of fringe noise on the algorithm is studied as well, which indicates that the proposed method is able to retrieve the phase from double-sided reflective fringe patterns with fringe noise equivalent to that in practical measurements. The merits and limitations of the method are discussed and recommendations for future studies are made. (paper)

  8. 29 CFR 4.171 - “Bona fide” fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true âBona fideâ fringe benefits. 4.171 Section 4.171 Labor... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.171 “Bona fide” fringe benefits. (a) To be considered a “bona fide” fringe benefit for purposes of the Act, a fringe benefit plan, fund, or program must constitute a legally...

  9. 29 CFR 5.22 - Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions. 5.22... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.22 Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits... paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 1.2 of this subtitle. The fringe benefits amendments enlarge the scope of this...

  10. [Do people with mental disorders who, due to complete reduction in earning capacity, receive a temporary pension want to return into active employment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Axel; Grosch, Eberhard; Hesse, Bettina; Gebauer, Erika; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    In Germany the number of invalidity pensions due to mental disorders is increasing. More than one third of these insurants do not take part in rehabilitation measures before their early retirement. Only 6 % return into their employment relationship. 1. People with mental disorders still have severe health problems after their two-year temporary leave/retirement. 2. About one third of these insurants are generally interested in being reintegrated into their jobs. 3. Their motivation for reintegration depends on their age and their individual health status. Data of all insurants (of DRV Braunschweig-Hannover) under 50 who drew a short-term benefit due to complete reduction in earning capacity in 2004 (n = 352) were collected with the help of an anonymous questionnaire (response rate = 54 %). This questionnaire compiled data on their general health status, their functional capacity and work ability, their motivation for returning to work as well as psychosocial aspects. At the same time, socio-demographic characteristics from the regional pension insurance database were analyzed. Compared to patients treated in hospitals, those insurants who had been on a two-year temporary leave were psychologically strongly distressed. There was also a gender effect: Women in particular showed significant limitations in daily activities/routines, a higher level of anxiety and somatization. Less than 30 % of the pensioners were motivated for vocational rehabilitation in order to return to their jobs. The motivation was not dependant on the psychological load and the age but most probably on the somatization tendencies and the daily activities. It seems that classic vocational rehabilitation for insurants who already receive a disability pension does not lead to a higher rate of reintegration into work. The relatively large number of insurants who want to return to their jobs implies the necessity of a special rehabilitation programme with concepts for reintegration: an individual

  11. Influence on the oxidative potential of a heavy-duty engine particle emission due to selective catalytic reduction system and biodiesel blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Polezer, Gabriela; Borillo, Guilherme C. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brown, Andrew [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Valebona, Fabio B.; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Ingberman, Aline B.G. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo [LAVIE - Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Penteado Neto, Renato A. [Vehicle Emissions Laboratory, Institute of Technology for Development (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Marchi, Mary Rosa R. de [Analytical Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N. [Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Pauliquevis, Theotonio [Department of Natural and Earth Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema (Brazil); Godoi, Ana Flavia L. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Although the particulate matter (PM) emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines are acknowledged to be lower than those of fossil diesel, there is a concern on the impact of PM produced by biodiesel to human health. As the oxidative potential of PM has been suggested as trigger for adverse health effects, it was measured using the Electron Spin Resonance (OP{sup ESR}) technique. Additionally, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) was employed to determine elemental concentration, and Raman Spectroscopy was used to describe the amorphous carbon character of the soot collected on exhaust PM from biodiesel blends fuelled test-bed engine, with and without Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). OP{sup ESR} results showed higher oxidative potential per kWh of PM produced from a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20) engine compared with a blend of 5% soybean biodiesel and 95% ULSD (B5), whereas the SCR was able to reduce oxidative potential for each fuel. EDXRF data indicates a correlation of 0.99 between concentration of copper and oxidative potential. Raman Spectroscopy centered on the expected carbon peaks between 1100 cm{sup −1} and 1600 cm{sup −1} indicate lower molecular disorder for the B20 particulate matter, an indicative of a more graphitic carbon structure. The analytical techniques used in this study highlight the link between biodiesel engine exhaust and increased oxidative potential relative to biodiesel addition on fossil diesel combustion. The EDXRF analysis confirmed the prominent role of metals on free radical production. As a whole, these results suggest that 20% of biodiesel blends run without SCR may pose an increased health risk due to an increase in OH radical generation. - Highlights: • PM emission from biodiesel burning may be more harmful to human health than diesel. • Euro V (SCR) engine fuelled with B5 and B20 tested in a bench dynamometer • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to access the oxidative potential of

  12. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  13. Isogyres – Manifestation of Spin-orbit interaction in uniaxial crystal: A closed-fringe Fourier analysis of conoscopic interference

    OpenAIRE

    C. T. Samlan; Dinesh N. Naik; Nirmal K. Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Discovered in 1813, the conoscopic interference pattern observed due to light propagating through a crystal, kept between crossed polarizers, shows isochromates and isogyres, respectively containing information about the dynamic and geometric phase acquired by the beam. We propose and demonstrate a closed-fringe Fourier analysis method to disentangle the isogyres from the isochromates, leading us to the azimuthally varying geometric phase and its manifestation as isogyres. This azimuthally va...

  14. Analysis of the Localization of Michelson Interferometer Fringes Using Fourier Optics and Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanamurthy, C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in "Principles of Optics" by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer…

  15. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot may depart from a fringe airport as defined in § 93.335 without filing a flight plan or communicating...

  16. 44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement of fringe... RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.40 Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs... Sponsoring Agency for fringe benefit costs incurred during Activation according to the following table: If...

  17. 29 CFR 4.162 - Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. 4.162... Compensation Standards § 4.162 Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. (a) Pursuant to the statutory... contain a provision specifying the fringe benefits to be furnished the various classes of service...

  18. 29 CFR 4.174 - Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits. 4.174... Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.174 Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits. (a) Determining eligibility for holiday benefits—in general. (1) Most fringe benefit...

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-25T - Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions with respect to noncash fringe... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-25T Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits (temporary). (a) Employer. If an employer includes the value of a noncash fringe benefit in an employee's gross income, the...

  20. 29 CFR 4.165 - Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general. 4.165 Section... Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.165 Wage payments and fringe benefits—in... fringe benefits (see § 4.177). (2) The Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation...

  1. 29 CFR 4.177 - Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means... CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.177 Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means. (a) In general. (1) Section 2(a)(2) of the Act, which provides for fringe...

  2. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.176 Payment of fringe benefits.... Accordingly, in the absence of express limitations, the provisions of an applicable fringe benefit...

  3. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4... Wage Determination Procedures § 4.54 Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations. (a... determine the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits prevailing for various classes of service employees...

  4. 29 CFR 4.50 - Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4.50... Determination Procedures § 4.50 Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. The Administrator specifies the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid as required under the Act in two types of...

  5. On price taking behavior in a nonrenewable resource cartel-fringe game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Benchekroun, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a nonrenewable resource game with one cartel and a set of fringe members. We show that (i) the outcomes of the closed-loop and the open-loop nonrenewable resource game with the fringe members as price takers (the cartel-fringe game à la Salant, 1976) coincide and (ii) when the number of

  6. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fringe benefits. 4.5 Section 4.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain... and fringe benefits for service employees to be employed thereunder, including any information...

  7. 26 CFR 1.162-25 - Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions with respect to noncash fringe... Corporations § 1.162-25 Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits. (a) [Reserved] (b) Employee. If an employer provides the use of a vehicle (as defined in § 1.61-21(e)(2)) to an employee as a noncash fringe...

  8. 23 CFR 810.106 - Approval of fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of fringe and transportation corridor parking... Projects and Special Use Highway Facilities § 810.106 Approval of fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities. (a) In approving fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities, the Federal...

  9. 29 CFR 4.173 - Meeting requirements for vacation fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for vacation fringe benefits. 4.173... Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.173 Meeting requirements for vacation fringe... fringe benefit determinations issued under the Act require an employer to furnish to employees working on...

  10. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... workforce the meals are provided “infrequently.” (2) Employer-measured frequency. Notwithstanding the rule... account the frequency with which similar fringes are provided by the employer to the employer's employees) so small as to make accounting for it unreasonable or administratively impracticable. (b) Frequency...

  11. 26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applying, to the extent that they are not inconsistent with such other section. For example, many fringe... eating facility for employees. (1) In general. (2) Valuation formula. § 1.61-21 (k) Commuting valuation... example of a comparable condition is the amount of time that the vehicle is available to the employee for...

  12. Low frequency wave resonance in fringing reef environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomeroy, A.W.M.; van Dongeren, A.; Lowe, R.J.; Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; Roelvink, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low frequency wave resonance has been postulated to enhance damage to coral reef protected coastlines during storm events. This paper uses the numerical model XBeach to examine the dynamics that contribute to resonance that have been previously observed on a fringing reef on Guam during tropical

  13. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  14. Fringe Fitting for Coherent Integrations with the NPOI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, A. M; Mozurkewich, D; Armstrong, T; Hindsley, R; Pauls, T; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Restaino, S

    2004-01-01

    ...), which is based on fitting a model fringe pattern to the NPOI data frames. The procedure is quite computationally intensive, but gives a better estimation of the phase than the conventional method of locating the peak of the group delay power...

  15. Population growth and settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on estimating the rate of urban settlement expansion in the fringes of Addis Ababa, and on examining the causes for this and the impacts it has on the livelihoods of the farming households living there. For this purpose, aerial photographs covering the study area, GIS tools and GPS were used; ...

  16. Near-field edge fringes at sharp material boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, V E; Gamage, S; Stockman, M I; Abate, Y

    2017-10-02

    We have studied the formation of near-field fringes when sharp edges of materials are imaged using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). The materials we have investigated include dielectrics, metals, a near-perfect conductor, and those that possess anisotropic permittivity and hyperbolic dispersion. For our theoretical analysis, we use a technique that combines full-wave numerical simulations of tip-sample near-field interaction and signal demodulation at higher orders akin to what is done in typical s-SNOM experiments. Unlike previous tip-sample interaction near-field models, our advanced technique allows simulation of the realistic tip and sample structure. Our analysis clarifies edge imaging of recently emerged layered materials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides (in particular, molybdenum disulfide), as well as traditional plasmonic materials such as gold. Hexagonal boron nitride is studied at several wavelengths, including the wavelength where it possesses excitation of phonon-polaritons and hyperbolic dispersion. Based on our results of s-SNOM imaging in different demodulation orders, we specify resonant and non-resonant types of edges and describe the edge fringes for each case. We clarify near-field edge-fringe formation at material sharp boundaries, both outside bright fringes and the low-contrast region at the edge, and elaborate on the necessity of separating them from propagating waves on the surface of polaritonic materials.

  17. The dynamics of infragravity wave transformation over a fringing reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomeroy, A.; Lowe, R.; Symonds, G.; Van Dongeren, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-01-01

    A 3 week field study was conducted to investigate the dynamics of low-frequency (infragravity) wave motions over a fringing reef at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Short-period wave motions (0.04–0.2 Hz) were observed to dissipate on the reef crest beyond which infragravity wave motions

  18. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  19. Percolative Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance and Fringe-Field Magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    2013-03-01

    A recently-introduced percolation theory for spin transport and magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors describes the effects of spin dynamics on hopping transport by considering changes in the effective density of hopping sites, a key quantity determining the properties of percolative transport. Increases in the spin-flip rate open up ``spin-blocked'' pathways to become viable conduction channels and hence, as the spin-flip rate changes with magnetic field, produce magnetoresistance. Features of this percolative magnetoresistance can be found analytically in several regimes, and agree with measurements of the shape and saturation of measured magnetoresistance curves. We find that the threshold hopping distance is analogous to the branching parameter of a phenomenological two-site model, and that the distinction between slow and fast hopping is contingent on the threshold hopping distance. Regimes of slow and fast hopping magnetoresistance are uniquely characterized by their line shapes. Studies of magnetoresistance in known systems with controllable positional disorder would provide an additional stringent test of this theory. Extensions to this theory also describe fringe-field magnetoresistance, which is the influence of fringe magnetic fields from a nearby unsaturated magnetic electrode on the conductance of an organic film. This theory agrees with several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance, including the applied fields where the magnetoresistance reaches extrema, the applied field range of large magnetoresistance effects from the fringe fields, and the sign of the effect. All work done in collaboration with N. J. Harmon, and fringe-field magnetoresistance work in collaboration also with F. Macià, F. Wang, M. Wohlgenannt and A. D. Kent. This work was supported by an ARO MURI.

  20. General filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe images with various densities based on variational image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biyuan; Tang, Chen; Gao, Guannan; Chen, Mingming; Tang, Shuwei; Lei, Zhenkun

    2017-06-01

    Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  1. Phase retrieval for noisy fringe pattern by using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Da, Feipeng

    2012-06-01

    To address the issue of the intermittent noise in optical fringe pattern, an adaptive method of noise reduction is given based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT), and then the wrapped phase is obtained by performing the Hilbert transform on the refined pattern. Firstly, the signal of the fringe pattern is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). With the instantaneous frequencies and marginal spectra of each IMF obtained by HHT, the criterion of identifying the noise IMF is determined. Then, it is judged whether a mode-mixing problem, which is the frequent problem in traditional EMD, appears in each noise IMF. If the problem appears, the ``noise,'' which is designed according to the signal adaptively, is added to the original signal, and then the obtained new signal is decomposed again. The process will be repeated until there is no mode mixing in the noise IMF. Finally, the wrapped phase is obtained by performing a Hilbert transform on the refined pattern with noise and background components removed. The proposed method can solve the mode-mixing problem effectively. It can reduce most of the noise and maintain a large amount of detailed phase information simultaneously. Simulation and compared experiments show the efficiency, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method.

  2. Mechanisms of wave‐driven water level variability on reef‐fringed coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Hansen, Jeff E; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2018-01-01

    Wave‐driven water level variability (and runup at the shoreline) is a significant cause of coastal flooding induced by storms. Wave runup is challenging to predict, particularly along tropical coral reef‐fringed coastlines due to the steep bathymetric profiles and large bottom roughness generated by reef organisms, which can violate assumptions in conventional models applied to open sandy coastlines. To investigate the mechanisms of wave‐driven water level variability on a reef‐fringed coastline, we performed a set of laboratory flume experiments on an along‐shore uniform bathymetric profile with and without bottom roughness. Wave setup and waves at frequencies lower than the incident sea‐swell forcing (infragravity waves) were found to be the dominant components of runup. These infragravity waves were positively correlated with offshore wave groups, signifying they were generated in the surf zone by the oscillation of the breakpoint. On the reef flat and at the shoreline, the low‐frequency waves formed a standing wave pattern with energy concentrated at the natural frequencies of the reef flat, indicating resonant amplification. Roughness elements used in the flume to mimic large reef bottom roughness reduced low frequency motions on the reef flat and reduced wave run up by 30% on average, compared to the runs over a smooth bed. These results provide insight into sea‐swell and infragravity wave transformation and wave setup dynamics on steep‐sloped coastlines, and the effect that future losses of reef bottom roughness may have on coastal flooding along reef‐fringed coasts.

  3. 3D shape and eccentricity measurements of fast rotating rough objects by two mutually tilted interference fringe systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarske, J. W.; Kuschmierz, R.; Günther, P.

    2013-06-01

    Precise measurements of distance, eccentricity and 3D-shape of fast moving objects such as turning parts of lathes, gear shafts, magnetic bearings, camshafts, crankshafts and rotors of vacuum pumps are on the one hand important tasks. On the other hand they are big challenges, since contactless precise measurement techniques are required. Optical techniques are well suitable for distance measurements of non-moving surfaces. However, measurements of laterally fast moving surfaces are still challenging. For such tasks the laser Doppler distance sensor technique was invented by the TU Dresden some years ago. This technique has been realized by two mutually tilted interference fringe systems, where the distance is coded in the phase difference between the generated interference signals. However, due to the speckle effect different random envelopes and phase jumps of the interference signals occur. They disturb the phase difference estimation between the interference signals. In this paper, we will report on a scientific breakthrough on the measurement uncertainty budget which has been achieved recently. Via matching of the illumination and receiving optics the measurement uncertainty of the displacement and distance can be reduced by about one magnitude. For displacement measurements of a recurring rough surface a standard deviation of 110 nm were attained at lateral velocities of 5 m / s. Due to the additionally measured lateral velocity and the rotational speed, the two-dimensional shape of rotating objects is calculated. The three-dimensional shape can be conducted by employment of a line camera. Since the measurement uncertainty of the displacement, vibration, distance, eccentricity, and shape is nearly independent of the lateral surface velocity, this technique is predestined for fast-rotating objects. Especially it can be advantageously used for the quality control of workpieces inside of a lathe towards the reduction of process tolerances, installation times and

  4. Demonstration of a tunable two-frequency projected fringe pattern with acousto-optic deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, S.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a fringe projector for three-dimensional shape measurement. The developed instrument is able to project a two-frequency fringe pattern, each frequency is independently controlled by electronics. Moreover, each phase of the two fringe patterns is also independently adjusted. The projection system is based on the use of a pair of custom large bandwidth (40 MHz) and high efficiency (60%) TeO 2 deflectors. The developed instrument offers the combined advantages of a static two-frequency fringe projector and of a tunable single frequency fringe projector

  5. Separation of complex fringe patterns using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Krzysztof; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2012-12-10

    A method for processing fringe patterns containing additively superimposed multiple fringe sets is presented. It enables to analyze different fringe families present in a single image separately. The proposed method is based on a two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. A robust ridge extraction algorithm for a single fringe set extraction is presented. The method is fully automatic and requires no user interference. Spectral separation of fringe families is not required. Simulations are presented to verify performance and advantage of the proposed method over the Fourier transform based technique. Method validity has been confirmed using experimental images.

  6. The MROI fringe tracker: closing the loop on ICoNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, T. M.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Santoro, F.; Shtromberg, A. V.; Alvidrez, V.; Torres, N.; Dahl, C.; Farris, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Haniff, C. A.; Young, J. S.; Seneta, E. B.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of ICoNN, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer's fringe tracker, through labor­ tory simulations is presented. The performance limits of an interferometer are set by its ability to keep the optical path difference between combination partners minimized. This is the job of the fringe tracker. Understanding the behavior and limits of the fringe tracker in a controlled environment is key to maximize the science output. This is being done with laboratory simulations of on-sky fringe tracking, termed the closed-loop fringe experi­ ment. The closed-loop fringe experiment includes synthesizing a white light source and atmospheric piston with estimation of the tracking error being fed back to mock delay lines in real-time. We report here on the progress of the closed-loop fringe experiment detailing its design, layout, controls and software.

  7. 20 CFR 641.565 - What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits to participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fringe benefits to participants? 641.565 Section 641.565 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.565 What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits...) Fringe benefits—(1) Required fringe benefits. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this...

  8. Perceptual consequences of different signal changes due to binaural noise reduction: do hearing loss and working memory capacity play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Grimm, Giso; Hohmann, Volker

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, ) investigated whether pure-tone average (PTA) hearing loss and working memory capacity (WMC) modulate benefit from different binaural noise reduction (NR) settings. Results showed that listeners with smaller WMC preferred strong over moderate NR even at the expense of poorer speech recognition due to greater speech distortion (SD), whereas listeners with larger WMC did not. To enable a better understanding of these findings, the main aims of the present study were (1) to explore the perceptual consequences of changes to the signal mixture, target speech, and background noise caused by binaural NR, and (2) to determine whether response to these changes varies with WMC and PTA. As in the previous study, four age-matched groups of elderly listeners (with N = 10 per group) characterized by either mild or moderate PTAs and either better or worse performance on a visual measure of WMC participated. Five processing conditions were tested, which were based on the previously used (binaural coherence-based) NR scheme designed to attenuate diffuse signal components at mid to high frequencies. The five conditions differed in terms of the type of processing that was applied (no NR, strong NR, or strong NR with restoration of the long-term stimulus spectrum) and in terms of whether the target speech and background noise were processed in the same manner or whether one signal was left unprocessed while the other signal was processed with the gains computed for the signal mixture. Comparison across these conditions allowed assessing the effects of changes in high-frequency audibility (HFA), SD, and noise attenuation and distortion (NAD). Outcome measures included a dual-task paradigm combining speech recognition with a visual reaction time (VRT) task as well as ratings of perceived effort and overall preference. All measurements were carried out using headphone simulations of a frontal target speaker in a busy cafeteria. Relative to no NR, strong NR was found

  9. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M.; Harsh, James B.

    2012-10-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility, leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford site 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a source for U supply to ground water. We investigated U release from Hanford capillary fringe sediments by packing sediments into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturating them with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios. After specified times, samples were centrifuged. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemical modeling indicated that calcite could precipitate in the narrowest solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the wide solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  10. Diffusive release of uranium from contaminated sediments into capillary fringe pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, Kenton A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Flury, Markus; Pierce, Eric M.; Harsh, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite remediation efforts at the former nuclear weapons facility, leaching of uranium (U) from contaminated sediments to the ground water persists at the Hanford site 300 Area. Flooding of contaminated capillary fringe sediments due to seasonal changes in the Columbia River stage has been identified as a source for U supply to ground water. We investigated U release from Hanford capillary fringe sediments by packing sediments into reservoirs of centrifugal filter devices and saturated with Columbia River water for 3 to 84 days at varying solution-to-solid ratios. After specified times, samples were centrifuged. Within the first three days, there was an initial rapid release of 6-9% of total U, independent of the solution-to-solid ratio. After 14 days of reaction, however, the experiments with the narrowest solution-to-solid ratios showed a decline in dissolved U concentrations. The removal of U from the solution phase was accompanied by removal of Ca and HCO3-. Geochemical modeling indicated that calcite could precipitate in the narrowest solution-to-solid ratio experiment. After the rapid initial release in the first three days for the wide solution-to-solid ratio experiments, there was sustained release of U into the pore water. This sustained release of U from the sediments had diffusion-limited kinetics.

  11. Biodegradation at Dynamic Plume Fringes: Mixing Versus Reaction Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Eckert, D.; Griebler, C.; Haberer, C.; Kürzinger, P.; Bauer, R.; Mellage, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biodegradation of continuously emitted plumes is known to be most pronounced at the plume fringe, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. Under steady-state conditions, physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion was shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation, with plume lengths scaling inversely with the bulk transverse dispersivity in quasi two-dimensional settings. Under these conditions, the presence of suitable microbes is essential but the biokinetic parameters do not play an important role. When the location of the plume shifts (caused, e.g., by a fluctuating groundwater table), however, the bacteria are no more situated at the plume fringe and biomass growth, decay, activation and deactivation determine the time lag until the fringe-controlled steady state is approached again. During this time lag, degradation is incomplete. The objective of the presented study was to analyze to which extent flow and transport dynamics diminish effectiveness of fringe-controlled biodegradation and which microbial processes and related biokinetic parameters determine the system response in overall degradation to hydraulic fluctuations. We performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth and maintenance (often subsumed as "biomass decay") microbial dormancy (that is, change into a metabolically inactive state) and

  12. Fringe—A Java-based finite fringe analysis package

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.; Bishop, Alexis I.

    2012-09-01

    A package for analysing two-dimensional finite fringe interferograms is described. Through a combination of automatic and interactive routines, an interferogram can be processed to extract the phase shift imparted on the recording light by a transparent object. The package consists of routines to condition and pad the original image for Fourier transform analysis, to filter the image and obtain the phase, to unwrap the phase, and to remove the background phase ramp. A sample image recorded using holographic interferometry is successfully analysed. Program summary Program title: FRINGE Catalogue identifier: AEMM_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 134006 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4029801 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Personal Computers. Operating system: Mac OS X, Windows XP, Linux and any other system that can run Java Jar files. RAM: 1GB recommended Classification: 18. Nature of problem: A standalone multi-platform program to perform analysis of finite fringe interferograms. Solution method: Fourier filtering approach with phase unwrapping and background subtraction. Restrictions: Designed to analyse square images. Running time: Interactive processing takes several minutes. Minimal cpu time.

  13. CO2 transport through the capillary fringe in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Torok, J.; Haas, M.K.; Selander, W.N.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the Carbon-14 ( 14 C) present in Low- and Intermediate-Level Wastes (L and ILW) destined from disposal in near-surface facilities is expected to be released as carbon dioxide. Carbon-14 can be transported through unfractured porous media either by gas-phase diffusion or by dissolution and transport by groundwater. Since the exposure to the critical individual to 14 C is strongly dependent upon the transport pathway, it is important to know which pathway is dominant. The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence that the capillary fringe of the water table has as a barrier to the transport of carbon dioxide from pore gases to the groundwaters. Sand columns were used to simulate a porous medium and a capillary fringe. The mass transfer rate of CO 2 across the capillary fringe was determined experimentally. A mathematical model representing diffusion through a semi-infinite porous medium and gas transfer across a planar interface was used to model the mass transfer process. The experimental results indicate that the mass transfer rates is 20--50 times slower than for an open surface. No significant influence of the grain size was found, but the results suggest that the mass transfer rate is pH-dependent between pH 6 and 7

  14. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  15. Reductions in commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in Mexico City due to the environmental program ProAire2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Ángeles, Felipe; Basaldud, Roberto; Cardenas, Beatriz; Wakamatsu, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    We investigated commuter exposure to volatile organic compounds in the metropolitan area of Mexico City in 2011 in private car, microbus, bus, metro, metrobus, and trolley bus. A similar survey was conducted in 2002 before initiation of the ProAire2002-2010 program aimed at reducing air pollution. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene were sampled while traveling during the morning rush hour in May 2011. Compared with the 2002 survey, in-vehicle concentrations were substantially lower in 2011, except for formaldehyde in microbuses (35% higher than in 2002). The reductions were 17-42% (except microbuses), 25-44%, 41-61%, 43-61%, 71-79%, 80-91%, and 79-93% for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene, respectively. These reductions are considered to be the outcome of some of the actions in the ProAire2002-2010 program. In some microbuses, use of liquid petroleum gas may have increased in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations. The reduction in predicted excess cancer incidence of commuters because of ProAire2002-2010 was estimated to be 1.4 cases/yr. In addition, if every microbus commuter changed their transport mode to bus, metro, or metrobus in the future, the estimated excess cancer incidence of commuters could be further decreased from 6.4 to 0.88-2.2 cases/year.

  16. Assessment of thermal load reduction due to the application of simple passive techniques in a house office building at the south of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, Roman; Azzain, Gassem

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of possible reduction of heating and cooling requirements of 300 m 2 house-office building has been presented in this paper, when simple Thermal Passive Techniques (TPT) have been applied to building's construction in Sebha city at the Libyan south. The known software for dynamic simulation (TRNSYS) has been used as an environment of digital experimentation for this study. A prototype represents the building has been constructed with the help of the available model of single thermal zone of TRNSYS (Type 19). The built-in ASHREA Transfer Function Method within this model has been used to calculate the heat flux through building's materials. Primarily, the thermal load on building's construction without TPTs has been evaluated under weather conditions of a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) of Sebha city. Then, the building has been equipped with simple TPTs (such as the control of building materials, insulation, shading, infiltration and ventilation with windows resizing). This building was subjected to the same weather conditions and again the thermal load has been evaluated in order to report the percentage of reduction of thermal load. The simulation has been conducted successfully, where good assessment of reduction of annual heating and cooling demands in the building has been obtained. It is proved that, about (46%) of annual heating load and (48%) of annual cooling load can be reduced if suitable simple TPTs were incorporated in buildings.(Author)

  17. Reduction in noise-induced functional loss of the cochleae in mice with pre-existing cochlear dysfunction due to genetic interference of prestin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qunfeng; Wang, Bo; Coling, Donald; Zuo, Jian; Fang, Jie; Yang, Shiming; Vera, Krystal; Hu, Bo Hua

    2014-01-01

    Various cochlear pathologies, such as acoustic trauma, ototoxicity and age-related degeneration, cause hearing loss. These pre-existing hearing losses can alter cochlear responses to subsequent acoustic overstimulation. So far, the knowledge on the impacts of pre-existing hearing loss caused by genetic alteration of cochlear genes is limited. Prestin is the motor protein expressed exclusively in outer hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. This motor protein contributes to outer hair cell motility. At present, it is not clear how the interference of prestin function affects cochlear responses to acoustic overstimulation. To address this question, a genetic model of prestin dysfunction in mice was created by inserting an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-CreERT2-FRT-Neo-FRT cassette into the prestin locus after the stop codon. Homozygous mice exhibit a threshold elevation of auditory brainstem responses with large individual variation. These mice also display a threshold elevation and a shift of the input/output function of the distortion product otoacoustic emission, suggesting a reduction in outer hair cell function. The disruption of prestin function reduces the threshold shifts caused by exposure to a loud noise at 120 dB (sound pressure level) for 1 h. This reduction is positively correlated with the level of pre-noise cochlear dysfunction and is accompanied by a reduced change in Cdh1 expression, suggesting a reduction in molecular responses to the acoustic overstimulation. Together, these results suggest that prestin interference reduces cochlear stress responses to acoustic overstimulation.

  18. Reduction in noise-induced functional loss of the cochleae in mice with pre-existing cochlear dysfunction due to genetic interference of prestin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunfeng Cai

    Full Text Available Various cochlear pathologies, such as acoustic trauma, ototoxicity and age-related degeneration, cause hearing loss. These pre-existing hearing losses can alter cochlear responses to subsequent acoustic overstimulation. So far, the knowledge on the impacts of pre-existing hearing loss caused by genetic alteration of cochlear genes is limited. Prestin is the motor protein expressed exclusively in outer hair cells in the mammalian cochlea. This motor protein contributes to outer hair cell motility. At present, it is not clear how the interference of prestin function affects cochlear responses to acoustic overstimulation. To address this question, a genetic model of prestin dysfunction in mice was created by inserting an internal ribosome entry site (IRES-CreERT2-FRT-Neo-FRT cassette into the prestin locus after the stop codon. Homozygous mice exhibit a threshold elevation of auditory brainstem responses with large individual variation. These mice also display a threshold elevation and a shift of the input/output function of the distortion product otoacoustic emission, suggesting a reduction in outer hair cell function. The disruption of prestin function reduces the threshold shifts caused by exposure to a loud noise at 120 dB (sound pressure level for 1 h. This reduction is positively correlated with the level of pre-noise cochlear dysfunction and is accompanied by a reduced change in Cdh1 expression, suggesting a reduction in molecular responses to the acoustic overstimulation. Together, these results suggest that prestin interference reduces cochlear stress responses to acoustic overstimulation.

  19. The effect of surface-active solutes on water flow and contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media with capillary fringe effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, E J; Smith, J E

    2002-06-01

    Organic contaminants that decrease the surface tension of water (surfactants) can have an effect on unsaturated flow through porous media due to the dependence of capillary pressure on surface tension. We used an intermediate-scale 2D flow cell (2.44 x 1.53 x 0.108 m) packed with a fine silica sand to investigate surfactant-induced flow perturbations. Surfactant solution (7% 1-butanol and dye tracer) was applied at a constant rate at a point source located on the soil surface above an unconfined synthetic aquifer with ambient groundwater flow and a capillary fringe of approximately 55 cm. A glass plate allowed for visual flow and transport observations. Thirty instrumentation stations consist of time domain reflectometry probes and tensiometers measured in-situ moisture content and pressure head, respectively. As surfactant solution was applied at the point source, a transient flow perturbation associated with the advance of the surfactant solution was observed. Above the top of the capillary fringe the advance of the surfactant solution caused a visible drainage front that radiated from the point source. Upon reaching the capillary fringe, the drainage front caused a localized depression of the capillary fringe below the point source because the air-entry pressure decreased in proportion to the decrease in surface tension caused by the surfactant. Eventually, a new capillary fringe height was established. The height of the depressed capillary fringe was proportional to height of the initial capillary fringe multiplied by the relative surface tension of the surfactant solution. The horizontal transport of surfactant in the depressed capillary fringe, driven primarily by the ambient groundwater flow, caused the propagation of a wedge-shaped drying front in the downgradient direction. Comparison of dye transport during the surfactant experiment to dye transport in an experiment without surfactant indicated that because surfactant-induced drainage decreased the

  20. Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern by using empirical wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical metrology. In this paper, we present a new method for phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern based on empirical wavelet transform. In the proposed method, a fringe pattern can be effectively divided into three components: nonuniform background, fringes and random noise, which are described in different sub-pass. So the phase distribution information can be robustly extracted from fringes representing a fundamental frequency component. In simulation and a practical projection fringes test, the performance of the present method is successfully verified by comparing with the conventional wavelet transform method in terms of both image quality and phase estimation errors. (paper)

  1. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  2. Comparative analysis on some spatial-domain filters for fringe pattern denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2011-04-20

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Noise affects further processing of the fringe patterns. Denoising is often needed before fringe pattern demodulation. Filtering along the fringe orientation is an effective option. Such filters include coherence enhancing diffusion, spin filtering with curve windows, second-order oriented partial-differential equations, and the regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe pattern filtering. These filters are analyzed to establish the relationships among them. Theoretical analysis shows that the four filters are largely equivalent to each other. Quantitative results are given on simulated fringe patterns to validate the theoretical analysis and to compare the performance of these filters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. An algorithm to remove fringe jumps and its application to microwave reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Kawahata, K.; Shinohara, K.

    1997-01-01

    In some plasma discharges, the phase measured by microwave reflectometry has many fringe (2π radians) jumps. A new algorithm to detect and remove fringe jumps has been developed, and applied to the data in the JIPP TII-U tokamak. Using this algorithm, quantitative properties of fringe jumps, and their effects on the analysis of phase fluctuations are investigated. It was found that the occurrence of fringe jumps obeys a Poisson process, and the time scale of jumps is distributed over a wide range. Fringe jumps affect mainly the low-frequency components of phase fluctuations. Comparison of the phase corrected by the algorithm and the phase calculated from the time smoothed signals indicates that time smoothing (or frequency filtering) is an effective way to obtain information concerning the macroscopic density profile. Fringe jump and phase runaway can be phenomenologically explained by the distribution of the complex amplitude of the reflected wave. (author)

  4. Proton moire fringes for diagnosing electromagnetic fields in opaque materials and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.K.; Price, D.W.; Hicks, D.; Romagnani, L.; Borghesi, M.

    2003-01-01

    High contrast proton moire fringes have been obtained in a laser-produced proton beam. Moire fringes with modulation of 20%-30% were observed in protons with energies in the range of 4-7 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations with simple test fields showed that shifts in the moire fringes can be used to give quantitative information on the strength of transient electromagnetic fields inside plasmas and materials that are opaque to conventional probing methods

  5. Separated Fringe Packet Observations with the CHARA Array. II. Omega Andromeda, HD 178911, and Xi Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    are sufficiently separated produce their own interferometric fringe packets; these are referred to as separated fringe packet ( SFP ) binaries. These SFP ...calibration star is not needed, and the SFPs can provide an accurate vector separation. In this paper, we apply the SFP approach to ω Andromeda, HD 178911...Paper I) presenting the results from a program of separated fringe packet ( SFP ) observations of spectroscopic and visual binary star systems made with

  6. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  7. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilly, Praveen K; Grossberg, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS) and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) in slice preparations of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map (SOM) model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K(+)) and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP) channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning and oscillatory dynamics.

  8. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs in slice preparations of entorhinal cells, have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K+ and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning, oscillatory dynamics, and navigational behaviors.

  9. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  10. Carrier introduction to moire pattern for automatic fringe-order distinguishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Laermann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic procedure of pseudo-colour encoding of moire fringe orders. A carrier consisting of parallel fringes is introduced before the specimen deforms. The carrier pattern is captured by a camera and then stored in computer as a standard image. The space of the carrier fringes is distored by the strains on the specimen as it is loaded. On a certain condition, the orders of the frequency-modulated carrier still vary monotonically so that they can be easyly distinguished. Both the standard fringe-carrier and the frequency-modulated fringe pattern are transformed into two digital images, of which every fringe is encoded by one of the pseudo-colour codes corresponding to the monotonical fringe orders. At each pixel, the difference between the colour sequences of two images is calculated to obtain the fringe order of pure deformation. The moire pattern of the in-plane displacement is restored as a pseudo-colour image by whose colour-change the variation of the fringe orders is displayed. (orig.)

  11. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G

    2007-01-01

    ..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...

  12. Characteristics of Speed Line Cutter and Fringe Analysis of Workpiece Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Easy to operate, speed line cutter has a high machining cost performance, so is very popular among the majority of users. The precision of guide rails, screws and nuts used in most of the machines is not high, and the machine control cannot compensate for the screw pitch error, clearance during the transmission and machining error due to electrode wear. Furthermore, control signal may also be lost in control process. The development of speed line cutter focuses on the quality and machining stability of CNC speed line cutter. This article makes an analysis about the impact of machine’s inherent characteristics on machining workpiece surface, and concludes that analysis shall be made on the irregular fringe, therefore to heighten the machining precision.

  13. [Welfare policies on the fringe of capitalism: the recent situation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochmann, Marcio

    2007-01-01

    Located on the fringe of global capitalism, lacking an international currency and endowed with weak technology production and dissemination capacities, Brazil is developing its own very specific approach to social welfare policies. Its 1988 Constitution ushered in acknowledged progress in these policies during the past two decades, despite constraints due to the general behavior of its lackluster economy, with rising unemployment and a shrinking job pool. In parallel, the semi-stagnation of its per capita income has been paced by a steady stream of tax adjustments, hobbling more recent developments in social spending. All these efforts often achieve little more than upholding the wealth financialization cycle, mainly for the tiny portion of society holding public debt papers. An analysis of this specifically Brazilian situation leads to a better understanding of missed opportunities for cutting away many of Brazil's social shackles, as welfare policies have significant impacts on lower-income segments of the population.

  14. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul, E-mail: md.arefin@monash.edu; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet [Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  15. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  16. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Neild, Adrian; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0-5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  17. Perturbations to Saturn's F-ring strands at their closest approach to Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliatti, Winter S.M.; Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.

    2000-01-01

    The strange morphology of the F ring of Saturn is thought to be caused by the perturbing effects of two close satellites, Prometheus and Pandora. The F ring and the satellites also experience periodic close encounters as a result of differential precession arising from Saturn's oblateness. Using the orbits of the F-ring strands derived by Murray et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 304-316) the behaviour of the ring particles at their closest approach to Prometheus is analysed using numerical simulations. The results show that a gap and a wave are formed in the ring at each encounter with the satellite. However, the gap is expected to have a short lifetime due to keplerian shear. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transport of volatile organic compounds across the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to investigate the transport of a dissolved volatile organic compound (trichloroethylene, TCE) from shallow groundwater to the unsaturated zone under a variety of conditions including changes in the soil moisture profile and water table position. Experimental data indicated that at moderate groundwater velocities (0.1 m/d), vertical mechanical dispersion was negligible and molecular diffusion was the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Under these conditions, TCE concentrations decreased nearly 3 orders of magnitude across the capillary fringe and soil gas concentrations remained low relative to those of underlying groundwater. Data collected during a water table drop showed a short-term increase in concentrations throughout most of the unsaturated zone, but these concentrations quickly declined and approached initial values after the water table was returned to its original level. In the deep part of the unsaturated zone, the water table drop resulted in a long-term decrease in concentrations, illustrating the effects of hysteresis in the soil moisture profile. A two-dimensional random walk advection-diffusion model was developed to simulate the experimental conditions, and numerical simulations agreed well with experimental data. A simpler, one-dimensional finite-difference diffusion-dispersion model was also developed. One-dimensional simulations based on molecular diffusion also agreed well with experimental data. Simulations which incorporated mechanical dispersion tended to overestimate flux across the capillary fringe. Good agreement between the one- and two-dimensional models suggested that a simple, one-dimensional approximation of vertical transport across the capillary fringe can be useful when conditions are appropriate.

  19. Single shot fringe pattern phase demodulation using Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Służewski, Łukasz; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-22

    Hybrid single shot algorithm for accurate phase demodulation of complex fringe patterns is proposed. It employs empirical mode decomposition based adaptive fringe pattern enhancement (i.e., denoising, background removal and amplitude normalization) and subsequent boosted phase demodulation using 2D Hilbert spiral transform aided by the Principal Component Analysis method for novel, correct and accurate local fringe direction map calculation. Robustness to fringe pattern significant noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation as well as local fringe period and shape variations is corroborated by numerical simulations and experiments. Proposed automatic, adaptive, fast and comprehensive fringe analysis solution compares favorably with other previously reported techniques.

  20. Correlating bioaerosol load with PM2.5 and PM10cf concentrations: a comparison between natural desert and urban-fringe aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreson, Justin; Dillner, Ann M.; Peccia, Jordan

    2004-11-01

    Seasonal allergies and microbial mediated respiratory diseases, can coincide with elevated particulate matter concentrations, often when dry desert soils are disturbed. In addition to effects from the allergens, allergic and asthmatic responses may be enhanced when chemical and biological constituents of particulate matter (PM) are combined together. Because of these associations and also the recent regulatory and health-related interests of monitoring PM2.5, separately from total PM10, the biological loading between the fine (dpurban fringe site located in the expanding Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area during winter, spring, and summer seasons. Elemental carbon and inorganic ions were measured to determine the relative influence that anthropogenic sources, such as traffic, had on the aerosol composition. Total protein concentration was used as a surrogate measure of total biological concentration within the PM2.5 and PM10cf (coarse fraction) size ranges. In all seasons, coarse protein at the urban fringe was consistently higher than the natural desert. When high-anthropogenic PM events were separated from the data set, a positive significant correlation (purban fringe and natural desert. Both sites contained allergenic organisms. Some groups of eukaryotic species were exclusive to only one of the sites. The natural desert contained more species of Basidiomycota fungi and the urban fringe contained more species of green plants, suggesting that the biological loading at each site was different due to local influences.

  1. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  2. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  3. The loss of smell in persistent allergic rhinitis is improved by levocetirizine due to reduction of nasal inflammation but not nasal congestion (the CIRANO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilemany, José Maria; García-Piñero, Alfons; Alobid, Isam; Centellas, Silvia; Mariño, Franklin Santiago; Valero, Antonio; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Picado, César; Mullol, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) has a moderate impact on the sense of smell, but no controlled study has reported the effect of antihistamines on the loss of smell in patients with PER. Patients with PER and subjective loss of the sense of smell (n = 27) were included in this pilot randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nasal symptoms, nasal endoscopy, skin prick test, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow, nasal nitric oxide (nNO), and olfactometry (Barcelona Smell Test-24; BAST-24) were performed and evaluated in all PER patients at baseline and after 7 and 30 days of treatment with levocetirizine 5 mg or placebo. The study population was randomized into two homogeneous groups: levocetirizine (n = 14) and placebo groups (n = 13). The evolution of symptoms reflected the therapeutic effect of levocetirizine treatment on rhinorrhea, nasal itching, eye itching, sneezing, and the total symptoms score after 7 and 30 days. Significant improvement in loss of smell by a visual analog scale (VAS) was observed after 7 days of levocetirizine treatment (7.2 ± 4.3; p smell identification by BAST-24 was strongly correlated (r = 0.72; p smell improvement by VAS after 30 days. After 7 days of treatment with levocetirizine, the nNO values decreased (-494 ± 188) compared to placebo (155 ± 284 ppb; p smell, and that this improvement concurs more with reduction of nasal inflammation than of nasal patency. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Healthcare worker influenza immunization vaccinate or mask policy: strategies for cost effective implementation and subsequent reductions in staff absenteeism due to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, P G; Konrad, S; Kersteins, F; Preston, E; Brown, P D; Keen, D; Murray, N J

    2015-03-24

    A new policy requiring staff in clinical areas to vaccinate or wear a mask was implemented in British Columbia (BC) in the 2012/13 winter. This review assessed the impact of the policy on absenteeism in health care workers. A retrospective cohort study of full-time HCW that worked prior to and during the 2012/13 influenza season in a health authority in BC. The rate of absenteeism due to all cause illness was compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated staff controlling for behaviors outside influenza season. Of the 10079 HCW, 77% were vaccinated. By comparison to absenteeism rates in the pre-influenza season, unvaccinated staff in winter had twice the increase in absenteeism due to all-cause illness than vaccinated staff. After controlling for baseline differences between those vaccinated and unvaccinated, influenza vaccination was associated with reduced absenteeism, saving the Health Authority substantial money. Having regular staff in attendance increases the quality of care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Quasi-one-dimensional polaronic states due to the preferential reduction in the Li sub 1 sub + sub x V sub 3 O sub 8 insertion electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Onoda, M

    2003-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the Li sub 1 sub + sub x V sub 3 O sub 8 insertion electrode, where 0 sup 0.1 with nearly stoichiometric oxygen atoms, small polarons exist without carrier-creation energy at high temperatures, while at low temperatures the conduction may be of variable-range hopping (VRH) type. For x > 0.2, one-dimensional magnetic properties appear due to sizable exchange couplings and order-disorder effects of additional Li ions may lead to significant change of transport properties. For the intermediate composition 0 < x sup<= 0.1, strong randomness of the Li doping and the congenital oxygen deficiency cause VRH states even at high temperatures.

  6. Quasi-one-dimensional polaronic states due to the preferential reduction in the Li1+xV3O8 insertion electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masashige; Amemiya, Isao

    2003-05-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the Li1+xV3O8 insertion electrode, where 0 leq x 0.1 with nearly stoichiometric oxygen atoms, small polarons exist without carrier-creation energy at high temperatures, while at low temperatures the conduction may be of variable-range hopping (VRH) type. For x > 0.2, one-dimensional magnetic properties appear due to sizable exchange couplings and order-disorder effects of additional Li ions may lead to significant change of transport properties. For the intermediate composition 0 < x leq 0.1, strong randomness of the Li doping and the congenital oxygen deficiency cause VRH states even at high temperatures.

  7. Reduction of chromatic dispersion due to coupling for synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using multiple-input arrayed waveguide grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi; Fujii, Yusaku

    2009-11-23

    An approach to reducing the chromatic dispersion due to coupling between input waveguides before the input slab for a synchronized-router-based flat-passband filter using a multiple-input arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is proposed. The proposed method uses phase compensation at the waveguide array of the AWG by correction of waveguide lengths. The characteristics of the flat-passband filter that consists of a multiple-input AWG combined with cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) are simulated using a theoretical model of the multiple-input AWG based on Fourier optics and the coupled-mode theory. The simulation result reveals that the chromatic dispersion within the passband can be significantly reduced by using phase compensation and additional dummy waveguides at the input just before the slab.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Microbiological Growth in the Capillary Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, P.; Jost, D.; Engwer, C.; Ippisch, O.; Bastian, P.

    2012-04-01

    The capillary fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic zone in a porous media at the interface between water-saturated aquifer and vadose zone, where steep biogeochemical gradients and thus high bioactivities are expected. In recent years, considerable effort has been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the physical (flow, diffusion, dispersion), geochemical (dissolution, precipitation) and biological (metabolism, excretion, biofilm formation) processes in the CF. We developed a numerical simulator for multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media which is able to consider simultaneously multiphase flow, component transport, phase exchange, geochemical reactions and microbiological processes. A splitting approach for phase transport, component transport and reaction/phase exchanges allows the usage of higher-order discretizations for the component transport. This reduces numerical dispersion significantly, which is especially important in the simulation of reactive flow. In a flow-through laboratory experiment performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, within the project "Dynamic Capillary Fringes - A Multidisciplinary Approach", the oxygen phase transfer, the growth and the transport of a bacteria (green fluorescent Escherichia coli) were investigated. The results of numerical simulations of the E. coli growth in the CF with a high nutrient supply under steady-state and transient flow conditions are compared to the experimental data.

  9. Real-time fringe correction algorithm for the JET interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocente, P.; Mazon, D.; Joffrin, E.; Riva, M.

    2003-01-01

    On the JET facility, the line-integrated electron density is measured by a multichannel far-infrared (FIR) interferometer. The basic source of radiation is a deuterium cyanide laser (λ=195 μm) measuring the density along four vertical and four nearly horizontal (lateral) channels. During high-density discharges the system suffers from fringe jumps that are manually partially corrected by an off-line program. This intermittent phenomenon prevents reliable usage of the measured line-integrated density in a real-time feedback controller. To solve this problem we have developed a method to correct the fringe jumps on the lateral channels in real time. The method uses the additional methyl alcohol laser (λ=118.8 μm) interferometer present on the lateral channels to compensate the vibrations. The method has been successfully tested with off-line test data, before implementation on a VERSA Module Eurocard system for the real-time control of the JET discharges

  10. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM using giant magneto-resistance (GMR structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  11. Cavernous body reduction in four patients with erectile dysfunction due to insufficient venous occlusion and a deficit of elastic fibers in the tunica albugínea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Iacono

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The corpora cavernosa are cylindrical vessels containing fluid under pressure. Thus, if cavernous wall resistance decreases, the radius increases and internal pressure decreases (LaPlace's law. We reasoned that if we decrease the corpus cavernosum radius, by excising a strip from each tunica albuginea, intracavernous pressure would increase during erection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated with this procedure, four patients (mean age 41.5 with long-standing erectile dysfunction due to veno-occlusive dysfunction, non-responders to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and intracavernous PGE1 injection. RESULTS: Two months post-surgery, intracavernous PGE1 (40 mcg induced a satisfactory erection in two patients and a 45% and 58% tumescence in the other two. PGE1 responders also responded to 100 mg sildenafil. After 100 mg sildenafil and 20 mg tadalafil, the two non-responders had erections that enabled penetration but were short lasting. CONCLUSION: The procedure described could be more effective than cavernous revascularization operations. The results seem to confirm the mathematical assumptions.

  12. High-frequency background modulation fringe patterns based on a fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model for 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinran; Kofman, Jonathan

    2017-07-10

    A new fringe projection method for surface-shape measurement was developed using four high-frequency phase-shifted background modulation fringe patterns. The pattern frequency is determined using a new fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model that allows only two corresponding-point candidates in the measurement volume. The correct corresponding point is selected with high reliability using a binary pattern computed from intensity background encoded in the fringe patterns. Equations of geometry-constraint parameters permit parameter calculation prior to measurement, thus reducing measurement computational cost. Experiments demonstrated the ability of the method to perform 3D shape measurement for a surface with geometric discontinuity, and for spatially isolated objects.

  13. The first F-ring modified ciguatoxin analogue showing significant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yuuki; Lee, Nayoung; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Yamashita, Shuji; Inoue, Masayuki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are potent neurotoxic polycyclic ethers. We report herein the total synthesis of a 10-membered F-ring analogue of 51-hydroxyCTX3C, which constitutes the first example of an F-ring modified ciguatoxin that exhibits potent cytotoxicity as well as mouse acute toxicity.

  14. Frontal and Lateral Submarine Lobe Fringes: Comparing Sedimentary Facies, Architecture and Flow Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Prélat, Amandine; Kane, Ian A.; Flint, Stephen S.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine lobe-fringe deposits form heterolithic successions that may include a high proportion of hybrid beds. The identification of lobe-fringe successions aids interpretation of paleogeographic setting and the degree of basin confinement. Here, for the first time, the sedimentological and

  15. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are Fourier transform lenses each of focal length 20 cm. (u, v) is the spectral. Fourier plane of the object plane (x, y). (x , y ) is the imaging plane where the fringes are imaged. Also, Barakat has obtained a right formula, which is based on ray optics, of multiple beam Fizeau fringes crossing a fiber of circular transverse cross- ...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.50 - Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00). 1242.50 Section 1242.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Equipment § 1242.50 Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  17. Optimal defocus selection based on normed Fourier transform for digital fringe pattern profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagara, Abel; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun

    2017-10-01

    Owing to gamma-effect robustness and high-speed imaging capabilities, projector defocusing of binary-coded fringe patterns is by far the most widely used and effective technique in generating sinusoidal fringe patterns for three-dimensional optical topography measurement with digital fringe projection techniques. However, this technique is not trouble-free. It is borne with uncertainty and challenges mainly because it remains somewhat difficult to quantify and ascertain the level of defocus required for desired fidelity in sinuousness of the projected fringe pattern. Too much or too little defocusing will affect the sinuosity accuracy of fringe patterns and consequently jeopardize the quality of the measurement results. In this paper, by combining intrinsic phase spectral sensitivities and normed Fourier transform, a method to quantify the amount of defocus and subsequently select the optimal degree of sinuosity for generating digital sinusoidal fringe patterns with projector defocusing for fringe pattern optical three-dimensional profilometry is proposed. Numerical simulations plus experiments give evidence of the feasibility and validity of the proposed method in enabling an improved digital binary defocusing technique for optical phase-shift profilometry using the digital fringe projection technique.

  18. 49 CFR 1242.63 - Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00). 1242.63 Section 1242.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.63 Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.85 - Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00). 1242.85 Section 1242.85 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE....85 Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00). Separate the common expenses in proportion to the total common...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.75 - Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00). 1242.75 Section 1242.75 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.75 Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary....132-6T De minimis fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include the value of a de minimis fringe provided to an employee. The term “de minimis fringe” means any...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.80 - Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00). 1242.80 Section 1242.80 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.80 Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.70 - Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00). 1242.70 Section 1242.70 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.70 Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  4. Distributed energy generation techniques and the competitive fringe effect in electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Petrikaite, Vaiva; Scholtens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the impact of two different generation techniques used by fringe suppliers on the intensity of competition in the electricity wholesale market. For that purpose, we derive a Cournot model of this market taking into account long-term contracts, international trade and fringe suppliers

  5. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  6. 49 CFR 1242.38 - Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00). 1242.38 Section 1242.38 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Equipment § 1242.38 Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the split...

  7. Explanations for Long-Distance Counter-Urban Migration into Fringe Areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2009-01-01

    infl uence on migration to fringe areas. The study shows that a considerable share of movers to the fringe areas in Denmark can be characterised as income-transfer mover. They are people without employment moving to get lower housing costs. But there are also groups of people moving to employment...

  8. Community structure and abundance of benthic infaunal invertebrates in Maine fringing marsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Michele Dionne; Jeremy Miller; Michael Haas; Pamela A. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Fringing marshes are abundant ecosystems that dominate the New England coastline. Despite their abundance, very little baseline data is available from them and few studies have documented the ecosystems services that they provide. This information is important for conservation efforts as well as for an increased understanding of how fringing marshes function compared...

  9. Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands : Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Linda; Dijst, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management measures taken by firms could potentially result in more sustainable transport choices and hence reduce traffic congestion and emissions. Fringe benefits offered to employees are a means to implement those measures. This paper explores the most common commuting-related fringe

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  11. Impact of heterogeneity on oxygen transfer in a fluctuating capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Christina M; Rolle, Massimo; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We performed quasi-two-dimensional flow through laboratory experiments to study the effect of a coarse-material inclusion, located in the proximity of the water table, on flow and oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe. The experiments investigate different phases of mass transfer from the unsaturated zone to anoxic groundwater under both steady-state and transient flow conditions, the latter obtained by fluctuating the water table. Monitoring of flow and transport in the different experimental phases was performed by visual inspection of the complex flow field using a dye tracer solution, measurement of oxygen profiles across the capillary fringe, and determination of oxygen fluxes in the effluent of the flow-through chamber. Our results show significant effects of the coarse-material inclusion on oxygen transfer during the different phases of the experiments. At steady state, the oxygen flux across the unsaturated/saturated interface was considerably enhanced due to flow focusing in the fully water-saturated coarse-material inclusion. During drainage, a zone of higher water saturation formed in the fine material overlying the coarse lens. The entrapped oxygen-rich aqueous phase contributed to the total amount of oxygen supplied to the system when the water table was raised back to its initial level. In case of imbibition, pronounced air entrapment occurred in the coarse lens, causing oxygen to partition between the aqueous and gaseous phases. The oxygen mass supplied to the anoxic groundwater following the imbibition event was found to be remarkably higher (approximately seven times) in the heterogeneous system compared with a similar experiment performed in a homogeneous porous medium. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  12. An improved principal component analysis based region matching method for fringe direction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Quan, C.

    2018-04-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) and region matching combined method is effective for fringe direction estimation. However, its mask construction algorithm for region matching fails in some circumstances, and the algorithm for conversion of orientation to direction in mask areas is computationally-heavy and non-optimized. We propose an improved PCA based region matching method for the fringe direction estimation, which includes an improved and robust mask construction scheme, and a fast and optimized orientation-direction conversion algorithm for the mask areas. Along with the estimated fringe direction map, filtered fringe pattern by automatic selective reconstruction modification and enhanced fast empirical mode decomposition (ASRm-EFEMD) is used for Hilbert spiral transform (HST) to demodulate the phase. Subsequently, windowed Fourier ridge (WFR) method is used for the refinement of the phase. The robustness and effectiveness of proposed method are demonstrated by both simulated and experimental fringe patterns.

  13. Theoretical analysis of moiré fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Xie, Huimin; Chen, Pengwan; Zhang, Qingming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental verification of fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are presented. Fringe multiplication can be realized by enhancing the magnification or the number of scanning lines under the SEM. A universal expression of the pitch of moiré fringes is deduced. To apply this method to deformation measurement, the calculation formulas of strain and displacement are derived. Compared to natural moiré, the displacement sensitivity is increased by fringe multiplication while the strain sensitivity may be retained or enhanced depending on the number of scanning lines used. The moiré patterns are formed by the interference of a 2000 lines mm −1 grating with the scanning lines of SEM, and the measured parameters of moiré fringes from experimental results agree well with theoretical analysis

  14. A second-order approximation of particle motion in the fringing field of a dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The radial and axial motion of charged particles in the fringing field of an arbitrary dipole magnet has been considered with accuracy to the second-order of small quantities. The dipole magnet has an inhomogeneous field and oblique entrance and exit boundaries in the form of second-order curves. The region of the fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field of the dipole magnet is used. A better understanding of the influence of the fringing magnetic field on the motion of charged particles in the pole gap of the dipole magnet has been obtained. In particular, it is shown that it is important to take into account, in the second approximation, some terms related formally to the next approximations. The results are presented in a form convenient for practical calculations. (orig.)

  15. Adaptive enhancement of optical fringe patterns by selective reconstruction using FABEMD algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Maciej

    2012-10-08

    Presented method for fringe pattern enhancement has been designed for processing and analyzing low quality fringe patterns. It uses a modified fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) for the extraction of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs) from an interferogram. Fringe pattern is then selectively reconstructed (SR) taking the regions of selected BIMFs with high modulation values only. Amplitude demodulation and normalization of the reconstructed image is conducted using the spiral phase Hilbert transform (HS). It has been tested using computer generated interferograms and real data. The performance of the presented SR-FABEMD-HS method is compared with other normalization techniques. Its superiority, potential and robustness to high fringe density variations and the presence of noise, modulation and background illumination defects in analyzed fringe patterns has been corroborated.

  16. Temporal phase unwrapping for fringe projection profilometry aided by recursion of Chebyshev polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shuo; Guo, Hongwei

    2017-02-20

    This paper presents a temporal phase-unwrapping method for fringe projection profilometry. With it, a sequence of phase-shifting fringe patterns is projected onto the measured object for getting the wrapped phase map and achieving a high measurement resolution, and an additional sequence corresponding to Chebyshev polynomials is used for determining their fringe orders. For effectuating this method, we deduce an algorithm by use of the recursive property of Chebyshev polynomials. This algorithm, combined with a correction operation in the least-squares sense, allows us to accurately estimate the fringe orders in the presence of noise. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method to be effective in restoring the absolute phase maps of fringe patterns.

  17. Analysis of the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanamurthy, C S

    2009-01-01

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer have never been analysed seriously in any book. Because Michelson's interferometer is one of the important and fundamental optical experiments taught at both undergraduate and graduate levels, it would be appropriate to explain the localization of these fringes. In this paper, we analyse the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence, and show that they never localize at any plane even at infinity

  18. 20 CFR 641.873 - What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and fringe benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for participant wages and fringe benefits? 641.873 Section 641.873 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... wages and fringe benefits? (a) Not less than 75 percent of the SCSEP funds provided under a grant from the Department must be used to pay for the wages and fringe benefits of participants in such projects...

  19. 29 CFR 4.1b - Payment of minimum compensation based on collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. 4.1b Section 4... collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. (a) Section 4(c) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 as amended provides special minimum wage and fringe...

  20. Accurate characterisation of hole geometries by fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Dantanarayana, Harshana G.; Yue, Huimin; Huntley, Jonathan M.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate localisation and characterisation of holes is often required in the field of automated assembly and quality control. Compared to time consuming coordinate measuring machines (CMM), fringe-projection-based 3D scanners offer an attractive alternative as a fast, non-contact measurement technique that provides a dense 3D point cloud of a large sample in a few seconds. However, as we show in this paper, measurement artifacts occur at such hole edges, which can introduce errors in the estimated hole diameter by well over 0.25 mm, even though the estimated hole centre locations are largely unaffected. A compensation technique to suppress these measurement artifacts has been developed, by modelling the artifact using data extrapolated from neighboring pixels. By further incorporating a sub-pixel edge detection technique, we have been able to reduce the root mean square (RMS) diameter errors by up to 9.3 times using the proposed combined method.

  1. Modeling of microbiological growth in the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Pavel; Bastian, Peter; Ippisch, Olaf; Jost, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The capillary fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic soil zone, which is located above the groundwater level. It results from the capillary water rise into the unsaturated soil zone and therewith offers a broad range of growth conditions for microorganisms. These conditions change from aerobic (good oxygen supply) at the top of the CF to anaerobic (no available oxygen) at the bottom of the CF and under the water table. In recent years, a lot of earth scientists and microbiologists worked together to deepen the understanding of the physical, geochemical and biological processes in the CF. But there is still a lack in knowledge on both sides, since the water content changes in the CF from saturated to almost unsaturated which hampers determination of biological parameters as well as modeling. In the DFG-project "Dynamic Capillary Fringes - A Multidisciplinary Approach (DyCap)" researchers started to simulate growth of microorganisms in the CF. The biological parameters like growth rates, saturation constants for substrate and oxygen, yield coefficients and maintenance rate were determined in batch assays using parameter estimation. A flow through cell filled with fine sand was used to establish a CF and to investigate the growth of microorganisms in this zone. In order to allow non-invasive visualization and quantification, facultative anaerobic Escherichia coli) cells which can grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and which produce a green fluorescent protein were used. We developed a numerical simulator for multiphase multicomponent reactive flow in porous media, which is able to consider simultaneously multiphase flow, component transport, phase exchange and microbiological processes. This tool was used to simulate the E. coli growth in the CF with nutrient supply under steady-state condition and the results are finally compared to the experimental data.

  2. Inspection of arterial-induced skin vibration by Moire fringe with two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chiu, Shih-Yung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system is implemented. This optical metrology system is constructed with shadow Moiré configuration and the fringe analysis algorithm. Developed with the Region of Interested (ROI) capturing technique and the Two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2D-CWT) method, this algorithm is able to retrieve the height-correlated phase information from the shadow Moiré fringe patterns. Using a commercial video camera or a CMOS image sensor, this system could monitor the skin-vibration induced by the cyclic deformation of inner layered artery. The cross-sectional variation and the rhythm of heart cycle could be continuously measured for health monitoring purposes. The average vibration amplitude of the artery at the wrist ranges between 20 μm and 50 μm, which is quite subtle comparing with the skin surface structure. Having the non-stationary motion of human body, the traditional phase shifting (PS) technique can be very unstable due to the requirement of several frames of images, especially for case that artery is continuously pumping. To bypass this fundamental issue, the shadow Moiré technique is introduced to enhance the surface deformation characteristic. And the phase information is retrieved by the means of spectrum filtering instead of PS technique, which the phase is calculated from intensity maps of multiple images. The instantaneous surface can therefore be reconstructed individually from each frame, enabling the subtle arterial-induced skin vibration measurement. The comparative results of phase reconstruction between different fringe analysis algorithms will be demonstrated numerically and experimentally. And the electrocardiography (ECG) results will used as the reference for the validity of health monitoring potential of the non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system.

  3. Observation of electron beam moiré fringes in an image conversion tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yunfei; Liao, Yubo; Long, Jing-hua; Cai, Houzhi; Bai, Yanli; Liu, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    An image conversion tube with a magnetic lens was designed to observe electron beam moiré fringes. Electron beam moiré fringes result from the interference between the photocathode and the anode meshes. The photocathode had a strip line structure with a spatial frequency of 10 L/mm. The anode mesh had a fixed spatial frequency of 10 L/mm, and could be rotated around the axis of the image tube. The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the photocathode and the anode mesh were examined. The experimental results agreed with the theoretical analysis. Moiré fringes with a modulation of ~20% were obtained using a 3 keV electron beam. - Highlights: • Observe the electron beam moiré fringes in large angle of view. • The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the two gratings were examined. • Modulations of the moiré fringes in different rotation angle are recorded.

  4. FIMBRIN1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-11-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes.

  5. Manic fringe inhibits tumor growth by suppressing Notch3 degradation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fuming; Amarasinghe, Baru; Dang, Thao P

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an essential role in development as well as cancer. We have previously shown that Notch3 is important for lung cancer growth and survival. Notch receptors are activated through the interaction with their ligands, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of the receptors. This interaction is modulated by Fringe, a family of fucose-specific β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify the extracellular subunit of Notch receptors. Studies in developmental models showed that Fringe enhances Notch's response to Delta ligands at the expense of Jagged ligands. We observed that Manic Fringe expression is down-regulated in lung cancer. Since Jagged1, a known ligand for Notch3, is often over-expressed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that Fringe negatively regulates Notch3 activation. In this study, we show that re-expression of Manic Fringe down-regulates Notch3 target genes HES1 and HeyL and reduces tumor phenotype in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for this phenomenon appears to be related to modulation of Notch3 protein stability. Proteasome inhibition reverses Manic Fringe-induced protein turnover. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Manic Fringe functions as a tumor suppressor in the lung and that the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is mediated by inhibition of Notch3 activation.

  6. Effective bias removal for fringe projection profilometry using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William Wai-Lam; Lun, Daniel Pak-Kong

    2012-08-20

    When reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) object height profile using the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) technique, the light intensity reflected from the object surface can yield abruptly changing bias in the captured fringe image, which leads to severe reconstruction error. The traditional approach tries to remove the bias by suppressing the zero spectrum of the fringe image. It is based on the assumption that the aliasing between the frequency spectrum of the bias, which is around the zero frequency, and the frequency spectrum of the fringe is negligible. This, however, is not the case in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) technique to eliminate the bias in the fringe image using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT). The new approach successfully identifies the features of bias, fringe, and noise in the DT-CWT domain, which allows the bias to be effectively extracted from a noisy fringe image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional methods and facilitates accurate reconstruction of objects' 3D models.

  7. Acoustic grating fringe projector for high-speed and high-precision three-dimensional shape measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuebing; Zhao Huijie; Zeng Junyu; Qu Yufu

    2007-01-01

    A new acoustic grating fringe projector (AGFP) was developed for high-speed and high-precision 3D measurement. A new acoustic grating fringe projection theory is also proposed to describe the optical system. The AGFP instrument can adjust the spatial phase and period of fringes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Using rf power proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and CCD synchronous control, we obtain fringes with fine sinusoidal characteristics and realize high-speed acquisition of image data. Using the device, we obtained a precise phase map for a 3D profile. In addition, the AGFP can work in running fringe mode, which could be applied in other measurement fields

  8. Ultrafast layer based computer-generated hologram calculation with sparse template holographic fringe pattern for 3-D object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Gu; Man Ro, Yong

    2017-11-27

    In this paper, we propose a new ultrafast layer based CGH calculation that exploits the sparsity of hologram fringe pattern in 3-D object layer. Specifically, we devise a sparse template holographic fringe pattern. The holographic fringe pattern on a depth layer can be rapidly calculated by adding the sparse template holographic fringe patterns at each object point position. Since the size of sparse template holographic fringe pattern is much smaller than that of the CGH plane, the computational load can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 10-20 msec for 1024x1024 pixels providing visually plausible results.

  9. Application of instrument transfer function to a fringe projection system for measuring rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Davies, Angela; Ziegert, John; Evans, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    When fringe projection profilometry is used for measuring rough/textured surfaces, the fidelity of the measurement is subject to the spatial frequency response. The instrument transfer function (ITF) is one appealing approach to characterize this property. The foundation of ITF analysis is based on the linear theory; only linear systems are appropriate for ITF analysis. A fringe projection system is intrinsically nonlinear, but it can be approximated as a linear system when certain conditions are met. Here we investigate the linear conditions of a custom fringe projection system designed for an additive manufacturing application. The applicability of ITF is discussed through mathematical analysis and simulations.

  10. Method to fabricate orthogonal crossed gratings by an interference fringe based alignment technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hengyan; Zeng, Lijiang

    2016-10-01

    In order to fabricate orthogonal crossed gratings, we propose an interference fringe based alignment technique to adjust the angle between the two Lloyd's mirrors to be 90° in the dual Lloyd's mirror interferometer. An exposed crossed grating is put back to the exposure system and rotated about 90° around its normal direction. By observing the fringe spacing of the interference fringes generated by the diffracted beams of different orders, we can adjust the angle between the two Lloyd's mirrors to be 90°. Simulation results indicate an orthogonality error smaller than 4″ can be obtained by this method. We fabricated a crossed grating with 0.30″ orthogonality error.

  11. Analysis of isoclinic fringes of a circular disk under diametric compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Girl; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok; Kim, Myung Soo; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the process for obtaining isoclinic fringes from experiment and compares the experimental results with theoretical calculations. In this experiment, the polaris cope named 'Stress master' is used as a primary tool, combined with a circular disk made of urethane rubber called as 'Photoflex' and a CCD camera to record the isoclinic fringes. In photoelasticity, isoclinics can be used to get the stress trajectories and then to analyze the whole field stresses. But it must be emphasized that isoclinic fringes are not themselves stress trajectories. In this paper, isoclinics are measured accurately by use of sharpening technique. Experimental results are comparable to those of theory.

  12. The research of real time auto-recognition of the moiré fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo

    2011-08-01

    Measuring the movement of raster by the method of moiré fringe has the advantage of high sensitivity, high resolution and non-contacted measurement. The characteristic of moiré fringe is that the image is white alternate with black, the angle of the stripes is uniform, the width of the stripes is uniform, the terminators of the stripes aren't clear. A fast method that can figure out the width and angle of the moiré fringe precisely is put forward in this paper. It calculates the angle the stripes firstly. According to the principle of the minimum mean squared error (MMSE), the closer a series of data is, the smaller the value of the MMSE will be. The method is described as follows: It takes the image's center as the origin, 180 beelines pass through the origin with the same angle interval. it calculates the value of the minimum mean squared error of the 180 beelines and find out the least one among those, then the angle of the moiré fringe α comes out primarily. In order to improving the calculating precision of moiré fringe, 60 equal angles are divided in the neighborhood of the angle α, then a precise angle β of moiré fringe is calculated according to the principle of the MMSE. After getting out the angle of the moiré fringe, we begin to calculate the width of moiré fringe. A line vertical with the moiré fringe is drawn, and we can get the width of the moiré fringe by the vertical line. In order to get over the influence of the noise, an effective area with the shape of diamond is selected in the image. The data of area is accumulated and projected according to the direction of moiré fringe, and a sine curve come out. The width of moiré fringe can be obtained by getting the position of the first wave crest, the position of the last wave crest and the number of wave crest. Experiments prove that the precision of the method put forward in this paper is enhanced in comparison with the traditional frequency method, the precision of width calculation

  13. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  14. Fringe patterns generated by micro-optical sensors for pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new result of pattern recognition generation scheme using a small-scale optical muscle sensing system, which consisted of an optical add-drop filter incorporating two nonlinear optical side ring resonators. When light from laser source enters into the system, the device is stimulated by an external physical parameter that introduces a change in the phase of light propagation within the sensing device, which can be formed by the interference fringe patterns. Results obtained have shown that the fringe patterns can be used to form the relationship between signal patterns and fringe pattern recognitions.

  15. Fringe fields modeling for the high luminosity LHC large aperture quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Brett, D R; Appleby, R B; De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC Upgrade project relies on large aperture magnets (mainly the inner Triplet and the separation dipole D1). The beam is much more sensitive to non-linear perturbations in this region, such as those induced by the fringe fields of the low-beta quadrupoles. Different tracking models are compared in order to provide a numerical estimate of the impact of fringe fields for the actual design of the inner triplet quadrupoles. The implementation of the fringe fields in SixTrack, to be used for dynamic apertures studies, is also discussed.

  16. REMOVAL OF SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC FRINGES BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; Judge, P. G.; Schad, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a pattern-recognition-based approach to the problem of the removal of polarized fringes from spectro-polarimetric data. We demonstrate that two-dimensional principal component analysis can be trained on a given spectro-polarimetric map in order to identify and isolate fringe structures from the spectra. This allows us, in principle, to reconstruct the data without the fringe component, providing an effective and clean solution to the problem. The results presented in this paper point in the direction of revising the way that science and calibration data should be planned for a typical spectro-polarimetric observing run.

  17. Effect of quadrupole fringe fields on the tune of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Pradeep; Husain, Riyasat; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, Gurnam

    2009-01-01

    Being an unavoidable part in a real magnet design, fringe fields of different kind of magnets have various effects on the beam parameters of the storage ring. The fringe field of a bending magnet (dipole) generates closed orbit distortion and disturbs the dispersion function whereas the fringe field of a quadrupole affects other parameters of the ring like tune values and twiss functions. The fringe field pattern of the quadrupoles of Indus-2 was measured by the Magnet Group. The measurements were performed along the various radial tracks in a quadrupole from -30 to 30 mm in steps of 5 mm at various excitation current levels. The pattern of the gradient at these different current levels was obtained by a line fit of the magnetic field at each point. The data was used to get the effect on the tune of Indus-2. The paper describes the results of the effect on the tune. (author)

  18. Fringe-tunable electrothermal Fresnel mirror for use in compact and high-speed diffusion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yuki; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2017-01-23

    This paper reports the development of an electrothermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror with serpentine shape actuators. A micro Fresnel mirror with fringe-spacing tunability is required to realize a compact and high-speed diffusion sensor for biological samples whose diffusion coefficient changes significantly because of a conformational change. In this case, the measurement time-constant is dependent on the fringe-spacing and diffusion coefficient of the sample. In this study, a fringe-tunable MEMS mirror with an actuation voltage less than 10 V was developed. The characteristics of the fabricated mirror were investigated experimentally. A high-visibility optical interference fringe was successfully demonstrated using both an ultranarrow-linewidth solid-state laser and a low-cost compact laser diode. The experimental results demonstrated a distinct possibility of developing a measurement device using only simple and low-voltage optical components.

  19. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  20. From Payday Loans To Pawnshops: Fringe Banking, The Unbanked, And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Guyot, Jerzy; Firth, Caislin; Klawitter, Marieka; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-01

    The fringe banking industry, including payday lenders and check cashers, was nearly nonexistent three decades ago. Today it generates tens of billions of dollars in annual revenue. The industry's growth accelerated in the 1980s with financial deregulation and the working class's declining resources. With Current Population Survey data, we used propensity score matching to investigate the relationship between fringe loan use, unbanked status, and self-rated health, hypothesizing that the material and stress effects of exposure to these financial services would be harmful to health. We found that fringe loan use was associated with 38 percent higher prevalence of poor or fair health, while being unbanked (not having one's own bank account) was associated with 17 percent higher prevalence. Although a variety of policies could mitigate the health consequences of these exposures, expanding social welfare programs and labor protections would address the root causes of the use of fringe services and advance health equity.

  1. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  2. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ 15 N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ 15 N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  3. DC-dynamic biasing for >50× switching time improvement in severely underdamped fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J.; Fruehling, A.; Garg, A.; Liu, X.; Peroulis, D.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validation of dc-dynamic biasing for > 50× switching time improvement in severely underdamped fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators. The electrostatic fringing-field actuator is used to demonstrate the concept due to its robust device design and inherently low damping conditions. In order to accurately quantify the gap height versus voltage characteristics, a heuristic model is developed. The difference between the heuristic model and numerical simulation is less than 5.6% for typical MEMS geometries. MEMS fixed-fixed beams are fabricated and measured for experimental validation. Good agreement is observed between the calculated and measured results. For a given voltage, the measured and calculated displacements are typically within 10%. Lastly, the derived model is used to design a dc-dynamic bias waveform to improve the switching time of the underdamped MEMS actuators. With dynamic biasing, the measured up-to-down and down-to-up switching time of the actuator is ˜35 μs. On the other hand, coventional step biasing results in a switching time of ˜2 ms for both up-to-down and down-to-up states.

  4. Influence of the fringe field on moving of the charged particles in flat and cylindrical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doskeyev, G.A.; Edenova, O.A.; Spivak-Lavrov, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes different analytic approaches to describe the fringe fields of flat and cylindrical capacitor structures. A method for the calculation of deflection of charged particles from the optical axis is developed. The behavior of a charged particle beam in a flat capacitor is approximated by using a sharp cut-off boundary for the field, which has the provision of taking fringe fields into account.

  5. Isogyres - Manifestation of Spin-orbit interaction in uniaxial crystal: A closed-fringe Fourier analysis of conoscopic interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-09-01

    Discovered in 1813, the conoscopic interference pattern observed due to light propagating through a crystal, kept between crossed polarizers, shows isochromates and isogyres, respectively containing information about the dynamic and geometric phase acquired by the beam. We propose and demonstrate a closed-fringe Fourier analysis method to disentangle the isogyres from the isochromates, leading us to the azimuthally varying geometric phase and its manifestation as isogyres. This azimuthally varying geometric phase is shown to be the underlying mechanism for the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion observed in a diverging optical field propagating through a z-cut uniaxial crystal. We extend the formalism to study the optical activity mediated uniaxial-to-biaxial transformation due to a weak transverse electric field applied across the crystal. Closely associated with the phase and polarization singularities of the optical field, the formalism enables us to understand crystal optics in a new way, paving the way to anticipate several emerging phenomena.

  6. Isogyres – Manifestation of Spin-orbit interaction in uniaxial crystal: A closed-fringe Fourier analysis of conoscopic interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-01-01

    Discovered in 1813, the conoscopic interference pattern observed due to light propagating through a crystal, kept between crossed polarizers, shows isochromates and isogyres, respectively containing information about the dynamic and geometric phase acquired by the beam. We propose and demonstrate a closed-fringe Fourier analysis method to disentangle the isogyres from the isochromates, leading us to the azimuthally varying geometric phase and its manifestation as isogyres. This azimuthally varying geometric phase is shown to be the underlying mechanism for the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion observed in a diverging optical field propagating through a z-cut uniaxial crystal. We extend the formalism to study the optical activity mediated uniaxial-to-biaxial transformation due to a weak transverse electric field applied across the crystal. Closely associated with the phase and polarization singularities of the optical field, the formalism enables us to understand crystal optics in a new way, paving the way to anticipate several emerging phenomena. PMID:27625210

  7. Fringe-reflection photogrammetry based on poses calibration with planar mirror reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng

    2017-10-01

    Since liquid crystal display (LCD) screen locates outside of the camera's field of view in fringe-reflection photogrammetry, fringes displayed on LCD screen are obtained through specular reflection by a fixed camera. Thus, the pose calibration between camera and LCD screen is one of the main challenges in fringe-reflection photogrammetry. A markerless planar mirror is used to reflect the LCD screen more than three times, and the fringes are mapped into the fixed camera. The geometrical calibration can be accomplished by estimating the pose between the camera and virtual image of fringes. With the help of the relation between their pose, incidence and reflection ray can be unified in the camera frame, forward triangulation intersection can be operated in the camera frame to measure 3D coordinate of specular surface. In the final optimization, constraint bundle adjustment is operated to refine simultaneously the camera intrinsic parameters including distortion coefficients, estimated geometrical pose between LCD screen and camera, 3D coordinate of specular surface, with the help of absolute phase collinear constraint. Results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the pose calibration with planar mirror reflection is simple, feasible and constraint bundle adjustment can enhance the three-dimensional coordinate measurement accuracy in fringe-reflection photogrammetry.

  8. Fluid flow and solute migration within the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Stephen E; Berkowitz, Brian; Simunek, Jirka; van Genuchten, M Th

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory experiments involving both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media are used to demonstrate that fluid flow and solute transport will occur regularly in the capillary fringe (CF), including both vertical (upward as well as downward) and horizontal flow velocities. Horizontal flow above the water table appears to be limited primarily to the region of high water saturation (i.e., the CF), an observation supported by numerical modeling and consistent with the literature. Beyond observations presented in prior literature, it was observed that exchange of water within the CF with water below the water table is active, with flux both from the CF downward across the water table and from the region below the water table, upward into the CF. This flux is enhanced by the presence of physical heterogeneity. These findings strongly contrast the common conceptualization of predominantly downward vertical fluid flow through the unsaturated zone, with transition to fully three-dimensional flow only below the water table. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the CF may affect, far more significantly than is usually assumed, the natural geochemical and microbial conditions present in the region of transition from unsaturated to saturated ground water flow.

  9. Decadal coral community reassembly on an African fringing reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the cover of the dominant hard coral taxa were studied on seven Kenyan back reefs over 20 yr. All factors of time, taxa, site, and their interactions were statistically significant and the 1998 temperature anomaly caused the greatest community changes. The 1998 disturbance changes reflected a classic coral succession, which included partial or little mortality and persistence of stress tolerant (massive and submassive growth forms) and early colonization by weedy taxa (pocilloporids). Nevertheless, competitive taxa had high and full mortality and the expected dominance of acroporids was inhibited even ~13 yr after the disturbance. So, while total hard coral cover displayed the expected logistic recovery where maximum cover was reached resistant and weedy taxa (poritids, agaricidae, faviids, and pocilloporids) are expected to dominate the composition of these reefs in the future. Nevertheless, three submassive faviids and branching Porites began to decline toward the end of the time series, indicating further stress after 1998. Increased algal cover and other unstudied factors, including milder warming, may explain these changes. The patterns of change on this continental fringing reef differ from recovery of more remote, offshore islands. This probably reflects low acroporid dominance and recruitment limitations associated with greater anthropogenic influences of high sea urchin grazing and terrestrial runoff.

  10. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  11. Characterization of black carbon in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Li, Liang; Pang, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wang, Lili; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hongliang; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-04-01

    Measuring black carbon (BC) is critical to understand the impact of combustion aerosols on air quality and climate change. In this study, BC was measured in 2014 at a unique community formed with rapid economic development and urbanization in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing. Hourly BC concentrations were 0.1-33.5 μg/m 3 with the annual average of 4.4 ± 3.7 μg/m 3 . BC concentrations had clear diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations, and were closely related with atmospheric visibility. The absorption coefficient of aerosols increased while its contribution to extinction coefficient decreased with the enhancement of PM 2.5 concentration. The high mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC was attributed to a combination of coal combustion, vehicular emission and rapidly coating by water-soluble ions and organic carbon (OC). BC concentrations followed a typical lognormal pattern, with over 88% samples in 0.1-10.0 μg/m 3 . Low BC levels were mostly bounded up with winds from north and northwest. Coal combustion and biomass burning were closely associated with severe haze pollution events. Firework discharge had significant UV absorption contribution. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in November 2014, air quality obviously improved due to various control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A transformed analytical model for thermal noise of FinFET based on fringing field approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulika Sharma, Savitesh; Dasgupta, S.; Kartikeyant, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper delineates the effect of nonplanar structure of FinFETs on noise performance. We demonstrate the thermal noise analytical model that has been inferred by taking into account the presence of an additional inverted region in the extended (underlap) S/D region due to finite gate electrode thickness. Noise investigation includes the effects of source drain resistances which become significant as channel length becomes shorter. In this paper, we evaluate the additional noise caused by three dimensional (3-D) structure of the single fin device and then extended analysis of the multi-fin and multi-fingers structure. The addition of fringe field increases its minimum noise figure and noise resistance of approximately 1 dB and 100 Ω respectively and optimum admittance increases to 5.45 mƱ at 20 GHz for a device operating under saturation region. Hence, our transformed model plays a significant function in evaluation of accurate noise performance at circuit level. Project supported in part by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).

  13. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    World's Largest Interferometer with Moving Optical Telescopes on Track Summary The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory has just seen another extension of its already impressive capabilities by combining interferometrically the light from two relocatable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. Following the installation of the first Auxiliary Telescope (AT) in January 2004 (see ESO PR 01/04), the second AT arrived at the VLT platform by the end of 2004. Shortly thereafter, during the night of February 2 to 3, 2005, the two high-tech telescopes teamed up and quickly succeeded in performing interferometric observations. This achievement heralds an era of new scientific discoveries. Both Auxiliary Telescopes will be offered from October 1, 2005 to the community of astronomers for routine observations, together with the MIDI instrument. By the end of 2006, Paranal will be home to four operational ATs that may be placed at 30 different positions and thus be combined in a very large number of ways ("baselines"). This will enable the VLTI to operate with enormous flexibility and, in particular, to obtain extremely detailed (sharp) images of celestial objects - ultimately with a resolution that corresponds to detecting an astronaut on the Moon. PR Photo 07a/05: Paranal Observing Platform with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07b/05: AT1 and AT2 with Open Domes PR Photo 07c/05: Evening at Paranal with AT1 and AT2 PR Photo 07d/05: AT1 and AT2 under the Southern Sky PR Photo 07e/05: First Fringes with AT1 and AT2 PR Video Clip 01/05: Two ATs at Paranal (Extract from ESO Newsreel 15) A Most Advanced Device ESO PR Video 01/05 ESO PR Video 01/05 Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal [QuickTime: 160 x 120 pix - 37Mb - 4:30 min] [QuickTime: 320 x 240 pix - 64Mb - 4:30 min] ESO PR Photo 07a/05 ESO PR Photo 07a/05 [Preview - JPEG: 493 x400 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 985 x 800 pix - 727k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 4060 pix - 13.8M] Captions: ESO PR Video Clip 01/05 is an extract from

  14. Three-dimensional trace measurements for fast-moving objects using binary-encoded fringe projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Cho-Yo; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-08-20

    A fringe projection technique to trace the shape of a fast-moving object is proposed. A binary-encoded fringe pattern is illuminated by a strobe lamp and then projected onto the moving object at a sequence of time. Phases of the projected fringes obtained from the sequent measurements are extracted by the Fourier transform method. Unwrapping is then performed with reference to the binary-encoded fringe pattern. Even though the inspected object is colorful, fringe orders can be identified. A stream of profiles is therefore retrieved from the sequent unwrapped phases. This makes it possible to analyze physical properties of the dynamic objects. Advantages of the binary-encoded fringe pattern for phase unwrapping also include (1) reliable performance for colorful objects, spatially isolated objects, and surfaces with large depth discontinuities; (2) unwrapped errors only confined in a local area; and (3) low computation cost.

  15. Experimental sensitivity analysis of oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Christina M; Cirpka, Olaf A; Rolle, Massimo; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe (CF) is of primary importance for a wide variety of biogeochemical processes occurring in shallow groundwater systems. In case of a fluctuating groundwater table two distinct mechanisms of oxygen transfer within the capillary zone can be identified: vertical predominantly diffusive mass flux of oxygen, and mass transfer between entrapped gas and groundwater. In this study, we perform a systematic experimental sensitivity analysis in order to assess the influence of different parameters on oxygen transfer from entrapped air within the CF to underlying anoxic groundwater. We carry out quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments focusing on the transient phase following imbibition to investigate the influence of the horizontal flow velocity, the average grain diameter of the porous medium, as well as the magnitude and the speed of the water table rise. We present a numerical flow and transport model that quantitatively represents the main mechanisms governing oxygen transfer. Assuming local equilibrium between the aqueous and the gaseous phase, the partitioning process from entrapped air can be satisfactorily simulated. The different experiments are monitored by measuring vertical oxygen concentration profiles at high spatial resolution with a noninvasive optode technique as well as by determining oxygen fluxes at the outlet of the flow-through chamber. The results show that all parameters investigated have a significant effect and determine different amounts of oxygen transferred to the oxygen-depleted groundwater. Particularly relevant are the magnitude of the water table rise and the grain size of the porous medium. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  16. A computer controlled signal preprocessor for laser fringe anemometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Lawrence G.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of most commercially available laser fringe anemometer (LFA) counter-processors assumes that adjustments are made to the signal processing independent of the computer used for reducing the data acquired. Not only does the researcher desire a record of these parameters attached to the data acquired, but changes in flow conditions generally require that these settings be changed to improve data quality. Because of this limitation, on-line modification of the data acquisition parameters can be difficult and time consuming. A computer-controlled signal preprocessor has been developed which makes possible this optimization of the photomultiplier signal as a normal part of the data acquisition process. It allows computer control of the filter selection, signal gain, and photo-multiplier voltage. The raw signal from the photomultiplier tube is input to the preprocessor which, under the control of a digital computer, filters the signal and amplifies it to an acceptable level. The counter-processor used at Lewis Research Center generates the particle interarrival times, as well as the time-of-flight of the particle through the probe volume. The signal preprocessor allows computer control of the acquisition of these data.Through the preprocessor, the computer also can control the hand shaking signals for the interface between itself and the counter-processor. Finally, the signal preprocessor splits the pedestal from the signal before filtering, and monitors the photo-multiplier dc current, sends a signal proportional to this current to the computer through an analog to digital converter, and provides an alarm if the current exceeds a predefined maximum. Complete drawings and explanations are provided in the text as well as a sample interface program for use with the data acquisition software.

  17. Observing solute transport in the capillary fringe using image analysis and electrical resistivity tomography in laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Magnus; Dahlin, Torleif; Günther, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Five laboratory experiments were conducted to study solute transport in the capillary fringe in a sand filled glass tank containing an artificial groundwater zone, an unsaturated zone, and a capillary fringe in between. Dye stained water, applied at the soil surface, moved downwards through the unsaturated zone and then horizontally in the capillary fringe. The horizontal velocity of the dye plume front was calculated using optical image analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) me...

  18. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong

    2008-10-01

    We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

  19. Image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L2 with better performance for denoising in ESPI fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Su, Yonggang; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 with better performance for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In our model, the low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise are, respectively, described by shearlet smoothness spaces, adaptive Hilbert space, and L 2 space and processed individually. Because the shearlet transform has superior directional sensitivity, our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model achieves commendable filtering results for various types of ESPI fringe patterns, including uniform density fringe patterns, moderately variable density fringe patterns, and greatly variable density fringe patterns. We evaluate the performance of our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model via application to two computer-simulated and nine experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with various densities and poor quality. Furthermore, we compare our proposed model with windowed Fourier filtering and coherence-enhancing diffusion, both of which are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. We also compare our proposed model with the previous image decomposition model BL-Hilbert-L 2 .

  20. Material Stress Fringe Constant Measurement of Specimen under Pure Bending Load by Use of Photoelastic Phase Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guan Yong; Kim, Myung Soo; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In a photoelastic experiment, it is necessary to know the material stress fringe constant of the photoelastic specimen to determine the stresses from the measured isochromatic fringe orders. The material stress fringe constant can be obtained using a simple tension specimen and/or a circular disk under diametric compression. In these methods, there is generally a need to apply numerous loads to the specimen in response to the relationship of the fringe order. Then, the least squares method is used to obtain the material constant. In this paper, the fringe orders that appear on a four-point bending specimen are used to determine the fringe constant. This method requires four photoelastic fringes obtained from a circular polariscope by rotating the analyzer to 0, π/4, π/2, and 3π/4 radians. Using the four-point bending specimen to determine the material stress fringe constant has an advantage because measurements can be made at different locations by applying a constant load. The stress fringe constant measured with this method is within the range suggested by the manufacturer of the photoelastic material

  1. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mordik, S N

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model.

  2. Investigation of fringing electric field effect on high-resolution blue phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Guo, Zhengbo; Xing, Yufei; Li, Qing

    2015-08-20

    The fringing electric field effect which determines the performance of a high-resolution blue phase liquid crystal spatial light modulator (BPLC-SLM) is investigated by numerical modeling. The BPLC-SLM is polarization-dependent due to the transverse electric field component. The physical mechanism of the phase profile properties for different polarization states is analyzed. General design issues related to the BPLC-SLM configuration and phase profile properties are discussed. Notably, the material parameters and cell gap thickness are both optimized to obtain a low operation voltage (V2π=26.07  V). This work provides fundamental understanding for the feasibility of low operation voltage and high spatial resolution BPLC-SLM.

  3. Robust and efficient multi-frequency temporal phase unwrapping: optimal fringe frequency and pattern sequence selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian; Tao, Tianyang; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-08-21

    Temporal phase unwrapping (TPU) is an essential algorithm in fringe projection profilometry (FPP), especially when measuring complex objects with discontinuities and isolated surfaces. Among others, the multi-frequency TPU has been proven to be the most reliable algorithm in the presence of noise. For a practical FPP system, in order to achieve an accurate, efficient, and reliable measurement, one needs to make wise choices about three key experimental parameters: the highest fringe frequency, the phase-shifting steps, and the fringe pattern sequence. However, there was very little research on how to optimize these parameters quantitatively, especially considering all three aspects from a theoretical and analytical perspective simultaneously. In this work, we propose a new scheme to determine simultaneously the optimal fringe frequency, phase-shifting steps and pattern sequence under multi-frequency TPU, robustly achieving high accuracy measurement by a minimum number of fringe frames. Firstly, noise models regarding phase-shifting algorithms as well as 3-D coordinates are established under a projector defocusing condition, which leads to the optimal highest fringe frequency for a FPP system. Then, a new concept termed frequency-to-frame ratio (FFR) that evaluates the magnitude of the contribution of each frame for TPU is defined, on which an optimal phase-shifting combination scheme is proposed. Finally, a judgment criterion is established, which can be used to judge whether the ratio between adjacent fringe frequencies is conducive to stably and efficiently unwrapping the phase. The proposed method provides a simple and effective theoretical framework to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of a practical FPP system in actual measurement conditions. The correctness of the derived models as well as the validity of the proposed schemes have been verified through extensive simulations and experiments. Based on a normal monocular 3-D FPP hardware system

  4. Denoising of conoscopic holography fringe patterns with orientational filters: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguita, Jose M.; Fernández, Yolanda; Alvarez, Ignacio; Fraga Bobis, Cesar; Marina, Jorge

    2005-03-01

    One of the most important problems to address when applying interferometric techniques to industrial applications is the prevalence of noise, which results in poor fringe patterns and thus poor measurements. One of the techniques that suffers most from this problem is conoscopic holography. Though this interferometric technique is ideal for industrial inspection, the poor quality of fringe patterns obtained in adverse environments may make measurement impossible. Classical filtering techniques based on one-dimensional filters or general speckle removal filters, such as the Frost or the gamma, may not suffice in adverse conditions. Therefore, a new approach, based on the nature of the fringe pattern information itself, is worth looking into. In this paper we propose the use of orientational filters to develop a filtering method that not only removes noise of any nature, but also enhances the fringe-pattern information. Several approaches to these algorithms are implemented and evaluated using synthetic conoscopic fringe patterns under different noise conditions, showing how they clearly outperform classical filters with negligible distortion even in the worst conditions. Examples with real data acquired with the latest prototype of a conoscopic long-standoff profilometer are also provided.

  5. Demonstration of microbial transport into the capillary fringe via advection from below the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea M.; Silliman, Stephen E.; Dhamwichukorn, Srisuda; Kulpa, Charles F.

    2005-05-01

    A laboratory experiment is used to provide preliminary evidence that microbes can be advected into the capillary fringe from the region below the water table under steady flow conditions. A flow cell was packed so as to contain both a region for which pore-water pressure was greater than atmospheric pressure (termed 'below the water table') and a region, where the pore-water pressure was less than atmospheric with the pores essentially saturated with water (termed the 'capillary fringe'). Steady flow was then established through maintaining a hydraulic gradient across the medium. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformed bacteria ( E. coli JM109) were used to visualize migration of bacteria from below the water table into the capillary fringe. These transformed bacteria fluoresce brightly and readily when excited by standard UV light (395 nm) in 100 mL LB medium with 100 μg/mL ampicillin. The concentrations of bacterial inoculum and oxygen were adjusted to ensure GFPuv expression at a large scale. Results demonstrated that microbes can move into the capillary fringe from below the water table under horizontal hydraulic gradients. Motion from the capillary fringe into the region below the water table was also observed as was the absence of advection through regions of entrapped air below the water table.

  6. Stitching interferometry of high numerical aperture cylindrical optics without using a fringe-nulling routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Junzheng; Wang, Qingquan; Peng, Xiang; Yu, Yingjie

    2015-11-01

    Stitching interferometry is a common method for measuring the figure error of high numerical aperture optics. However, subaperture measurement usually requires a fringe-nulling routine, thus making the stitching procedure complex and time-consuming. The challenge when measuring a surface without a fringe-nulling routine is that the rays no longer perpendicularly hit the surface. This violation of the null-test condition can lead to high fringe density and introduce high-order misalignment aberrations into the measurement result. This paper demonstrates that the high-order misalignment aberrations can be characterized by low-order misalignment aberrations; then, an efficient method is proposed to separate the high-order misalignment aberrations from subaperture data. With the proposed method, the fringe-nulling routine is not required. Instead, the subaperture data is measured under a nonzero fringe pattern. Then, all possible misalignment aberrations are removed with the proposed method. Finally, the full aperture map is acquired by connecting all subaperture data together. Experimental results showing the feasibility of the proposed procedure are presented.

  7. Simplified paraboloid phase model-based phase tracker for demodulation of a single complex fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A; Deepan, B; Quan, C

    2017-09-01

    A regularized phase tracker (RPT) is an effective method for demodulation of single closed-fringe patterns. However, lengthy calculation time, specially designed scanning strategy, and sign-ambiguity problems caused by noise and saddle points reduce its effectiveness, especially for demodulating large and complex fringe patterns. In this paper, a simplified paraboloid phase model-based regularized phase tracker (SPRPT) is proposed. In SPRPT, first and second phase derivatives are pre-determined by the density-direction-combined method and discrete higher-order demodulation algorithm, respectively. Hence, cost function is effectively simplified to reduce the computation time significantly. Moreover, pre-determined phase derivatives improve the robustness of the demodulation of closed, complex fringe patterns. Thus, no specifically designed scanning strategy is needed; nevertheless, it is robust against the sign-ambiguity problem. The paraboloid phase model also assures better accuracy and robustness against noise. Both the simulated and experimental fringe patterns (obtained using electronic speckle pattern interferometry) are used to validate the proposed method, and a comparison of the proposed method with existing RPT methods is carried out. The simulation results show that the proposed method has achieved the highest accuracy with less computational time. The experimental result proves the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed method for demodulation of noisy fringe patterns and its feasibility for static and dynamic applications.

  8. Defining western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara) habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Michael David

    Terrestrial orchids are at the forefront of the discussion about anthropogenically-driven extinction with more species threatened globally than any other plant family, mostly because of loss of habitat. The Western Prairie Fringed Orchid ( Platanthera praeclara) is a threatened species found on the Sheyenne National Grassland in southeast North Dakota, USA. This conservation area that is a vital refuge for this species is subject to management for multiple uses including livestock grazing and recreation. Orchids are subject to continuous monitoring, but knowledge of the relationship between landscape indicators and orchid locations is limited. Research is needed to provide a greater understanding of the landscape relative to orchid habitat to develop conservation management strategies suited to dealing with threats arising from future interactions between land management and use, and climate change. The spatial distribution of orchid habitat was defined using a suite of indicators that characterize topography, moisture, and vegetation cover and compared with orchid point-based field observations. High resolution infrared imagery, a LiDAR-derived DEM, and well observations were used to characterize landscape properties. The NDVI (a measure of vegetation cover), the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI: a measure of moisture on the landscape), the Topographic Position Index (TPI: a measure of position on the landscape), and the depth to groundwater (a measure of the depth from the land surface to the groundwater surface) provided the best set of indicators of orchid habitat. Comparison between orchid locations and landscape indicators identified orchid metrics (+/-2 sigma) used to classify landscape indicators which were combined to create orchid habitat maps. This study supports that distribution of orchid habitat are influenced by the selected landscape indicators, each providing important information to the analysis. Comparison of orchid metrics with groundwater

  9. Interference fringe-patterns association to defect-types in artwork conservation: an experiment and research validation review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornari, Vivi; Tsiranidou, Elsa; Bernikola, Eirini

    2012-02-01

    The paper is directed to all classes of optical inspection technologies that are causing a fringe pattern like output, such as interferometry, fringe projection, holography, speckle techniques. The explanations given here are also valid for incoherent fringe projection, moire, and short-coherent techniques, which are producing fringe-like output correlated with the surface structure and the surface change, respectively. Identification of interference fringe patterns with defect type is a long-standing engineering problem with the ambiguities in cause-effect relation dominating the Cultural Heritage structural diagnosis. The ambiguities refer to fringe-pattern formation in regard to a hidden defect cause in the subsurface and the effect on the surface of the size or depth of the defect. In order to solve the concerned ambiguities, a review is made here to be confirmed a correlation of fringe pattern appearance to defect cause. The methodology is employed in the paper to achieve a generalized description of fringe morphology for a common type of inner defect as interlayer de-cohesion termed in art conservation as detachment and crack. The objective is to provide the required concept and procedure through which the validation of any defect-indicative fringe-pattern can serve as a direct-visual-control of structural condition in artwork examination. In this context, theoretical and experimental results starting from simulation algorithms, through knowledge based experiments and experimental verification to correlation procedures and mathematical analysis are combined to allow fringe pattern generalized validation. The result allows performing by means of modern optical metrology direct artwork documentation of structural diagnosis in complex art conservation problems. It helps to utilize it in other research objectives targeting in automated defect-recognition and multisensory technology. It helps to advance theoretical and practical routines in everyday practices of

  10. Mass transfer processes across the Capillary Fringe: Quantification of gas-water interface and bubble mediated mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geistlinger, Helmut; Mohammadian, Sadjad; Schlüter, Steffen; Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The Capillary Fringe (CF) is a highly dynamic zone at the interface between the water-saturated aquifer and the vadose zone, where steep biogeochemical gradients and thus high bioactivities are expected. Mass transfer processes between the unsaturated zone and the atmosphere, like Greenhouse gas emissions and evaporation, are controlled by the highly temporal and spatial variable gas-water interface across the capillary fringe. Due to water table fluctuations, gas phase may be entrapped or released at/from the CF, which extremely affects the hydraulic properties of the porous medium as well as the mass transfer processes in the partially saturated zone. Most of these processes (gas entrapment and bubble mediated mass transfer (BMT)) are governed by the interactions between the interfaces of gas, water and soil phases. Quantification of these parameters requires a pore-scale approach, which can determine the phase volumes and interfaces with high accuracy. For the understanding and prediction of the involved processes, experiments and modeling at the pore scale are the necessary prerequisites for upscaled, effective modeling approaches. To achieve this aim, we conducted a set of column experiments using X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). Using this technique, we are able to quantitatively analyze the desired variables in 3D inside the actual bulk volume of the porous media. Water table (WT) elevation was raised at different velocities in the column filled with 1mm-glass beads. After each rise, the column was scanned with CT. We used an intelligent multi-phase segmentation method, considering grey value frequency and voxel neighboring, to separate gas, water, and solid phases in the CT images. The saturation of the gas phase, distribution of the trapped gas bubbles and clusters, and their size, shape, and area are quantified and analyzed at pore-scale. We developed a new segmentation algorithm to distinguish the gas/water interface from the gas/solid interface. Only the

  11. Modeling of Dipole and Quadrupole Fringe-Field Effects for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.

    2017-06-01

    The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice requires shorter and much stronger quadrupole magnets than are present in the existing ring. This results in longitudinal gradient profiles that differ significantly from a hard-edge model. Additionally, the lattice assumes the use of five-segment longitudinal gradient dipoles. Under these circumstances, the effects of fringe fields and detailed field distributions are of interest. We evaluated the effect of soft-edge fringe fields on the linear optics and chromaticity, finding that compensation for these effects is readily accomplished. In addition, we evaluated the reliability of standard methods of simulating hardedge nonlinear fringe effects in quadrupoles.

  12. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2008-01-01

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  13. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu

    Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron...... hydroxides). 2D-laboratory scale experiments were used to investigate the transfer of oxygen into groundwater under non-reactive and reactive conditions, at steady state and with water table fluctuations. Results show that transfer of oxygen is limited by transverse dispersion in the capillary fringe...... and the dispersion coefficients are the same as below the water table. Water table fluctuations cause temporarily increased fluxes of oxygen into groundwater during draining conditions and entrapped air after water table rise. High-permeability inclusions in the capillary fringe enhance mass transfer of oxygen...

  14. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  15. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  16. High-speed X-ray phase tomography with Talbot interferometer and fringe scanning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibayashi, Shunsuke; Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    High-speed X-ray phase tomography based on the Fourier-transform method has been demonstrated with an X-ray Talbot interferometer using white synchrotron radiation. We report the experimental results of high-speed X-ray phase tomography with fringe-scanning method instead of Fourier-transform method to improve spatial resolution without a considerable increase of scan time. To apply fringe-scanning method to high speed tomography, we tested a scan that is a synchronous combination of one-way continuous movements of the sample rotation and the grating displacement. When this scanning method was combined with X-ray phase tomography, we were able to obtain a scan time of 5 s. A comparison of the image quality derived with the conventional approach and with the proposed approach using the fringe-scanning method showed that the latter had better spatial resolution.

  17. Fringe periods of color moirés in contact-type 3-D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon; Son, Jung-Young; Chernyshov, Oleksii O

    2016-06-27

    A mathematical formula of calculating the fringe periods of the color moirés appearing at the contact-type 3-D displays is derived. It is typical that the color moirés are chirped and the period of the line pattern in viewing zone forming optics is more than two times of that of the pixel pattern in the display panel. These make impossible to calculate the fringe periods of the color moirés with the conventional beat frequency formula. The derived formula work very well for any combination of two line patterns having either a same line period or different line periods. This is experimentally proved. Furthermore, it is also shown that the fringe period can be expressed in terms of the viewing distance and focal length of the viewing zone forming optics.

  18. An effect of the fringing field in sector bending magnets: the coupling of the transverse planes in the solutions of the equation of motion at second-order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, G.

    1988-11-01

    Second order coupling terms for sector bending magnets due to edge effects at high energy are reviewed. Motion in the horizontal plane (bending plane) and in the vertical (nonbending) plane is considered. The model of Heaviside's function is outlined. The case of the complete bending magnet is treated. Three second order coupling terms between the vertical and horizontal planes in a complete bending magnet are found. Their origin is the fringing field, i.e., the intensity difference of the magnetic field between the outside and the inside of the magnet

  19. Study of 3D solder-paste profilometer by dual digital fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Hua; Yih, Jeng-Nan; Cheng, Nai-Jen

    2013-09-01

    In a 3D profilometer by the fringe projection, the shadow will be produced inevitably, thus the fringes cannot be detected in the region of the shadow. In addition, a smooth surface or a metal surface produces the specular reflection, and then, no projection fringe can be recorded in the region of oversaturation on CCD. This paper reveals a proposed system for improved these defects and shows some preliminary improved 3D profiles by the proposed dual fringe projection. To obtain the profile of sample hided in the shadow and the oversaturation, this study used the dual-projection system by two projectors. This system adopted two different directions of fringe projection and illuminates them alternately, therefore, the shadow and the oversaturation produced in their corresponding locations. Two raw 3D profiles obtained from taking the dual-projection by the four-step phase-shift. A set of algorithms used to identify the pixels of the shadow and the oversaturation, and create an error-map. According to the error-map to compensate, two 3D profiles merged into an error-reduced 3D profile. We used the solder paste as a testing sample. After comparatively analyzing the 3D images obtained by our measurement system and by a contact stylus profilometer, the result shows that our measurement system can effectively reduce the error caused by shadows and oversaturation. Fringe projection system by using a projector is a non-contact, full field and quickly measuring system. The proposed dual-projection by dual-projectors can effectively reduce the shadow and the oversaturation errors and enhance the scope of application of the 3D contour detection, especially in the detection of precision structure parts with specular reflection.

  20. Estimation of phase derivative from a single fringe pattern using Riesz transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Yassine; Zada, Sara; Muhire, Desire; Siari, Ahmed; Nassim, Abdelkrim

    2017-11-01

    We propose a technique to estimate the phase derivative in both x and y directions based on Riesz transform from a single speckle correlation fringes. The originality of this technique is to exploit Riesz transform for phase derivatives estimation, spatial modulation, speckle denoising, and measure of features similarity. Phase modulation process is realized by combining a digital spatial carrier and Riesz quadrature; speckle denoising is computed using Riesz wavelets transform, and the performance is evaluated by Riesz features SIMilarity. Before applying our method on real speckle correlation fringes, its performance is tested by numerical simulation.

  1. Demodulation of moire fringes in digital holographic interferometry using an extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Jagadesh; Rastogi, Pramod; Rajshekhar, Gannavarpu

    2018-03-10

    This paper presents a method for extracting multiple phases from a single moire fringe pattern in digital holographic interferometry. The method relies on component separation using singular value decomposition and an extended Kalman filter for demodulating the moire fringes. The Kalman filter is applied by modeling the interference field locally as a multi-component polynomial phase signal and extracting the associated multiple polynomial coefficients using the state space approach. In addition to phase, the corresponding multiple phase derivatives can be simultaneously extracted using the proposed method. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using simulation and experimental results.

  2. The effect of geographical centralization of education for outmigration from fringe areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    During the last 25 years population in fringe areas in Denmark has declined. The main reason has been that young people leave these areas and seldom come back. In this study is examined the connection between young people’s outmigration, their choice of education and the location of educational...... institutions. It is shown that geographical centralization of education since 1990 and the tendency for more young people to choose higher education has resulted in an increase in the outmigration of young people from fringe areas...

  3. Quantitative analysis of fringe visibility in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianheng; Lei, Yaohu; Du, Yang; Liu, Xin; Guo, Jinchuan; Li, Ji; Niu, Hanben

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging technique has attracted increasing research interest. In this study, we quantitatively analyze the fringe visibility obtained in differential phase-contrast imaging. Numerical results of the visibility for polychromatic x rays with different structure heights of absorption gratings are shown and discussed. Furthermore, the fringe visibility of the nonabsorption grating approach is calculated, and based on the results, we conclude that this approach can potentially be applied for higher x-ray photon energies. These analytic results will be useful for designing a differential phase-contrast imaging system for different applications.

  4. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii......) encouraging workers to use sustainable transport modes for commuting and leisure travel....

  5. The Acropora inheritance: A reinterpretation of the development of fringing reefs in Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John B.

    1984-11-01

    The discovery of the widespread occurrence of the remains of the reef coral Acropora palmata within the fabric of the fringing reefs on the west coast of Barbados requires a new interpretation of their Holocene development. Radiocarbon dating of the A. palmata framework suggests that reef construction by this species began as early as 2,300 years B.P. A. palmata probably flourished in Barbados into the present century but has now declined. The present fringing reefs are characterized by a core and base of A. palmata upon which subsequent colonization took place, especially by Montastrea annularis, Porites porites and coralline algae.

  6. Urban fringe renewal with urban catalysts elements: connections in an unconnected area

    OpenAIRE

    Yanru, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Based on Santa Coloma as a main case,analyzing how can be update there in this crisis situation to do suitable interventions to achieve a great effect. After analyzing the Santa Coloma area,I pay attention to its urban marginality.It has the territorial marginality,the marginality of the relationship with Barcelona,the marginality of the people and life style and so on. Urban fringe is corresponding the city center, the city of mainstream.The socalled "fringe" can be underst...

  7. The NOVA Fringe Tracker: A second generation cophasing facility for up tósix telescopes at the VLTI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, J.A.; Jaffe, W.J.; Poole, R.S. le

    2012-01-01

    The NOVA Fringe Tracker (NFT) is a proposed solution tóthe call by ESO for a second generation fringe tracking facility. This instrument at the VLTI will enable the cophasing of up tó6 telescopes simultaneously. Using broad band optics with detection from 1.2 tó2.4 microns, a unique configuration is

  8. Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a tsunami which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific Ocean. A description of the tsunami within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-ocean atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep ocean. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep ocean tsunami signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the tsunami amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, tsunami oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep ocean. The tsunami energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the tsunami behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the tsunami across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the tsunami on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.

  9. Two-shot fringe pattern phase-amplitude demodulation using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization with Hilbert-Huang pre-filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-02-23

    Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization is a very fast and efficient method for the fringe pattern phase demodulation. It requires only two arbitrarily phase-shifted frames. Images are treated as vectors and upon orthogonal projection of one fringe vector onto another the quadrature fringe pattern pair is obtained. Orthonormalization process is very susceptible, however, to noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation fluctuations. The Hilbert-Huang transform based preprocessing is proposed to enhance fringe pattern phase demodulation by filtering out the spurious noise and background illumination and performing fringe normalization. The Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process error analysis is provided and its filtering-expanded capabilities are corroborated analyzing DSPI fringes and performing amplitude demodulation of Bessel fringes. Synthetic and experimental fringe pattern analyses presented to validate the proposed technique show that it compares favorably with other pre-filtering schemes, i.e., Gaussian filtering and continuous wavelet transform.

  10. Analysis of the factors which have an influence on the reduction of residuary strengths due to alkaline solution in the interstitial mortars of concretes with aluminous cement Assessment of the risk limits in the case of roof beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goma Ginesta, Ferrán

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The scarce references which exist in the bibliography on this subject and their vagueness on the factors which have an influence on the reduction of the strength of aluminous cement concrete due to the effect of alkalinity, have not yet allowed the limits to be clearly seen which could give rise to a situation of risk in the structural elements due to this cause. A study is presented which endeavors to measure the quantitative influence of different parameters of the same or of a similar conditions to those presented in the usual types of concrete in existing beams with aluminous cement characteristic of our market. The parameters tested were: the influence of the concentration of free ions OH-, the class of alkaline ion, the temperature, the time, the presence or absence of CO2, the degree of conversion, the physical parameters, porosities, densities, etc., and the phases existing were determined by XRD, DTA and TG before and after the alkaline action. From the results obtained in numerous series of Rilem mortars and micro-mortars, it is possible to see the possibility of establishing the setting of parameters which define areas without risk.

    Las escasas referencias que existen en la bibliografía sobre este tema, y su identificación sobre los factores que tienen influencia sobre la disminución de resistencias en el hormigón de cemento aluminoso por efecto de la alcalinidad, no ha permitido aún ver claramente los limites que pueden dar lugar a una situación de riesgo en los elementos estructurales por esta causa. Se presenta un estudio que trata de medir la influencia cuantitativa de diferentes parámetros, con la misma o semejante magnitud que se presentan en los tipos usuales de hormigones de vigas existentes con cemento aluminoso propio de nuestro mercado. Los parámetros ensayados han sido: la influencia de la concentración de iones OH- libres, la clase de ion alcalino, la temperatura, el

  11. The effects of a Pilates-based exercise rehabilitation program on functional outcome and fall risk reduction in an aging adult status-post traumatic hip fracture due to a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Adam; Hartley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information describing the relationship of Pilates-based strength and stability exercises with fall risk in the geriatric population exists. The purpose of this report was to examine the impact of a Pilates-based rehabilitation (PBR) program on reducing fall risk in an aging adult status postfall with resulting hip fracture and open reduction and internal fixation. The patient was an 84-year-old woman admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after a right hip fracture resulting from a fall at home. The patient's relevant medical history included frequent falls due to loss of balance, a previous left hip fracture with resultant arthroplasty, and a stroke roughly 20 years prior. The patient received physical therapy and occupational therapy 6 days per week for 26 days in an SNF. The physical therapy intervention consisted of gait and transfer training, neuromuscular reeducation, and an adjunct of specialized PBR exercises for the following impairments: decreased core strength and awareness and poor dynamic stabilization during functional activities. The patient demonstrated increases in lower extremity strength and active range of motion, ambulation distance and speed, and transfer ability. The patient was able to return home and live with her husband while requiring only incidental assistance with activities of daily living. She was able to independently ambulate around her home with her rolling walker. Her fall risk was also reduced from initial evaluation based on several fall risk assessments, including the Four Square Step Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Timed Up and Go. This case illustrates the benefit of integrating PBR exercises into a standard SNF rehabilitation program, which may contribute to decreased fall risk.

  12. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  13. Three-dimensional shape profiling by out-of-focus projection of colored pulse width modulation fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana; Flores, Jorge L; Muñoz, Antonio; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A

    2017-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape profiling by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods is affected by the non-linearity of the projector. To overcome this problem, the defocusing technique has become an important alternative to generate sinusoidal fringe patterns. The precision of this method depends on the binary pattern used and on the defocusing applied. To improve the defocusing technique, we propose the implementation of a color-based binary fringe patterns. The proposed technique involves the generation of colored pulse width modulation (PWM) fringe patterns, which are generated with different frequencies at the carrier signal. From an adequate selection of these frequencies, the colored PWM fringe patterns will lead to amplitude harmonics lower than the conventional PWM fringe patterns. Hence, the defocusing can decrease, and the 3D shape profiling can be more accurate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented as validation.

  14. Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2009-09-10

    An actively stabilized interferometer with a constant optical path difference is a key element in long-term astronomical observation, and resolving interference fringe ambiguities is important to produce high-precision results for the long term. We report a simple and reliable method of resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer by measuring the interference visibility of a noncollimated single-frequency laser beam. Theoretical analysis shows that the interference visibility is sensitive to a subfringe phase shift, and a wide range of beam arrangements is suitable for real implementation. In an experimental demonstration, a Michelson interferometer has an optical path difference of 7 mm and a converging monitoring beam has a numerical aperture of 0.045 with an incidental angle of 17 degrees. The resolution of visibility measurements corresponds to approximately 1/16 fringe in the interferometer phase shift. The fringe ambiguity-free region is extended over a range of approximately 100 fringes.

  15. 26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... example, many fringe benefits specifically addressed in other sections of subtitle A are excluded from... vehicle is driven. An example of a comparable lease term is the amount of time that the vehicle is.... Paragraph (i) is reserved. Paragraph (j) provides a meal valuation rule relating to employer-operated eating...

  16. Ecological study of the impact of oil pollution on the fringing reef of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological study of the impact of oil pollution on the fringing reef of Ras Shukeir, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt. ... Meanwhile, the reef flat is sparsely covered by the seaweeds Dictyosphaeria cavernosa, Caulerpa serrulata, Padina pavonica, Laurancia obtusa and Cystoseira merica, whereas Sargassum dentifolium, ...

  17. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules... small percentage of the entities receiving these awards would be submitting covered proposals containing... services. * * * * * (m)(1) Fringe benefit costs incurred or estimated that are contrary to law, employer...

  18. Dynamics of a fringe mangrove forest detected by Landsat images in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Nardin, W.; Woodcock, C. E.; Locatelli, S.; Rulli, M. C.; Pasquarella, V. J.

    2016-02-01

    Mangrove forests dominate many tropical coastlines and are one of the most bio-diverse and productive environments on Earth. However, little is known of the large scale dynamics of mangrove canopies and how they colonize intertidal areas. Here we focus on a fringe mangrove forest located in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, a fast prograding shoreline where mangroves are encroaching tidal flats. The spatial and temporal evolution of the mangrove canopy is studied using a time series of Landsat images spanning two decades as well as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Our results show that fast mangrove expansion is followed by an increase in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the newly established canopy. We observe two different dynamics of the mangrove fringe: near the mouth of the rivers where the fringe boundary is linear the canopy expands uniformly on the tidal flats with a high colonization rate and high NDVI values. Far from the river mouths the fringe boundary is highly irregular and mangroves expansion in characterized by sparse vegetated patches displaying low NDVI values. We conclude that high NDVI values and a regular vegetation-water interface are indicative of stable mangrove canopies undergoing expansion, and therefore of resilient coastlines. In the Mekong delta these area are more likely located near a river mouth.

  19. Theoretical study of the properties of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive theoretical description of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes for a bicrystal specimen is given on the basis of a calculation by plane-wave dynamical diffraction theory, where the effect of the Pendellösung intensity oscillation on the moiré pattern is explained in detail. A detailed and comprehensive theoretical description of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes for a bicrystal specimen is given on the basis of a calculation by plane-wave dynamical diffraction theory. Firstly, prior to discussing the main subject of the paper, a previous article [Yoshimura (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. A53, 810–812] on the two-dimensionality of diffraction moiré patterns is restated on a thorough calculation of the moiré interference phase. Then, the properties of moiré fringes derived from the above theory are explained for the case of a plane-wave diffraction image, where the significant effect of Pendellösung intensity oscillation on the moiré pattern when the crystal is strained is described in detail with theoretically simulated moiré images. Although such plane-wave moiré images are not widely observed in a nearly pure form, knowledge of their properties is essential for the understanding of diffraction moiré fringes in general

  20. IN SITU ABIOTIC DETOXIFICATION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN THE CAPILLARY FRINGE ZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed site characterization data from the former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina suggested that the elevated Cr(VI) in the capillary fringe area had contaminated the ground water at the site. Most of the mobile Cr(...

  1. Stress Analysis of an Edge-Cracked Plate by using Photoelastic Fringe Phase Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Kim, Myung Soo; Cho, Sung Ho

    2000-01-01

    The method of photoelasticity allows one to obtain principal stress differences and principal stress directions in a photoelastic model. In the classical approach, the photoelastic parameters are measured manually point by point. The previous methods require much time and skill in the identification and measurement of photoelastic data. Fringe phase shifting method has been recently developed and widely used to measure and analyze fringe data in photo-mechanics. This paper presents the test results of photoelastic fringe phase shifting technique for the stress analysis of a circular disk under compression and an edge-cracked plate subjected to tensile load. The technique used here requires four phase stepped photoelastic images obtained from a circular polariscope by rotating the analyzer at 0 .deg. ,45 .deg. ,90 .deg. ,and 135 .deg. . Experimental results are compared with those or FEM. Good agreement between the results can be observed. However, some error may be included if the technique is used to general direction which is not parallel to isoclinic fringe

  2. Investigation on the intense fringe formation phenomenon downstream hot-image plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Wenti; Chen, Shuming

    2015-11-30

    The propagation of a high-power flat-topped Gaussian beam, which is modulated by three parallel wirelike scatterers, passing through a downstream Kerr medium slab and free spaces is investigated. A new phenomenon is found that a kind of intense fringe with intensity several times that of the incident beam can be formed in a plane downstream the Kerr medium. This kind of intense fringe is another result in the propagation process of nonlinear imaging and it locates scores of centimeters downstream the predicted hot image plane. Moreover, the intensity of this fringe can achieve the magnitude of that of hot image in corresponding single-scatterer case, and this phenomenon can arise only under certain conditions. As for the corresponding hot images, they are also formed but largely suppressed. The cause of the formation of such an intense fringe is analyzed and found related to interference in the free space downstream the Kerr medium. Moreover, the ways it is influenced by some important factors such as the wavelength of incident beam and the properties of scatterers and Kerr medium are discussed, and some important properties and relations are revealed.

  3. Land Use Land Cover Change in the fringe of eThekwini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns on urban environmental quality, increasing knowledge on impacts of climate change and pursuit for sustainable development have increased the need for past, current and future knowledge on the transformation of remnant urban fringe green ecosystems. Using land-cover change modeler and a Markov chain ...

  4. Fringe proteins modulate Notch-ligand cis and trans interactions to specify signaling states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBon, Lauren; Lee, Tom V; Sprinzak, David; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Elowitz, Michael B

    2014-09-25

    The Notch signaling pathway consists of multiple types of receptors and ligands, whose interactions can be tuned by Fringe glycosyltransferases. A major challenge is to determine how these components control the specificity and directionality of Notch signaling in developmental contexts. Here, we analyzed same-cell (cis) Notch-ligand interactions for Notch1, Dll1, and Jag1, and their dependence on Fringe protein expression in mammalian cells. We found that Dll1 and Jag1 can cis-inhibit Notch1, and Fringe proteins modulate these interactions in a way that parallels their effects on trans interactions. Fringe similarly modulated Notch-ligand cis interactions during Drosophila development. Based on these and previously identified interactions, we show how the design of the Notch signaling pathway leads to a restricted repertoire of signaling states that promote heterotypic signaling between distinct cell types, providing insight into the design principles of the Notch signaling system, and the specific developmental process of Drosophila dorsal-ventral boundary formation.

  5. An efficient fringe integral equation method for optimizing the antenna location on complex bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2001-01-01

    in conventional integral equation solvers, a peaked current poses a challenging problem since it necessitates a large number of unknowns and excessive computation times. A fringe dual-surface magnetic field integral equation (F-DMFIE) that eliminates the problem of peaked currents and fields, even for impressed...

  6. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  7. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Vlist, van der A.J.; Nijkamp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  8. Western Pairie Fringed Orchid: Its Status, Ecology, and in Vitro Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna Sharma; J. W. Van Sambeek; Christopher J. Starbuck

    2002-01-01

    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles), listed in 1989 as federally threatened, has been extirpated from 75% of historic sites throughout its range. We describe (a) threats to the orchid; (b) seed germination on synthetic medium; and (c) in vitro germination with mycorrhizal fungi. Destruction of prairies for...

  9. Laboratory Study of Wind Effect on Runup over Fringing Reefs. Report 1. Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G; Ward, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    .... The study objectives were two-fold: to quantify wind effects on wave runup on fringing reefs of the Pacific Island of Guam and to obtain detailed wave data along a complex reef system consisting of steep slopes and shallow areas...

  10. Mapping landscape service provision of cropland in the urban fringe : the case of Wuhan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, T.; Koomen, E.; Ke, X.

    2016-01-01

    People benefit from cropland through food production and a variety of environmental and recreational benefits. However, the provision of the different functions offered by agricultural landscape deteriorates as a consequence of ongoing urban development, especially in urban fringe. To help define

  11. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  12. Control bandwidth improvements in GRAVITY fringe tracker by switching to a synchronous real time computer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Dembet, Roderick; Lacour, Sylvestre; di Lieto, Nicola; Woillez, Julien; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fedou, Pierre; Phan Duc, Than

    2016-08-01

    The new VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 1 instrument GRAVITY5, 22, 23 is equipped with a fringe tracker16 able to stabilize the K-band fringes on six baselines at the same time. It has been designed to achieve a performance for average seeing conditions of a residual OPD (Optical Path Difference) lower than 300 nm with objects brighter than K = 10. The control loop implementing the tracking is composed of a four stage real time computer system compromising: a sensor where the detector pixels are read in and the OPD and GD (Group Delay) are calculated; a controller receiving the computed sensor quantities and producing commands for the piezo actuators; a concentrator which combines both the OPD commands with the real time tip/tilt corrections offloading them to the piezo actuator; and finally a Kalman15 parameter estimator. This last stage is used to monitor current measurements over a window of few seconds and estimate new values for the main Kalman15 control loop parameters. The hardware and software implementation of this design runs asynchronously and communicates the four computers for data transfer via the Reflective Memory Network3. With the purpose of improving the performance of the GRAVITY5, 23 fringe tracking16, 22 control loop, a deviation from the standard asynchronous communication mechanism has been proposed and implemented. This new scheme operates the four independent real time computers involved in the tracking loop synchronously using the Reflective Memory Interrupts2 as the coordination signal. This synchronous mechanism had the effect of reducing the total pure delay of the loop from 3.5 [ms] to 2.0 [ms] which then translates on a better stabilization of the fringes as the bandwidth of the system is substantially improved. This paper will explain in detail the real time architecture of the fringe tracker in both is synchronous and synchronous implementation. The achieved improvements on reducing the delay via this mechanism will be

  13. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  14. FIMBRIN1 Is Involved in Lily Pollen Tube Growth by Stabilizing the Actin Fringe[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-01-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes. PMID:23150633

  15. Fringe Controls Naïve CD4+T Cells Differentiation through Modulating Notch Signaling in Asthmatic Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4+T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4+T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4+T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4+T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma. PMID:23071776

  16. Fringe controls naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through modulating notch signaling in asthmatic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4(+)T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma.

  17. Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

  18. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  19. Distribution of aerobic motile and non-motile bacteria within the capillary fringe of silica sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Daniel; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-02-01

    Retention of bacterial cells as "particles" by silica sand during formation of a capillary fringe (CF) and the influence of motility was examined with motile Pseudomonas putida and non-motile Corynebacterium glutamicum suspensions in the absence of nutrients. The fractional retention of C. glutamicum cells at all regions of the CF was higher than for P. putida cells, most probably due to the motility of P. putida. Only about 5% of P. putida cells and almost no C. glutamicum cells reached the upper end of a CF of 10 cm height. With cell suspensions of P. putida and C. glutamicum in nutrient broth the development of a CF in silica sand fractions of 355-710 microm and 710-1000 microm respectively, was finished after about 6 h. Growth of cells proceeded for about 6 days. P. putida formed a biofilm on silica grains, whereas no attachment of C. glutamicum on silica sand occurred. Relative cell densities of C. glutamicum on the bottom and in the upper regions of the CF were always lower than those of P. putida and were also lower than those reached in suspended cultures with the same medium. In coarse sand the motile P. putida cells reached significantly higher cell densities in upper CF regions than in fine sand. Growth of C. glutamicum in the CF apparently was slower and a higher proportion of the energy was required for maintenance. Whereas cell densities of P. putida, in CFs of both sand fractions, varied less than one order of magnitude, those of C. glutamicum varied in a wider range from the basis to the top of the CF. Analyses of the esterase activity of P. putida and C. glutamicum with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) revealed that the cells in higher CF regions were significantly more active than those at the bottom of the CF. Furthermore, a significant correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.01) between cells ml(-1) and the FDA conversion to fluorescein was found. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical analysis of trajectories and aberrations of a Wien filter including the effect of fringing fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Makoto; Tsuno, Katsushige

    1990-12-01

    Trajectory equations of a stigmatic Wien filter including the effects of unmatched fringing fields are formulated, and an optimum shape with minimum geometrical aberrations is described. A low-aberration Wien filter is realized under the following conditions: (1) electric and magnetic fields satisfy the orthogonal relation even in the off-axial region, and (2) gap lengths between electrodes and magnetic poles are the same for achieving the balancing condition of electric and magnetic forces in fringing regions. The former condition can be realized by both fields with finite but the same hexapole components; this fact enables us to design a filter with simplified geometry that fulfills the latter condition simultaneously. It is shown that a large deflection of trajectories and resultant aberrations appear if the gap lengths are set to be different.

  1. Tailored Fringed Platforms Produced by Laser Interference for Aligned Neural Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Ramón J; González-Mayorga, Ankor; Gutiérrez, María C; García-Rama, Concepción; Afonso, Carmen N; Serrano, María C

    2016-02-01

    Ordering neural cells is of interest for the development of neural interfaces. The aim of this work is to demonstrate an easy-to-use, versatile, and cost/time effective laser-based approach for producing platforms that promote oriented neural growth. We use laser interferometry to generate fringed channels with topography on partially reduced graphene oxide layers as a proof-of-concept substrate. We study cell adhesion, morphology, viability, and differentiation in cultures of embryonic neural progenitor cells on platforms with a 9.4 μm period. Results evidence that fringed platforms significantly promote neurite alignment (≈50% at 6 d), while preserving viability and neural differentiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. EFFECT OF DIGITAL FRINGE PROJECTION PARAMETERS ON 3D RECONSTRUCTION ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaei

    2013-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate different parameters which affect the accuracy of the final results. For this purpose, some test were designed and implemented. These tests assess the number of phase shifts, spatial frequency of the fringe pattern, light condition, noise level of images, and the color and material of target objects on the quality of resulted phase map. The evaluation results demonstrate that digital fringe projection method is capable of obtaining depth map of complicated object with high accuracy. The contrast test results showed that this method is able to work under different ambient light condition; although at places with high light condition will not work properly. The results of implementation on different objects with various materials, color and shapes demonstrate the high capability of this method of 3D reconstruction.

  3. A fringe projector-based study of the Brighter-Fatter Effect in LSST CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, W.; Nomerotski, A.; Takacs, P.

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope for Dark Energy science requires a detailed understanding of CCD sensor effects. One such sensor effect is the Point Spread Function (PSF) increasing with flux, alternatively called the `Brighter-Fatter Effect.' In this work a novel approach was tested to perform the PSF measurements in the context of the Brighter-Fatter Effect employing a Michelson interferometer to project a sinusoidal fringe pattern onto the CCD. The Brighter-Fatter effect predicts that the fringe pattern should become asymmetric in the intensity pattern as the brighter peaks corresponding to a larger flux are smeared by a larger PSF. By fitting the data with a model that allows for a changing PSF, the strength of the Brighter-Fatter effect can be evaluated.

  4. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y

    2013-11-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Community and social responses to land use transformations in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization is one of the most important dimensions of economic, social and physical changes. It is almost a truism that the planet’s future is an urban one and that the largest and fastest growing cities are in developing countries. Approximately 25 percent of Africa’s population lived in towns and cities in 1975. By the year 2000, due to rural-urban migration and rapid rates of natural increase, 38 percent of the continent’s population lived in urban areas. The proportion is expected to increase to 47 percent by 2015 and to double by 2025, Kenya is not an exception. Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land. This land is not available within the city, but in the rural-urban fringe, for various reasons. This is partly due to low land prices, high rents at the core of the cities and legal flexibility in land use planning in the rural-urban fringe. Urban growth is already engulfing the surrounding agricultural lands and small villages. The conversion of agricultural land to residential uses is leading to the rapid transformations in the agricultural production, spatial structure, social structure, land ownership and land market in these areas. This chapter focuses on the responses/actions of the communities within Nairobi rural-urban fringe and how they manoeuvre through the consequences of changes occasioned by land conversions. It used Town council of Karuri as a case study.  The chapter is based on qualitative research approaches presents evidence on how subaltern’ actions plays an important role in creating order in an otherwise chaotic situation as a result of ‘poorly planned’ residential development. The subalterns’ actions, as evidenced by their agency, are manifested in community’s contribution and participation in provision of infrastructure and services within the Nairobi’s rural-urban fringe due to inability of formal provision by planning authorities.Le processus d

  6. Polarization modeling and predictions for DKIST part 3: focal ratio and thermal dependencies of spectral polarization fringes and optic retardance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David M.; Sueoka, Stacey R.

    2018-01-01

    Data products from high spectral resolution astronomical polarimeters are often limited by fringes. Fringes can skew derived magnetic field properties from spectropolarimetric data. Fringe removal algorithms can also corrupt the data if the fringes and object signals are too similar. For some narrow-band imaging polarimeters, fringes change the calibration retarder properties and dominate the calibration errors. Systems-level engineering tools for polarimetric instrumentation require accurate predictions of fringe amplitudes, periods for transmission, diattenuation, and retardance. The relevant instabilities caused by environmental, thermal, and optical properties can be modeled and mitigation tools developed. We create spectral polarization fringe amplitude and temporal instability predictions by applying the Berreman calculus and simple interferometric calculations to optics in beams of varying F/ number. We then apply the formalism to superachromatic six-crystal retarders in converging beams under beam thermal loading in outdoor environmental conditions for two of the world's largest observatories: the 10-m Keck telescope and the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). DKIST will produce a 300-W optical beam, which has imposed stringent requirements on the large diameter six-crystal retarders, dichroic beamsplitters, and internal optics. DKIST retarders are used in a converging beam with F/ ratios between 8 and 62. The fringe spectral periods, amplitudes, and thermal models of retarder behavior assisted DKIST optical designs and calibration plans with future application to many astronomical spectropolarimeters. The Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph with polarimetry instrument at Keck also uses six-crystal retarders in a converging F / 13 beam in a Cassegrain focus exposed to summit environmental conditions providing observational verification of our predictions.

  7. Actors and processes behind urban fringe development: Mechanism to guide urban land management. Study on Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Fahria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to analyze and resolve urban fringe problems in Dhaka by incorporating different roles and interests of actors in land development processes. The research has revealed that these different actors have different interests, norms and ideologies which are playing an active role in guiding or regulating urban land development process. This situation is deploying existing rules and regulations in form of politics and affecting urban fringe management negatively. The resea...

  8. Location choice of Chinese urban fringe residents on employment, housing, and urban services: A case study of Nanjing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingping; Hu, Pan; Zhu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Urban fringe area is the most important space for city development. It includes several complicated elements, such as population, space, and management organization. On the basis of local population attributes in the city fringe area combined with people’s movement characteristics in time and space, this article reclassifies basic public service facilities and discusses the relationship between facility layout and housing, employment, and commuter transportation. Through a questionnaire surve...

  9. Record number (11 000) of interference fringes obtained by a 1 MV field-emission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Harada, Ken; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Hiroto; Tonomura, Akira; Furutsu, Tadao; Moriya, Noboru; Yoshida, Takaho; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Kitazawa, Koichi; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2002-01-01

    An electron biprism for a 1 million-volt field-emission electron microscope was developed. This biprism is controlled similarly as a specimen holder so that it can be driven and rotated precisely and is tough against mechanical vibration and stray magnetic field. We recorded the maximum number of interference fringes by using this biprism in order to confirm the overall performance as a holography electron microscope, and obtained a world record of 11,000 interference fringes

  10. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp = 200…600 μm, porosity ε = 0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol) = 0 after t = 6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest.

  11. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    OpenAIRE

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu; Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron hydroxides). 2D-laboratory scale experiments were used to investigate the transfer of oxygen into groundwater under non-reactive and reactive conditions, at steady state and with water table fluctuation...

  12. Self-correction of projector nonlinearity in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fuxing; Xing, Shuo; Guo, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry, the luminance nonlinearity of the used projector has been recognized as one of the most crucial factors decreasing the measurement accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper presents a self-correcting technique that allows us to suppress the effect of the projector nonlinearity in the absence of any calibration data regarding the projector intensities or regarding the phase errors. In its first step, the standard phase-shifting algorithm is used to recover the phases, as well as the background intensities and the modulations. Using these results enables normalizing the fringe patterns, for ridding them of the effects of the background and modulations. Second, we smooth the calculated phase map by use of a low-pass filter in order to remove the ripple-like phase errors induced by the projector nonlinearity. Third, we determine a polynomial representing the projector nonlinearity by fitting the curve of the normalized fringe intensities against the cosine values of the smoothed phases. Finally, we correct the phase errors using the curve just obtained. Doing these steps in an iterative way eventually results in a phase map and, further, a 3D shape with their artifacts induced by the projector nonlinearity suppressed significantly. Experimental results demonstrate that this technique offers some advantages over others. It does not require a prior calibration of the projector, thus being suitable for dealing with a time-variant nonlinearity; its pointwise operation protects the edges and details of the measurement results from being blurred; and it works well with very few fringe patterns and is efficient in image capturing.

  13. Lunatic, Manic and Radical Fringe Each Promote T and B Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinghui; Kumar, Vivek; Wei, Hua-Xing; Qiu, Ju; Stanley, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Lunatic, Manic and Radical Fringe (LFNG, MFNG and RFNG) are N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify Notch receptors and regulate Notch signaling. Loss of LFNG affects thymic T cell development and LFNG and MFNG are required for marginal zone (MZ) B cell development. However, roles for MFNG and RFNG in T cell development, RFNG in B cell development, or Fringes in T and B cell activation, are not identified. Here we show that Lfng/Mfng/Rfng triple knockout (Fng tKO) mice exhibited reduced binding of DLL4 Notch ligand to CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) T cell progenitors, and reduced expression of NOTCH1 targets Deltex1 and CD25. Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of DN1/cKit+ and DN2 T cell progenitors and CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) T cell precursors, but increased frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ single positive (SP) T cells in thymus. In spleen, Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, central memory T cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, and an increased frequency of effector memory T cells, neutrophils, follicular (Fo) and MZ P B cells. The Fng tKO phenotype was cell-autonomous and largely rescued in mice expressing one allele of a single Fng gene. Stimulation of Fng tKO splenocytes with anti-CD3/CD28 beads or lipopolysaccharide gave reduced proliferation compared to controls, and the generation of activated T cells by concanavalin A or L-PHA was also reduced in Fng tKO mice. Therefore, each Fringe contributes to T and B cell development, and Fringe is required for optimal in vitro stimulation of T and B cells. PMID:26608918

  14. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness: Are they conscious and does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Price; Elisabeth Norman

    2008-01-01

    Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002) there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007) and of fringe con...

  16. Control of the Intrinsic Sensor Response to Volatile Organic Compounds with Fringing Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Swaminathan, Nandhini; Vaknin, Yonathan; Jurca, Titel; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Shalev, Gil; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-01-26

    The ability to control surface-analyte interaction allows tailoring chemical sensor sensitivity to specific target molecules. By adjusting the bias of the shallow p-n junctions in the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) chemical sensor, a multiple gate transistor with an exposed top dielectric layer allows tuning of the fringing electric field strength (from 0.5 × 10 7 to 2.5 × 10 7 V/m) above the EFN surface. Herein, we report that the magnitude and distribution of this fringing electric field correlate with the intrinsic sensor response to volatile organic compounds. The local variations of the surface electric field influence the analyte-surface interaction affecting the work function of the sensor surface, assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy on the nanometer scale. We show that the sensitivity to fixed vapor analyte concentrations can be nullified and even reversed by varying the fringing field strength, and demonstrate selectivity between ethanol and n-butylamine at room temperature using a single transistor without any extrinsic chemical modification of the exposed SiO 2 surface. The results imply an electric-field-controlled analyte reaction with a dielectric surface extremely compelling for sensitivity and selectivity enhancement in chemical sensors.

  17. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  18. 2D fringe probing of liquid film dynamics of a plug bubble in a micropipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, H F; Qiu, H H

    2009-01-01

    An extended film thickness measurement method that can obtain the liquid film thickness profile of the whole plug bubble in a capillary tube simultaneously is presented. The approach is based on a 2D spatial fringe scattering technique, where the spatial frequency of scattered fringes is a function of liquid film thickness along the micropipe. Laser sheets are used instead of the laser beams, and the width of the laser sheets can be selected to cover the whole measurement field. Capillary tubes, with inner diameters of 1.0 mm and 0.3 mm, and lengths of 125 mm and 65 mm, are used. A gas plug bubble, 2.5–20 mm long, is introduced and moves through the testing part of the tube, which is filled with water as the working fluid. The interference fringes produced by two incident laser sheets are scattered from the interface between gas and water, and captured by a high-speed camera at a speed of up to 2000 frames s −1 . The experimental results show that the improved method can obtain the liquid film thickness profile at the different times and can be used to analyze the status of the plug bubble movement in a micropipe

  19. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhi Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  20. Calibration method for projector-camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Lin, Huijing; Yao, Linshen

    2017-12-11

    By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional (3D) surfaces of micro-components. This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector-camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed. First, the initial parameters, e.g., the projector-camera rig, projector intrinsic matrix, and coordinates of the control points of a 3D calibration target, are estimated using the affine camera factorization calibration method. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system. Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable.

  1. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, G. Y.; Hofmann, H. F.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can help to increase the precision of optical phase measurements beyond the shot noise limit (SNL) to the ultimate Heisenberg limit. However, the N-photon parity measurements required to achieve this optimal sensitivity are extremely difficult to realize with current photon detection technologies, requiring high-fidelity resolution of N + 1 different photon distributions between the output ports. Recent experimental demonstrations of precision beyond the SNL have therefore used only one or two photon-number detection patterns instead of parity measurements. Here we investigate the achievable phase sensitivity of the simple and efficient single interference fringe detection technique. We show that the maximally-entangled “NOON” state does not achieve optimal phase sensitivity when N > 4, rather, we show that the Holland-Burnett state is optimal. We experimentally demonstrate this enhanced sensitivity using a single photon-counted fringe of the six-photon Holland-Burnett state. Specifically, our single-fringe six-photon measurement achieves a phase variance three times below the SNL. PMID:24067490

  2. Spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm by pre-recomposing the interference fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Bingbo; Zhong, Liyun; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-07-24

    In the case that the phase distribution of interferogram is nonuniform and the background/modulation amplitude change rapidly, the current self-calibration algorithms with better performance like principal components analysis (PCA) and advanced iterative algorithm (AIA) cannot work well. In this study, from three or more phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase-shifts, we propose a spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm with high accuracy through using the spatial orthogonal property of interference fringe, in which a new sequence of fringe patterns with uniform phase distribution can be constructed by pre-recomposing original interferograms to determine their corresponding optimum combination coefficients, which are directly related with the phase shifts. Both simulation and experimental results show that using the proposed SDO algorithm, we can achieve accurate phase from the phase-shifting interferograms with nonuniform phase distribution, non-constant background and arbitrary phase shifts. Specially, it is found that the accuracy of phase retrieval with the proposed SDO algorithm is insensitive to the variation of fringe pattern, and this will supply a guarantee for high accuracy phase measurement and application.

  3. Improvement of the fringe analysis algorithm for wavelength scanning interferometry based on filter parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Muhamedsalih, Hussam; Lou, Shan; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-03-20

    The phase slope method which estimates height through fringe pattern frequency and the algorithm which estimates height through the fringe phase are the fringe analysis algorithms widely used in interferometry. Generally they both extract the phase information by filtering the signal in frequency domain after Fourier transform. Among the numerous papers in the literature about these algorithms, it is found that the design of the filter, which plays an important role, has never been discussed in detail. This paper focuses on the filter design in these algorithms for wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI), trying to optimize the parameters to acquire the optimal results. The spectral characteristics of the interference signal are analyzed first. The effective signal is found to be narrow-band (near single frequency), and the central frequency is calculated theoretically. Therefore, the position of the filter pass-band is determined. The width of the filter window is optimized with the simulation to balance the elimination of the noise and the ringing of the filter. Experimental validation of the approach is provided, and the results agree very well with the simulation. The experiment shows that accuracy can be improved by optimizing the filter design, especially when the signal quality, i.e., the signal noise ratio (SNR), is low. The proposed method also shows the potential of improving the immunity to the environmental noise by adapting the signal to acquire the optimal results through designing an adaptive filter once the signal SNR can be estimated accurately.

  4. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2016-04-28

    In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the 'phase to 3D coordinates transformation' are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  5. Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing Algorithm for Coarse Phasing Segmented Mirror Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.

    2013-01-01

    Segment mirror phasing, a critical step of segment mirror alignment, requires the ability to sense and correct the relative pistons between segments from up to a few hundred microns to a fraction of wavelength in order to bring the mirror system to its full diffraction capability. When sampling the aperture of a telescope, using auto-collimating flats (ACFs) is more economical. The performance of a telescope with a segmented primary mirror strongly depends on how well those primary mirror segments can be phased. One such process to phase primary mirror segments in the axial piston direction is dispersed fringe sensing (DFS). DFS technology can be used to co-phase the ACFs. DFS is essentially a signal fitting and processing operation. It is an elegant method of coarse phasing segmented mirrors. DFS performance accuracy is dependent upon careful calibration of the system as well as other factors such as internal optical alignment, system wavefront errors, and detector quality. Novel improvements to the algorithm have led to substantial enhancements in DFS performance. The Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing (ADFS) Algorithm is designed to reduce the sensitivity to calibration errors by determining the optimal fringe extraction line. Applying an angular extraction line dithering procedure and combining this dithering process with an error function while minimizing the phase term of the fitted signal, defines in essence the ADFS algorithm.

  6. 3D phase-shifting fringe projection system on the basis of a tailored free-form mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Heist, Stefan; Steinkopf, Ralf; Huber, Sandra; Krause, Sylvio; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2013-05-10

    Phase-shifting fringe projection is an effective method to perform 3D shape measurements. Conventionally, fringe projection systems utilize a digital projector that images fringes into the measurement plane. The performance of such systems is limited to the visible spectral range, as most projectors experience technical limitations in UV or IR spectral ranges. However, for certain applications these spectral ranges are of special interest. We present a wideband fringe projector that has been developed on the basis of a picture generating beamshaping mirror. This mirror generates a sinusoidal fringe pattern in the measurement plane without any additional optical elements. Phase shifting is realized without any mechanical movement by a multichip LED. As the system is based on a single mirror, it is wavelength-independent in a wide spectral range and therefore applicable in UV and IR spectral ranges. We present the design and a realized setup of this fringe projection system and the characterization of the generated intensity distribution. Experimental results of 3D shape measurements are presented.

  7. Full field tomography using interference fringes casting of a non spatially-coherent extended spectrally modulated broadband light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Yoel; Epshtein, Shlomi; Harris, Alon; Yaacubov, Igor; Cohen, Yoel

    2018-01-01

    A method for full field tomographic measurements using a fully non spatially-coherent extended broadband light source and a common path interferometry is described. A layered object's is being tomographed by acquiring multiple images of the object while modulating the spectrum of the extended broadband light source. In order to overcome the non spatially-coherence of the light source, interference fringes are created by amplitude division interferometry at a focal plane of the illuminating optical system and are casted on the measured object. In addition, due to exploiting one of the object's layers as a reference layer for the interference the need for an auxiliary reference beam is avoided and inherent Full Field ;en-face; common path interferometry measurements are obtained. Another advantage is that by using spectrally modulated broadband illumination and obviating the reference beam, the requirement that the object should be used as one of the interferometer arms as in common dual beam interferometry is also avoided. This enables to relay the spectrally modulated light to illuminate the measured object which is just being imaged using a simplified imaging system while modulating the light. However, since there is no reference arm, the tomography of the object is calculated by a complex iterative algorithm where some knowledge on the object's structure is required.

  8. Spatial Recognition of the Urban-Rural Fringe of Beijing Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial identification of the urban-rural fringes is very significant for deeply understanding the development processes and regulations of urban space and guiding urban spatial development in the future. Traditionally, urban-rural fringe areas are identified using statistical analysis methods that consider indexes from single or multiple factors, such as population densities, the ratio of building land, the proportion of the non-agricultural population, and economic levels. However, these methods have limitations, for example, the statistical data are not continuous, the statistical standards are not uniform, the data is seldom available in real time, and it is difficult to avoid issues on the statistical effects from edges of administrative regions or express the internal differences of these areas. This paper proposes a convenient approach to identify the urban-rural fringe using nighttime light data of DMSP/OLS images. First, a light characteristics–combined value model was built in ArcGIS 10.3, and the combined characteristics of light intensity and the degree of light intensity fluctuation are analyzed in the urban, urban-rural fringe, and rural areas. Then, the Python programming language was used to extract the breakpoints of the characteristic combination values of the nighttime light data in 360 directions taking Tian An Men as the center. Finally, the range of the urban-rural fringe area is identified. The results show that the urban-rural fringe of Beijing is mainly located in the annular band around Tian An Men. The average inner radius is 19 km, and the outer radius is 26 km. The urban-rural fringe includes the outer portions of the four city center districts, which are the Chaoyang District, Haidian District, Fengtai District, and Shijingshan District and the part area border with Daxing District, Tongzhou District, Changping District, Mentougou District, Shunyi District, and Fangshan District. The area of the urban-rural fringe

  9. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Reduction measures against indoor air pollution due to chemical substances; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Kagaku busshitsu ni yoru shitsunai kuki osen teigen taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    Serial A-10 and A-11 reported the experimental result on a bake-out effect by using composite materials, and reduction of formaldehyde and VOC generation after bake-out of building elements such as floor and baseboard. Specific combination of composite materials and ignored rebound were pointed out. A-12 reported the study on the effects of specific building materials, draft and ventilation, bake-out, and an air conditioning system using formaldehyde-removed materials for residences in cold areas. Bake-out time too short was pointed out. A-13 reported the formaldehyde reduction effect of low-formaldehyde building materials, ventilation and scavenger based on measurement in a new residence before dwelling. Discussion was held on the use method of formaldehyde scavenger. A-14 reported the considerable removal effect of a portable formaldehyde remover using a diffusion scrubber method based on the experimental research result at high and low formaldehyde concentrations. On a question about its applicability to a space there is continuous generation of formaldehyde and a humidity problem, the speaker answered that those remain unsolved for future studies. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Object detection via eye tracking and fringe restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Hanming; Zeng, Ying; Tong, Li; Yan, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Object detection is a computer vision problem which caught a large amount of attention. But the candidate boundingboxes extracted from only image features may end up with false-detection due to the semantic gap between the top-down and the bottom up information. In this paper, we propose a novel method for generating object bounding-boxes proposals using the combination of eye fixation point, saliency detection and edges. The new method obtains a fixation orientated Gaussian map, optimizes the map through single-layer cellular automata, and derives bounding-boxes from the optimized map on three levels. Then we score the boxes by combining all the information above, and choose the box with the highest score to be the final box. We perform an evaluation of our method by comparing with previous state-ofthe art approaches on the challenging POET datasets, the images of which are chosen from PASCAL VOC 2012. Our method outperforms them on small scale objects while comparable to them in general.

  11. Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michael E.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are major marine ecosystems and critical resources for marine diversity and fisheries. These ecosystems are widely recognized to be at risk from a number of stressors, and added to those in the past several decades is climate change due to anthropogenically driven increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Most threatening to most coral reefs are elevated sea surface temperatures and increased ocean acidity [e.g., Kleypas et al., 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007], but sea level rise, another consequence of climate change, is also likely to increase sedimentary processes that potentially interfere with photosynthesis, feeding, recruitment, and other key physiological processes (Figure 1). Anderson et al. [2010] argue compellingly that potential hazardous impacts to coastlines from 21st-century sea level rise are greatly underestimated, particularly because of the rapid rate of rise. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that sea level will rise in the coming century (1990–2090) by 2.2–4.4 millimeters per year, when projected with little contribution from melting ice [Meehl et al., 2007]. New studies indicate that rapid melting of land ice could substantially increase the rate of sea level rise [Grinsted et al., 2009; Milne et al., 2009].

  12. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  13. Formation of high quality interference fringes from both sides of a suitably designed hololens in the laser Doppler anemometer measurement volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the formation of high quality, evenly spaced, undistorted fringes in the measurement volume of a laser Doppler anemometer from both sides of a suitably designed hololens. Experiments are performed for the analysis of fringes formed at the measurement volume by real time monitoring and actual fringe field analysis techniques. The results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of 66.58 % in overall average normalised standard deviations of the width of the fringes formed by the proposed imaging configuration than that of the conventional imaging configuration.

  14. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  15. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers

  16. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  17. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Formation of Informal Settlements in a Metropolitan Fringe: Seoul (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many metropolitan areas, the urban fringe is defined by highly sensitive habitats such as forests and wetlands. However, the explosive growth of urban areas has led to the formation of informal settlements in the urban fringe, subsequently threatening these sensitive habitats and exaggerating several social and environmental problems. We seek to improve the current understanding of informal settlements and their formation in the metropolitan fringe through a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the Guryong Area (GA in the Gangnam District, Seoul, South Korea. We measured the land-use and land-cover (LULC changes in the entire GA from 1950 to 2015, and then analyzed the changes in one specific land-use type defined as “spontaneous settlements”. We then combined these changes with landform and slope data in 600-m-wide bands along the gradient of urbanization. The results showed spontaneous settlements distributed in small clusters in 1975, and the growth of this distribution into larger, more condensed clusters beginning in 1985. Between 1950 and 2015, the total area of spontaneous settlements decreased, while the settlement locations shifted from the urban core to the marginal area of the GA. Meanwhile, the locations selected for spontaneous settlements moved from plain areas with slopes of 2–7%, to more steeply sloped, remote areas such as the mountain foothills with slopes of 15–30%. These results suggest that the spatial characteristics of informal settlements are shown in the degree of aggregation and marginalized trend indicated from the analysis of spontaneous settlements. Finally, we hope the spatial analysis can be used as a basis and starting point for the evaluation process of informal settlement redevelopments in other areas of Seoul, as well as in other Asian cities.

  18. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng, E-mail: xwu@uabmc.edu, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 (United States); Liu, Hong, E-mail: xwu@uabmc.edu, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  19. A 3D Optical Surface Profilometer Using a Dual-Frequency Liquid Crystal-Based Dynamic Fringe Pattern Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Joo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a liquid crystal (LC-based 3D optical surface profilometer that can utilize multiple fringe patterns to extract an enhanced 3D surface depth profile. To avoid the optical phase ambiguity and enhance the 3D depth extraction, 16 interference patterns were generated by the LC-based dynamic fringe pattern generator (DFPG using four-step phase shifting and four-step spatial frequency varying schemes. The DFPG had one common slit with an electrically controllable birefringence (ECB LC mode and four switching slits with a twisted nematic LC mode. The spatial frequency of the projected fringe pattern could be controlled by selecting one of the switching slits. In addition, moving fringe patterns were obtainable by applying voltages to the ECB LC layer, which varied the phase difference between the common and the selected switching slits. Notably, the DFPG switching time required to project 16 fringe patterns was minimized by utilizing the dual-frequency modulation of the driving waveform to switch the LC layers. We calculated the phase modulation of the DFPG and reconstructed the depth profile of 3D objects using a discrete Fourier transform method and geometric optical parameters.

  20. The apical actin fringe contributes to localized cell wall deposition and polarized growth in the lily pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. High-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection technology for three-dimensional shape precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yixin

    2014-01-10

    A high-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection system is designed. A high-speed rotating polygon mirror and a line-structured laser cooperate to produce stable and unambiguous stroboscopic fringe patterns. The system combines the rapidity of the grating projection with the high accuracy of the line-structured laser light source. The fringe patterns have fast frame rate, great density, high precision, and high brightness, with convenience and accuracy in adjusting brightness, frequency, linewidth, and the amount of phase shift. The characteristics and the stability of this system are verified by experiments. Experimental results show that the finest linewidth can reach 40 μm and that the minimum fringe cycle is 80 μm. Circuit modulation makes the light source system flexibly adjustable, easy to control in real time, and convenient to project various fringe patterns. Combined with different light intensity adjustment algorithms and 3D computation models, the 3D topography with high accuracy can be obtained for objects measured under different environments or objects with different sizes, morphologies, and optical properties. The proposed system shows a broad application prospect for fast 3D shape precision measurements, particularly in the industrial field of 3D online detection for precision devices.

  2. Fringe Field Effects on Bending Magnets, Derived for TRANSPORT/TURTLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Riley [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Blitz, Sam [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2013-08-05

    A realistic magnetic dipole has complex effects on a charged particle near the entrance and exit of the magnet, even with a constant and uniform magnetic field deep within the interior of the magnet. To satisfy Maxwell's equations, the field lines near either end of a realistic magnet are significantly more complicated, yielding non-trivial forces. The effects of this fringe field are calculated to first order, applying both the paraxial and thin lens approximations. We find that, in addition to zeroth order effects, the position of a particle directly impacts the forces in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  3. A magnetostatic calculation of fringing field for the Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chen; Fan Ming-Wu

    1984-01-01

    A boundary integral method has been used to calculate the fringing field distribution of Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake for QMG2 type of QDDD magnetic spectrograph and the experimental EFB is nearly reproduced from BIM calculation. As a further criteria, a calculation for clamped Rogowski pole but without snake is also performed and the calculated EFB shows perfect identity with the experiment. For evaluating the effect of snake quantitatively, this work also predicts the EFB values for two different positions of snake

  4. Investigation of phase error correction for digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.

  5. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  6. Location choice of Chinese urban fringe residents on employment, housing, and urban services: A case study of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringe area is the most important space for city development. It includes several complicated elements, such as population, space, and management organization. On the basis of local population attributes in the city fringe area combined with people’s movement characteristics in time and space, this article reclassifies basic public service facilities and discusses the relationship between facility layout and housing, employment, and commuter transportation. Through a questionnaire survey in Qiaobei District of the urban fringe area in Nanjing and on the basis of comparative analysis, we discuss the impact factor on the choice of housing, urban services, and the tolerance of commuting time. Our findings indicate mutual promoting and restricting connections among living, employment, and services. Workers’ living situation determines their daily behavior, such as dining, shopping, and entertainment. Furthermore, different income levels have a great influence on residents’ choices with regard to places to live and develop their careers.

  7. Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Her, Jung Hwa; Lee, Seung Hee; Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Joun Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo; Kang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2010-01-01

    A viewing angle switchable liquid crystal display associated with fringe-field switching mode is proposed. In the device, one pixel is composed of a main pixel and a sub-pixel, in which both pixels are formed to generate a fringe electric field. However, the field directions are different from each other so that in the main pixel, the fringe field rotates the liquid crystal for displaying the main image, whereas it controls only the tilt angle of the liquid crystal without rotating in the sub-pixel region. In this way, phase retardation to cause leakage of light at the off-normal axis can be generated in the sub-pixel, and by utilizing the light, the main displayed image in the normal direction can be blocked in the oblique viewing direction.

  8. Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Her, Jung Hwa; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Joun Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo [Mobile Product Development Department, LG Display Company, Ltd, Gumi, Gyungbuk 730-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Gi-Dong, E-mail: gdlee@dau.ac.k, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Electronics Engineering, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-03

    A viewing angle switchable liquid crystal display associated with fringe-field switching mode is proposed. In the device, one pixel is composed of a main pixel and a sub-pixel, in which both pixels are formed to generate a fringe electric field. However, the field directions are different from each other so that in the main pixel, the fringe field rotates the liquid crystal for displaying the main image, whereas it controls only the tilt angle of the liquid crystal without rotating in the sub-pixel region. In this way, phase retardation to cause leakage of light at the off-normal axis can be generated in the sub-pixel, and by utilizing the light, the main displayed image in the normal direction can be blocked in the oblique viewing direction.

  9. A far-infrared Michelson interferometer for tokamak electron density measurements using computer-generated reference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, P.A.; Stimson, P.A.; Falconer, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    A simple far-infrared interferometer which uses the 394 μm laser line from optically-pumped formic acid vapour to measure tokamak electron density is described. This interferometer is unusual in requiring only one detector and a single probing beam since reference fringes during the plasma shot are obtained by computer interpolation between the fringes observed immediately before and after the shot. Electron density has been measured with a phase resolution corresponding to + - 1/20 wavelength fringe shift, which is equivalent to a central density resolution of + - 0.1 x 10 19 m -3 for an assumed parabolic density distribution in a plasma of diameter of 0.2 m, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ms. (author)

  10. Anacostia River fringe wetlands restoration project: final report for the five-year monitoring program (2003 through 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Cairn C.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2009-01-01

    The 6-hectare (ha) freshwater tidal Anacostia River Fringe Wetlands (Fringe Wetlands) were reconstructed along the mainstem of the Anacostia River in Washington, DC (Photograph 1, Figure 1) during the summer of 2003. The Fringe Wetlands consist of two separate planting cells. Fringe A, located adjacent to Lower Kingman Island, on the west bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 1.6 ha; Fringe B, located on the east bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 4.4 ha. This project is the third in a series of freshwater tidal wetland reconstructions on the Anacostia River designed and implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District and District Department of the Environment (DDOE) on lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS). The first was Kenilworth Marsh, reconstructed in 1993 (Syphax and Hammerschlag 2005); the second was Kingman Marsh, reconstructed in 2000 (Hammerschlag et al. 2006). Kenilworth and Kingman were both constructed in low-energy backwaters of the Anacostia. However, the Fringe Wetlands, which were constructed on two pre-existing benches along the high-energy mainstem, required sheet piling to provide protection from erosive impacts of increased flow and volume of water associated with storm events during the establishment phase (Photograph 2). All three projects required the placement of dredged sediment materials to increase elevations enough to support emergent vegetation (Photograph 3). The purpose of all three wetland reconstruction projects was to restore pieces of the once extensive tidal freshwater marsh habitat that bordered the Anacostia River historically, prior to the dredge and fill operations and sea wall installation that took place there in the early to mid-1900's (Photograph 4).

  11. Micro/Nano-scale Strain Distribution Measurement from Sampling Moiré Fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-05-23

    This work describes the measurement procedure and principles of a sampling moiré technique for full-field micro/nano-scale deformation measurements. The developed technique can be performed in two ways: using the reconstructed multiplication moiré method or the spatial phase-shifting sampling moiré method. When the specimen grid pitch is around 2 pixels, 2-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated to reconstruct a multiplication moiré pattern for a deformation measurement. Both the displacement and strain sensitivities are twice as high as in the traditional scanning moiré method in the same wide field of view. When the specimen grid pitch is around or greater than 3 pixels, multi-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated, and a spatial phase-shifting technique is combined for a full-field deformation measurement. The strain measurement accuracy is significantly improved, and automatic batch measurement is easily achievable. Both methods can measure the two-dimensional (2D) strain distributions from a single-shot grid image without rotating the specimen or scanning lines, as in traditional moiré techniques. As examples, the 2D displacement and strain distributions, including the shear strains of two carbon fiber-reinforced plastic specimens, were measured in three-point bending tests. The proposed technique is expected to play an important role in the non-destructive quantitative evaluations of mechanical properties, crack occurrences, and residual stresses of a variety of materials.

  12. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-12-23

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given.

  13. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  14. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  15. DESIGN NOTE: Using the fringing fields of a hemispherical spectrograph to improve its energy resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouros, T. J. M.; Sise, Omer; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut

    2006-12-01

    The energy resolution of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) can be substantially improved by using its entry fringing fields advantageously, rather than trying to eliminate them—the traditional approach. The intrinsic lensing properties of these fringing fields, as shown in simulations, are able to not only restore, but even improve first-order focusing at the 180° deflection plane in a controlled way, without the use of any additional field correction electrodes. This is accomplished by changing the entry radius R0 and bias \\widetilde{V}(R_0) from their conventional values of R_0=\\overline{R} , the mean radius \\overline{R}= (R_1+R_2)/2 and \\widetilde{V}(R_0)=0 to new values R_0\\gt\\overline{R} with \\widetilde{V}(R_0)impressive resolution gains that can be attained, 34 for a point entry (Δr0 = 0) and 4.2 for an aperture diameter of Δr0 = 1 mm, over corresponding conventional entry conditions.

  16. An improved phase shift reconstruction algorithm of fringe scanning technique for X-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, S.; Yang, H., E-mail: yang.haiquan@gmail.com [Midorino Research Corporation, 5-15-13 Chuo Rinkan Nishi, Yamato, Kanagawa 242-0008 (Japan); Kudo, H. [Division of Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Momose, A.; Yashiro, W. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The X-ray phase imaging method has been applied to observe soft biological tissues, and it is possible to image the soft tissues by using the benefit of the so-called “Talbot effect” by an X-ray grating. One type of the X-ray phase imaging method was reported by combining an X-ray imaging microscope equipped by a Fresnel zone plate with a phase grating. Using the fringe scanning technique, a high-precision phase shift image could be obtained by displacing the grating step by step and measuring dozens of sample images. The number of the images was selected to reduce the error caused by the non-sinusoidal component of the Talbot self-image at the imaging plane. A larger number suppressed the error more but increased radiation exposure and required higher mechanical stability of equipment. In this paper, we analyze the approximation error of fringe scanning technique for the X-ray microscopy which uses just one grating and proposes an improved algorithm. We compute the approximation error by iteration and substitute that into the process of reconstruction of phase shift. This procedure will suppress the error even with few sample images. The results of simulation experiments show that the precision of phase shift image reconstructed by the proposed algorithm with 4 sample images is almost the same as that reconstructed by the conventional algorithm with 40 sample images. We also have succeeded in the experiment with real data.

  17. Physical interpretation of the fringe shift measured on Michelson interferometer in optical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demjanov, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The shift of the interference fringe in the Michelson interferometer is absent in vacuum but present in measurements performed in dielectric media with the refractive index greater than unity. This experimental observation induced me to interpret physical processes occurred in the Michelson interferometer in a conceptually new way. I rejected the generally accepted additive rule c±v for composition of the velocity v of the inertial body and the speed c of light as inapplicable in principle to non-inertial objects which electromagnetic waves just belong to. I used instead the non-relativistic formula of Fresnel for drag of light by a moving optical medium. This formula, and taking into account the physical effect of Lorentz contraction of the arm of interferometer, enabled me to construct the theoretical model that reproduces in essential features the parabolic dependence of the shift of the interference fringe on the dielectric permittivity of the light-carrying material. The Earth's speed relative to aether found from the experimental curve was estimated as 140-480 km/s. The range of the values refers to the projection of the speed on the horizontal plane of the experimental setup measured at various time of day and night.

  18. Increased interference fringe visibility from the post-fabrication heat treatment of a perfect crystal silicon neutron interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, B; Arif, M; Cory, D G; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Haun, R; Huber, M G; Jamer, M E; Nsofini, J; Pushin, D A; Sarenac, D; Taminiau, I; Young, A R

    2018-02-01

    We find that annealing a previously chemically etched interferometer at 800 °C dramatically increased the interference fringe visibility from 23% to 90%. The Bragg plane misalignments were also measured before and after annealing using neutron rocking curves, showing that Bragg plane alignment was improved across the interferometer after annealing. This suggests that current interferometers with low fringe visibility may be salvageable and that annealing may become an important step in the fabrication process of future neutron interferometers, leading to less need for chemical etching and larger more exotic neutron interferometers.

  19. Increased interference fringe visibility from the post-fabrication heat treatment of a perfect crystal silicon neutron interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, B.; Arif, M.; Cory, D. G.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Haun, R.; Huber, M. G.; Jamer, M. E.; Nsofini, J.; Pushin, D. A.; Sarenac, D.; Taminiau, I.; Young, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    We find that annealing a previously chemically etched interferometer at 800 °C dramatically increased the interference fringe visibility from 23% to 90%. The Bragg plane misalignments were also measured before and after annealing using neutron rocking curves, showing that Bragg plane alignment was improved across the interferometer after annealing. This suggests that current interferometers with low fringe visibility may be salvageable and that annealing may become an important step in the fabrication process of future neutron interferometers, leading to less need for chemical etching and larger more exotic neutron interferometers.

  20. Computational tool for phase-shift calculation in an interference pattern by fringe displacements based on a skeletonized image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Pico-Gonzalez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript an algorithm based on a graphic user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB for an automatic phase-shifting estimation between two digitalized interferograms is presented. The proposed algorithm finds the midpoint locus of the dark and bright interference fringes in two skeletonized fringe patterns and relates their displacements with the corresponding phase-shift. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed GUI, its application to simulated and experimental interference patterns will be shown. The viability of this GUI makes it a helpful and easy-to-use computational tool for educational or research purposes in optical phenomena for undergraduate or graduate studies in the field of physics.