WorldWideScience

Sample records for fringe pattern parameters

  1. Windowed fringe pattern analyis

    CERN Document Server

    Kemao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    This book provides solutions to the challenges involved in fringe pattern analysis, covering techniques for full-field, noncontact, and high-sensitivity measurement. The primary goal of fringe pattern analysis is to extract the hidden phase distributions that generally relate to the physical quantities being measured. Both theoretical analysis and algorithm development are covered to facilitate the work of researchers and engineers. The information presented is also appropriate as a specialized subject for students of optical and computer engineering.

  2. Quality inspection of anisotropic scintillating crystals through measurement of interferometric fringe pattern parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Cocozzella, N; Majni, G; Paone, N; Rinaldi, D T

    2001-01-01

    Scintillating crystals are widely used as detectors in radiographic systems, computerized axial tomography devices and in calorimeters employed in high-energy physics. This paper results from a project motivated by the development of the CMS calorimeter at CERN, which will make use of a large number of scintillating crystals. In order to prevent crystals from breaking because of internal residual stress, a quality control system based on optic inspection of interference fringe patterns was developed. The principle of measurement procedures was theoretically modelled, and then a dedicated polariscope was designed and built, in order to observe the crystals under induced stresses or to evaluate the residual internal stresses. The results are innovative and open a new perspective for scintillating crystals quality control: the photoelastic constant normal to the optic axis of the lead tungstate crystals (PbWO sub 4) was measured, and the inspection procedure developed is applicable to mass production, not only t...

  3. Computer aided fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    The paper reviews the basic laws of fringe pattern interpretation. The different techniques that are currently utilized are presented using a common frame of reference stressing the fact that these techniques are different variations of the same basic principle. Digital and analog techniques are discussed. Currently available hardware is presented and the relationships between hardware and the operations of pattern fringe processing are pointed out. Examples are given to illustrate the ideas discussed in the paper.

  4. Fringe pattern denoising via image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shujun; Zhang, Caiming

    2012-02-01

    Filtering off noise from a fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical interferometry. In this Letter, using some suitable function spaces to model different components of a fringe pattern, we propose a new fringe pattern denoising method based on image decomposition. In our method, a fringe image is divided into three parts: low-frequency fringe, high-frequency fringe, and noise, which are processed in different spaces. An adaptive threshold in wavelet shrinkage involved in this algorithm improves its denoising performance. Simulation and experimental results show that our algorithm obtains smooth and clean fringes with different frequencies while preserving fringe features effectively.

  5. An optoelectronic system for fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Ahmadshahi, M.

    A system capable of retrieving and processing information recorded in fringe patterns is reported. The principal components are described as well as the architecture in which they are assembled. An example of application is given.

  6. Quality inspection of anisotropic scintillating lead tungstate (PbWO 4) crystals through measurement of interferometric fringe pattern parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozzella, N.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Rinaldi, D.

    2001-08-01

    Scintillating crystals are widely used as detectors in radiographic systems, computerized axial tomography devices and in calorimeters employed in high-energy physics. This paper results from a project motivated by the development of the CMS calorimeter at CERN, which will make use of a large number of scintillating crystals. In order to prevent crystals from breaking because of internal residual stress, a quality control system based on optic inspection of interference fringe patterns was developed. The principle of measurement procedures was theoretically modelled, and then a dedicated polariscope was designed and built, in order to observe the crystals under induced stresses or to evaluate the residual internal stresses. The results are innovative and open a new perspective for scintillating crystals quality control: the photoelastic constant normal to the optic axis of the lead tungstate crystals (PbWO 4) was measured, and the inspection procedure developed is applicable to mass production, not only to optimize the crystal processing, but also to establish a quality inspection procedure.

  7. Quality inspection of anisotropic scintillating lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystals through measurement of interferometric fringe pattern parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocozzella, N.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Rinaldi, D.

    2001-01-01

    Scintillating crystals are widely used as detectors in radiographic systems, computerized axial tomography devices and in calorimeters employed in high-energy physics. This paper results from a project motivated by the development of the CMS calorimeter at CERN, which will make use of a large number of scintillating crystals. In order to prevent crystals from breaking because of internal residual stress, a quality control system based on optic inspection of interference fringe patterns was developed. The principle of measurement procedures was theoretically modelled, and then a dedicated polariscope was designed and built, in order to observe the crystals under induced stresses or to evaluate the residual internal stresses. The results are innovative and open a new perspective for scintillating crystals quality control: the photoelastic constant normal to the optic axis of the lead tungstate crystals (PbWO 4 ) was measured, and the inspection procedure developed is applicable to mass production, not only to optimize the crystal processing, but also to establish a quality inspection procedure

  8. Fringe pattern denoising using coherence-enhancing diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian; Gao, Wenjing; Lin, Feng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2009-04-15

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is one of the methods measuring the displacement on object surfaces in which fringe patterns need to be evaluated. Noise is one of the key problems affecting further processing and reducing measurement quality. We propose an application of coherence-enhancing diffusion to fringe-pattern denoising. It smoothes a fringe pattern along directions both parallel and perpendicular to fringe orientation with suitable diffusion speeds to more effectively reduce noise and improve fringe-pattern quality. It is a generalized work of Tang's et al.'s [Opt. Lett.33, 2179 (2008)] model that only smoothes a fringe pattern along fringe orientation. Since our model diffuses a fringe pattern with an additional direction, it is able to denoise low-density fringes as well as improve denoising effectiveness for high-density fringes. Theoretical analysis as well as simulation and experimental verifications are addressed.

  9. Absolute phase map recovery of two fringe patterns with flexible selection of fringe wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiale; Xi, Jiangtao; Zhu, Ming; Cheng, Wenqing; Cheng, Rui; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng

    2014-03-20

    A novel approach is proposed to unwrap the phase maps of two fringe patterns in fringe pattern projection-based profilometry. In contrast to existing techniques, where spatial frequencies (i.e., the number of fringes on a pattern) of the two fringe patterns must be integers and coprime, the proposed method is applicable for any two fringe patterns with different fringe wavelengths (i.e., the number of pixels in a fringe) and thus provides more flexibility in the use of fringe patterns. Moreover, compared to the existing techniques, the proposed method is simpler in its implementation and has better antierror capability. Theoretical analysis and experiment results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Temporal fringe pattern analysis with parallel computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuck Wah Ng; Kar Tien Ang; Argentini, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    Temporal fringe pattern analysis is invaluable in transient phenomena studies but necessitates long processing times. Here we describe a parallel computing strategy based on the single-program multiple-data model and hyperthreading processor technology to reduce the execution time. In a two-node cluster workstation configuration we found that execution periods were reduced by 1.6 times when four virtual processors were used. To allow even lower execution times with an increasing number of processors, the time allocated for data transfer, data read, and waiting should be minimized. Parallel computing is found here to present a feasible approach to reduce execution times in temporal fringe pattern analysis

  11. Fringe patterns generated by micro-optical sensors for pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new result of pattern recognition generation scheme using a small-scale optical muscle sensing system, which consisted of an optical add-drop filter incorporating two nonlinear optical side ring resonators. When light from laser source enters into the system, the device is stimulated by an external physical parameter that introduces a change in the phase of light propagation within the sensing device, which can be formed by the interference fringe patterns. Results obtained have shown that the fringe patterns can be used to form the relationship between signal patterns and fringe pattern recognitions.

  12. Simplified absolute phase retrieval of dual-frequency fringe patterns in fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-04-01

    In fringe projection profilometry, a simplified method is proposed to recover absolute phase maps of two-frequency fringe patterns by using a unique mapping rule. The mapping rule is designed from the rounded phase values to the fringe order of each pixel. Absolute phase can be recovered by the fringe order maps. Unlike the existing techniques, where the lowest frequency of dual- or multiple-frequency fringe patterns must be single, the presented method breaks the limitation and simplifies the procedure of phase unwrapping. Additionally, due to many issues including ambient light, shadow, sharp edges, step height boundaries and surface reflectivity variations, a novel framework of automatically identifying and removing invalid phase values is also proposed. Simulations and experiments have been carried out to validate the performances of the proposed method.

  13. Automated Fringe Pattern Acquisition for Portable Laser Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In shearography system one of the most important tasks is the automatic, fast, reliable processing of the fringe patterns to allow real time inspection. Development of digital CCD cameras, the PC (fast and small data acquisition), high power lasers have led to dramatic performance improvements in shearography instruments and systems. This paper concentrates on development of fringe pattern acquisition using digital CCD camera for portable laser shearography system. A new program for fringe pattern processing which incorporates rapid methods for automatic fringe pattern acquisition and filtering has been developed. The algorithm is written using MATLAB. A graphical user interface with several functions was developed to ensure an easy adaptation in custom applications and providing a flexible way for additional functions. The preliminary results show that the developed algorithm can be used to generate good contrast and reliable fringe pattern. (author)

  14. Fringe pattern information retrieval using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Patimo, Caterina; Manicone, Pasquale D.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    Two-dimensional phase modulation is currently the basic model used in the interpretation of fringe patterns that contain displacement information, moire, holographic interferometry, speckle techniques. Another way to look to these two-dimensional signals is to consider them as frequency modulated signals. This alternative interpretation has practical implications similar to those that exist in radio engineering for handling frequency modulated signals. Utilizing this model it is possible to obtain frequency information by using the energy approach introduced by Ville in 1944. A natural complementary tool of this process is the wavelet methodology. The use of wavelet makes it possible to obtain the local values of the frequency in a one or two dimensional domain without the need of previous phase retrieval and differentiation. Furthermore from the properties of wavelets it is also possible to obtain at the same time the phase of the signal with the advantage of a better noise removal capabilities and the possibility of developing simpler algorithms for phase unwrapping due to the availability of the derivative of the phase.

  15. High-frequency background modulation fringe patterns based on a fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model for 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinran; Kofman, Jonathan

    2017-07-10

    A new fringe projection method for surface-shape measurement was developed using four high-frequency phase-shifted background modulation fringe patterns. The pattern frequency is determined using a new fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model that allows only two corresponding-point candidates in the measurement volume. The correct corresponding point is selected with high reliability using a binary pattern computed from intensity background encoded in the fringe patterns. Equations of geometry-constraint parameters permit parameter calculation prior to measurement, thus reducing measurement computational cost. Experiments demonstrated the ability of the method to perform 3D shape measurement for a surface with geometric discontinuity, and for spatially isolated objects.

  16. Two dimensional Fourier transform methods for fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    An overview of the use of FFTs for fringe pattern analysis is presented, with emphasis on fringe patterns containing displacement information. The techniques are illustrated via analysis of the displacement and strain distributions in the direction perpendicular to the loading, in a disk under diametral compression. The experimental strain distribution is compared to the theoretical, and the agreement is found to be excellent in regions where the elasticity solution models well the actual problem.

  17. Frequency guided methods for demodulation of a single fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2009-08-17

    Phase demodulation from a single fringe pattern is a challenging task but of interest. A frequency-guided regularized phase tracker and a frequency-guided sequential demodulation method with Levenberg-Marquardt optimization are proposed to demodulate a single fringe pattern. Demodulation path guided by the local frequency from the highest to the lowest is applied in both methods. Since critical points have low local frequency values, they are processed last so that the spurious sign problem caused by these points is avoided. These two methods can be considered as alternatives to the effective fringe follower regularized phase tracker. Demodulation results from one computer-simulated and two experimental fringe patterns using the proposed methods will be demonstrated. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  18. Two-dimensional wavelet transform for reliability-guided phase unwrapping in optical fringe pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Su, Xianyu; Tang, Feng

    2012-04-20

    This paper theoretically discusses modulus of two-dimensional (2D) wavelet transform (WT) coefficients, calculated by using two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions, in an optical fringe pattern analysis. The discussion shows that neither is good enough to represent the reliability of the phase data. The differences between the two frequently used 2D daughter wavelet definitions in the performance of 2D WT also are discussed. We propose a new 2D daughter wavelet definition for reliability-guided phase unwrapping of optical fringe pattern. The modulus of the advanced 2D WT coefficients, obtained by using a daughter wavelet under this new daughter wavelet definition, includes not only modulation information but also local frequency information of the deformed fringe pattern. Therefore, it can be treated as a good parameter that represents the reliability of the retrieved phase data. Computer simulation and experimentation show the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Robust and efficient multi-frequency temporal phase unwrapping: optimal fringe frequency and pattern sequence selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian; Tao, Tianyang; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-08-21

    Temporal phase unwrapping (TPU) is an essential algorithm in fringe projection profilometry (FPP), especially when measuring complex objects with discontinuities and isolated surfaces. Among others, the multi-frequency TPU has been proven to be the most reliable algorithm in the presence of noise. For a practical FPP system, in order to achieve an accurate, efficient, and reliable measurement, one needs to make wise choices about three key experimental parameters: the highest fringe frequency, the phase-shifting steps, and the fringe pattern sequence. However, there was very little research on how to optimize these parameters quantitatively, especially considering all three aspects from a theoretical and analytical perspective simultaneously. In this work, we propose a new scheme to determine simultaneously the optimal fringe frequency, phase-shifting steps and pattern sequence under multi-frequency TPU, robustly achieving high accuracy measurement by a minimum number of fringe frames. Firstly, noise models regarding phase-shifting algorithms as well as 3-D coordinates are established under a projector defocusing condition, which leads to the optimal highest fringe frequency for a FPP system. Then, a new concept termed frequency-to-frame ratio (FFR) that evaluates the magnitude of the contribution of each frame for TPU is defined, on which an optimal phase-shifting combination scheme is proposed. Finally, a judgment criterion is established, which can be used to judge whether the ratio between adjacent fringe frequencies is conducive to stably and efficiently unwrapping the phase. The proposed method provides a simple and effective theoretical framework to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of a practical FPP system in actual measurement conditions. The correctness of the derived models as well as the validity of the proposed schemes have been verified through extensive simulations and experiments. Based on a normal monocular 3-D FPP hardware system

  20. Phase retrieval from reflective fringe patterns of double-sided transparent objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ghosted’ fringe patterns simultaneously reflected from both the upper and lower sides of a transparent target in the fringe reflection technique are captured for transparent surface 3D shape measurement, but the phase retrieval from the captured ‘ghosted’ fringe patterns is still not solved. A novel method is proposed to solve this issue by using two sets of phase-shifted fringe patterns with slightly different frequencies. The nonlinear least-squares method is used to estimate the fringe phase and modulation from both front and rear interfaces. Several simulations are done to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The influence of fringe noise on the algorithm is studied as well, which indicates that the proposed method is able to retrieve the phase from double-sided reflective fringe patterns with fringe noise equivalent to that in practical measurements. The merits and limitations of the method are discussed and recommendations for future studies are made. (paper)

  1. Estimation of fringe orientation for optical fringe patterns with poor quality based on Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Linlin; Wu, Jian; Gao, Tao; Yan, Si

    2010-02-01

    Fringe orientation represents an important property of fringes. The estimation of orientation from a poor quality fringe image is still a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper introduces a new approach for estimating optical fringe orientation with a poor quality image. This approach is based on the power spectrum analysis of the Fourier transform. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm via application to a variety of test cases and comparison with the widely used gradient-based method and accumulate-differences method. The experimental results show that our method is capable of calculating fringe orientation robustly even when the quality of fringe images is considerably low because of high or low density, high noise, and low contrast. Under the same conditions, our accuracy is even better than that obtained with the gradient-based and accumulate-differences methods, especially for fringe images with poor quality.

  2. EFFECT OF DIGITAL FRINGE PROJECTION PARAMETERS ON 3D RECONSTRUCTION ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Babaei

    2013-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate different parameters which affect the accuracy of the final results. For this purpose, some test were designed and implemented. These tests assess the number of phase shifts, spatial frequency of the fringe pattern, light condition, noise level of images, and the color and material of target objects on the quality of resulted phase map. The evaluation results demonstrate that digital fringe projection method is capable of obtaining depth map of complicated object with high accuracy. The contrast test results showed that this method is able to work under different ambient light condition; although at places with high light condition will not work properly. The results of implementation on different objects with various materials, color and shapes demonstrate the high capability of this method of 3D reconstruction.

  3. Demonstration of a tunable two-frequency projected fringe pattern with acousto-optic deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, S.; Kastelik, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a fringe projector for three-dimensional shape measurement. The developed instrument is able to project a two-frequency fringe pattern, each frequency is independently controlled by electronics. Moreover, each phase of the two fringe patterns is also independently adjusted. The projection system is based on the use of a pair of custom large bandwidth (40 MHz) and high efficiency (60%) TeO 2 deflectors. The developed instrument offers the combined advantages of a static two-frequency fringe projector and of a tunable single frequency fringe projector

  4. Decorrelation and fringe visibility: On the limiting behavior of varous electronic speckle pattern correlation interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the behavior of fringe formation in image-plane electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers as the limit of total decorrelation is approached. The interferometers are supposed to operate in the difference mode. The effect of decorrelation will be a decrease in fringe visibility...... until the limit of total decorrelation, when no fringes will be formed, is reached. A quantitative evaluation of the partially decorrelated fringe pattern is presented for the case of decorrelation due to both tilt and in-plane translation of an object surface element. It is shown that the fringe...

  5. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  6. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM using giant magneto-resistance (GMR structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  7. Computer-assisted techniques to evaluate fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1992-01-01

    Strain measurement using interferometry requires an efficient way to extract the desired information from interferometric fringes. Availability of digital image processing systems makes it possible to use digital techniques for the analysis of fringes. In the past, there have been several developments in the area of one dimensional and two dimensional fringe analysis techniques, including the carrier fringe method (spatial heterodyning) and the phase stepping (quasi-heterodyning) technique. This paper presents some new developments in the area of two dimensional fringe analysis, including a phase stepping technique supplemented by the carrier fringe method and a two dimensional Fourier transform method to obtain the strain directly from the discontinuous phase contour map.

  8. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  9. Comparative analysis on some spatial-domain filters for fringe pattern denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2011-04-20

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Noise affects further processing of the fringe patterns. Denoising is often needed before fringe pattern demodulation. Filtering along the fringe orientation is an effective option. Such filters include coherence enhancing diffusion, spin filtering with curve windows, second-order oriented partial-differential equations, and the regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe pattern filtering. These filters are analyzed to establish the relationships among them. Theoretical analysis shows that the four filters are largely equivalent to each other. Quantitative results are given on simulated fringe patterns to validate the theoretical analysis and to compare the performance of these filters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Separation of complex fringe patterns using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Krzysztof; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2012-12-10

    A method for processing fringe patterns containing additively superimposed multiple fringe sets is presented. It enables to analyze different fringe families present in a single image separately. The proposed method is based on a two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. A robust ridge extraction algorithm for a single fringe set extraction is presented. The method is fully automatic and requires no user interference. Spectral separation of fringe families is not required. Simulations are presented to verify performance and advantage of the proposed method over the Fourier transform based technique. Method validity has been confirmed using experimental images.

  11. Improvement of the fringe analysis algorithm for wavelength scanning interferometry based on filter parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Muhamedsalih, Hussam; Lou, Shan; Martin, Haydn; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-03-20

    The phase slope method which estimates height through fringe pattern frequency and the algorithm which estimates height through the fringe phase are the fringe analysis algorithms widely used in interferometry. Generally they both extract the phase information by filtering the signal in frequency domain after Fourier transform. Among the numerous papers in the literature about these algorithms, it is found that the design of the filter, which plays an important role, has never been discussed in detail. This paper focuses on the filter design in these algorithms for wavelength scanning interferometry (WSI), trying to optimize the parameters to acquire the optimal results. The spectral characteristics of the interference signal are analyzed first. The effective signal is found to be narrow-band (near single frequency), and the central frequency is calculated theoretically. Therefore, the position of the filter pass-band is determined. The width of the filter window is optimized with the simulation to balance the elimination of the noise and the ringing of the filter. Experimental validation of the approach is provided, and the results agree very well with the simulation. The experiment shows that accuracy can be improved by optimizing the filter design, especially when the signal quality, i.e., the signal noise ratio (SNR), is low. The proposed method also shows the potential of improving the immunity to the environmental noise by adapting the signal to acquire the optimal results through designing an adaptive filter once the signal SNR can be estimated accurately.

  12. Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern by using empirical wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical metrology. In this paper, we present a new method for phase retrieval from a single fringe pattern based on empirical wavelet transform. In the proposed method, a fringe pattern can be effectively divided into three components: nonuniform background, fringes and random noise, which are described in different sub-pass. So the phase distribution information can be robustly extracted from fringes representing a fundamental frequency component. In simulation and a practical projection fringes test, the performance of the present method is successfully verified by comparing with the conventional wavelet transform method in terms of both image quality and phase estimation errors. (paper)

  13. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  14. Optimal defocus selection based on normed Fourier transform for digital fringe pattern profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagara, Abel; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun

    2017-10-01

    Owing to gamma-effect robustness and high-speed imaging capabilities, projector defocusing of binary-coded fringe patterns is by far the most widely used and effective technique in generating sinusoidal fringe patterns for three-dimensional optical topography measurement with digital fringe projection techniques. However, this technique is not trouble-free. It is borne with uncertainty and challenges mainly because it remains somewhat difficult to quantify and ascertain the level of defocus required for desired fidelity in sinuousness of the projected fringe pattern. Too much or too little defocusing will affect the sinuosity accuracy of fringe patterns and consequently jeopardize the quality of the measurement results. In this paper, by combining intrinsic phase spectral sensitivities and normed Fourier transform, a method to quantify the amount of defocus and subsequently select the optimal degree of sinuosity for generating digital sinusoidal fringe patterns with projector defocusing for fringe pattern optical three-dimensional profilometry is proposed. Numerical simulations plus experiments give evidence of the feasibility and validity of the proposed method in enabling an improved digital binary defocusing technique for optical phase-shift profilometry using the digital fringe projection technique.

  15. Carrier introduction to moire pattern for automatic fringe-order distinguishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Laermann, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic procedure of pseudo-colour encoding of moire fringe orders. A carrier consisting of parallel fringes is introduced before the specimen deforms. The carrier pattern is captured by a camera and then stored in computer as a standard image. The space of the carrier fringes is distored by the strains on the specimen as it is loaded. On a certain condition, the orders of the frequency-modulated carrier still vary monotonically so that they can be easyly distinguished. Both the standard fringe-carrier and the frequency-modulated fringe pattern are transformed into two digital images, of which every fringe is encoded by one of the pseudo-colour codes corresponding to the monotonical fringe orders. At each pixel, the difference between the colour sequences of two images is calculated to obtain the fringe order of pure deformation. The moire pattern of the in-plane displacement is restored as a pseudo-colour image by whose colour-change the variation of the fringe orders is displayed. (orig.)

  16. Adaptive enhancement of optical fringe patterns by selective reconstruction using FABEMD algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Maciej

    2012-10-08

    Presented method for fringe pattern enhancement has been designed for processing and analyzing low quality fringe patterns. It uses a modified fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) for the extraction of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs) from an interferogram. Fringe pattern is then selectively reconstructed (SR) taking the regions of selected BIMFs with high modulation values only. Amplitude demodulation and normalization of the reconstructed image is conducted using the spiral phase Hilbert transform (HS). It has been tested using computer generated interferograms and real data. The performance of the presented SR-FABEMD-HS method is compared with other normalization techniques. Its superiority, potential and robustness to high fringe density variations and the presence of noise, modulation and background illumination defects in analyzed fringe patterns has been corroborated.

  17. General filtering method for electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe images with various densities based on variational image decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biyuan; Tang, Chen; Gao, Guannan; Chen, Mingming; Tang, Shuwei; Lei, Zhenkun

    2017-06-01

    Filtering off speckle noise from a fringe image is one of the key tasks in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). In general, ESPI fringe images can be divided into three categories: low-density fringe images, high-density fringe images, and variable-density fringe images. In this paper, we first present a general filtering method based on variational image decomposition that can filter speckle noise for ESPI fringe images with various densities. In our method, a variable-density ESPI fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise. A low-density fringe image is decomposed into low-density fringes and noise. A high-density fringe image is decomposed into high-density fringes and noise. We give some suitable function spaces to describe low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise, respectively. Then we construct several models and numerical algorithms for ESPI fringe images with various densities. And we investigate the performance of these models via our extensive experiments. Finally, we compare our proposed models with the windowed Fourier transform method and coherence enhancing diffusion partial differential equation filter. These two methods may be the most effective filtering methods at present. Furthermore, we use the proposed method to filter a collection of the experimentally obtained ESPI fringe images with poor quality. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  18. Single shot fringe pattern phase demodulation using Hilbert-Huang transform aided by the principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Służewski, Łukasz; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-02-22

    Hybrid single shot algorithm for accurate phase demodulation of complex fringe patterns is proposed. It employs empirical mode decomposition based adaptive fringe pattern enhancement (i.e., denoising, background removal and amplitude normalization) and subsequent boosted phase demodulation using 2D Hilbert spiral transform aided by the Principal Component Analysis method for novel, correct and accurate local fringe direction map calculation. Robustness to fringe pattern significant noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation as well as local fringe period and shape variations is corroborated by numerical simulations and experiments. Proposed automatic, adaptive, fast and comprehensive fringe analysis solution compares favorably with other previously reported techniques.

  19. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  20. Ultrafast layer based computer-generated hologram calculation with sparse template holographic fringe pattern for 3-D object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Gu; Man Ro, Yong

    2017-11-27

    In this paper, we propose a new ultrafast layer based CGH calculation that exploits the sparsity of hologram fringe pattern in 3-D object layer. Specifically, we devise a sparse template holographic fringe pattern. The holographic fringe pattern on a depth layer can be rapidly calculated by adding the sparse template holographic fringe patterns at each object point position. Since the size of sparse template holographic fringe pattern is much smaller than that of the CGH plane, the computational load can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 10-20 msec for 1024x1024 pixels providing visually plausible results.

  1. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  2. REMOVAL OF SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC FRINGES BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, R.; Judge, P. G.; Schad, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a pattern-recognition-based approach to the problem of the removal of polarized fringes from spectro-polarimetric data. We demonstrate that two-dimensional principal component analysis can be trained on a given spectro-polarimetric map in order to identify and isolate fringe structures from the spectra. This allows us, in principle, to reconstruct the data without the fringe component, providing an effective and clean solution to the problem. The results presented in this paper point in the direction of revising the way that science and calibration data should be planned for a typical spectro-polarimetric observing run.

  3. A generalization of the theory of fringe patterns containing displacement information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    The theory that provides the interpretation of interferometric fringes as frequency modulated signals, is used to show that the electrooptical system used to analyze fringe patterns can be considered as a simultaneous Fourier spectrum analyzer. This interpretation generalizes the quasi-heterodyning techniques. It is pointed out that the same equations that yield the discrete Fourier transform as summations, yield correct values for a reduced number of steps. Examples of application of the proposed technique to electronic holography are given. It is found that for a uniform field the standard deviation of the individual readings is 1/20 of the fringe spacing.

  4. Image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L2 with better performance for denoising in ESPI fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Su, Yonggang; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an image decomposition model Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 with better performance for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In our model, the low-density fringes, high-density fringes, and noise are, respectively, described by shearlet smoothness spaces, adaptive Hilbert space, and L 2 space and processed individually. Because the shearlet transform has superior directional sensitivity, our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model achieves commendable filtering results for various types of ESPI fringe patterns, including uniform density fringe patterns, moderately variable density fringe patterns, and greatly variable density fringe patterns. We evaluate the performance of our proposed Shearlet-Hilbert-L 2 model via application to two computer-simulated and nine experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with various densities and poor quality. Furthermore, we compare our proposed model with windowed Fourier filtering and coherence-enhancing diffusion, both of which are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. We also compare our proposed model with the previous image decomposition model BL-Hilbert-L 2 .

  5. Combination of oriented partial differential equation and shearlet transform for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Gu, Fan; Cheng, Jiajia

    2017-04-01

    It is a key step to remove the massive speckle noise in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In the spatial-domain filtering methods, oriented partial differential equations have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool. In the transform-domain filtering methods, the shearlet transform is a state-of-the-art method. In this paper, we propose a filtering method for ESPI fringe patterns denoising, which is a combination of second-order oriented partial differential equation (SOOPDE) and the shearlet transform, named SOOPDE-Shearlet. Here, the shearlet transform is introduced into the ESPI fringe patterns denoising for the first time. This combination takes advantage of the fact that the spatial-domain filtering method SOOPDE and the transform-domain filtering method shearlet transform benefit from each other. We test the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet on five experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with poor quality and compare our method with SOOPDE, shearlet transform, windowed Fourier filtering (WFF), and coherence-enhancing diffusion (CEDPDE). Among them, WFF and CEDPDE are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated the good performance of the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet.

  6. Three-dimensional shape profiling by out-of-focus projection of colored pulse width modulation fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana; Flores, Jorge L; Muñoz, Antonio; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A

    2017-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape profiling by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods is affected by the non-linearity of the projector. To overcome this problem, the defocusing technique has become an important alternative to generate sinusoidal fringe patterns. The precision of this method depends on the binary pattern used and on the defocusing applied. To improve the defocusing technique, we propose the implementation of a color-based binary fringe patterns. The proposed technique involves the generation of colored pulse width modulation (PWM) fringe patterns, which are generated with different frequencies at the carrier signal. From an adequate selection of these frequencies, the colored PWM fringe patterns will lead to amplitude harmonics lower than the conventional PWM fringe patterns. Hence, the defocusing can decrease, and the 3D shape profiling can be more accurate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented as validation.

  7. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong

    2008-10-01

    We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

  8. Speckle and fringe dynamics in imagingspeckle-pattern interferometry for spatial-filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Iversen, Theis F. Q.; Yura, Harold T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of laser speckles and fringes, formed in an imaging-speckle-pattern interferometer with the purpose of sensing linear three-dimensional motion and out-of-plane components of rotation in real time, using optical spatial-filtering-velocimetry techniques. The ensemble......-average definition of the cross-correlation function is applied to the intensity distributions, obtained in the observation plane at two positions of the object. The theoretical analysis provides a description for the dynamics of both the speckles and the fringes. The analysis reveals that both the magnitude...... and direction of all three linear displacement components of the object movement can be determined. Simultaneously, out-ofplane rotation of the object including the corresponding directions can be determined from the spatial gradient of the in-plane fringe motion throughout the observation plane. The theory...

  9. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Real-time determination of fringe pattern frequencies: An application to pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Piroozan, Parham

    2007-05-01

    Retrieving information in real time from fringe patterns is a topic of a great deal of interest in scientific and engineering applications of optical methods. This paper presents a method for fringe frequency determination based on the capability of neural networks to recognize signals that are similar but not identical to signals used to train the neural network. Sampled patterns are generated by calibration and stored in memory. Incoming patterns are analyzed by a back-propagation neural network at the speed of the recording device, a CCD camera. This method of information retrieval is utilized to measure pressures on a boundary layer flow. The sensor combines optics and electronics to analyze dynamic pressure distributions and to feed information to a control system that is capable to preserve the stability of the flow.

  11. Two-shot fringe pattern phase-amplitude demodulation using Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization with Hilbert-Huang pre-filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-02-23

    Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization is a very fast and efficient method for the fringe pattern phase demodulation. It requires only two arbitrarily phase-shifted frames. Images are treated as vectors and upon orthogonal projection of one fringe vector onto another the quadrature fringe pattern pair is obtained. Orthonormalization process is very susceptible, however, to noise, uneven background and amplitude modulation fluctuations. The Hilbert-Huang transform based preprocessing is proposed to enhance fringe pattern phase demodulation by filtering out the spurious noise and background illumination and performing fringe normalization. The Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process error analysis is provided and its filtering-expanded capabilities are corroborated analyzing DSPI fringes and performing amplitude demodulation of Bessel fringes. Synthetic and experimental fringe pattern analyses presented to validate the proposed technique show that it compares favorably with other pre-filtering schemes, i.e., Gaussian filtering and continuous wavelet transform.

  12. Quantization error of CCD cameras and their influence on phase calculation in fringe pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skydan, Oleksandr A; Lilley, Francis; Lalor, Michael J; Burton, David R

    2003-09-10

    We present an investigation into the phase errors that occur in fringe pattern analysis that are caused by quantization effects. When acquisition devices with a limited value of camera bit depth are used, there are a limited number of quantization levels available to record the signal. This may adversely affect the recorded signal and adds a potential source of instrumental error to the measurement system. Quantization effects also determine the accuracy that may be achieved by acquisition devices in a measurement system. We used the Fourier fringe analysis measurement technique. However, the principles can be applied equally well for other phase measuring techniques to yield a phase error distribution that is caused by the camera bit depth.

  13. Adaptive pixel-to-pixel projection intensity adjustment for measuring a shiny surface using orthogonal color fringe pattern projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on fringe pattern projection techniques has been commonly used in various fields. One of the remaining challenges in fringe pattern projection is that camera sensor saturation may occur if there is a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface that causes measurement errors. To overcome this problem, a novel fringe pattern projection method is proposed to avoid image saturation and maintain high-intensity modulation for measuring shiny surfaces by adaptively adjusting the pixel-to-pixel projection intensity according to the surface reflectivity. First, three sets of orthogonal color fringe patterns and a sequence of uniform gray-level patterns with different gray levels are projected onto a measured surface by a projector. The patterns are deformed with respect to the object surface and captured by a camera from a different viewpoint. Subsequently, the optimal projection intensity at each pixel is determined by fusing different gray levels and transforming the camera pixel coordinate system into the projector pixel coordinate system. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are created and used for 3D shape measurement. Experimental results on a flat checkerboard and shiny objects demonstrate that the proposed method can measure shiny surfaces with high accuracy.

  14. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  15. Nuclear emulsions for the detection of micrometric-scale fringe patterns: an application to positron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Ariga, A.; Bollani, M.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Giammarchi, M.; Lodari, M.; Pistillo, C.; Sala, S.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nuclear emulsions are capable of very high position resolution in the detection of ionizing particles. This feature can be exploited to directly resolve the micrometric-scale fringe pattern produced by a matter-wave interferometer for low energy positrons (in the 10–20 keV range). We have tested the performance of emulsion films in this specific scenario. Exploiting silicon nitride diffraction gratings as absorption masks, we produced periodic patterns with features comparable to the expected interferometer signal. Test samples with periodicities of 6, 7 and 20 μ m were exposed to the positron beam, and the patterns clearly reconstructed. Our results support the feasibility of matter-wave interferometry experiments with positrons.

  16. High-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection technology for three-dimensional shape precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Xu, Yixin

    2014-01-10

    A high-speed scanning stroboscopic fringe-pattern projection system is designed. A high-speed rotating polygon mirror and a line-structured laser cooperate to produce stable and unambiguous stroboscopic fringe patterns. The system combines the rapidity of the grating projection with the high accuracy of the line-structured laser light source. The fringe patterns have fast frame rate, great density, high precision, and high brightness, with convenience and accuracy in adjusting brightness, frequency, linewidth, and the amount of phase shift. The characteristics and the stability of this system are verified by experiments. Experimental results show that the finest linewidth can reach 40 μm and that the minimum fringe cycle is 80 μm. Circuit modulation makes the light source system flexibly adjustable, easy to control in real time, and convenient to project various fringe patterns. Combined with different light intensity adjustment algorithms and 3D computation models, the 3D topography with high accuracy can be obtained for objects measured under different environments or objects with different sizes, morphologies, and optical properties. The proposed system shows a broad application prospect for fast 3D shape precision measurements, particularly in the industrial field of 3D online detection for precision devices.

  17. Determination of displacements and their derivatives from 3D fringe patterns via extended monogenic phasor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    For 1D signals, it is necessary to resort to a 2D abstract space because the concept of phase utilized in the retrieval of fringe pattern analysis information relies on the use of a vectorial function. Fourier and Hilbert transforms provide in-quadrature signals that lead to the very important basic concept of local phase. A 3D abstract space must hence be generated in order to analyze 2D signals. A 3D vector space in a Cartesian complex space is graphically represented by a Poincare sphere. In this study, the extension of the associated spaces is extended to 3D. A 4D hypersphere is defined for that purpose. The proposed approach is illustrated by determining the deformations of the heart left ventricle.

  18. Urban expansion and transportation : the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Lue, Bin; de Roo, Gert

    2010-01-01

    A key issue in the development of China's growing megacities in the transport-related environmental costs due to rapid urban expansion. In light of this issue, the authors examine the impact of urban form on commuting patterns on the city fringe of Beijing. Based on household-survey data, the

  19. Crack displacement sensing and measurement in concrete using circular grating moire fringes and pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H. M.; Yen, K. S.; Ratnam, M. M.

    2008-09-01

    The moire method has been extensively studied in the past and applied in various engineering applications. Several techniques are available for generating the moire fringes in these applications, which include moire interferometry, projection moire, shadow moire, moire deflectometry etc. Most of these methods use the superposition of linear gratings to generate the moire patterns. The use of non-linear gratings, such as circular, radial and elongated gratings has received less attention from the research community. The potential of non-linear gratings in engineering measurement has been realized in a limited number of applications, such as rotation measurement, measurement of linear displacement, measurement of expansion coefficients of materials and measurement of strain distribution. In this work, circular gratings of different pitch were applied to the sensing and measurement of crack displacement in concrete structures. Gratings of pitch 0.50 mm and 0.55 mm were generated using computer software and attached to two overlapping acrylic plates that were bonded to either side of the crack. The resulting moire patterns were captured using a standard digital camera and compared with a set of reference patterns generated using a precision positioning stage. Using several image pre-processing stages, such as filtering and morphological operations, and pattern matching the magnitude displacements along two orthogonal axes can be detected with a resolution of 0.05 mm.

  20. Phase retrieval from the phase-shift moiré fringe patterns in simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Bie, Shuyou; Dou, Yimeng; Ni, Ruihu; Yuan, Qun

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (SDWI) could extend the measured range of each single-wavelength interferometry. The moiré fringe generated in SDWI indirectly represents the information of the measured long synthetic-wavelength ({λ }{{S}}) phase, thus the phase demodulation is rather arduous. To address this issue, we present a method to convert the moiré fringe pattern into a synthetic-wavelength interferogram (moiré to synthetic-wavelength, MTS). After the square of the moiré fringe pattern in the MTS method, the additive moiré pattern is turned into a multiplicative one. And the synthetic-wavelength interferogram could be obtained by a low-pass filtering in spectrum of the multiplicative moiré fringe pattern. Therefore, when the dual-wavelength interferometer is implemented with the π/2 phase shift at {λ }{{S}}, a sequence of synthetic-wavelength phase-shift interferograms with π/2 phase shift could be obtained after the MTS method processing on the captured moiré fringe patterns. And then the synthetic-wavelength phase could be retrieved by the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Compared with other methods in SDWI, the proposed MTS approach could reduce the restriction of the phase shift and frame numbers for the adoption of the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Following, numerical simulations are executed to evaluate the performance of the MTS method in processing time, frames of interferograms and the phase shift error compensation. And the necessary linear carrier for MTS method is less than 0.11 times of the traditional dual-wavelength spatial-domain Fourier transform method. Finally, the deviations for MTS method in experiment are 0.97% for a step with the height of 7.8 μm and 1.11% for a Fresnel lens with the step height of 6.2328 μm.

  1. Fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform: field-programmable gate array implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Abdulbasit

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a thorough discussion of the proposed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation for fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (1D-CWT) algorithm. This algorithm is also known as wavelet transform profilometry. Initially, the 1D-CWT is programmed using the C programming language and compiled into VHDL using the ImpulseC tool. This VHDL code is implemented on the Altera Cyclone IV GX EP4CGX150DF31C7 FPGA. A fringe pattern image with a size of 512×512 pixels is presented to the FPGA, which processes the image using the 1D-CWT algorithm. The FPGA requires approximately 100 ms to process the image and produce a wrapped phase map. For performance comparison purposes, the 1D-CWT algorithm is programmed using the C language. The C code is then compiled using the Intel compiler version 13.0. The compiled code is run on a Dell Precision state-of-the-art workstation. The time required to process the fringe pattern image is approximately 1 s. In order to further reduce the execution time, the 1D-CWT is reprogramed using Intel Integrated Primitive Performance (IPP) Library Version 7.1. The execution time was reduced to approximately 650 ms. This confirms that at least sixfold speedup was gained using FPGA implementation over a state-of-the-art workstation that executes heavily optimized implementation of the 1D-CWT algorithm.

  2. Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian

    2016-01-01

    The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM. (paper)

  3. Optimal fringe angle selection for digital fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song

    2013-10-10

    Existing digital fringe projection (DFP) systems mainly use either horizontal or vertical fringe patterns for three-dimensional shape measurement. This paper reveals that these two fringe directions are usually not optimal where the phase change is the largest to a given depth variation. We propose a novel and efficient method to determine the optimal fringe angle by projecting a set of horizontal and vertical fringe patterns onto a step-height object and by further analyzing two resultant phase maps. Experiments demonstrate the existence of the optimal angle and the success of the proposed optimal angle determination method.

  4. Virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination based on iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Duo; Wang, Zhangying; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-01-01

    Fringe projection profilometry has been widely applied in many fields. To set up an ideal measuring system, a virtual fringe projection technique has been studied to assist in the design of hardware configurations. However, existing virtual fringe projection systems use parallel illumination and have a fixed optical framework. This paper presents a virtual fringe projection system with nonparallel illumination. Using an iterative method to calculate intersection points between rays and reference planes or object surfaces, the proposed system can simulate projected fringe patterns and captured images. A new explicit calibration method has been presented to validate the precision of the system. Simulated results indicate that the proposed iterative method outperforms previous systems. Our virtual system can be applied to error analysis, algorithm optimization, and help operators to find ideal system parameter settings for actual measurements. (paper)

  5. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  6. In vivo visualization method by absolute blood flow velocity based on speckle and fringe pattern using two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki, E-mail: kyouden@nc-toyama.ac.jp; Naruki, Shoji; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Momose, Noboru; Homae, Tomotaka; Hachiga, Tadashi [National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 1-2 Ebie-Neriya, Imizu, Toyama 933-0293 (Japan); Ishida, Hiroki [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Andoh, Tsugunobu [Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takada, Yogo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    Two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (two-beam MLDV) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide an image of two-dimensional blood flow and has potential for observing cancer as previously demonstrated in a mouse model. In two-beam MLDV, the blood flow velocity can be estimated from red blood cells passing through a fringe pattern generated in the skin. The fringe pattern is created at the intersection of two beams in conventional LDV and two-beam MLDV. Being able to choose the depth position is an advantage of two-beam MLDV, and the position of a blood vessel can be identified in a three-dimensional space using this technique. Initially, we observed the fringe pattern in the skin, and the undeveloped or developed speckle pattern generated in a deeper position of the skin. The validity of the absolute velocity value detected by two-beam MLDV was verified while changing the number of layers of skin around a transparent flow channel. The absolute velocity value independent of direction was detected using the developed speckle pattern, which is created by the skin construct and two beams in the flow channel. Finally, we showed the relationship between the signal intensity and the fringe pattern, undeveloped speckle, or developed speckle pattern based on the skin depth. The Doppler signals were not detected at deeper positions in the skin, which qualitatively indicates the depth limit for two-beam MLDV.

  7. Microstructure imaging of the YBCO thin film/MgO substrate interface: HRTEM and Fourier analysis of the Moire fringe pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzary, S.; Pailloux, F.; Denanot, M.F.; Gaboriaud, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed microstructural aspects of the interface between YBaCuO thin films and MgO substrate are studied by means of a Fourier analysis of Moire fringe pattern obtained from HRTEM investigations of plan view samples. The main features of the observations are large, well oriented crystallographic domains surrounded by wide boundaries. HRTEM investigations together with the Fourier analysis show evidence of both orthorhombic and pseudo-tetragonal structure in the YBaCuO film. An accommodation mechanism is suggested from the Fourier analysis of the Moire fringe pattern. (orig.)

  8. Determination of Stress Intensity Factor K1 from Two Fringe Orders by Fringe Multiplication and Sharpening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Stress intensity factor is one of the most important parameters in fracture mechanics. Both the stress field distribution and the crack propagation are closely related to these parameters. Due to the complexity of actual engineering problems, it is difficult to calculate the stress intensity factor by theoretical formulation, so photoelasticity method is a good choice. In this paper, modified two parameter method is employed to calculate stress intensity factor for opening mode by using data from more than one photoelastic fringe loop. For getting accurate experiment results, the initial fringes are doubled and sharpened by digital image programs from the fringe patterns obtained by a CCD camera. Photoelastic results are compared with those obtained by the use of empirical equation and FEM. Good agreement shows that the methods utilized in experiments are considerably reliable. The photoelastic experiment can be used for bench mark in theoretical study and other experiments

  9. The Hide-and-Seek of Grain Boundaries from Moiré Pattern Fringe of Two-Dimensional Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwa; Kim, Kwanpyo; Lee, Zonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) commonly exist in crystalline materials and affect various properties of materials. The facile identification of GBs is one of the significant requirements for systematical study of polycrystalline materials including recently emerging two-dimensional materials. Previous observations of GBs have been performed by various tools including high resolution transmission electron microscopy. However, a method to easily identify GBs, especially in the case of low-angle GBs, has not yet been well established. In this paper, we choose graphene bilayers with a GB as a model system and investigate the effects of interlayer rotations to the identification of GBs. We provide a critical condition between adjacent moiré fringe spacings, which determines the possibility of GB recognition. In addition, for monolayer graphene with a grain boundary, we demonstrate that low-angle GBs can be distinguished easily by inducing moiré patterns deliberately with an artificial reference overlay. PMID:26216628

  10. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Tessler, Nir; Einziger, Pinchas D.; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  11. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Ariel, E-mail: ariel.epstein@utoronto.ca; Tessler, Nir, E-mail: nir@ee.technion.ac.il; Einziger, Pinchas D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Roberts, Matthew, E-mail: mroberts@cdtltd.co.uk [Cambridge Display Technology Ltd, Building 2020, Cambourne Business Park, Cambourne, Cambridgeshire CB23 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-14

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  12. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  13. Phase unwrapping algorithm based on multi-frequency fringe projection and fringe background for fringe projection profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Ma, Yueyang

    2015-01-01

    A phase unwrapping algorithm specially designed for the phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is proposed. It combines a revised dual-frequency fringe projectionalgorithm and a proposed fringe background based quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (FB-QGPUA). Phase demodulated from the high-frequency fringe patterns is partially unwrapped by that demodulated from the low-frequency ones. Then FB-QGPUA is adopted to further unwrap the partially unwrapped phase. Influences of the phase error on the measurement are researched. Strategy to select the fringe pitch is given. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is very robust and efficient. (paper)

  14. Principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-11-01

    Fringe tracking is one of the most straightforward techniques for analyzing a single fringe pattern. This work presents a principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique. It uses Gaussian derivatives for estimating fringe gradients and uses hysteresis thresholding for segmenting singular points, thus improving the principal component analysis method. Using it allows us to estimate the principal vectors of fringes from a pattern with high noise. The fringe-tracking procedure is directed by these principal vectors, so that erroneous results induced by noise and other error-inducing factors are avoided. At the same time, the singular point regions of the fringe pattern are identified automatically. Using them allows us to determine paths through which the "seed" point for each fringe skeleton is easy to find, thus alleviating the computational burden in processing the fringe pattern. The results of a numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate this method to be valid.

  15. Theoretical analysis of moiré fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Xie, Huimin; Chen, Pengwan; Zhang, Qingming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental verification of fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are presented. Fringe multiplication can be realized by enhancing the magnification or the number of scanning lines under the SEM. A universal expression of the pitch of moiré fringes is deduced. To apply this method to deformation measurement, the calculation formulas of strain and displacement are derived. Compared to natural moiré, the displacement sensitivity is increased by fringe multiplication while the strain sensitivity may be retained or enhanced depending on the number of scanning lines used. The moiré patterns are formed by the interference of a 2000 lines mm −1 grating with the scanning lines of SEM, and the measured parameters of moiré fringes from experimental results agree well with theoretical analysis

  16. Effect of quadrupole fringe fields on the tune of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Pradeep; Husain, Riyasat; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, Gurnam

    2009-01-01

    Being an unavoidable part in a real magnet design, fringe fields of different kind of magnets have various effects on the beam parameters of the storage ring. The fringe field of a bending magnet (dipole) generates closed orbit distortion and disturbs the dispersion function whereas the fringe field of a quadrupole affects other parameters of the ring like tune values and twiss functions. The fringe field pattern of the quadrupoles of Indus-2 was measured by the Magnet Group. The measurements were performed along the various radial tracks in a quadrupole from -30 to 30 mm in steps of 5 mm at various excitation current levels. The pattern of the gradient at these different current levels was obtained by a line fit of the magnetic field at each point. The data was used to get the effect on the tune of Indus-2. The paper describes the results of the effect on the tune. (author)

  17. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  18. Behavioural Pattern of Causality Parameter of Autoregressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...

  19. Quality-guided orientation unwrapping for fringe direction estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Denoising and demodulation are two important procedures to retrieve information from a single closed fringe pattern. Various existing denoising and demodulation techniques require fringe direction/orientation during the processing. Fringe orientation is often easier to obtain but fringe direction is needed in some demodulation techniques. A quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme is proposed to estimate direction from orientation. Two techniques, one based on windowed Fourier ridges and the other based on fringe gradient, are proposed for the quality-guided orientation unwrapping scheme. The direction qualities are compared for both simulated and experimental fringe patterns. Their application to demodulation technique is also given.

  20. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  1. Improving image-quality of interference fringes of out-of-plane vibration using temporal speckle pattern interferometry and standard deviation for piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Ching Ma; Ching-Yuan Chang

    2013-07-01

    Interferometry provides a high degree of accuracy in the measurement of sub-micrometer deformations; however, the noise associated with experimental measurement undermines the integrity of interference fringes. This study proposes the use of standard deviation in the temporal domain to improve the image quality of patterns obtained from temporal speckle pattern interferometry. The proposed method combines the advantages of both mean and subtractive methods to remove background noise and ambient disturbance simultaneously, resulting in high-resolution images of excellent quality. The out-of-plane vibration of a thin piezoelectric plate is the main focus of this study, providing information useful to the development of energy harvesters. First, ten resonant states were measured using the proposed method, and both mode shape and resonant frequency were investigated. We then rebuilt the phase distribution of the first resonant mode based on the clear interference patterns obtained using the proposed method. This revealed instantaneous deformations in the dynamic characteristics of the resonant state. The proposed method also provides a frequency-sweeping function, facilitating its practical application in the precise measurement of resonant frequency. In addition, the mode shapes and resonant frequencies obtained using the proposed method were recorded and compared with results obtained using finite element method and laser Doppler vibrometery, which demonstrated close agreement.

  2. Aggradational lobe fringes : The influence of subtle intrabasinal seabed topography on sediment gravity flow processes and lobe stacking patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Yvonne T.; Hodgson, David M.; Stevenson, Christopher J.; Flint, Stephen S.

    Seabed topography is ubiquitous across basin-floor environments, and influences sediment gravity flows and sediment dispersal patterns. The impact of steep (several degrees) confining slopes on sedimentary facies and depositional architecture has been widely documented. However, the influence of

  3. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Malaria parasite and its vectors were found to be common during transmission periods in the highland fringes of Butajira. Thus, health education about the risk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be complemented from sero-epidemiological, prospective longitudinal and retrospective studies along with metrological and ecological factors, and socio-demographic data before concluding in favour of highland malaria transmission in the area. In light of its abundance, which coincided with the malaria transmission seasons, the possible role of An. christyi as a secondary vector in the highlands must be further investigated by including blood meal sources detection.

  4. Pattern statistics on Markov chains and sensitivity to parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuel Grégory

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In order to compute pattern statistics in computational biology a Markov model is commonly used to take into account the sequence composition. Usually its parameter must be estimated. The aim of this paper is to determine how sensitive these statistics are to parameter estimation, and what are the consequences of this variability on pattern studies (finding the most over-represented words in a genome, the most significant common words to a set of sequences,.... Results: In the particular case where pattern statistics (overlap counting only computed through binomial approximations we use the delta-method to give an explicit expression of σ, the standard deviation of a pattern statistic. This result is validated using simulations and a simple pattern study is also considered. Conclusion: We establish that the use of high order Markov model could easily lead to major mistakes due to the high sensitivity of pattern statistics to parameter estimation.

  5. GPU-based implementation of an accelerated SR-NLUT based on N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Min Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated spatial redundancy-based novel-look-up-table (A-SR-NLUT method based on a new concept of the N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe pattern (N-point1-D sub-PFP is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU for fast calculation of computer-generated holograms (CGHs of three-dimensional (3-Dobjects. Since the proposed method can generate the N-point two-dimensional (2-D PFPs for CGH calculation from the pre-stored N-point 1-D PFPs, the loading time of the N-point PFPs on the GPU can be dramatically reduced, which results in a great increase of the computational speed of the proposed method. Experimental results confirm that the average calculation time for one-object point has been reduced by 49.6% and 55.4% compared to those of the conventional 2-D SR-NLUT methods for each case of the 2-point and 3-point SR maps, respectively.

  6. Aggradational lobe fringes: the influence of subtle intrabasinal seabed topography on sediment gravity flow processes and lobe stacking patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Stephen; Hodgson, David; Stevenson, Christopher; Spychala, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Seabed topography is ubiquitous across basin-floor environments, and influences sediment gravity flows and sediment dispersal patterns. The impact of steep (several degrees) confining slopes on sedimentary facies and depositional architecture has been widely documented. However, the influence of gentle (fraction of a degree) confining slopes is less well-documented, largely due to outcrop limitations. Here, exceptional outcrop and research borehole data from Unit A of the Permian Laingsburg F...

  7. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Zubair A.; Bhat, Jahangeer A.; Bhatt, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  8. Robust Fringe Projection Profilometry via Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a robust fringe projection profilometry (FPP) algorithm using the sparse dictionary learning and sparse coding techniques is proposed. When reconstructing the 3D model of objects, traditional FPP systems often fail to perform if the captured fringe images have a complex scene, such as having multiple and occluded objects. It introduces great difficulty to the phase unwrapping process of an FPP system that can result in serious distortion in the final reconstructed 3D model. For the proposed algorithm, it encodes the period order information, which is essential to phase unwrapping, into some texture patterns and embeds them to the projected fringe patterns. When the encoded fringe image is captured, a modified morphological component analysis and a sparse classification procedure are performed to decode and identify the embedded period order information. It is then used to assist the phase unwrapping process to deal with the different artifacts in the fringe images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the robustness of an FPP system. It performs equally well no matter the fringe images have a simple or complex scene, or are affected due to the ambient lighting of the working environment.

  9. Pendellosung fringes of silicon at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Y.; Eto, T.; Naruoka, H.; Lu, Z.; Okazaki, A.

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure o silicon has been examined by means of X-ray diffraction according to the Pendellosung method. Measurements of the fringe pattern were made for the 111, 220, 113, 004, 331, 224 and 333 diffractions in a temperature range 17-300 K. It is found that the value of the Debye temperature determined from the temperature dependence of the period of Pendellosung fringes is in good agreement with that in the literature except for the first three diffractions; for these with shorter scattering vectors, the value depends on specimen and, in some cases, is smaller than that in the literature and depends on the length of the scattering vector. It is also found that the fringe pattern is stress sensitive, and that the stress can be released at lowest temperatures. This phenomenon of a kind of aging is discussed in connection with a similar effect observed in the high-resolution measurement of the lattice spacing

  10. Machine Learning of the Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Trontl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR, which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy.

  11. Machine Learning of the Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    2008-01-01

    The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm, and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employ a recently introduced machine learning technique, support vector regression (SVR), which is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modeling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modeling. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, that is, complexity, speed, and accuracy

  12. Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, Nicolas; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Flamant, Pierre H

    2009-04-20

    A new concept of spectrum analyzer is proposed for short-range lidar measurements in airborne applications. It implements a combination of two fringe-imaging Michelson interferometers to analyze the Rayleigh-Mie spectrum backscattered by molecules and particles at 355 nm. The objective is to perform simultaneous measurements of four variables: the air speed, the air temperature and density, and the particle scattering ratio. The Cramer-Rao bounds are calculated to evaluate the best expectable measurement accuracies. The performance optimization shows that a Michelson interferometer with a path difference of 3 cm is optimal for air speed measurements in clear air. To optimize density, temperature, and scattering ratio measurements, the second interferometer should be set to a path difference of 10 cm at least; 20 cm would be better to be less sensitive to the actual Rayleigh-Brillouin line shape.

  13. Analysis techniques of lattice fringe images for quantified evaluation of pyrocarbon by chemical vapor infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaoling; Zhao, Hongxia; Qi, Lehua; Li, Hejun

    2014-10-01

    Some image analysis techniques are developed for simplifying lattice fringe images of deposited pyrocarbon in carbon/carbon composites by chemical vapor infiltration. They are mainly the object counting method for detecting the optimum threshold, the self-adaptive morphological filtering, the node-separation technique for breaking the aggregate fringes, and some post processing algorithms for reconstructing the fringes. The simplified fringes are the foundation for defining and extracting quantitative nanostructure parameters of pyrocarbon. The frequency filter window of a Fourier transform is defined as the circular band that retains only those fringes with interlayer distance between 0.3 and 0.45 nm. Some judge criteria are set to define topological relation between fringes. For example, the aspect ratio and area of fringes are employed to detect aggregate fringes. Fringe coaxality and distance between endpoints are used to judge the disconnected fringes. The optimum values are determined by using the iterative correction techniques. The best cut-off value for the short fringes is chosen only when there is a reasonable match between the mean fringe length and the value measured by X-ray diffraction. The adopted techniques have been verified to be feasible and to have the potential to convert the complex lattice fringe image to a set of distinct fringe structures.

  14. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near medium intense (NMI fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated. Keywords: High-power laser beam, Nonlinear propagation, Kerr medium, Small-scale scatterer, Nonlinear imaging

  15. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Qiu, Yaqiong; Li, Yang; Shi, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Near medium intense (NMI) fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated.

  16. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-o¤ between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. Empirical analysis of these topics are scarce as they require...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  17. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Nomerotski, A.; Fisher-Levine, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y 4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net ''fringe'' pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relative intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. We also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.

  18. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen ® method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen ® method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h -1 while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen ® method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen ® items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen ® method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  19. Machine learning of the reactor core loading pattern critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    2007-01-01

    The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. In this paper we investigate the applicability of a machine learning model which could be used for fast loading pattern evaluation. We employed a recently introduced machine learning technique, Support Vector Regression (SVR), which has a strong theoretical background in statistical learning theory. Superior empirical performance of the method has been reported on difficult regression problems in different fields of science and technology. SVR is a data driven, kernel based, nonlinear modelling paradigm, in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to evaluate the possibility of applying SVR method for reactor core loading pattern modelling. The starting set of experimental data for training and testing of the machine learning algorithm was obtained using a two-dimensional diffusion theory reactor physics computer code. We illustrate the performance of the solution and discuss its applicability, i.e., complexity, speed and accuracy, with a projection to a more realistic scenario involving machine learning from the results of more accurate and time consuming three-dimensional core modelling code. (author)

  20. A pattern recognition approach to transistor array parameter variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    da F. Costa, Luciano; Silva, Filipi N.; Comin, Cesar H.

    2018-06-01

    The properties of semiconductor devices, including bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), are known to vary substantially in terms of their parameters. In this work, an experimental approach, including pattern recognition concepts and methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), was used to experimentally investigate the variation among BJTs belonging to integrated circuits known as transistor arrays. It was shown that a good deal of the devices variance can be captured using only two PCA axes. It was also verified that, though substantially small variation of parameters is observed for BJT from the same array, larger variation arises between BJTs from distinct arrays, suggesting the consideration of device characteristics in more critical analog designs. As a consequence of its supervised nature, LDA was able to provide a substantial separation of the BJT into clusters, corresponding to each transistor array. In addition, the LDA mapping into two dimensions revealed a clear relationship between the considered measurements. Interestingly, a specific mapping suggested by the PCA, involving the total harmonic distortion variation expressed in terms of the average voltage gain, yielded an even better separation between the transistor array clusters. All in all, this work yielded interesting results from both semiconductor engineering and pattern recognition perspectives.

  1. Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.

  2. Calibration method for projector-camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Lin, Huijing; Yao, Linshen

    2017-12-11

    By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional (3D) surfaces of micro-components. This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector-camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed. First, the initial parameters, e.g., the projector-camera rig, projector intrinsic matrix, and coordinates of the control points of a 3D calibration target, are estimated using the affine camera factorization calibration method. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system. Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable.

  3. Closed fringe demodulation using phase decomposition by Fourier basis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    We report a new technique for the demodulation of a closed fringe pattern by representing the phase as a weighted linear combination of a certain number of linearly independent Fourier basis functions in a given row/column at a time. A state space model is developed with the weights of the basis functions as the elements of the state vector. The iterative extended Kalman filter is effectively utilized for the robust estimation of the weights. A coarse estimate of the fringe density based on the fringe frequency map is used to determine the initial row/column to start with and subsequently the optimal number of basis functions. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with several noisy fringe patterns. Experimental results are also reported to support the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  4. Fringe-projection profilometry based on two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Suzhen; Cao, Yiping

    2013-11-01

    In 3D shape measurement, because deformed fringes often contain low-frequency information degraded with random noise and background intensity information, a new fringe-projection profilometry is proposed based on 2D empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD). The fringe pattern is first decomposed into numbers of intrinsic mode functions by 2D-EMD. Because the method has partial noise reduction, the background components can be removed to obtain the fundamental components needed to perform Hilbert transformation to retrieve the phase information. The 2D-EMD can effectively extract the modulation phase of a single direction fringe and an inclined fringe pattern because it is a full 2D analysis method and considers the relationship between adjacent lines of a fringe patterns. In addition, as the method does not add noise repeatedly, as does ensemble EMD, the data processing time is shortened. Computer simulations and experiments prove the feasibility of this method.

  5. Optimized Beam Sculpting with Generalized Fringe-rate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina

    2016-03-01

    We generalize the technique of fringe-rate filtering, whereby visibilities measured by a radio interferometer are re-weighted according to their temporal variation. As the Earth rotates, radio sources traverse through an interferometer’s fringe pattern at rates that depend on their position on the sky. Capitalizing on this geometric interpretation of fringe rates, we employ time-domain convolution kernels to enact fringe-rate filters that sculpt the effective primary beam of antennas in an interferometer. As we show, beam sculpting through fringe-rate filtering can be used to optimize measurements for a variety of applications, including mapmaking, minimizing polarization leakage, suppressing instrumental systematics, and enhancing the sensitivity of power-spectrum measurements. We show that fringe-rate filtering arises naturally in minimum variance treatments of many of these problems, enabling optimal visibility-based approaches to analyses of interferometric data that avoid systematics potentially introduced by traditional approaches such as imaging. Our techniques have recently been demonstrated in Ali et al., where new upper limits were placed on the 21 {cm} power spectrum from reionization, showcasing the ability of fringe-rate filtering to successfully boost sensitivity and reduce the impact of systematics in deep observations.

  6. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jennifer L.; Shifley, Emily T.; Levorse, John M.; Mani, Shyamala; Ostmann, Kristin; Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Walker, Dawn M.; Vogt, Thomas F.; Cole, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Tight regulation of Notch pathway signaling is important in many aspects of embryonic development. Notch signaling can be modulated by expression of fringe genes, encoding glycosyltransferases that modify EGF repeats in the Notch receptor. Although Lunatic fringe (Lfng) has been shown to play important roles in vertebrate segmentation, comparatively little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development. Further, we find that despite significant overlap in expression patterns, we detect no obvious synergistic defects in mice in the absence of two, or all three, fringe genes during development of the axial skeleton, limbs, hindbrain and cranial nerves. PMID:19479951

  7. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  8. Straight, conic and circular fringes in single interferogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Interferometry is an important part of optics courses taught at the undergraduate level in universities throughout the world. It is used to explain to students the wave nature of light and is also used to measure parameters like length, refractive index, thickness of test samples and wavelength of light source, etc. The shape of interference fringes (linear, conic or circular) gives vital information about the interfering wavefronts and is used for firsthand visual inspection in optical shop testing and other applications of scientific and engineering importance. The present work describes a simple laboratory technique to generate fringes with different shapes in a single interferogram. This is achieved by using our diffraction-Lloyd mirror interferometer where two portions of the diffracted field are superimposed to generate the interference fringes. The technique is quite helpful in explaining the role of source orientation on the shape of interference fringes to students. (paper)

  9. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhi Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  10. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2016-04-28

    In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the 'phase to 3D coordinates transformation' are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  11. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  12. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1211.525... Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  13. 43 CFR 41.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 41.525 Section 41.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  14. 22 CFR 229.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 229.525 Section 229.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  15. 14 CFR 1253.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 1253.525 Section 1253.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  16. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 196.525 Section 196.525... Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  17. 6 CFR 17.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 17.525 Section 17.525 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, the term fringe benefits means any medical...

  18. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  19. 31 CFR 28.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 28.525 Section 28... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any...

  20. 29 CFR 36.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 36.525 Section 36.525 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  1. 22 CFR 146.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 146.525 Section 146.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  2. 28 CFR 54.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 54.525 Section 54.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  3. 10 CFR 1042.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 1042.525 Section 1042.525 Energy... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life...

  4. 49 CFR 25.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 25.525 Section 25.525... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  5. 44 CFR 19.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 19.525... Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or...

  6. 40 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  7. Optical fringe-reflection deflectometry with bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Li, Sikun; Zhang, Qican; Zhong, Jianxin; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng

    2018-06-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) screens are located outside of a camera's field of view in fringe-reflection deflectometry. Therefore, fringes that are displayed on LCD screens are obtained through specular reflection by a fixed camera. Thus, the pose calibration between the camera and LCD screen is one of the main challenges in fringe-reflection deflectometry. A markerless planar mirror is used to reflect the LCD screen more than three times, and the fringes are mapped into the fixed camera. The geometrical calibration can be accomplished by estimating the pose between the camera and the virtual image of fringes. Considering the relation between their pose, the incidence and reflection rays can be unified in the camera frame, and a forward triangulation intersection can be operated in the camera frame to measure three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the specular surface. In the final optimization, constraint-bundle adjustment is operated to refine simultaneously the camera intrinsic parameters, including distortion coefficients, estimated geometrical pose between the LCD screen and camera, and 3D coordinates of the specular surface, with the help of the absolute phase collinear constraint. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the pose calibration with planar mirror reflection is simple and feasible, and the constraint-bundle adjustment can enhance the 3D coordinate measurement accuracy in fringe-reflection deflectometry.

  8. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sung Woong; Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them

  9. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sung Woong [Dept. of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them.

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  11. Three-dimensional trace measurements for fast-moving objects using binary-encoded fringe projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Cho-Yo; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2014-08-20

    A fringe projection technique to trace the shape of a fast-moving object is proposed. A binary-encoded fringe pattern is illuminated by a strobe lamp and then projected onto the moving object at a sequence of time. Phases of the projected fringes obtained from the sequent measurements are extracted by the Fourier transform method. Unwrapping is then performed with reference to the binary-encoded fringe pattern. Even though the inspected object is colorful, fringe orders can be identified. A stream of profiles is therefore retrieved from the sequent unwrapped phases. This makes it possible to analyze physical properties of the dynamic objects. Advantages of the binary-encoded fringe pattern for phase unwrapping also include (1) reliable performance for colorful objects, spatially isolated objects, and surfaces with large depth discontinuities; (2) unwrapped errors only confined in a local area; and (3) low computation cost.

  12. An improved principal component analysis based region matching method for fringe direction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Quan, C.

    2018-04-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) and region matching combined method is effective for fringe direction estimation. However, its mask construction algorithm for region matching fails in some circumstances, and the algorithm for conversion of orientation to direction in mask areas is computationally-heavy and non-optimized. We propose an improved PCA based region matching method for the fringe direction estimation, which includes an improved and robust mask construction scheme, and a fast and optimized orientation-direction conversion algorithm for the mask areas. Along with the estimated fringe direction map, filtered fringe pattern by automatic selective reconstruction modification and enhanced fast empirical mode decomposition (ASRm-EFEMD) is used for Hilbert spiral transform (HST) to demodulate the phase. Subsequently, windowed Fourier ridge (WFR) method is used for the refinement of the phase. The robustness and effectiveness of proposed method are demonstrated by both simulated and experimental fringe patterns.

  13. Fringe Fitting for Coherent Integrations with the NPOI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, A. M; Mozurkewich, D; Armstrong, T; Hindsley, R; Pauls, T; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Restaino, S

    2004-01-01

    ...), which is based on fitting a model fringe pattern to the NPOI data frames. The procedure is quite computationally intensive, but gives a better estimation of the phase than the conventional method of locating the peak of the group delay power...

  14. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  15. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. PMID:28327541

  16. Inpainting for Fringe Projection Profilometry Based on Geometrically Guided Iterative Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Lun, Daniel P K

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fringe projection profilometry methods often have difficulty in reconstructing the 3D model of objects when the fringe images have the so-called highlight regions due to strong illumination from nearby light sources. Within a highlight region, the fringe pattern is often overwhelmed by the strong reflected light. Thus, the 3D information of the object, which is originally embedded in the fringe pattern, can no longer be retrieved. In this paper, a novel inpainting algorithm is proposed to restore the fringe images in the presence of highlights. The proposed method first detects the highlight regions based on a Gaussian mixture model. Then, a geometric sketch of the missing fringes is made and used as the initial guess of an iterative regularization procedure for regenerating the missing fringes. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately reconstruct the 3D model of objects even when their fringe images have large highlight regions. It significantly outperforms the traditional approaches in both quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  17. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  18. 15 CFR 8a.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 8a.525 Section 8a.525 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe...

  19. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 1317... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  20. 7 CFR 15a.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 15a.56 Section 15a.56 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.56 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of this part...

  1. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 113.525 Section... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  2. 38 CFR 23.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 23.525... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  3. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 2555.525 Section 2555.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  4. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or...

  5. 48 CFR 731.372 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 731.372 Section 731.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....372 Fringe benefits. USAID's policies on certain fringe benefits related to overseas service...

  6. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 618.525 Section 618.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  7. 24 CFR 3.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 3.525 Section 3... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  8. Deposition gradients across mangrove fringes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik Martijn; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, K.R.; Sandwell, Dean R.; Aagaard, Troels; Deigaard, Rolf; Fuhrman, David

    2017-01-01

    Observations in a mangrove in the Whangapoua Harbour, New Zealand, have shown that deposition rates are greatest in the fringing zone between the tidal flats and the mangrove forest, where the vegetation is dominated by a cover of pneumatophores (i.e. pencil roots). Current speeds and suspended

  9. Adaptive DFT-Based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Pedretti, Ettore; Bregman, Jesse; Mah, Robert W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2005-12-01

    An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) Observatory at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs) for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier-transform (DFT) calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on offline data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms), using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse. One example of such an application might be to the field of thin-film measurement by ellipsometry, using a broadband light source and a Fourier-transform spectrometer to detect the resulting fringe patterns.

  10. Adaptive DFT-Based Interferometer Fringe Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley A. Traub

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An automatic interferometer fringe tracking system has been developed, implemented, and tested at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA Observatory at Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The system can minimize the optical path differences (OPDs for all three baselines of the Michelson stellar interferometer at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier-transform (DFT calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on offline data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHz PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately 2.0 milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms, using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. The adaptive DFT-based tracking algorithm should be applicable to other systems where there is a need to detect or track a signal with an approximately constant-frequency carrier pulse. One example of such an application might be to the field of thin-film measurement by ellipsometry, using a broadband light source and a Fourier-transform spectrometer to detect the resulting fringe patterns.

  11. DLP-based 3D metrology by structured light or projected fringe technology for life sciences and industrial metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, G.; Hainich, R.

    2009-02-01

    Since the mid-eighties, a fundamental idea for achieving measuring accuracy in projected fringe technology was to consider the projected fringe pattern as an interferogram and evaluate it on the basis of advanced algorithms widely used for phase measuring in real-time interferometry. A fundamental requirement for obtaining a sufficiently high degree of measuring accuracy with this so-called "phase measuring projected fringe technology" is that the projected fringes, analogous to interference fringes, must have a cos2-shaped intensity distribution. Until the mid-nineties, this requirement for the projected fringe pattern measurement technology presented a basic handicap for its wide application in 3D metrology. This situation changed abruptly, when in the nineties Texas Instruments introduced to the market advanced digital light projection on the basis of micro mirror based projection systems, socalled DLP technology, which also facilitated the generation and projection of cos2-shaped intensity and/or fringe patterns. With this DLP technology, which from its original approach was actually oriented towards completely different applications such as multimedia projection, Texas Instruments boosted phase-measuring fringe projection in optical 3D metrology to a worldwide breakthrough both for medical as well as industrial applications. A subject matter of the lecture will be to present the fundamental principles and the resulting advantages of optical 3D metrology based on phase-measuring fringe projection using DLP technology. Further will be presented and discussed applications of the measurement technology in medical engineering and industrial metrology.

  12. Effect of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniandavar, N.; Gnanam, F.D.; Ramasamy, P.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelated effects of growth parameters on spatial pattern formation of cadmium hydroxide in agar gel medium have been investigated. The main parameters are concentration of electrolytes, pH of the medium, density of the gel, the concentration of parasitic electrolyte and the concentration of additives. The pattern formation is explained on the basis of electrical double layer theory coupled with diffusion. Using Shinohara's revised coagulation concept, the flocculation value is calculated. With suitable combinations of parameter values, dendritic growth and spherulitic growth of cadmium hydroxide crystals have been observed. (author)

  13. Adaptive digital fringe projection technique for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; He, Yunbo; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Xingjin

    2016-04-04

    It is a challenge for any optical method to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. This paper presents a new adaptive digital fringe projection technique which avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of objects that has a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Compared to previous high dynamic range 3-D scan methods using many exposures and fringe pattern projections, which consumes a lot of time, the proposed technique uses only two preliminary steps of fringe pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns, by adaptively adjusting the pixel-wise intensity of the projected fringe patterns based on the saturated pixels in the captured images of the surface being measured. For the bright regions due to high surface reflectivity and high illumination by the ambient light and surfaces interreflections, the projected intensity is reduced just to be low enough to avoid image saturation. Simultaneously, the maximum intensity of 255 is used for those dark regions with low surface reflectivity to maintain high SNR. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve higher 3-D measurement accuracy across a surface with a large range of reflectivity variation.

  14. Dispersed Fringe Sensing Analysis - DFSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Redding, David C.; Basinger, Scott A.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Spechler, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersed Fringe Sensing (DFS) is a technique for measuring and phasing segmented telescope mirrors using a dispersed broadband light image. DFS is capable of breaking the monochromatic light ambiguity, measuring absolute piston errors between segments of large segmented primary mirrors to tens of nanometers accuracy over a range of 100 micrometers or more. The DFSA software tool analyzes DFS images to extract DFS encoded segment piston errors, which can be used to measure piston distances between primary mirror segments of ground and space telescopes. This information is necessary to control mirror segments to establish a smooth, continuous primary figure needed to achieve high optical quality. The DFSA tool is versatile, allowing precise piston measurements from a variety of different optical configurations. DFSA technology may be used for measuring wavefront pistons from sub-apertures defined by adjacent segments (such as Keck Telescope), or from separated sub-apertures used for testing large optical systems (such as sub-aperture wavefront testing for large primary mirrors using auto-collimating flats). An experimental demonstration of the coarse-phasing technology with verification of DFSA was performed at the Keck Telescope. DFSA includes image processing, wavelength and source spectral calibration, fringe extraction line determination, dispersed fringe analysis, and wavefront piston sign determination. The code is robust against internal optical system aberrations and against spectral variations of the source. In addition to the DFSA tool, the software package contains a simple but sophisticated MATLAB model to generate dispersed fringe images of optical system configurations in order to quickly estimate the coarse phasing performance given the optical and operational design requirements. Combining MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks), MACOS (JPL s software package for Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical

  15. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  16. Fringe order correction for the absolute phase recovered by two selected spatial frequency fringe projections in fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Yu, Miao; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The performance of the two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods is limited by a phase error bound beyond which errors will occur in the fringe order leading to a significant error in the recovered absolute phase map. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders. Two constraints are introduced during the fringe order determination of two selected spatial frequency phase unwrapping methods. A strategy to detect and correct the wrong fringe orders is also described. Compared with the existing methods, we do not need to estimate the threshold associated with absolute phase values to determine the fringe order error, thus making it more reliable and avoiding the procedure of search in detecting and correcting successive fringe order errors. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results.

  17. Color Fringe Correction by the Color Difference Prediction Using the Logistic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Won; Park, Rae-Hong

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new color fringe correction method that preserves the object color well by the color difference prediction using the logistic function. We observe two characteristics between normal edge (NE) and degraded edge (DE) due to color fringe: 1) the DE has relatively smaller R-G and B-G correlations than the NE and 2) the color difference in the NE can be fitted by the logistic function. The proposed method adjusts the color difference of the DE to the logistic function by maximizing the R-G and B-G correlations in the corrected color fringe image. The generalized logistic function with four parameters requires a high computational load to select the optimal parameters. In experiments, a one-parameter optimization can correct color fringe gracefully with a reduced computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed method restores well the original object color in the DE, whereas existing methods give monochromatic or distorted color.

  18. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    Stephen J Pyne For the past two decades fire agencies have grappled with a seemingly new and intractable problem. Like the return of smallpox or polio, an issue they thought had vanished reappeared in virulent form. Year by year, the unthinkable became the undeniable: all across many industrial nations settlements began to burn. The earliest formal study followed the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires that swept through southeastern Australia [1]. That report remains definitive: nearly every subsequent inquiry has reaffirmed its conclusions about how houses actually burn and what remedial measures could counter the destruction [2, 3]. In many respects these insights simply adapted to nominal `wildlands' the lessons long learned for urban fire protection. Ban combustible roofing. Plug openings where embers might enter buildings. Establish defensible spaces. Provide firefighters. The larger concern was that wild landscapes and cityscapes were being intermixed in dangerous and unprecedented ways, like some kind of environmental matter and anti-matter. That mingling assumed two different forms. One was typical of developed nations with extensive wildlands in which suburban (or exurban) sprawl pushed against reserved landscapes. In 1987 researchers with the US Forest Service coined a name for this variant, the awkwardly labeled `wildland/urban interface' (WUI) or I-zone [4]. The second pattern found its best expression in Mediterranean Europe. Here agricultural lands were being abandoned, and then partially reclaimed by exurbanites [5]. The upshot for both was an explosion of fuels, houses (and communities) not built according to standard fire codes, and the absence of formal fire brigades [6]. The solution seemed obvious: install standard fire protection measures. More broadly, remove the houses or remove the wildlands. The apparitional fires would vanish as had urban conflagrations before them. In effect, define the problem as one that existing engineering, or techniques

  19. Phase accuracy evaluation for phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry based on uniform-phase coded image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhu, Qian; Zhou, Changquan; Qiao, Jiacheng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-06-01

    Phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (PSFPP) is a three-dimensional (3D) measurement technique widely adopted in industry measurement. It recovers the 3D profile of measured objects with the aid of the fringe phase. The phase accuracy is among the dominant factors that determine the 3D measurement accuracy. Evaluation of the phase accuracy helps refine adjustable measurement parameters, contributes to evaluating the 3D measurement accuracy, and facilitates improvement of the measurement accuracy. Although PSFPP has been deeply researched, an effective, easy-to-use phase accuracy evaluation method remains to be explored. In this paper, methods based on the uniform-phase coded image (UCI) are presented to accomplish phase accuracy evaluation for PSFPP. These methods work on the principle that the phase value of a UCI can be manually set to be any value, and once the phase value of a UCI pixel is the same as that of a pixel of a corresponding sinusoidal fringe pattern, their phase accuracy values are approximate. The proposed methods provide feasible approaches to evaluating the phase accuracy for PSFPP. Furthermore, they can be used to experimentally research the property of the random and gamma phase errors in PSFPP without the aid of a mathematical model to express random phase error or a large-step phase-shifting algorithm. In this paper, some novel and interesting phenomena are experimentally uncovered with the aid of the proposed methods.

  20. Correlation of pattern reversal visual evoked potential parameters with the pattern standard deviation in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kothari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defect particularly the pattern standard deviation (PSD of Humphrey visual field could be associated with visual evoked potential (VEP parameters of patients having primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS:Visual field by Humphrey perimetry and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. The stimulus configuration for VEP recordings consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board pattern was generated (full field and displayed on VEP monitor (colour 14” by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II.RESULTS:The results of our study indicate that there is a highly significant (P<0.001 negative correlation of P100 amplitude and a statistically significant (P<0.05 positive correlation of N70 latency, P100 latency and N155 latency with the PSD of Humphrey visual field in the subjects of POAG in various age groups as evaluated by Student’s t-test.CONCLUSION:Prolongation of VEP latencies were mirrored by a corresponding increase of PSD values. Conversely, as PSD increases the magnitude of VEP excursions were found to be diminished.

  1. Correlation of pattern reversal visual evoked potential parameters with the pattern standard deviation in primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ruchi; Bokariya, Pradeep; Singh, Ramji; Singh, Smita; Narang, Purvasha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether glaucomatous visual field defect particularly the pattern standard deviation (PSD) of Humphrey visual field could be associated with visual evoked potential (VEP) parameters of patients having primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Visual field by Humphrey perimetry and simultaneous recordings of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) were assessed in 100 patients with POAG. The stimulus configuration for VEP recordings consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board pattern was generated (full field) and displayed on VEP monitor (colour 14″) by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an evoked potential recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). The results of our study indicate that there is a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation of P100 amplitude and a statistically significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of N70 latency, P100 latency and N155 latency with the PSD of Humphrey visual field in the subjects of POAG in various age groups as evaluated by Student's t-test. Prolongation of VEP latencies were mirrored by a corresponding increase of PSD values. Conversely, as PSD increases the magnitude of VEP excursions were found to be diminished.

  2. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  3. On Input Vector Representation for the SVR model of Reactor Core Loading Pattern Critical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    2008-01-01

    Determination and optimization of reactor core loading pattern is an important factor in nuclear power plant operation. The goal is to minimize the amount of enriched uranium (fresh fuel) and burnable absorbers placed in the core, while maintaining nuclear power plant operational and safety characteristics. The usual approach to loading pattern optimization involves high degree of engineering judgment, a set of heuristic rules, an optimization algorithm and a computer code used for evaluating proposed loading patterns. The speed of the optimization process is highly dependent on the computer code used for the evaluation. Recently, we proposed a new method for fast loading pattern evaluation based on general robust regression model relying on the state of the art research in the field of machine learning. We employed Support Vector Regression (SVR) technique. SVR is a supervised learning method in which model parameters are automatically determined by solving a quadratic optimization problem. The preliminary tests revealed a good potential of the SVR method application for fast and accurate reactor core loading pattern evaluation. However, some aspects of model development are still unresolved. The main objective of the work reported in this paper was to conduct additional tests and analyses required for full clarification of the SVR applicability for loading pattern evaluation. We focused our attention on the parameters defining input vector, primarily its structure and complexity, and parameters defining kernel functions. All the tests were conducted on the NPP Krsko reactor core, using MCRAC code for the calculation of reactor core loading pattern critical parameters. The tested input vector structures did not influence the accuracy of the models suggesting that the initially tested input vector, consisted of the number of IFBAs and the k-inf at the beginning of the cycle, is adequate. The influence of kernel function specific parameters (σ for RBF kernel

  4. [Measurement of plasma parameters in cluster hexagon pattern discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Liang; Lu, Ning; Shang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    The cluster hexagon pattern was obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon for the first time. Three plasma parameters, i. e. the molecular vibrational temperature, the molecular rotational temperature and the average electron energy of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern discharge, were studied by changing the air content. The molecular vibrational temperature and the molecular rotational temperature were calculated using the second positive band system of nitrogen molecules (C 3IIu --> B 3IIg) and the first negative band system of nitrogen molecular ions (B 2Sigma(u)+ --> Chi2 Sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391. 4 nm) and nitrogen molecules emission spectrum line (337.1 nm) were analyzed for studying the variations of the electron energy. It was found that the three plasma parameters of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern increase with air content increasing from 16% to 24%.

  5. Percolative Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance and Fringe-Field Magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    2013-03-01

    A recently-introduced percolation theory for spin transport and magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors describes the effects of spin dynamics on hopping transport by considering changes in the effective density of hopping sites, a key quantity determining the properties of percolative transport. Increases in the spin-flip rate open up ``spin-blocked'' pathways to become viable conduction channels and hence, as the spin-flip rate changes with magnetic field, produce magnetoresistance. Features of this percolative magnetoresistance can be found analytically in several regimes, and agree with measurements of the shape and saturation of measured magnetoresistance curves. We find that the threshold hopping distance is analogous to the branching parameter of a phenomenological two-site model, and that the distinction between slow and fast hopping is contingent on the threshold hopping distance. Regimes of slow and fast hopping magnetoresistance are uniquely characterized by their line shapes. Studies of magnetoresistance in known systems with controllable positional disorder would provide an additional stringent test of this theory. Extensions to this theory also describe fringe-field magnetoresistance, which is the influence of fringe magnetic fields from a nearby unsaturated magnetic electrode on the conductance of an organic film. This theory agrees with several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance, including the applied fields where the magnetoresistance reaches extrema, the applied field range of large magnetoresistance effects from the fringe fields, and the sign of the effect. All work done in collaboration with N. J. Harmon, and fringe-field magnetoresistance work in collaboration also with F. Macià, F. Wang, M. Wohlgenannt and A. D. Kent. This work was supported by an ARO MURI.

  6. Simplified paraboloid phase model-based phase tracker for demodulation of a single complex fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A; Deepan, B; Quan, C

    2017-09-01

    A regularized phase tracker (RPT) is an effective method for demodulation of single closed-fringe patterns. However, lengthy calculation time, specially designed scanning strategy, and sign-ambiguity problems caused by noise and saddle points reduce its effectiveness, especially for demodulating large and complex fringe patterns. In this paper, a simplified paraboloid phase model-based regularized phase tracker (SPRPT) is proposed. In SPRPT, first and second phase derivatives are pre-determined by the density-direction-combined method and discrete higher-order demodulation algorithm, respectively. Hence, cost function is effectively simplified to reduce the computation time significantly. Moreover, pre-determined phase derivatives improve the robustness of the demodulation of closed, complex fringe patterns. Thus, no specifically designed scanning strategy is needed; nevertheless, it is robust against the sign-ambiguity problem. The paraboloid phase model also assures better accuracy and robustness against noise. Both the simulated and experimental fringe patterns (obtained using electronic speckle pattern interferometry) are used to validate the proposed method, and a comparison of the proposed method with existing RPT methods is carried out. The simulation results show that the proposed method has achieved the highest accuracy with less computational time. The experimental result proves the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed method for demodulation of noisy fringe patterns and its feasibility for static and dynamic applications.

  7. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  8. 29 CFR 1620.11 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.11 Fringe... unlawful for an employer to discriminate between men and women performing equal work with regard to fringe... spouses or families of employees of one gender where the same benefits are not made available for the...

  9. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  10. Making sense of nanocrystal lattice fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Qin Wentao; Moeck, Peter; Mandell, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The orientation dependence of thin-crystal lattice fringes can be gracefully quantified using fringe-visibility maps, a direct-space analog of Kikuchi maps [Nishikawa and Kikuchi, Nature (London) 121, 1019 (1928)]. As in navigation of reciprocal space with the aid of Kikuchi lines, fringe-visibility maps facilitate acquisition of crystallographic information from lattice images. In particular, these maps can help researchers to determine the three-dimensional lattice of individual nanocrystals, to 'fringe-fingerprint' collections of randomly oriented particles, and to measure local specimen thickness with only a modest tilt. Since the number of fringes in an image increases with maximum spatial-frequency squared, these strategies (with help from more precise goniometers) will be more useful as aberration correction moves resolutions into the subangstrom range

  11. Analysis of moiré fringes by Wiener filtering: An extension to the Fourier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In X-ray Talbot interferometry, tilting the phase grating with respect to the absorption grating results in the formation of spatial fringes. The analysis of this moiré pattern, classically performed by the Fourier method, allows the extraction of the sample phase shift information from a single image. In this context, an extension to the Fourier method is proposed. The filter used to extract the fringe information is chosen optimally in the least-squares sense, given models for the zeroth and first order modes, noise and the modulation transfer function. The latter is obtained by measuring the detector response to moiré fringes with increasing frequencies. The obtained Wiener filter allows a better reconstruction of the phase information at all fringe frequencies, compared to the usual box or gaussian filters. This is demonstrated quantitatively by experiments using synchrotron radiation.

  12. Controlling Fringe Sensitivity of Electro-Optic Holography Systems Using Laser Diode Current Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Shannon J.

    2001-01-01

    Electro-Optic Holography (EOH) is a non-intrusive, laser-based, displacement measurement technique capable of static and dynamic displacement measurements. EOH is an optical interference technique in which fringe patterns that represent displacement contour maps are generated. At excessively large displacements the fringe density may be so great that individual fringes are not resolvable using typical EOH techniques. This thesis focuses on the development and implementation of a method for controlling the sensitivity of the EOH system. This method is known as Frequency Translated Electro-Optic Holography (FTEOH). It was determined that by modulating the current source of the laser diode at integer multiples of the object vibration, the fringe pattern is governed by higher order Bessel function of the first kind and the number of fringes that represent a given displacement can be controlled. The reduction of fringes is theoretically unlimited but physically limited by the frequency bandwidth of the signal generator, providing modulation to the laser diode. Although this research technique has been verified theoretically and experimentally in this thesis, due to the current laser diode capabilities it is a tedious and time consuming process to acquire data using the FTEOH technique.

  13. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  14. Digital reconstruction of Young's fringes using Fresnel transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenovic, Rudi; Song, Yaozu; Renninger, P.; Groll, Manfred

    1997-11-01

    This paper deals with the digital numerical reconstruction of Young's fringes from laser speckle photography by means of the Fresnel-transformation. The physical model of the optical reconstruction of a specklegram is a near-field Fresnel-diffraction phenomenon which can be mathematically described by the Fresnel-transformation. Therefore, the interference phenomena can be directly calculated by a microcomputer.If additional a CCD-camera is used for specklegram recording the measurement procedure and evaluation process can be completely carried out in a digital way. Compared with conventional laser speckle photography no holographic plates, no wet development process and no optical specklegram reconstruction are needed. These advantages reveal a wide future in scientific and engineering applications. The basic principle of the numerical reconstruction is described, the effects of experimental parameters of Young's fringes are analyzed and representative results are presented.

  15. Pattern formation in individual-based systems with time-varying parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Peter; Galla, Tobias

    2013-12-01

    We study the patterns generated in finite-time sweeps across symmetry-breaking bifurcations in individual-based models. Similar to the well-known Kibble-Zurek scenario of defect formation, large-scale patterns are generated when model parameters are varied slowly, whereas fast sweeps produce a large number of small domains. The symmetry breaking is triggered by intrinsic noise, originating from the discrete dynamics at the microlevel. Based on a linear-noise approximation, we calculate the characteristic length scale of these patterns. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in a simple model of opinion dynamics, a model in evolutionary game theory with a time-dependent fitness structure, and a model of cell differentiation. Our theoretical estimates are confirmed in simulations. In further numerical work, we observe a similar phenomenon when the symmetry-breaking bifurcation is triggered by population growth.

  16. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural properties of templated Ge quantum dot arrays: impact of growth and pre-pattern parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempeler, J; Danylyuk, S; Brose, S; Loosen, P; Juschkin, L

    2018-07-06

    In this study we analyze the impact of process and growth parameters on the structural properties of germanium (Ge) quantum dot (QD) arrays. The arrays were deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy on pre-patterned silicon (Si) substrates. Periodic arrays of pits with diameters between 120 and 20 nm and pitches ranging from 200 nm down to 40 nm were etched into the substrate prior to growth. The structural perfection of the two-dimensional QD arrays was evaluated based on SEM images. The impact of two processing steps on the directed self-assembly of Ge QD arrays is investigated. First, a thin Si buffer layer grown on a pre-patterned substrate reshapes the pre-pattern pits and determines the nucleation and initial shape of the QDs. Subsequently, the deposition parameters of the Ge define the overall shape and uniformity of the QDs. In particular, the growth temperature and the deposition rate are relevant and need to be optimized according to the design of the pre-pattern. Applying this knowledge, we are able to fabricate regular arrays of pyramid shaped QDs with dot densities up to 7.2 × 10 10 cm -2 .

  18. Biodegradation at Dynamic Plume Fringes: Mixing Versus Reaction Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirpka, O. A.; Eckert, D.; Griebler, C.; Haberer, C.; Kürzinger, P.; Bauer, R.; Mellage, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biodegradation of continuously emitted plumes is known to be most pronounced at the plume fringe, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. Under steady-state conditions, physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion was shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation, with plume lengths scaling inversely with the bulk transverse dispersivity in quasi two-dimensional settings. Under these conditions, the presence of suitable microbes is essential but the biokinetic parameters do not play an important role. When the location of the plume shifts (caused, e.g., by a fluctuating groundwater table), however, the bacteria are no more situated at the plume fringe and biomass growth, decay, activation and deactivation determine the time lag until the fringe-controlled steady state is approached again. During this time lag, degradation is incomplete. The objective of the presented study was to analyze to which extent flow and transport dynamics diminish effectiveness of fringe-controlled biodegradation and which microbial processes and related biokinetic parameters determine the system response in overall degradation to hydraulic fluctuations. We performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth and maintenance (often subsumed as "biomass decay") microbial dormancy (that is, change into a metabolically inactive state) and

  19. Towards accurate simulation of fringe field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.; Erdelyi, B.; Makino, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study various fringe field effects. Previously, we showed the large impact that fringe fields can have on certain lattice scenarios of the proposed Neutrino Factory. Besides the linear design of the lattice, the effects depend strongly on the details of the field fall off. Various scenarios are compared. Furthermore, in the absence of detailed information, we study the effects for the LHC, a case where the fringe fields are known, and try to draw some conclusions for Neutrino Factory lattices

  20. Fringe periods of color moirés in contact-type 3-D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon; Son, Jung-Young; Chernyshov, Oleksii O

    2016-06-27

    A mathematical formula of calculating the fringe periods of the color moirés appearing at the contact-type 3-D displays is derived. It is typical that the color moirés are chirped and the period of the line pattern in viewing zone forming optics is more than two times of that of the pixel pattern in the display panel. These make impossible to calculate the fringe periods of the color moirés with the conventional beat frequency formula. The derived formula work very well for any combination of two line patterns having either a same line period or different line periods. This is experimentally proved. Furthermore, it is also shown that the fringe period can be expressed in terms of the viewing distance and focal length of the viewing zone forming optics.

  1. Simplified fringe order correction for absolute phase maps recovered with multiple-spatial-frequency fringe projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Peng, Kai; Lu, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Zhu, Ziqi

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of fringe order errors may occur in the absolute phase maps recovered with multi-spatial-frequency fringe projections. In existing methods, multiple successive pixels corrupted by fringe order errors are detected and corrected pixel-by-pixel with repeating searches, which is inefficient for applications. To improve the efficiency of multiple successive fringe order corrections, in this paper we propose a method to simplify the error detection and correction by the stepwise increasing property of fringe order. In the proposed method, the numbers of pixels in each step are estimated to find the possible true fringe order values, repeating the search in detecting multiple successive errors can be avoided for efficient error correction. The effectiveness of our proposed method is validated by experimental results. (paper)

  2. 41 CFR 101-4.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 101-4... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital...

  3. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  4. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  5. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and lattice parameters of perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.J.; Napier, J.G.

    1988-02-01

    The interplanar spacings and intensities of all lines appearing in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of perovskite have been calculated. Many of the lines occur in groups with a large amount of overlap. As an aid to identifying the lines which are observed, the intensity profiles of the major groups have been plotted. Those lines which are relatively free of overlap and can be identified unambiguously have been used to calculate the lattice parameters, with the results a=5.4424 ± 0.0001 A, b=7.6417 ± 0.0002 A, c=5.3807 ± 0.0001 A

  6. Identifikasi Ketersediaan dan Kualitas Sarana Prasarana Lingkungan di Urban Fringe Area Kelurahan Pudakpayung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Dwi Handayani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pudakpayung Sub District is the southest in Banyumanik District of Semarang City. This area is a Urban Fringe Area with high population growth and development area for human settlement. But not supported by good facilities and infrastructure. This research is aiming to see the availability and quality of facilities and infrastructure in this urban fringe area. So, this research can give the recommendation about availability and quality of facilities and infrastructure, especially in urban fringe area. This research will identify changes the pattern of human settlement and then identify the availability, quality, and distribution of neighborhoods facilities and infrastructure. The research method used in this research is quantitative descriptive method. The analysis uses the quantitative descriptive analysis with the provisions of SNI 03-1733-2004, scoring with a Likert scale, and spatial mapping. The result of this research indicate changes the pattern of land up and indicate the availability, quality, and distribution of every facilities and infrastructure.

  7. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Effects of diotic fringes on interaural disparity detection (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goff, Nicolas; Kohlrausch, Armin; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Detection thresholds were measured for interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) that were carried by probe segments embedded in otherwise diotic broadband noise (fringe). The duration of the probe was varied between 5 and 200 ms, and the duration of the fringe...... was between 5 and 100 ms. Consistent with results of Akeroyd and Bernstein [(2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2516-2526], it was found that a 5-ms fringe placed before a 5-ms probe (forward fringe) led to a larger threshold elevation than a 5-ms fringe placed after the probe (backward fringe). As suggested...... by Akeroyd and Bernstein, this effect was accounted for by a model providing an onset emphasis of a factor of 2. In contrast, for longer probe and fringe durations, which have not been tested before, a backward fringe had a stronger effect than a forward fringe. This surprising effect was accounted...

  9. Theorem on magnet fringe field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Talman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (b n ) and skew (a n ) multipoles, B y + iB x = summation(b n + ia n )(x + iy) n , where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ''field integrals'' such as bar BL ≡ ∫ B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For bar a n , bar b n , bar B x , and bar B y defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ''standard'' approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell's equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of |Δp ∝ |, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to |Δp 0 |, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field B x from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC

  10. Fringes in FTIR spectroscopy revisited: understanding and modelling fringes in infrared spectroscopy of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevskikh, Tatiana; Ponossov, Arkadi; Blümel, Reinhold; Lukacs, Rozalia; Kohler, Achim

    2015-06-21

    The appearance of fringes in the infrared spectroscopy of thin films seriously hinders the interpretation of chemical bands because fringes change the relative peak heights of chemical spectral bands. Thus, for the correct interpretation of chemical absorption bands, physical properties need to be separated from chemical characteristics. In the paper at hand we revisit the theory of the scattering of infrared radiation at thin absorbing films. Although, in general, scattering and absorption are connected by a complex refractive index, we show that for the scattering of infrared radiation at thin biological films, fringes and chemical absorbance can in good approximation be treated as additive. We further introduce a model-based pre-processing technique for separating fringes from chemical absorbance by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). The technique is validated by simulated and experimental FTIR spectra. It is further shown that EMSC, as opposed to other suggested filtering methods for the removal of fringes, does not remove information related to chemical absorption.

  11. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  12. Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aslan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover affect phenomena as

  13. Spectral dispersion and fringe detection in IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W. A.; Lacasse, M. G.; Carleton, N. P.

    1990-01-01

    Pupil plane beam combination, spectral dispersion, detection, and fringe tracking are discussed for the IOTA interferometer. A new spectrometer design is presented in which the angular dispersion with respect to wavenumber is nearly constant. The dispersing element is a type of grism, a series combination of grating and prism, in which the constant parts of the dispersion add, but the slopes cancel. This grism is optimized for the display of channelled spectra. The dispersed fringes can be tracked by a matched-filter photon-counting correlator algorithm. This algorithm requires very few arithmetic operations per detected photon, making it well-suited for real-time fringe tracking. The algorithm is able to adapt to different stellar spectral types, intensity levels, and atmospheric time constants. The results of numerical experiments are reported.

  14. Demodulation of moire fringes in digital holographic interferometry using an extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Jagadesh; Rastogi, Pramod; Rajshekhar, Gannavarpu

    2018-03-10

    This paper presents a method for extracting multiple phases from a single moire fringe pattern in digital holographic interferometry. The method relies on component separation using singular value decomposition and an extended Kalman filter for demodulating the moire fringes. The Kalman filter is applied by modeling the interference field locally as a multi-component polynomial phase signal and extracting the associated multiple polynomial coefficients using the state space approach. In addition to phase, the corresponding multiple phase derivatives can be simultaneously extracted using the proposed method. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using simulation and experimental results.

  15. FSD-HSO Optimization Algorithm for Closed Fringes Interferogram Demodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises H. Rodriguez-Marmolejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the physical nature of the interference phenomenon, extracting the phase of an interferogram is a known sinusoidal modulation problem. In order to solve this problem, a new hybrid mathematical optimization model for phase extraction is established. The combination of frequency guide sequential demodulation and harmony search optimization algorithms is used for demodulating closed fringes patterns in order to find the phase of interferogram applications. The proposed algorithm is tested in four sets of different synthetic interferograms, finding a range of average relative error in phase reconstructions of 0.14–0.39 rad. For reference, experimental results are compared with the genetic algorithm optimization technique, obtaining a reduction in the error up to 0.1448 rad. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with a very known demodulation algorithm, using a real interferogram, obtaining a relative error of 1.561 rad. Results are shown in patterns with complex fringes distribution.

  16. Descriptive parameters for revealing substitution patterns of sugar beet pectins using pectolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Buchholt, H C; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2014-01-30

    Enzymatic fingerprinting was applied to sugar beet pectins (SBPs) modified by either plant or fungal pectin methyl esterases and alkali catalyzed de-esterification to reveal the ester distributions over the pectin backbone. A simultaneous pectin lyase (PL) treatment to the commonly used endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) degradation showed to be effective in degrading both high and low methylesterified and/or acetylated homogalaturonan regions of SBP simultaneously. Using LC-HILIC-MS/ELSD, we studied in detail all the diagnostic oligomers present, enabling us to discriminate between differently prepared sugar beet pectins having various levels of methylesterification and acetylation. Furthermore, distinction between commercially extracted and de-esterified sugar beet pectin having different patterns of substitution was achieved by using novel descriptive pectin parameters. In addition to DBabs approach for nonmethylesterified sequences degradable by endo-PG, the "degree of hydrolysis" (DHPG) representing all partially saturated methylesterified and/or acetylated galacturonic acid (GalA) moieties was introduced as a new parameter. Consequently, the description DHPL has been introduced to quantify all esterified unsaturated GalA oligomers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial pattern and role of laboratory parameters as marker for neonatal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslie, R. H.; Tjipta, D. G.; Samosir, C. T.; Hasibuan, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) recorded 5 million neonatal mortality each year due to sepsis, and 98% were in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis needs to be confirmed with a positive culture from normally sterile sites. On the other hand, postponing treatment will worsen the disease and increase mortality. This study conducted to evaluate the bacterial pattern of neonatal sepsis and to compare laboratory parameter differences between suspected and confirmed sepsis. It was a retrospective analytic study on 94 neonates in Perinatology Division, Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, from November 2016 until January 2017. Blood cultures were taken to confirm the diagnosis. Laboratory parameters collected from medical records. Variables with significant results analyzed for their accuracy. Pculture positives found in 55.3% neonates, with most common etiology was Klebsiella pneumonia (22.6%). There were significant neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and procalcitonin differences between suspected and confirmed sepsis (p 0.025 and 0.008 respectively). With a diagnostic threshold of 9.4, sensitivity and specificity of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were 61.5% and 66.7%, respectively. Procalcitonin sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 71.4%, respectively, with 3.6mg/L diagnostic threshold. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and procalcitonin were significantly higher in confirmed sepsis.

  18. Sustainable Urban Fringes - Connecting Urban and Rural : Final report of the SURF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de T.J.N.M. (Theo); Haccoû, H.A. (Huib); Leslie, A. (Allison); Lier, G. (Goos); Littlewood, S. (Stephan); Oldejans, R. (Rolf); Thomas, K. (Kevin); Vries, de B.J. (Bauke); Watt, E. (Emma); Wishardt, M. (Michelle)

    2012-01-01

    What happens at the urban edge and the SURF aspiration to influence it? Projects in the urban fringe Urban fringe governance Integrated policy guidelines and approaches towards urban fringe planning and management The future management of the urban fringe

  19. Marker encoded fringe projection profilometry for efficient 3D model acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, B; Lun, P K D; Hsung, Tai-Chiu

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel marker encoded fringe projection profilometry (FPP) scheme for efficient 3-dimensional (3D) model acquisition. Traditional FPP schemes can introduce large errors to the reconstructed 3D model when the target object has an abruptly changing height profile. For the proposed scheme, markers are encoded in the projected fringe pattern to resolve the ambiguities in the fringe images due to that problem. Using the analytic complex wavelet transform, the marker cue information can be extracted from the fringe image, and is used to restore the order of the fringes. A series of simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed scheme. They show that the proposed method can greatly improve the accuracy over the traditional FPP schemes when reconstructing the 3D model of objects with abruptly changing height profile. Since the scheme works directly in our recently proposed complex wavelet FPP framework, it enjoys the same properties that it can be used in real time applications for color objects.

  20. Stitching interferometry of high numerical aperture cylindrical optics without using a fringe-nulling routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Junzheng; Wang, Qingquan; Peng, Xiang; Yu, Yingjie

    2015-11-01

    Stitching interferometry is a common method for measuring the figure error of high numerical aperture optics. However, subaperture measurement usually requires a fringe-nulling routine, thus making the stitching procedure complex and time-consuming. The challenge when measuring a surface without a fringe-nulling routine is that the rays no longer perpendicularly hit the surface. This violation of the null-test condition can lead to high fringe density and introduce high-order misalignment aberrations into the measurement result. This paper demonstrates that the high-order misalignment aberrations can be characterized by low-order misalignment aberrations; then, an efficient method is proposed to separate the high-order misalignment aberrations from subaperture data. With the proposed method, the fringe-nulling routine is not required. Instead, the subaperture data is measured under a nonzero fringe pattern. Then, all possible misalignment aberrations are removed with the proposed method. Finally, the full aperture map is acquired by connecting all subaperture data together. Experimental results showing the feasibility of the proposed procedure are presented.

  1. Theoretical study of the properties of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive theoretical description of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes for a bicrystal specimen is given on the basis of a calculation by plane-wave dynamical diffraction theory, where the effect of the Pendellösung intensity oscillation on the moiré pattern is explained in detail. A detailed and comprehensive theoretical description of X-ray diffraction moiré fringes for a bicrystal specimen is given on the basis of a calculation by plane-wave dynamical diffraction theory. Firstly, prior to discussing the main subject of the paper, a previous article [Yoshimura (1997 ▸). Acta Cryst. A53, 810–812] on the two-dimensionality of diffraction moiré patterns is restated on a thorough calculation of the moiré interference phase. Then, the properties of moiré fringes derived from the above theory are explained for the case of a plane-wave diffraction image, where the significant effect of Pendellösung intensity oscillation on the moiré pattern when the crystal is strained is described in detail with theoretically simulated moiré images. Although such plane-wave moiré images are not widely observed in a nearly pure form, knowledge of their properties is essential for the understanding of diffraction moiré fringes in general

  2. 26 CFR 1.132-9 - Qualified transportation fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified transportation fringes. 1.132-9... Qualified transportation fringes. (a) Table of contents. This section contains a list of the questions and answers in § 1.132-9. (1) General rules. Q-1. What is a qualified transportation fringe? Q-2. What is...

  3. 26 CFR 1.132-8 - Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules. 1.132-8... Fringe benefit nondiscrimination rules. (a) Application of nondiscrimination rules—(1) General rule. A.... (2) Consequences of discrimination—(i) In general. If an employer maintains more than one fringe...

  4. 29 CFR 4.170 - Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. 4.170 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.170 Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. (a) General. Fringe benefits required under the Act shall be furnished, separate from and in addition to the...

  5. 29 CFR 4.52 - Fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefit determinations. 4.52 Section 4.52 Labor... Procedures § 4.52 Fringe benefit determinations. (a) Wage determinations issued pursuant to the Service... differential, which are considered wages rather than fringe benefits under SCA). Pursuant to Section 4(b) of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.61-21 - Taxation of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits. 1.61-21 Section 1... § 1.61-21 Taxation of fringe benefits. (a) Fringe benefits—(1) In general. Section 61(a)(1) provides... vehicle. The fact that another section of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code addresses the taxation...

  7. 45 CFR 86.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available to employees or make fringe benefits available to spouses, families, or dependents of employees... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF..., accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or bonus plan...

  8. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  9. Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Aslan

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover

  10. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  11. Determination of patterns of interplanar distances starting from crystalline parameters for the Cyber computer of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-03-01

    In this report a program in Fortran language that reproduces the pattern of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards is presented and that it can be applied to identify non well-known samples such as in those that only by means of articles or other sources the values of the parameters of the elementary cell are lightly known and by this way the correspondent diffraction pattern can be accurately generated. (Author)

  12. 3D phase-shifting fringe projection system on the basis of a tailored free-form mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Heist, Stefan; Steinkopf, Ralf; Huber, Sandra; Krause, Sylvio; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2013-05-10

    Phase-shifting fringe projection is an effective method to perform 3D shape measurements. Conventionally, fringe projection systems utilize a digital projector that images fringes into the measurement plane. The performance of such systems is limited to the visible spectral range, as most projectors experience technical limitations in UV or IR spectral ranges. However, for certain applications these spectral ranges are of special interest. We present a wideband fringe projector that has been developed on the basis of a picture generating beamshaping mirror. This mirror generates a sinusoidal fringe pattern in the measurement plane without any additional optical elements. Phase shifting is realized without any mechanical movement by a multichip LED. As the system is based on a single mirror, it is wavelength-independent in a wide spectral range and therefore applicable in UV and IR spectral ranges. We present the design and a realized setup of this fringe projection system and the characterization of the generated intensity distribution. Experimental results of 3D shape measurements are presented.

  13. A fringe projector-based study of the Brighter-Fatter Effect in LSST CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, W.; Nomerotski, A.; Takacs, P.

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope for Dark Energy science requires a detailed understanding of CCD sensor effects. One such sensor effect is the Point Spread Function (PSF) increasing with flux, alternatively called the `Brighter-Fatter Effect.' In this work a novel approach was tested to perform the PSF measurements in the context of the Brighter-Fatter Effect employing a Michelson interferometer to project a sinusoidal fringe pattern onto the CCD. The Brighter-Fatter effect predicts that the fringe pattern should become asymmetric in the intensity pattern as the brighter peaks corresponding to a larger flux are smeared by a larger PSF. By fitting the data with a model that allows for a changing PSF, the strength of the Brighter-Fatter effect can be evaluated.

  14. Fringe Benefits Provision by Rural Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran N. Variyam; David S. Kraybill

    1998-01-01

    We examine the relationship between employer size and the provision of fringe benefits in a large sample of rural businesses. A clear employer size-benefits relationship exists only in the case of health insurance, while other benefits are not strongly linked to employer size. The negative relationship between employer size and health insurance is weaker, though still existent, in businesses whose employees have relatively high skill levels. Single, independent establishments and sole proprie...

  15. Fast in-situ tool inspection based on inverse fringe projection and compact sensor heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    Inspection of machine elements is an important task in production processes in order to ensure the quality of produced parts and to gather feedback for the continuous improvement process. A new measuring system is presented, which is capable of performing the inspection of critical tool geometries, such as gearing elements, inside the forming machine. To meet the constraints on sensor head size and inspection time imposed by the limited space inside the machine and the cycle time of the process, the measuring device employs a combination of endoscopy techniques with the fringe projection principle. Compact gradient index lenses enable a compact design of the sensor head, which is connected to a CMOS camera and a flexible micro-mirror based projector via flexible fiber bundles. Using common fringe projection patterns, the system achieves measuring times of less than five seconds. To further reduce the time required for inspection, the generation of inverse fringe projection patterns has been implemented for the system. Inverse fringe projection speeds up the inspection process by employing object-adapted patterns, which enable the detection of geometry deviations in a single image. Two different approaches to generate object adapted patterns are presented. The first approach uses a reference measurement of a manufactured tool master to generate the inverse pattern. The second approach is based on a virtual master geometry in the form of a CAD file and a ray-tracing model of the measuring system. Virtual modeling of the measuring device and inspection setup allows for geometric tolerancing for free-form surfaces by the tool designer in the CAD-file. A new approach is presented, which uses virtual tolerance specifications and additional simulation steps to enable fast checking of metric tolerances. Following the description of the pattern generation process, the image processing steps required for inspection are demonstrated on captures of gearing geometries.

  16. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. I. Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Yong, D.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.; Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Meléndez, J.; D'Ercole, A.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is key importance to constraining the different candidates for intracluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a wide range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric models, together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis, we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al, and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.07 and [ α/ Fe ] = 0.34 ± 0.03 in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but including NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behavior of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence of an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Programmes 084.B-0810 and 086.B-0237).Full Tables 2, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A108Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014 to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1, averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045 and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June. The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (± 58.4 SE and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m-3 h–1 (±0.13 SE with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m-3 h–1 and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m-3 h–1, while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August. 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  18. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.

    2016-10-11

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1), averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE) and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1)–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045) and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June). The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (±58.4 SE) and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m–3 h–1 (±0.13 SE) with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m–3 h–1) and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m–3 h–1), while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE) and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August). 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  19. Fringe order error in multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping: reason and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Lu

    2015-11-10

    A multifrequency fringe projection phase unwrapping algorithm (MFPPUA) is important to fringe projection profilometry, especially when a discontinuous object is measured. However, a fringe order error (FOE) may occur when MFPPUA is adopted. An FOE will result in error to the unwrapped phase. Although this kind of phase error does not spread, it brings error to the eventual 3D measurement results. Therefore, an FOE or its adverse influence should be obviated. In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of an FOE are theoretically analyzed and experimentally explored. Methods to correct the phase error caused by an FOE are proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are valid in eliminating the adverse influence of an FOE.

  20. Interference fringes in synchrotron section topography of implanted silicon with a very large ion range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Dluzewska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon crystals implanted with 9 MeV protons to the dose of 5x10 17 cm -2 were studied with X-ray topographic methods using both conventional and synchrotron radiation sources. After the implantation the crystals were thermally and electron annealed. The implantation produced large 600 μm thick shot-through layer while the total thickness of the samples was 1.6 mm. It was confirmed by means of double crystal topography that the whole crystal was elastically bent. The transmission section patterns revealed both parts of the implanted crystal separated by strong contrasts coming from the most damaged layer and distinct interference fringes which appeared on one side of the topograph only. The locations of the fringes changed when the beam entered the other side of the sample. The mechanism of fringe formation was studied with numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations, especially studying the intensity distribution in the diffraction plane. The simulations reproduced the location of the fringes in different geometries and indicate that they can be caused both by variable crystal curvature and variable ion dose. (author)

  1. Phase extraction based on iterative algorithm using five-frame crossed fringes in phase measuring deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chengying; Li, Dahai; Kewei, E.; Li, Mengyang; Chen, Pengyu; Wang, Ruiyang; Xiong, Zhao

    2018-06-01

    In phase measuring deflectometry, two orthogonal sinusoidal fringe patterns are separately projected on the test surface and the distorted fringes reflected by the surface are recorded, each with a sequential phase shift. Then the two components of the local surface gradients are obtained by triangulation. It usually involves some complicated and time-consuming procedures (fringe projection in the orthogonal directions). In addition, the digital light devices (e.g. LCD screen and CCD camera) are not error free. There are quantization errors for each pixel of both LCD and CCD. Therefore, to avoid the complex process and improve the reliability of the phase distribution, a phase extraction algorithm with five-frame crossed fringes is presented in this paper. It is based on a least-squares iterative process. Using the proposed algorithm, phase distributions and phase shift amounts in two orthogonal directions can be simultaneously and successfully determined through an iterative procedure. Both a numerical simulation and a preliminary experiment are conducted to verify the validity and performance of this algorithm. Experimental results obtained by our method are shown, and comparisons between our experimental results and those obtained by the traditional 16-step phase-shifting algorithm and between our experimental results and those measured by the Fizeau interferometer are made.

  2. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  3. Control bandwidth improvements in GRAVITY fringe tracker by switching to a synchronous real time computer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Dembet, Roderick; Lacour, Sylvestre; di Lieto, Nicola; Woillez, Julien; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fedou, Pierre; Phan Duc, Than

    2016-08-01

    The new VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 1 instrument GRAVITY5, 22, 23 is equipped with a fringe tracker16 able to stabilize the K-band fringes on six baselines at the same time. It has been designed to achieve a performance for average seeing conditions of a residual OPD (Optical Path Difference) lower than 300 nm with objects brighter than K = 10. The control loop implementing the tracking is composed of a four stage real time computer system compromising: a sensor where the detector pixels are read in and the OPD and GD (Group Delay) are calculated; a controller receiving the computed sensor quantities and producing commands for the piezo actuators; a concentrator which combines both the OPD commands with the real time tip/tilt corrections offloading them to the piezo actuator; and finally a Kalman15 parameter estimator. This last stage is used to monitor current measurements over a window of few seconds and estimate new values for the main Kalman15 control loop parameters. The hardware and software implementation of this design runs asynchronously and communicates the four computers for data transfer via the Reflective Memory Network3. With the purpose of improving the performance of the GRAVITY5, 23 fringe tracking16, 22 control loop, a deviation from the standard asynchronous communication mechanism has been proposed and implemented. This new scheme operates the four independent real time computers involved in the tracking loop synchronously using the Reflective Memory Interrupts2 as the coordination signal. This synchronous mechanism had the effect of reducing the total pure delay of the loop from 3.5 [ms] to 2.0 [ms] which then translates on a better stabilization of the fringes as the bandwidth of the system is substantially improved. This paper will explain in detail the real time architecture of the fringe tracker in both is synchronous and synchronous implementation. The achieved improvements on reducing the delay via this mechanism will be

  4. 29 CFR 5.25 - Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits. 5.25... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.25 Rate of contribution or cost for fringe benefits... contribution or cost of fringe benefits. Only the amount of contributions or costs for fringe benefits which...

  5. Stress Analysis of an Edge-Cracked Plate by using Photoelastic Fringe Phase Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Kim, Myung Soo; Cho, Sung Ho

    2000-01-01

    The method of photoelasticity allows one to obtain principal stress differences and principal stress directions in a photoelastic model. In the classical approach, the photoelastic parameters are measured manually point by point. The previous methods require much time and skill in the identification and measurement of photoelastic data. Fringe phase shifting method has been recently developed and widely used to measure and analyze fringe data in photo-mechanics. This paper presents the test results of photoelastic fringe phase shifting technique for the stress analysis of a circular disk under compression and an edge-cracked plate subjected to tensile load. The technique used here requires four phase stepped photoelastic images obtained from a circular polariscope by rotating the analyzer at 0 .deg. ,45 .deg. ,90 .deg. ,and 135 .deg. . Experimental results are compared with those or FEM. Good agreement between the results can be observed. However, some error may be included if the technique is used to general direction which is not parallel to isoclinic fringe

  6. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  7. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  8. On-Line Fringe Tracking and Prediction at IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Mah, Robert; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Infrared/Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) is a multi-aperture Michelson interferometer located on Mt. Hopkins near Tucson, Arizona. To enable viewing of fainter targets, an on-line fringe tracking system is presently under development at NASA Ames Research Center. The system has been developed off-line using actual data from IOTA, and is presently undergoing on-line implementation at IOTA. The system has two parts: (1) a fringe tracking system that identifies the center of a fringe packet by fitting a parametric model to the data; and (2) a fringe packet motion prediction system that uses characteristics of past fringe packets to predict fringe packet motion. Combined, this information will be used to optimize on-line the scanning trajectory, resulting in improved visibility of faint targets. Fringe packet identification is highly accurate and robust (99% of the 4000 fringe packets were identified correctly, the remaining 1% were either out of the scan range or too noisy to be seen) and is performed in 30-90 milliseconds on a Pentium II-based computer. Fringe packet prediction, currently performed using an adaptive linear predictor, delivers a 10% improvement over the baseline of predicting no motion.

  9. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  10. Does Gender Influence the Provision of Fringe Benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2011-01-01

    This contribution studies the provision of fringe benefits using a unique survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Analysis of the survey reveals that women who own SMEs are more likely than men who own similar firms to provide employees with fringe benefits such as annual...... and workforce structure, worker recruitment mechanisms, and the degree of unionization. However, these factors cannot fully account for the observed differences in fringe benefits along the “gender of owner” dimension. There remains a sizable and unexplained fringe benefits premium paid to employees in women...

  11. Vision-based measurement system for structural vibration monitoring using non-projection quasi-interferogram fringe density enhanced by spectrum correction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Lu, Huancai; Zhuang, Yizhou; Fu, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    A non-projection fringe vision measurement system suitable for vibration monitoring was proposed by using the concept of a 2D optical coherence vibration tomography (2D-OCVT) technique. An artificial quasi-interferogram fringe pattern (QIFP), similar to the interferogram of the 2D-OCVT system, was pasted onto the surface of a vibrating structure as a sensor. Image sequences of the QIFP were captured by a high-speed CMOS camera that worked as a detector. It was possible to obtain both the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration simultaneously. The in-plane vibration was obtained by tracking the center of the imaged QIFP using an image cross-correlation method, whilst the out-of-plane vibration was obtained from the changes in period density of the imaged QIFP. The influence of the noise sources from the CMOS image sensor, together with the effect of the imaging distance, the period density of the QIFP and also the key parameters of the fringe density enhanced by the spectrum correction method on the accuracy of the displacement measurement, were investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. Compared with the results from a conventional accelerometer-based measurement system, the proposed method was demonstrated to be an effective and accurate technique for measuring structural vibration without introducing any extra mass from the accelerometer. The significant advantages of this method include its simple installation and real-time dynamic response measurement capability, making the measurement system ideal for the low- and high-frequency vibration monitoring of engineering structures. (paper)

  12. Fringe projection profilometry with portable consumer devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danji; Pan, Zhipeng; Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin

    2018-01-01

    A fringe projection profilometry (FPP) using portable consumer devices is attractive because it can realize optical three dimensional (3D) measurement for ordinary consumers in their daily lives. We demonstrate a FPP using a camera in a smart mobile phone and a digital consumer mini projector. In our experiment of testing the smart phone (iphone7) camera performance, the rare-facing camera in the iphone7 causes the FPP to have a fringe contrast ratio of 0.546, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.6 rad, and nonlinear phase error of 0.08 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.033 rad. In contrast, the FPP using the industrial camera has a fringe contrast ratio of 0.715, nonlinear carrier phase aberration value of 0.5 rad, nonlinear phase error of 0.05 rad and RMS random phase error of 0.011 rad. Good performance is achieved by using the FPP composed of an iphone7 and a mini projector. 3D information of a facemask with a size for an adult is also measured by using the FPP that uses portable consumer devices. After the system calibration, the 3D absolute information of the facemask is obtained. The measured results are in good agreement with the ones that are carried out in a traditional way. Our results show that it is possible to use portable consumer devices to construct a good FPP, which is useful for ordinary people to get 3D information in their daily lives.

  13. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  14. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  15. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  16. The "covariation method" for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget model II: Properties and preliminary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kearney, Michael R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    The covariation method for estimating the parameters of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model provides a single-step method of accessing all the core DEB parameters from commonly available empirical data. In this study, we assess the robustness of this parameter estimation procedure and analyse the role of pseudo-data using elasticity coefficients. In particular, we compare the performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) vs. Weighted Least Squares (WLS) approaches and find that the two approaches tend to converge in performance as the number of uni-variate data sets increases, but that WLS is more robust when data sets comprise single points (zero-variate data). The efficiency of the approach is shown to be high, and the prior parameter estimates (pseudo-data) have very little influence if the real data contain information about the parameter values. For instance, the effects of the pseudo-value for the allocation fraction κ is reduced when there is information for both growth and reproduction, that for the energy conductance is reduced when information on age at birth and puberty is given, and the effects of the pseudo-value for the maturity maintenance rate coefficient are insignificant. The estimation of some parameters (e.g., the zoom factor and the shape coefficient) requires little information, while that of others (e.g., maturity maintenance rate, puberty threshold and reproduction efficiency) require data at several food levels. The generality of the standard DEB model, in combination with the estimation of all of its parameters, allows comparison of species on the basis of parameter values. We discuss a number of preliminary patterns emerging from the present collection of parameter estimates across a wide variety of taxa. We make the observation that the estimated value of the fraction κ of mobilised reserve that is allocated to soma is far away from the value that maximises reproduction. We recognise this as the reason why two very different

  17. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.; Cardelú s, Clara; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Balagué , Vanessa; Forn, Irene; Marrasé , Cè lia; Massana, Ramon; Pedró s-Alió , Carlos; Sala, M. Montserrat; Simó , Rafel; Vaqué , Dolors; Estrada, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a

  18. The Influence of the Basic Styrofoam Patterns Final Shaping Parameters on the Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the analysis of the final shaping process of the patterns aimed at determining the influence of the pressure and the time of sintering on the resistance to bending. The analysis of the research results proved that when the pressure of the sintering rises and reaches Ps=2.1 bar the resistance to bending increases, above this level of the pressure the resistance value starts decreasing. The time of styrofoam sintering at which the highest bending resistance values were obtained is ts=90 s. When the sintering pressure is less than 2 bar prolongation of the time of sintering over 90 s causes a slight increase in the resistance, however, at higher pressures prolongation of the time of sintering causes submelting of the styrofoam pattern.

  19. The Influence of the Basic Styrofoam Patterns Final Shaping Parameters on the Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacyniak T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the analysis of the final shaping process of the patterns aimed at determining the influence of the pressure and the time of sintering on the resistance to bending. The analysis of the research results proved that when the pressure of the sintering rises and reaches Ps=2.1 bar the resistance to bending increases, above this level of the pressure the resistance value starts decreasing. The time of styrofoam sintering at which the highest bending resistance values were obtained is ts=90s. When the sintering pressure is less than 2 bar prolongation of the time of sintering over 90 s causes a slight increase in the resistance, however, at higher pressures prolongation of the time of sintering causes submelting of the styrofoam pattern.

  20. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  1. Parameter estimation of breast tumour using dynamic neural network from thermal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Saniei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach for estimating the depth, size, and metabolic heat generation rate of a tumour. For this purpose, the surface temperature distribution of a breast thermal image and the dynamic neural network was used. The research consisted of two steps: forward and inverse. For the forward section, a finite element model was created. The Pennes bio-heat equation was solved to find surface and depth temperature distributions. Data from the analysis, then, were used to train the dynamic neural network model (DNN. Results from the DNN training/testing confirmed those of the finite element model. For the inverse section, the trained neural network was applied to estimate the depth temperature distribution (tumour position from the surface temperature profile, extracted from the thermal image. Finally, tumour parameters were obtained from the depth temperature distribution. Experimental findings (20 patients were promising in terms of the model’s potential for retrieving tumour parameters.

  2. Micro analysis of fringe field formed inside LDA measuring volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A K

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we propose a technique for micro analysis of fringe field formed inside laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measuring volume. Detailed knowledge of the fringe field obtained by this technique allows beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity to be evaluated with greater precision and may be helpful for selection of an appropriate optical element for LDA system operation. A complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume using conventional, as well as holographic optical elements, is presented. Results indicate the qualitative, as well as quantitative, improvement of fringes formed at the measurement volume by holographic optical elements. Hence, use of holographic optical elements in LDA systems may be advantageous for improving accuracy in the measurement. (paper)

  3. The Analysis of the Influence of the Polystyrene Patterns Shaping Parameters on the Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the technology of making foam plastics patterns used in casting as well as the final shaping stand. The analysis of the sintering process was carried out aiming at determining the influence of the pressure and the time of sintering on the flexural strength properties. The analysis of the research results confirmed that when the sintering pressure grows to the value of Pa =1,7 bar the flexural strength also increases, when the pressure value is higher than that, the degradation of the material takes place and the strength properties decrease.

  4. Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Classification Using Parameters and Non-Parameters Approach for the Pattern Consistency of Multi Scale Landcover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, E.; Arrofiqoh, E. N.

    2017-09-01

    Information extraction from remote sensing data especially land cover can be obtained by digital classification. In practical some people are more comfortable using visual interpretation to retrieve land cover information. However, it is highly influenced by subjectivity and knowledge of interpreter, also takes time in the process. Digital classification can be done in several ways, depend on the defined mapping approach and assumptions on data distribution. The study compared several classifiers method for some data type at the same location. The data used Landsat 8 satellite imagery, SPOT 6 and Orthophotos. In practical, the data used to produce land cover map in 1:50,000 map scale for Landsat, 1:25,000 map scale for SPOT and 1:5,000 map scale for Orthophotos, but using visual interpretation to retrieve information. Maximum likelihood Classifiers (MLC) which use pixel-based and parameters approach applied to such data, and also Artificial Neural Network classifiers which use pixel-based and non-parameters approach applied too. Moreover, this study applied object-based classifiers to the data. The classification system implemented is land cover classification on Indonesia topographic map. The classification applied to data source, which is expected to recognize the pattern and to assess consistency of the land cover map produced by each data. Furthermore, the study analyse benefits and limitations the use of methods.

  5. Spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm by pre-recomposing the interference fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Bingbo; Zhong, Liyun; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-07-24

    In the case that the phase distribution of interferogram is nonuniform and the background/modulation amplitude change rapidly, the current self-calibration algorithms with better performance like principal components analysis (PCA) and advanced iterative algorithm (AIA) cannot work well. In this study, from three or more phase-shifting interferograms with unknown phase-shifts, we propose a spatial dual-orthogonal (SDO) phase-shifting algorithm with high accuracy through using the spatial orthogonal property of interference fringe, in which a new sequence of fringe patterns with uniform phase distribution can be constructed by pre-recomposing original interferograms to determine their corresponding optimum combination coefficients, which are directly related with the phase shifts. Both simulation and experimental results show that using the proposed SDO algorithm, we can achieve accurate phase from the phase-shifting interferograms with nonuniform phase distribution, non-constant background and arbitrary phase shifts. Specially, it is found that the accuracy of phase retrieval with the proposed SDO algorithm is insensitive to the variation of fringe pattern, and this will supply a guarantee for high accuracy phase measurement and application.

  6. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  7. Correlated conductance parameters in leech heart motor neurons contribute to motor pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Damon G; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Neurons can have widely differing intrinsic membrane properties, in particular the density of specific conductances, but how these contribute to characteristic neuronal activity or pattern formation is not well understood. To explore the relationship between conductances, and in particular how they influence the activity of motor neurons in the well characterized leech heartbeat system, we developed a new multi-compartmental Hodgkin-Huxley style leech heart motor neuron model. To do so, we evolved a population of model instances, which differed in the density of specific conductances, capable of achieving specific output activity targets given an associated input pattern. We then examined the sensitivity of measures of output activity to conductances and how the model instances responded to hyperpolarizing current injections. We found that the strengths of many conductances, including those with differing dynamics, had strong partial correlations and that these relationships appeared to be linked by their influence on heart motor neuron activity. Conductances that had positive correlations opposed one another and had the opposite effects on activity metrics when perturbed whereas conductances that had negative correlations could compensate for one another and had similar effects on activity metrics.

  8. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  9. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-08-01

    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  10. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters. The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern) had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern) had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern) had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP. The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients. UMIN000010932.

  11. Self-correction of projector nonlinearity in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fuxing; Xing, Shuo; Guo, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry, the luminance nonlinearity of the used projector has been recognized as one of the most crucial factors decreasing the measurement accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper presents a self-correcting technique that allows us to suppress the effect of the projector nonlinearity in the absence of any calibration data regarding the projector intensities or regarding the phase errors. In its first step, the standard phase-shifting algorithm is used to recover the phases, as well as the background intensities and the modulations. Using these results enables normalizing the fringe patterns, for ridding them of the effects of the background and modulations. Second, we smooth the calculated phase map by use of a low-pass filter in order to remove the ripple-like phase errors induced by the projector nonlinearity. Third, we determine a polynomial representing the projector nonlinearity by fitting the curve of the normalized fringe intensities against the cosine values of the smoothed phases. Finally, we correct the phase errors using the curve just obtained. Doing these steps in an iterative way eventually results in a phase map and, further, a 3D shape with their artifacts induced by the projector nonlinearity suppressed significantly. Experimental results demonstrate that this technique offers some advantages over others. It does not require a prior calibration of the projector, thus being suitable for dealing with a time-variant nonlinearity; its pointwise operation protects the edges and details of the measurement results from being blurred; and it works well with very few fringe patterns and is efficient in image capturing.

  12. 3D shape measurement of automotive glass by using a fringe reflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skydan, O. A.; Lalor, M. J.; Burton, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    In automotive and glass making industries, there is a need for accurately measuring the 3D shapes of reflective surfaces to speed up and ensure product development and manufacturing quality by using non-contact techniques. This paper describes a technique for the measurement of non-full-field reflective surfaces of automotive glass by using a fringe reflection technique. Physical properties of the measurement surfaces do not allow us to apply optical geometries used in existing techniques for surface measurement based upon direct fringe pattern illumination. However, this property of surface reflectivity can be used to implement similar ideas from existing techniques in a new improved method. In other words, the reflective surface can be used as a mirror to reflect illuminated fringe patterns onto a screen behind. It has been found that in the case of implementing the reflective fringe technique, the phase-shift distribution depends not only on the height of the object but also on the slope at each measurement point. This requires the solving of differential equations to find the surface slope and height distributions in the x and y directions and development of the additional height reconstruction algorithms. The main focus has been made on developing a mathematical model of the optical sub-system and discussing ways for its practical implementation including calibration procedures. A number of implemented image processing algorithms for system calibration and data analysis are discussed and two experimental results are given for automotive glass surfaces with different shapes and defects. The proposed technique showed the ability to provide accurate non-destructive measurement of 3D shapes of the reflective automotive glass surfaces and can be used as a key element for a glass shape quality control system on-line or in a laboratory environment.

  13. Correlation pattern recognition: optimal parameters for quality standards control of chocolate marshmallow candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jorge L.; García-Torales, G.; Ponce Ávila, Cristina

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes an in situ image recognition system designed to inspect the quality standards of the chocolate pops during their production. The essence of the recognition system is the localization of the events (i.e., defects) in the input images that affect the quality standards of pops. To this end, processing modules, based on correlation filter, and segmentation of images are employed with the objective of measuring the quality standards. Therefore, we designed the correlation filter and defined a set of features from the correlation plane. The desired values for these parameters are obtained by exploiting information about objects to be rejected in order to find the optimal discrimination capability of the system. Regarding this set of features, the pop can be correctly classified. The efficacy of the system has been tested thoroughly under laboratory conditions using at least 50 images, containing 3 different types of possible defects.

  14. Resist Parameter Extraction from Line-and-Space Patterns of Chemically Amplified Resist for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2010-11-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has progressed owing to worldwide effort. As the development status of EUV lithography approaches the requirements for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices with a minimum line width of 22 nm, the extraction of resist parameters becomes increasingly important from the viewpoints of the accurate evaluation of resist materials for resist screening and the accurate process simulation for process and mask designs. In this study, we demonstrated that resist parameters (namely, quencher concentration, acid diffusion constant, proportionality constant of line edge roughness, and dissolution point) can be extracted from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of patterned resists without the knowledge on the details of resist contents using two types of latest EUV resist.

  15. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  16. INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-20

    Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.

  17. Quality parameters and pattern recognition methods as a tool in tracing regional origin of multifloral honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Kristina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of multifloral honey regarding the mineral composition, sugar content and basic physicochemical properties has been done. The total of 164 honey samples was collected from six regions of Serbia during 2009 harvesting season. Univariate data analysis (descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, geographic information system and pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been performed in order to identify geographical origin of honey. The content of Mg, K, and Cu, electrical conductivity, and optical rotation were established as useful indicators in tracing regional differences between honey samples. Samples originated from Zlatibor region were clearly distinguished from those from the rest of Serbia showing higher K and Mg content, as well as higher values of optical rotation, electrical conductivity, and free acidity. The influence of the soil composition, and climate conditions, as well as the presence of particular flora on the honey composition is stressed out. The modeling of geographic origin of honey has been attempted by the means of linear discriminant analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172017 and 451-03-2372-IP i FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716

  18. Study of moire fringes using synchrotron X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Jun-ichi

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been shown that X-ray moire fringes are not exactly the projection of the intensity distribution of the wave field on the exit surface of the crystal, but do oscillate along the beam path behind the crystal. Such nonprojectiveness of moire fringes is inexplicable by the conventional understanding of moire fringes, and therefore is of interest from a fundamental viewpoint as well as practical one. In this paper the phenomena of the nonprojectiveness are described on the basis of the latest experimental data obtained by synchrotron radiation. (author)

  19. Wavelength-independent fringe spacing in rainbows from falling neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    For particles with speed upsilon and mass m emitted isotropically from a point source and falling under gravity g, the quantal probability density is dominated by a paraboloidal caustic decorated with paraboloidal interference fringes. Near the caustic, the fringes have a spacing independent of upsilon and hence of wavelength, given by ΔR=3.53897x(h 2 /m 2 g)sup(1/3) for the first two (brightest) fringes at the level of the source. For neutrons in the Earth's field, ΔR=0.02617mm. The effect might be difficult to detect. (author)

  20. Non-dipping blood pressure patterns and arterial stiffness parameters in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Ergulu Esmen, Serpil

    2015-12-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis involving veins and arteries of various sizes. Non-dipping status, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity are important determinants of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated the non-dipping status and arterial stiffness in patients with Behcet's disease. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the vascular parameters of 96 patients with Behcet's disease (53% female) and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The non-dipping status and arterial distensibility were assessed using a Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph, an automatic oscillometric device. In total, 65.6% of 96 patients were systolic non-dippers, and 34.4% exhibited high augmentation indices. Ten percent of the control subjects were systolic non-dippers, and 11.7% exhibited high augmentation indices. Nocturnal decreases in systolic blood pressure correlated with central systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as nocturnal decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, non-dipper patients with Behcet's disease exhibited higher nocturnal cardiac outputs than did dipper patients with Behcet's disease. Augmentation index correlated negatively with C-reactive protein and correlated positively with both 24 h and nocturnal peripheral resistance, as well as 24 h pulse wave velocity. The patients with high augmentation indices exhibited lower creatinine clearance, as well as lower nocturnal cardiac outputs, higher 24 h peripheral resistance and higher 24 h pulse wave velocities. Non-dipping status and arterial stiffness may exacerbate the harmful cardiovascular effects of the other. In addition to conventional risk factors, non-dipping status and arterial stiffness should be examined during the follow-up evaluations of patients with Behcet's disease.

  1. Profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes with RGB encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, J. M.; Servin, M.; Garnica, G.

    2015-05-01

    Here we describe a 2-projectors and 1-camera setup for profilometry of discontinuous solids by means of co-phased demodulation of projected fringes and red, green, and blue (RGB) multichannel operation. The dual projection configuration for this profilometer is proposed to solve efficiently specular regions and self-occluding shadows due to discontinuities, which are the main drawbacks for a 1-projector 1-camera configuration. This is because the regions where shadows and specular reflections are generated, and the fringe contrast drops to zero, are in general different for each projection direction; thus, the resulting fringe patterns will have complementary phase information. Multichannel RGB operation allows us to work simultaneously with both projectors and to record independently the complementary fringe patterns phase-modulated by the 3D profile of the object under study. In other words, color encoding/decoding reduces the acquisition time respect to one-at-a-time grayscale operation and, in principle, enables the study of dynamic phenomena. The co-phased demodulation method implemented in this work benefits from the complex (analytic) nature of the output signals estimated with most phase demodulation methods (such as the Fourier method, and temporal phaseshifting algorithms). This allowed us to straightforwardly generate a single phase-map well-defined for the entire area of interest. Finally we assessed our proposed profilometry setup by measuring a fractured spherical cap made of (uncoated) expanded polystyrene. The results were satisfactory but in the authors' opinion this must be considered a preliminary report.

  2. 11 CFR 114.12 - Incorporation of political committees; payment of fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of fringe benefits. 114.12 Section 114.12 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.12 Incorporation of political committees; payment of fringe...'s share of the cost of fringe benefits, such as health and life insurance and retirement, for...

  3. Analytical determination of 5th-order transfer matrices of magnetic quadrupole fringing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, B.; Irnich, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fringing-field effects on particle trajectories in magnetic quadrupoles are described to 5th order by fringing-field integrals. It is shown that this method improves the description of fringing-field effects noticeably over the so far known use of third-order fringing-field integrals. (Author)

  4. 29 CFR 4.172 - Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for particular fringe benefits-in... particular fringe benefits—in general. Where a fringe benefit determination specifies the amount of the..., as such costs are properly a business expense of the employer. If prevailing fringe benefits for...

  5. Optimal multi-photon phase sensing with a single interference fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, G. Y.; Hofmann, H. F.; Pryde, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum entanglement can help to increase the precision of optical phase measurements beyond the shot noise limit (SNL) to the ultimate Heisenberg limit. However, the N-photon parity measurements required to achieve this optimal sensitivity are extremely difficult to realize with current photon detection technologies, requiring high-fidelity resolution of N + 1 different photon distributions between the output ports. Recent experimental demonstrations of precision beyond the SNL have therefore used only one or two photon-number detection patterns instead of parity measurements. Here we investigate the achievable phase sensitivity of the simple and efficient single interference fringe detection technique. We show that the maximally-entangled “NOON” state does not achieve optimal phase sensitivity when N > 4, rather, we show that the Holland-Burnett state is optimal. We experimentally demonstrate this enhanced sensitivity using a single photon-counted fringe of the six-photon Holland-Burnett state. Specifically, our single-fringe six-photon measurement achieves a phase variance three times below the SNL. PMID:24067490

  6. Fringe counting method for synthetic phase with frequency-modulated laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ribun; Sakuyama, Munechika; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2007-01-01

    Fringe counting method with laser diodes (LDs) for displacement measurement has been constructed. Two LDs are frequency modulated by mutually inverted sawtooth currents on an unbalanced two-beam interferometer. The mutually inverted sawtooth-current modulation of LDs produces interference fringe signals with opposite signs for respective wavelengths. The two fringe signals are fed to an electronic mixer to produce a synthetic fringe signal with a reduced sensitivity to the synthetic wavelength. Synthetic fringe pulses derived from the synthetic fringe signal make a fringe counting system possible for faster movement of the tested mirror

  7. Salt stress-induced protein pattern associated with photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Daryush; Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a multifunctional medicinal plant and a potent source of bioactive compounds. Impact of environmental stresses such as salinity on protein diversification, as well as the consequent changes in the photosynthetic parameters and andrographolide content (AG) of the herb, has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study showed that the salinity affects the protein pattern, and subsequently, it decreased the photosynthetic parameters, protein content, total dry weight, and total crude extract. Exceptionally, the AG content was increased (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, it was noticed that the salinity at 12 dS m(-1) led to the maximum increase in AG content in all accessions. Interestingly, the leaf protein analysis revealed that the two polymorphic protein bands as low- and medium-sized of 17 and 45 kDa acted as the activator agents for the photosynthetic parameters and AG content. Protein sequencing and proteomic analysis can be conducted based on the present findings in the future.

  8. Confessions of an iconoclast: at home on the fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loevinger, Jane

    2002-04-01

    The career of a psychologist whose work has been on the fringe of psychometrics, of personality theory, and, at a stretch, of psychoanalytic theory and the philosophy of science is described in this article.

  9. SCALING LAW FOR THE IMPACT OF MAGNET FRINGE FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEI, J.; PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; TALMAN, R.

    2000-01-01

    A general scaling law can be derived for the relative momentum deflection produced on a particle beam by fringe fields, to leading order. The formalism is applied to two concrete examples, for magnets having dipole and quadrupole symmetry. During recent years, the impact of magnet fringe fields is becoming increasingly important for rings of relatively small circumference but large acceptance. A few years ago, following some heuristic arguments, a scaling law was proposed [1], for the relative deflection of particles passing through a magnet fringe-field. In fact, after appropriate expansion of the magnetic fields in Cartesian coordinates, which generalizes the expansions of Steffen [2], one can show that this scaling law is true for any multipole magnet, at leading order in the transverse coefficients [3]. This paper intends to provide the scaling law to estimate the impact of fringe fields in the special cases of magnets with dipole and quadrupole symmetry

  10. Coherent Integrations, Fringe Modeling, and Bootstrapping With the NPOI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Anders M; Mozurkewich, Dave; Schmitt, Henrique; Armstrong, J. T; Gilbreath, G. C; Hindsley, Robert; Pauls, Thomas A; Peterson, Deane M

    2006-01-01

    .... It causes fringes to move on ms time-scales, forcing very short exposures. Because of the semi-random phase shifts, the traditional approach averages exposure power spectra to build signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  11. Fringe field effects in small rings of large acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been renewed interest in the influence of fringe fields on particle dynamics, due to studies that revealed their importance in some cases, as, for example, the proposed Neutrino Factory and muon colliders. In this paper, we present a systematic study of generic fringe field effects. Using as an example a lattice of the proposed Neutrino Factory, we show that fringe fields influence the dynamics of particles at all orders, starting with the linear motion. It is found that the widely used sharp cutoff approximation leads to divergences regardless of the specific fall-off shape of the fields. The results suggest that a careful consideration of fringe field effects in the design stage of small machines for large emittances is always recommended.

  12. Fringe effect of electrical capacitance and resistance tomography sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiangtao; Yang, Wuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Because of the ‘soft-field’ nature, all electrical tomography sensors suffer from electric field distortion, i.e. the fringe effect. In electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensors, small pin electrodes are commonly used. It is well known that the pin electrodes result in severe electric field distortion or the fringe effect, and the sensing region of such an ERT sensor spreads out of the pin electrode plane to a large volume. This is also true for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensors, even though it is less severe because of larger electrodes and grounded end guards used. However, when the length of electrodes in an ECT sensor without guards is reduced to almost the same dimension as those in an ERT sensor, the fringe effect is equally obvious. To investigate the fringe effect of ERT and ECT sensors with and without guards, simulations were carried out with different length of electrodes and the results are compared with the corresponding 2D simulation. It is concluded that ECT and ERT sensors with longer electrodes have less fringe effect. Because grounded end guards are effective in reducing the fringe effect of ECT sensors, we propose to apply grounded guards in ERT sensors and integrate ECT and ERT sensors together. Simulation results reveal that ERT sensors with grounded guards have less fringe effect. While commonly current excitation is used with ERT sensors, we propose voltage excitation instead to apply the grounded guards. The feasibility of this approach has been verified by experiment. Finally, a common structure for reducing the fringe effect is proposed for ECT and ERT sensors for the first time to simplify the sensor structure and reduce the mutual interference in ECT/ERT dual-modality measurements. (paper)

  13. Influence of nutritional status, laboratory parameters and dietary patterns upon urinary acid excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolini Zanette Warmling Tessaro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS. Objective: A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed. Methods: Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F calcium stone formers. Results: A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males. The endogenous production of organic acids (OA was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males, and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females. No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH. Conclusion: The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.

  14. Dynamic moire patterns for profilometry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passos da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); De Oliveira, M E; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work is proposed that dynamic moire-like fringe patterns produced by photorefraction, with low spatial frequencies, could be used for profile determination of small objects. The Fourier transform profilometry technique is applied in the projected moire fringe pattern onto an object surface. Basically, the Fourier transform of the projected fringes is obtained. After that, a phase map is generated. Then, the optical profile of object is obtained using phase unwrapping. So, the entire process can be indicated to measure, with good accuracy degree, profile of small objects in sub-micrometer scale in optical mechanical systems.

  15. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  16. A statistical approach to the estimation of mechanical unfolding parameters from the unfolding patterns of protein heteropolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddard, G S; Brockwell, D J

    2010-01-01

    A statistical calculation is described with which the saw-tooth-like unfolding patterns of concatenated heteropolymeric proteins can be used to estimate the forced unfolding parameters of a previously uncharacterized protein. The chance of observing the various sequences of unfolding events, such as ABAABBB or BBAAABB etc, for two proteins of types A and B is calculated using proteins with various ratios of A and B and at different values of effective unfolding rate constants. If the experimental rate constant for forced unfolding, k 0 , and distance to the transition state x u are known for one protein, then the calculation allows an estimation of values for the other. The predictions are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data. (communication)

  17. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ogihara

    Full Text Available While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal-metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters.The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses.Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP.The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients.UMIN000010932.

  18. Pattern description and reliability parameters of six force-time related indices measured with plantar pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Roosen, Philip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Desloovere, Kaat; Deleu, Paul-Andre; Matricali, Giovanni A; Peeraer, Louis; Staes, Filip

    2013-09-01

    Functional interpretation of plantar pressure measurements is commonly done through the use of ratios and indices which are preceded by the strategic combination of a subsampling method and selection of physical quantities. However, errors which may arise throughout the determination of these temporal indices/ratio calculations (T-IRC) have not been quantified. The purpose of the current study was therefore to estimate the reliability of T-IRC following semi-automatic total mapping (SATM). Using a repeated-measures design, two experienced therapists performed three subsampling sessions on three left and right pedobarographic footprints of ten healthy participants. Following the subsampling, six T-IRC were calculated: Rearfoot-Forefoot_fti, Rearfoot-Midfoot_fti, Forefoot medial/lateral_fti, First ray_fti, Metatarsal 1-Metatarsal 5_fti, Foot medial-lateral_fti. Patterns of the T-IRC were found to be consistent and in good agreement with corresponding knowledge from the literature. The inter-session errors of both therapists were similar in pattern and magnitude. The lowest peak inter-therapist error was found in the First ray_fti (6.5 a.u.) whereas the highest peak inter-therapist error was observed in the Forefoot medial/lateral_fti (27.0 a.u.) The magnitude of the inter-session and inter-therapist error varied over time, precluding the calculation of a simple numerical value for the error. The difference between both error parameters of all T-IRC was negligible which underscores the repeatability of the SATM protocol. The current study reports consistent patterns for six T-IRC and similar inter-session and inter-therapist error. The proposed SATM protocol and the T-IRC may therefore serve as basis for functional interpretation of footprint data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microscopic 3D measurement of dynamic scene using optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic 3-D shape measurement can supply accurate metrology of the delicacy and complexity of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has the advantages of noncontactness and high accuracy, making it widely used in 3-D measurement. Recently, tremendous advance of electronics development promotes 3-D measurements to be more accurate and faster. However, research about real-time microscopic 3-D measurement is still rarely reported. In this work, we effectively combine optimized binary structured pattern with number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time 3-D shape measurement. A slight defocusing of our proposed binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on phase-shifting FPP, making the binary patterns have the comparable performance with ideal sinusoidal patterns. Real-time 3-D measurement about 120 frames per second (FPS) is achieved, and experimental result of a vibrating earphone is presented.

  20. Patterns of care study of radiation therapy for esophageal cancer in Japan. Influence of age on parameters of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the elderly population is growing rapidly, and therefore, so is the number of cancer patients who are not good candidates for aggressive surgery or chemotherapy. Radiation therapy offers excellent potential for the treatment of such patients, with minimal invasion and functional preservation. A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) examined the parameters of treatments used for patients with esophageal cancer to determine nationwide variations by age. From July 1996 through February 1997, external nationwide PCS audits were performed for 29 institutions. Medical charts were reviewed for 455 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer treated between 1992 and 1994. The parameters of treatments used for these patients were compared between those aged ≥75 years (elderly; n=113) and those aged <75 years (younger; n=342). Surgery was used in 49% of the younger group and in 17% of the elderly group (p<0.0001) while chemotherapy was used in 48% of the younger and 24% of the older group (p<0.0001). The ratio of non-surgery group with radiation therapy increased significantly from 49% to 82% (p<0.0001). Approximately 70% of the non-surgery patients received an external radiation dose of more than 60 Gy, even in the elderly (p=0.3001). Preliminary results showed no significant difference in survival between the two age groups (p=0.5559). The use of radiation therapy in elderly people with esophageal cancer has increased markedly. The PCS provided important information about variations in radiotherapy parameters in patients with esophageal cancer in relation to age. Such information should be useful for future prospective studies of the elderly. (author)

  1. Special features of Newton-type fringe formation in a diffraction interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronkevich, Voldemar P.; Lenkova, Galina A.; Matochkin, Aleksey E.

    2006-01-01

    An interferometer with a Fresnel zone plate located in the center of curvature of a concave mirror was studied. Attention was paid to the unique features of the interference field, which has a special point at which the path difference is equal to zero, thereby allowing for the observation of Newton-type fringes in white and quasi-monochromatic light. The conditions necessary for reducing the instrumental error to values less than lambda/20 were determined. Methods for suppressing noise and destructive interference patterns were also found. Metrological tests were carried out, and they proved the possibility of using this interferometer for industrial testing of spherical and parabolic mirrors.

  2. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  3. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  4. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  5. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    . Moreover, these moving ultra-high precision telescopes, each weighing 33 tonnes, fulfill very stringent mechanical stability requirements: "The telescopes are unique in the world", says Bertrand Koehler, the VLTI AT Project Manager. "After being relocated to a new position, the telescope is repositioned to a precision better than one tenth of a millimetre - that is, the size of a human hair! The image of the star is stabilized to better than thirty milli-arcsec - this is how we would see an object of the same size as one of the VLT enclosures on the Moon. Finally, the path followed by the light inside the telescope after bouncing on ten mirrors is stable to better than a few nanometres, which is the size of about one hundred atoms." A World Premiere ESO PR Photo 07e/05 ESO PR Photo 07e/05 "First Fringes" with two ATs [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 559 pix - 61k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1134 pix - 357k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 07e/05 The "First Fringes" obtained with the first two VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, as seen on the computer screen during the observation. The fringe pattern arises when the light beams from the two 1.8-m telescopes are brought together inside the VINCI instrument. The pattern itself contains information about the angular extension of the observed object, here the 6th-magnitude star HD62082. The fringes are acquired by moving a mirror back and forth around the position of equal path length for the two telescopes. One such scan can be seen in the third row window. This pattern results from the raw interferometric signals (the last two rows) after calibration and filtering using the photometric signals (the 4th and 5th row). The first two rows show the spectrum of the fringe pattern signal. More details about the interpretation of this pattern is given in Appendix A of PR 06/01. The possibility to move the ATs around and thus to perform observations with a large number of different telescope configurations ensures a great degree of flexibility, unique for an optical

  6. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, David J; Eggert, J H; Celliers, P M; Hicks, D G

    2016-03-01

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Doppler velocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measure equation of state (EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. Accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOS measurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing the raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. The ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.

  7. The shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in urban, urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J

    2018-02-01

    Supermarkets are a key influence on eating behaviours, but it is unknown if the promotion of food within stores varies on a geographic gradient from urban, to urban-fringe and non-metropolitan areas. The present study aimed to assess the shelf space and strategic placement of healthy and discretionary foods in each of urban, urban-fringe and non-metropolitan Australian supermarkets. Design/Setting In-store audits were conducted in stores from one of the two major Australian supermarket chains in urban (n 19), urban-fringe (n 20) and non-metropolitan (n 26) areas of Victoria. These audits examined selected food items (crisps/chips, chocolate, confectionery, soft drinks/sodas, fruits and vegetables) and measured the shelf space and the proportion of end-of-aisle and cash register displays containing these products. Store size was measured as the sum of aisle length. Differences in the supermarket food environment with respect to location were assessed, before and after adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. The strategic placement of discretionary foods was commonly observed in all supermarkets. Adjusting for store size (larger in urban-fringe and rural areas), urban stores had greater shelf space devoted to fruits and vegetables, and less checkouts with soft drinks, than urban-fringe and rural/non-metropolitan areas. Differences remained following adjustment for neighbourhood socio-economic position. No clear pattern was observed for end-of-aisle displays, or the placement of chocolate and confectionery at checkouts. The shelf space of healthy and discretionary foods in urban-fringe and rural stores parallels the prevalence of overweight and obesity in these areas. Interventions in urban-fringe and rural stores targeting the shelf space of healthy foods and the placement of soft drinks at key displays may be useful obesity prevention initiatives.

  8. Analysis and Classification of Stride Patterns Associated with Children Development Using Gait Signal Dynamics Parameters and Ensemble Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihong Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring stride variability and dynamics in children is useful for the quantitative study of gait maturation and neuromotor development in childhood and adolescence. In this paper, we computed the sample entropy (SampEn and average stride interval (ASI parameters to quantify the stride series of 50 gender-matched children participants in three age groups. We also normalized the SampEn and ASI values by leg length and body mass for each participant, respectively. Results show that the original and normalized SampEn values consistently decrease over the significance level of the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.01 in children of 3–14 years old, which indicates the stride irregularity has been significantly ameliorated with the body growth. The original and normalized ASI values are also significantly changing when comparing between any two groups of young (aged 3–5 years, middle (aged 6–8 years, and elder (aged 10–14 years children. Such results suggest that healthy children may better modulate their gait cadence rhythm with the development of their musculoskeletal and neurological systems. In addition, the AdaBoost.M2 and Bagging algorithms were used to effectively distinguish the children’s gait patterns. These ensemble learning algorithms both provided excellent gait classification results in terms of overall accuracy (≥90%, recall (≥0.8, and precision (≥0.8077.

  9. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post......-industrial and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...... analyses this synergy by first describing the legislative, interventionist and financial context for urban-growth strategies deployed in the cases. On this background, the paper explores synergy potential related to policy as well as private-sector actors (local businesses, social housing organizations...

  10. Phase and fringe order determination in wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    A method to obtain unambiguous surface height measurements using wavelength scanning interferometry with an improved repeatability, comparable to that obtainable using phase shifting interferometry, is reported. Rather than determining the conventional fringe frequency-derived z height directly, the method uses the frequency to resolve the fringe order ambiguity, and combine this information with the more accurate and repeatable fringe phase derived z height. A theoretical model to evaluate the method's performance in the presence of additive noise is derived and shown to be in good agreement with experiments. The measurement repeatability is improved by a factor of ten over that achieved when using frequency information alone, reaching the sub-nanometre range. Moreover, the z-axis non-linearity (bleed-through or ripple error) is reduced by a factor of ten. These order of magnitude improvements in measurement performance are demonstrated through a number of practical measurement examples.

  11. Model-based multi-fringe interferometry using Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Song, Weihong; Wu, Gaofeng; Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Yongqian; Zhao, Wenchuan

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a general phase retrieval method is proposed, which is based on one single interferogram with a small amount of fringes (either tilt or power). Zernike polynomials are used to characterize the phase to be measured; the phase distribution is reconstructed by a non-linear least squares method. Experiments show that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory results compared to the standard phase-shifting interferometry technique. Additionally, the retrace errors of proposed method can be neglected because of the few fringes; it does not need any auxiliary phase shifting facilities (low cost) and it is easy to implement without the process of phase unwrapping.

  12. Effects of the Tax Treatment of Fringe Benefits on Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the provision of the same fringe benefits for all workers promotes labor market segmentation by inducing workers to sort themselves across the economy according to their demand for fringe benefits. (JOW)

  13. Analysis of Fringe Field Formed Inside LDA Measurement Volume Using Compact Two Hololens Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.; Yadav, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    We have designed and fabricated four LDA optical setups consisting of aberration compensated four different compact two hololens imaging systems. We have experimentally investigated and realized a hololens recording geometry which is interferogram of converging spherical wavefront with mutually coherent planar wavefront. Proposed real time monitoring and actual fringe field analysis techniques allow complete characterizations of fringes formed at measurement volume and permit to evaluate beam quality, alignment and fringe uniformity with greater precision. After experimentally analyzing the fringes formed at measurement volume by all four imaging systems, it is found that fringes obtained using compact two hololens imaging systems get improved both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to that obtained using conventional imaging system. Results indicate qualitative improvement of non-uniformity in fringe thickness and micro intensity variations perpendicular to the fringes, and quantitative improvement of 39.25% in overall average normalized standard deviations of fringe width formed by compact two hololens imaging systems compare to that of conventional imaging system.

  14. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... holiday gifts of property (not cash) with a low fair market value; occasional theatre or sporting event tickets; and coffee and doughnuts. (2) Benefits not excludable as de minimis fringes. Examples of fringe...

  15. Dispersed-fringe-accumulation-based left-subtract-right method for fine co-phasing of a dispersed fringe sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Shengqian; Rao, Changhui

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a dispersed-fringe-accumulation (DFA)-based left-subtract-right (LSR) piston estimation method (DFA-LSR), in which the dispersed fringe image is accumulated in the dispersed direction, and then the LSR method is used to estimate the piston error, is proposed for dispersed fringe sensors (DFS) in the fine co-phasing stage. The DFS is usually used to detect the piston errors (optical path difference) between different segmented mirrors or synthetic aperture telescopes. The DFA-LSR makes up for the shortcomings of the main peak position (MPP) method, which suffers from the constant offset in the pixel counts. The analysis and experiment results show that the proposed method can keep relatively better performance even at the condition of poor signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the MPP method in fine co-phasing stage.

  16. 29 CFR 5.22 - Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions. 5.22... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.22 Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits... paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 1.2 of this subtitle. The fringe benefits amendments enlarge the scope of this...

  17. Mechanisms of wave‐driven water level variability on reef‐fringed coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Hansen, Jeff E; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2018-01-01

    Wave‐driven water level variability (and runup at the shoreline) is a significant cause of coastal flooding induced by storms. Wave runup is challenging to predict, particularly along tropical coral reef‐fringed coastlines due to the steep bathymetric profiles and large bottom roughness generated by reef organisms, which can violate assumptions in conventional models applied to open sandy coastlines. To investigate the mechanisms of wave‐driven water level variability on a reef‐fringed coastline, we performed a set of laboratory flume experiments on an along‐shore uniform bathymetric profile with and without bottom roughness. Wave setup and waves at frequencies lower than the incident sea‐swell forcing (infragravity waves) were found to be the dominant components of runup. These infragravity waves were positively correlated with offshore wave groups, signifying they were generated in the surf zone by the oscillation of the breakpoint. On the reef flat and at the shoreline, the low‐frequency waves formed a standing wave pattern with energy concentrated at the natural frequencies of the reef flat, indicating resonant amplification. Roughness elements used in the flume to mimic large reef bottom roughness reduced low frequency motions on the reef flat and reduced wave run up by 30% on average, compared to the runs over a smooth bed. These results provide insight into sea‐swell and infragravity wave transformation and wave setup dynamics on steep‐sloped coastlines, and the effect that future losses of reef bottom roughness may have on coastal flooding along reef‐fringed coasts.

  18. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers

  19. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  20. X-ray diffraction patterns in high-energy proton implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Dluzewska, K.D.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon crystals implanted with 1 and 1.6 MeV protons were studied by means of conventional source double-crystal and synchrotron multi-crystal arrangements. Both the rocking curves and series of topographs were recorded in different parallel settings employing different reflections and wavelengths of radiation. A comparison of rocking curves in different regions of implanted areas was performed in synchrotron multi-crystal arrangement with a beam of a very small diameter. The rocking curves exhibited subsidiary interference maxima with increasing periodicity on the low angle side. The plane wave topographs taken at different angular setting revealed characteristic fringes whose number decreased with increasing distance from the main maximum. The fringe pattern did not depend on the direction of the diffraction vector. The number of fringes for equivalent angular distance from the maximum was larger for higher order of reflection. The shape of the rocking curve and other diffraction patterns were reasonably explained assuming the lattice parameter change depth distribution proportional to the profile obtained from the Biersack-Ziegler theory and lateral non-uniformity of ion dose. A good approximation of the experimental results was obtained using numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. (orig.)

  1. Strong time-consistency in the cartel-versus-fringe model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Zeeuw, de A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to developments on the oil market in the 1970s, the theory of exhaustible resources was extended with the cartel-versus-fringe model to characterize markets with one big coherent cartel and a large number of small suppliers called the fringe. Because cartel and fringe are leader and follower,

  2. 29 CFR 4.174 - Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits. 4.174... Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.174 Meeting requirements for holiday fringe benefits. (a) Determining eligibility for holiday benefits—in general. (1) Most fringe benefit...

  3. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot may depart from a fringe airport as defined in § 93.335 without filing a flight plan or communicating...

  4. 29 CFR 4.162 - Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. 4.162... Compensation Standards § 4.162 Fringe benefits under contracts exceeding $2,500. (a) Pursuant to the statutory... contain a provision specifying the fringe benefits to be furnished the various classes of service...

  5. 26 CFR 1.162-25T - Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions with respect to noncash fringe... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-25T Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits (temporary). (a) Employer. If an employer includes the value of a noncash fringe benefit in an employee's gross income, the...

  6. 29 CFR 4.165 - Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments and fringe benefits-in general. 4.165 Section... Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.165 Wage payments and fringe benefits—in... fringe benefits (see § 4.177). (2) The Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation...

  7. 29 CFR 4.177 - Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means... CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.177 Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means. (a) In general. (1) Section 2(a)(2) of the Act, which provides for fringe...

  8. 29 CFR 4.50 - Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. 4.50... Determination Procedures § 4.50 Types of wage and fringe benefit determinations. The Administrator specifies the minimum monetary wages and fringe benefits to be paid as required under the Act in two types of...

  9. On price taking behavior in a nonrenewable resource cartel-fringe game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Benchekroun, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a nonrenewable resource game with one cartel and a set of fringe members. We show that (i) the outcomes of the closed-loop and the open-loop nonrenewable resource game with the fringe members as price takers (the cartel-fringe game à la Salant, 1976) coincide and (ii) when the number of

  10. 26 CFR 1.162-25 - Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions with respect to noncash fringe... Corporations § 1.162-25 Deductions with respect to noncash fringe benefits. (a) [Reserved] (b) Employee. If an employer provides the use of a vehicle (as defined in § 1.61-21(e)(2)) to an employee as a noncash fringe...

  11. 44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement sought from DHS. (c) DHS will not reimburse the Sponsoring Agency for fringe benefit costs for... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement of fringe... RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response Cooperative Agreements § 208.40 Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs...

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-2T - Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of fringe benefits-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.61-2T Section 1.61-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-2T Taxation of fringe benefits—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) Fringe...

  13. Analysis of the Localization of Michelson Interferometer Fringes Using Fourier Optics and Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanamurthy, C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in "Principles of Optics" by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer…

  14. 26 CFR 1.132-6 - De minimis fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) so small as to make accounting for it unreasonable or administratively impracticable. (b) Frequency... of hours worked (e.g., $1.00 per hour for each hour over eight hours) be considered a de minimis... as a working condition fringe if the employee would not have had such special security design but for...

  15. Analysis of Professional Fringe Benefits, 1978-79. OMNI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, James J.; Riddle, Richard A.

    This report contains data collected from 275 Pennsylvania school districts for the 1978-79 school year. The data reflect policies and practices affecting fringe benefits for professional employees. The report is divided into three major sections. The first section presents comparative data for 30 variables on a statewide, size, and wealth basis.…

  16. Analysis of Professional Fringe Benefits 1977-78. OMNI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William E.; Vater, James J.

    This report contains data collected from 275 Pennsylvania school districts for the 1977-78 school year. The data reflect policies and practices affecting fringe benefits for professional employees. The report is divided into three major sections. The first section presents comparative data for 30 variables on a statewide, size, and wealth basis.…

  17. 26 CFR 1.132-5 - Working condition fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exist unless the employee's employer establishes to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that an overall... example, threats are made on the life of an employee), the bona fide business-oriented security concern is... condition fringe. A “working condition fringe” is any property or service provided to an employee of an...

  18. Livelihood trends in Response to Climate Change in Forest Fringe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the forest fringe communities in Ghana where the rural livelihoods of the people have been compromised due to deforestation and climate change is the Offin basin. The removal of forests impacts on local climate, water availability, and livelihoods due to influence of forests on precipitation and water balance. Fluxes ...

  19. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  20. Measurement of gradient index profiles by Babinet fringe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, T P; Saxena, A K

    1979-03-01

    A theory for determining one-dimensional ray deflections with the help of distorted Babinet fringes has been developed. An approach for investigating two-dimensional ray deflections has been presented. Applications of the techniques for the study of gradient index glass have been described.

  1. 3-D optical profilometry at micron scale with multi-frequency fringe projection using modified fibre optic Lloyd's mirror technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanç, Arda; Kösoğlu, Gülşen; Yüksel, Heba; Naci Inci, Mehmet

    2018-06-01

    A new fibre optic Lloyd's mirror method is developed for extracting 3-D height distribution of various objects at the micron scale with a resolution of 4 μm. The fibre optic assembly is elegantly integrated to an optical microscope and a CCD camera. It is demonstrated that the proposed technique is quite suitable and practical to produce an interference pattern with an adjustable frequency. By increasing the distance between the fibre and the mirror with a micrometre stage in the Lloyd's mirror assembly, the separation between the two bright fringes is lowered down to the micron scale without using any additional elements as part of the optical projection unit. A fibre optic cable, whose polymer jacket is partially stripped, and a microfluidic channel are used as test objects to extract their surface topographies. Point by point sensitivity of the method is found to be around 8 μm, changing a couple of microns depending on the fringe frequency and the measured height. A straightforward calibration procedure for the phase to height conversion is also introduced by making use of the vertical moving stage of the optical microscope. The phase analysis of the acquired image is carried out by One Dimensional Continuous Wavelet Transform for which the chosen wavelet is the Morlet wavelet and the carrier removal of the projected fringe patterns is achieved by reference subtraction. Furthermore, flexible multi-frequency property of the proposed method allows measuring discontinuous heights where there are phase ambiguities like 2π by lowering the fringe frequency and eliminating the phase ambiguity.

  2. DEPENDENCE OF THE SPECKLE-PATTERNS SIZE AND THEIR CONTRAST ON THE BIOPHYSICAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Abramovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle fields are widely used in optical diagnostics of biotissues and evaluation of the functional state of bioobjects. The speckle field is formed by laser radiation scattered from the object under study. It bears information about the average dimensions of the scatterers, the degree of surface roughness makes it possible to judge the structural and biophysical characteristics of individual tissue cells (particles, on the one hand, and the integral optical characteristics of the entire biological tissue. The aim of the study was – the determination of connections between the biophysical and structural characteristics of the biotissue and the light fields inside the biotissues.The model developed of the medium gives a direct relationship between the optical and biophysical parameters of the biotissue. Calculations were carried out using known solutions of the radiation transfer equation, taking into account the multilayer structure of the tissue, multiple scattering in the medium, and multiple reflection of irradiation between the layers.With the increase wavelength, the size of speckles formed by the non-scattered component (direct light of laser radiation increases by a factor of 2 from 400 to 800 μm in the stratum corneum and 5 times from 0.6 to 3 μm for the epidermis and from 0.27 to 1.4 μm to the dermis. Typical values of sizes of speckles formed by the diffraction component of laser radiation for the stratum corneum and epidermis range from 0.02 to 0.15 μm. For the dermis typical spot sizes are up to 0.03 μm. The speckle-spot size of the diffusion component in the dermis can vary from ±10 % at 400 nm and up to ±23 % for 800 nm when the volume concentration of blood capillaries changes. Characteristic dependencies are obtained and biophysical factors associated with the volume concentration of blood and the degree of it’s oxygenation that affect the contrast of the speckle structure in the dermis are discussed.The of speckles

  3. Digital fringe projection for hand surface coordinate variation analysis caused by osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haimi, Wan Mokhdzani Wan; Hau Tan, Cheek; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Vairavan, Rajendaran; Sauli, Zaliman; Roshidah Yusof, Nor; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Aziz, Muhammad Hafiz Ab; Bakhit, Ahmad Syahir Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Hand osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis which impact millions of people worldwide. The disabling problem occurs when the protective cartilage on the boundaries of bones wear off over time. Currently, in order to identify hand osteoarthritis, special instruments namely X-ray scanning and MRI are used for the detection but it also has its limitations such as radiation exposure and can be quite costly. In this work, an optical metrology system based on digital fringe projection which comprises of an LCD projector, CCD camera and a personal computer has been developed to anticipate abnormal growth or deformation on the joints of the hand which are common symptoms of osteoarthritis. The main concept of this optical metrology system is to apply structured light as imaging source for surface change detection. The imaging source utilizes fringe patterns generated by C++ programming and is shifted by 3 phase shifts based on the 3 steps 2 shifts method. Phase wrapping technique and analysis were applied in order to detect the deformation of live subjects. The result has demonstrated a successful method of hand deformation detection based on the pixel tracking differences of a normal and deformed state.

  4. Micro/Nano-scale Strain Distribution Measurement from Sampling Moiré Fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-05-23

    This work describes the measurement procedure and principles of a sampling moiré technique for full-field micro/nano-scale deformation measurements. The developed technique can be performed in two ways: using the reconstructed multiplication moiré method or the spatial phase-shifting sampling moiré method. When the specimen grid pitch is around 2 pixels, 2-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated to reconstruct a multiplication moiré pattern for a deformation measurement. Both the displacement and strain sensitivities are twice as high as in the traditional scanning moiré method in the same wide field of view. When the specimen grid pitch is around or greater than 3 pixels, multi-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated, and a spatial phase-shifting technique is combined for a full-field deformation measurement. The strain measurement accuracy is significantly improved, and automatic batch measurement is easily achievable. Both methods can measure the two-dimensional (2D) strain distributions from a single-shot grid image without rotating the specimen or scanning lines, as in traditional moiré techniques. As examples, the 2D displacement and strain distributions, including the shear strains of two carbon fiber-reinforced plastic specimens, were measured in three-point bending tests. The proposed technique is expected to play an important role in the non-destructive quantitative evaluations of mechanical properties, crack occurrences, and residual stresses of a variety of materials.

  5. Combined infragravity wave and sea-swell runup over fringing reefs by super typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozono, Takenori; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Kennedy, Andrew B.; Nobuoka, Hisamichi; Sasaki, Jun; Sato, Shinji

    2015-06-01

    Super typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013, marking one of the strongest typhoons at landfall in recorded history. Extreme storm waves attacked the Pacific coast of Eastern Samar where the violent typhoon first made landfall. Our field survey confirmed that storm overwash heights of 6-14 m above mean sea level were distributed along the southeastern coast and extensive inundation occurred in some coastal villages in spite of natural protection by wide fringing reefs. A wave model based on Boussinesq-type equations is constructed to simulate wave transformation over shallow fringing reefs and validated against existing laboratory data. Wave propagation and runup on the Eastern Samar coast are then reproduced using offshore boundary conditions based on a wave hindcast. The model results suggest that extreme waves on the shore are characterized as a superposition of the infragravity wave and sea-swell components. The balance of the two components is strongly affected by the reef width and beach slope through wave breaking, frictional dissipation, reef-flat resonances, and resonant runup amplification. Therefore, flood characteristics significantly differ from site to site due to a large variation of the two topographic parameters on the hilly coast. Strong coupling of infragravity waves and sea swells produces extreme runup on steep beaches fronted by narrow reefs, whereas the infragravity waves become dominant over wide reefs and they evolve into bores on steep beaches.

  6. 20 CFR 641.565 - What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits to participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fringe benefits to participants? 641.565 Section 641.565 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... PROGRAM Services to Participants § 641.565 What policies govern the provision of wages and fringe benefits...) Fringe benefits—(1) Required fringe benefits. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this...

  7. Prognosis parameters and polarimetric properties of erythrocytes of the patients suffering from arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease at various patterns of left ventricular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaschuk, Oleg I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Ya.

    2011-09-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  8. High-speed three-dimensional shape measurement for dynamic scenes using bi-frequency tripolar pulse-width-modulation fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Feng, Shijie; Feng, Fangxiaoyu; Li, Rubin; Shen, Guochen

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces a high-speed three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement technique for dynamic scenes by using bi-frequency tripolar pulse-width-modulation (TPWM) fringe projection. Two wrapped phase maps with different wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously by our bi-frequency phase-shifting algorithm. Then the two phase maps are unwrapped using a simple look-up-table based number-theoretical approach. To guarantee the robustness of phase unwrapping as well as the high sinusoidality of projected patterns, TPWM technique is employed to generate ideal fringe patterns with slight defocus. We detailed our technique, including its principle, pattern design, and system setup. Several experiments on dynamic scenes were performed, verifying that our method can achieve a speed of 1250 frames per second for fast, dense, and accurate 3-D measurements.

  9. Prediction efficiency of the hydrographical parameters as related to distribution patterns of the Pleuromamma species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Saraswathy, M.

    . Multiple regression model of P. indica abundance on the parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and phosphate-phosphorus could explain more than 85% of the variation in the predicted abundance, while those of 8 species obtained from...

  10. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  11. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Ken; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible

  12. Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianming

    2016-08-22

    A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.

  13. Relationship of Eating Patterns and Metabolic Parameters, and Teneligliptin Treatment: Interim Results from Post-marketing Surveillance in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Haneda, Masakazu; Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hiraide, Sonoe; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Ueno, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Healthy eating is a critical aspect of the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Disrupted eating patterns can result in poor glucose control and increase the likelihood of diabetic complications. Teneligliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity for 24 h and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia after all three daily meals. This interim analysis of data from the large-scale post-marketing surveillance of teneligliptin (RUBY) in Japan examined eating patterns and their relationship with metabolic parameters and diabetic complications. We also examined whether eating patterns affected safety and efficacy of teneligliptin. We analyzed baseline data from survey forms collected in RUBY between May 2013 and June 2017, including patient characteristics, metabolic parameters, and eating patterns (eating three meals per day or not; timing of evening meal) before teneligliptin treatment was initiated. Safety and efficacy of 12 months' teneligliptin (20-40 mg/day) treatment was assessed. Data from 10,532 patients were available for analysis. Most patients who did not eat three meals per day (n  =757) or who ate their evening meal after 10 PM (n  =206) were 64 years old or younger. At baseline, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in those patients who did not eat three meals per day (p < 0.05) or who ate their evening meal late (p < 0.05). Diabetic complications were more common in patients who did not eat three meals per day. Treatment with teneligliptin reduced HbA1c over 6 or 12 months across all eating patterns, with a low incidence of adverse drug reactions. Eating patterns may be associated with altered metabolic parameters and diabetic complications among Japanese patients with T2DM. Teneligliptin may be well tolerated and improve hyperglycemia in patients

  14. Accuracy and high-speed technique for autoprocessing of Young's fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, an accurate and high-speed method for auto-processing of Young's fringes is proposed. A group of 1-D sampled intensity values along three or more different directions are taken from Young's fringes, and the fringe spacings of each direction are obtained by 1-D FFT respectively. Two directions that have smaller fringe spacing are selected from all directions. The accurate fringe spacings along these two directions are obtained by using orthogonal coherent phase detection technique (OCPD). The actual spacing and angle of Young's fringes, therefore, can be calculated. In this paper, the principle of OCPD is introduced in detail. The accuracy of the method is evaluated theoretically and experimentally.

  15. An algorithm to remove fringe jumps and its application to microwave reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Kawahata, K.; Shinohara, K.

    1997-01-01

    In some plasma discharges, the phase measured by microwave reflectometry has many fringe (2π radians) jumps. A new algorithm to detect and remove fringe jumps has been developed, and applied to the data in the JIPP TII-U tokamak. Using this algorithm, quantitative properties of fringe jumps, and their effects on the analysis of phase fluctuations are investigated. It was found that the occurrence of fringe jumps obeys a Poisson process, and the time scale of jumps is distributed over a wide range. Fringe jumps affect mainly the low-frequency components of phase fluctuations. Comparison of the phase corrected by the algorithm and the phase calculated from the time smoothed signals indicates that time smoothing (or frequency filtering) is an effective way to obtain information concerning the macroscopic density profile. Fringe jump and phase runaway can be phenomenologically explained by the distribution of the complex amplitude of the reflected wave. (author)

  16. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  17. Proton moire fringes for diagnosing electromagnetic fields in opaque materials and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.K.; Price, D.W.; Hicks, D.; Romagnani, L.; Borghesi, M.

    2003-01-01

    High contrast proton moire fringes have been obtained in a laser-produced proton beam. Moire fringes with modulation of 20%-30% were observed in protons with energies in the range of 4-7 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations with simple test fields showed that shifts in the moire fringes can be used to give quantitative information on the strength of transient electromagnetic fields inside plasmas and materials that are opaque to conventional probing methods

  18. Interpretation of interfacial structures in X-ray multilayers by TEM Fresnel fringe effects

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tai D.; O'Keefe, Michael A.; Kilaas, Roar; Gronsky, Ronald; Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of interfacial structures from high-resolution TEM images of cross-sectional specimens is difficult due to Fresnel fringe effects producing different apparent structures in the images. The effects of these fringes have been commonly over-looked in efforts of making quantitative interpretation of interfacial profiles. In this report, we present the observations of the Fresnel fringes in nanometer period Mo/Si, W/C, and WC/C multilayers in through-focus-series TEM images. Calculation...

  19. Taking apart the enhanced backscattering cone: Interference fringes from reciprocal paths in multiple light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bret, Boris P. J.; Ferreira, Flavio P.; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Belsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We report the decomposition of the enhanced backscattering cone into its constitutive interference fringes. These fringes are due to the constructive interference between reciprocal paths of any multiply scattered wave after ensemble averaging. An optical setup combining a two-point continuous-wave illumination and matching detection allows the observation of the fringes and, therefore, the quantitative characterization of the Green's function for light propagation between the two points in a multiple-scattering media.

  20. In-phase and anti-phase interference fringes in Laue case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Riichirou; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Yoshizawa, Masami; Hirano, Kenji; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    By using X-rays from synchrotron radiation, we measured the rocking curves due to only the imaginary part of the atomic scattering factor in Laue case. The interference fringes are observed which are totally different from the Pendelloesung fringe. The fringes of the diffracted and transmitted rocking curves are in-phase with each other. We studied the origin of the in-phase fringes by using the complex dispersion surface and the electric field in the crystal, and also the relation with a coupled pendulum. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Boussinesq Modeling of Wave Propagation and Runup over Fringing Coral Reefs, Model Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirbilek, Zeki; Nwogu, Okey G

    2007-01-01

    ..., for waves propagating over fringing reefs. The model evaluation had two goals: (a) investigate differences between laboratory and field characteristics of wave transformation processes over reefs, and (b...

  2. In-phase and anti-phase interference fringes in rocking curves of resonant X-ray dynamical diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, Riichirou; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Yoshizawa, Masami; Hirano, Kenji; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    We have observed the interference fringes that are in phase with each other in the diffracted and transmitted rocking curves of GaAs 200 reflection near the K-absorption edge of As. The fringes are in contrast with the well-known Pendelloesung fringes that are anti-phase with each other in the diffracted and transmitted waves. The origin of the in-phase interference fringe is analyzed to be due to the diffraction only by the imaginary part of the atomic scattering factor. It is also shown that the interference fringes become typical Pendelloesung fringes when the diffraction is caused only by the real part. (author)

  3. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lee, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  4. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  5. Transport of volatile organic compounds across the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to investigate the transport of a dissolved volatile organic compound (trichloroethylene, TCE) from shallow groundwater to the unsaturated zone under a variety of conditions including changes in the soil moisture profile and water table position. Experimental data indicated that at moderate groundwater velocities (0.1 m/d), vertical mechanical dispersion was negligible and molecular diffusion was the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Under these conditions, TCE concentrations decreased nearly 3 orders of magnitude across the capillary fringe and soil gas concentrations remained low relative to those of underlying groundwater. Data collected during a water table drop showed a short-term increase in concentrations throughout most of the unsaturated zone, but these concentrations quickly declined and approached initial values after the water table was returned to its original level. In the deep part of the unsaturated zone, the water table drop resulted in a long-term decrease in concentrations, illustrating the effects of hysteresis in the soil moisture profile. A two-dimensional random walk advection-diffusion model was developed to simulate the experimental conditions, and numerical simulations agreed well with experimental data. A simpler, one-dimensional finite-difference diffusion-dispersion model was also developed. One-dimensional simulations based on molecular diffusion also agreed well with experimental data. Simulations which incorporated mechanical dispersion tended to overestimate flux across the capillary fringe. Good agreement between the one- and two-dimensional models suggested that a simple, one-dimensional approximation of vertical transport across the capillary fringe can be useful when conditions are appropriate.

  6. Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Milk Production and Lactation Pattern in an Ethiopian Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebregziabher Gebreyohannes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for lactation milk yield (LY, lactation length (LL, average milk yield per day (YD, initial milk yield (IY, peak milk yield (PY, days to peak (DP and parameters (ln(a and c of the modified incomplete gamma function (MIG in an Ethiopian multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset was composed of 5,507 lactation records collected from 1,639 cows in three locations (Bako, Debre Zeit and Holetta in Ethiopia from 1977 to 2010. Parameters for MIG were obtained from regression analysis of monthly test-day milk data on days in milk. The cows were purebred (Bos indicus Boran (B and Horro (H and their crosses with different fractions of Friesian (F, Jersey (J and Simmental (S. There were 23 breed groups (B, H, and their crossbreds with F, J, and S in the population. Fixed and mixed models were used to analyse the data. The fixed model considered herd-year-season, parity and breed group as fixed effects, and residual as random. The single and two-traits mixed animal repeatability models, considered the fixed effects of herd-year-season and parity subclasses, breed as a function of cow H, F, J, and S breed fractions and general heterosis as a function of heterozygosity, and the random additive animal, permanent environment, and residual effects. For the analysis of LY, LL was added as a fixed covariate to all models. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using average information restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The results indicated that all traits were affected (p<0.001 by the considered fixed effects. High grade B×F cows (3/16B 13/16F had the highest least squares means (LSM for LY (2,490±178.9 kg, IY (10.5±0.8 kg, PY (12.7±0.9 kg, YD (7.6±0.55 kg and LL (361.4±31.2 d, while B cows had the lowest LSM values for these traits. The LSM of LY, IY, YD, and PY tended to increase from the first to the fifth parity. Single-trait analyses

  7. Multiple rotation assessment through isothetic fringes in speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    The use of different pupils for storing each speckled image in speckle photography is employed to determine multiple in-plane rotations. The method consists of recording a four-exposure specklegram where the rotations are done between exposures. This specklegram is then optically processed in a whole field approach rendering isothetic fringes, which give detailed information about the multiple rotations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed arrangement permits the depiction of six isothetics in order to measure either six different angles or three nonparallel components for two local general in-plane displacements

  8. Modeling the static fringe field of superconducting magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglic, P; Lebar, A; Apih, T; Dolinsek, J

    2001-05-01

    The resonance frequency-space and the frequency gradient-space relations are evaluated analytically for the static fringe magnetic field of superconducting magnets used in the NMR diffusion measurements. The model takes into account the actual design of the high-homogeneity magnet coil system that consists of the main coil and the cryoshim coils and enables a precise calibration of the on-axis magnetic field gradient and the resonance frequency inside and outside of the superconducting coil. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Fringing reefs exposed to different levels of eutrophication and sedimentation can support similar benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzé, H.; Lecellier, G.; Langlade, M.J.; Planes, S.; Berteaux-Lecellier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess anthropogenic pressures on coral reef health. • We present a spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters as bio-indicators. • Poor water quality (e.g. high turbidity and high sediments) was not correlated with lower coral cover. • Phytoplankton community size-composition and habitat stability were important predictors of coral reef health. - Abstract: Benthic communities are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances which can result in changes in species assemblages. A spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters was conducted over an 18-month period on four different fringing reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, with unusual vs. frequent human pressures. This survey included assessment of biological, chemical, and physical parameters. First, the results showed a surprising lack of a seasonal trend, which was likely obscured by short-term variability in lagoons. More frequent sampling periods would likely improve the evaluation of a seasonal effect on biological and ecological processes. Second, the three reef habitats studied that were dominated by corals were highly stable, despite displaying antagonistic environmental conditions through eutrophication and sedimentation gradients, whereas the reef dominated by macroalgae was relatively unstable. Altogether, our data challenge the paradigm of labelling environmental parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, and nutrient-richness as stress indicators

  10. Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torres-Freyermuth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon are investigated by means of a phase-resolving non-hydrostatic wave model (SWASH. This model solves the nonlinear shallow water equations including non-hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional version of the model is implemented in order to investigate wave transformation in fringing reefs. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with (i laboratory experiments conducted on a physical model (Demirbilek et al., 2007and (ii field observations (Coronado et al., 2007. Numerical results show good agreement with both experimental and field data. The comparison against the physical model results, for energetic wave conditions, indicates that high- and low-frequency wave transformation is well reproduced. Moreover, extreme water-level conditions measured during the passage of Hurricane Ivan in Puerto Morelos are also estimated by the numerical tool. Subsequently, the model is implemented at different along-reef locations in Puerto Morelos. Extreme water levels, wave-induced setup, and infragravity wave energy are estimated inside the reef lagoon for different storm wave conditions (Hs >2 m. The numerical results revealed a strong correlation between the offshore sea-swell wave energy and the setup. In contrast, infragravity waves are shown to be the result of a more complex pattern which heavily relies on the reef geometry. Indeed, the southern end of the reef lagoon provides evidence of resonance excitation, suggesting that the reef barrier may act as either a natural flood protection morphological feature, or as an inundation hazard enhancer depending on the incident wave conditions.

  11. Use of Multi-class Empirical Orthogonal Function for Identification of Hydrogeological Parameters and Spatiotemporal Pattern of Multiple Recharges in Groundwater Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.; Yeh, W. W. G.; Hsieh, I. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study develops an innovative calibration method for regional groundwater modeling by using multi-class empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). The developed method is an iterative approach. Prior to carrying out the iterative procedures, the groundwater storage hydrographs associated with the observation wells are calculated. The combined multi-class EOF amplitudes and EOF expansion coefficients of the storage hydrographs are then used to compute the initial gauss of the temporal and spatial pattern of multiple recharges. The initial guess of the hydrogeological parameters are also assigned according to in-situ pumping experiment. The recharges include net rainfall recharge and boundary recharge, and the hydrogeological parameters are riverbed leakage conductivity, horizontal hydraulic conductivity, vertical hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, and specific yield. The first step of the iterative algorithm is to conduct the numerical model (i.e. MODFLOW) by the initial guess / adjusted values of the recharges and parameters. Second, in order to determine the best EOF combination of the error storage hydrographs for determining the correction vectors, the objective function is devised as minimizing the root mean square error (RMSE) of the simulated storage hydrographs. The error storage hydrograph are the differences between the storage hydrographs computed from observed and simulated groundwater level fluctuations. Third, adjust the values of recharges and parameters and repeat the iterative procedures until the stopping criterion is reached. The established methodology was applied to the groundwater system of Ming-Chu Basin, Taiwan. The study period is from January 1st to December 2ed in 2012. Results showed that the optimal EOF combination for the multiple recharges and hydrogeological parameters can decrease the RMSE of the simulated storage hydrographs dramatically within three calibration iterations. It represents that the iterative approach that

  12. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  13. A probabilistic approach to the assessment of some life history pattern parameters in a Middle Pleistocene human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, A I; Ipina, S L; Bermúdez de Castro, J M

    2000-06-01

    Parameters of a Middle Pleistocene human population such as the expected length of the female reproductive period (E(Y)), the expected interbirth interval (E(X)), the survival rate (tau) for females after the expected reproductive period, the rate (phi(2)) of women who, given that they reach first birth, do not survive to the end of the expected reproductive period, and the female infant plus juvenile mortality rate (phi(1)) have been assessed from a probabilistic standpoint provided that such a population were stationary. The hominid sample studied, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), is the most exhaustive human fossil sample currently available. Results suggest that the Atapuerca (SH) sample can derive from a stationary population. Further, in the case that the expected reproductive period ends between 37 and 40 yr of age, then 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar27 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.224

  14. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (<63 μm, mud) from more than 600 surficial samples, combined with recalculations for the bulk sediment. For the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) and selected elements (P, Hg), the regional distribution maps show strong differences between the analysed fine fraction and the recalculated total sediment. Seeing that mud contents vary strongly between 0 and 100%, this can be explained by the well-known grain-size effect. To avoid (or at least minimise) this effect, further interpretations were based on the data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  15. Corneal topometry by fringe projection: limits and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windecker, Robert; Tiziani, Hans J.; Thiel, H.; Jean, Benedikt J.

    1996-01-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of corneal topography is an important task especially since laser induced corneal reshaping has been used for the correction of ametropia. The classical measuring system uses Placido rings for the measurement and calculation of the topography or local curvatures. Another approach is the projection of a known fringe map to be imaged onto the surface under a certain angle of incidence. We present a set-up using telecentric illumination and detection units. With a special grating we get a synthetic wavelength with a nearly sinusoidal profile. In combination with a very fast data acquisition the topography can be evaluated using as special selfnormalizing phase evaluation algorithm. It calculates local Fourier coefficients and corrects errors caused by imperfect illumination or inhomogeneous scattering by fringe normalization. The topography can be determined over 700 by 256 pixel. The set-up is suitable to measure optically rough silicon replica of the human cornea as well as the cornea in vivo over a field of 8 mm and more. The resolution is mainly limited by noise and is better than two micrometers. We discuss the principle benefits and the drawbacks compared with standard Placido technique.

  16. Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.

  17. Accounting for the fringe magnetic field from the bending magnet in a Monte Carlo accelerator treatment head simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Tuathan P; Foley, Mark J; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2011-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation can be used for accurate electron beam treatment planning and modeling. Measurement of large electron fields, with the applicator removed and secondary collimator wide open, has been shown to provide accurate simulation parameters, including asymmetry in the measured dose, for the full range of clinical field sizes and patient positions. Recently, disassembly of the treatment head of a linear accelerator has been used to refine the simulation of the electron beam, setting tightly measured constraints on source and geometry parameters used in simulation. The simulation did not explicitly include the known deflection of the electron beam by a fringe magnetic field from the bending magnet, which extended into the treatment head. Instead, the secondary scattering foil and monitor chamber were unrealistically laterally offset to account for the beam deflection. This work is focused on accounting for this fringe magnetic field in treatment head simulation. The magnetic field below the exit window of a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator was measured with a Tesla-meter from 0 to 12 cm from the exit window and 1-3 cm off-axis. Treatment head simulation was performed with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code, modified to incorporate the effect of the magnetic field on charged particle transport. Simulations were used to analyze the sensitivity of dose profiles to various sources of asymmetry in the treatment head. This included the lateral spot offset and beam angle at the exit window, the fringe magnetic field and independent lateral offsets of the secondary scattering foil and electron monitor chamber. Simulation parameters were selected within the limits imposed by measurement uncertainties. Calculated dose distributions were then compared with those measured in water. The magnetic field was a maximum at the exit window, increasing from 0.006 T at 6 MeV to 0.020 T at 21 MeV and dropping to approximately 5% of the maximum at the secondary scattering foil. It

  18. SU-E-T-410: Fringe Stability and Phase Shift Measurements in a Michelson Interferometer for Optical Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Martinez, E; Malin, M; DeWerd, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the variables limiting the resolution of a Michelson interferometer used to measure phase shifts (PS) in water as part of a radiometric calorimeter. Methods: We investigated the output stability of a He-Ne laser and a laser diode. The short and long term stability of the fringe pattern in a Michelson interferometer was tested with different types of lasers, thermal insulation arrangements, damping systems and optical mounts to optimize system performance. PS were induced by electrically heating water in a 1 cm quartz cuvette located in one of the interferometer arms. The PS was calculated from fringe intensity changes and compared to a calculated PS using thermocouple-measured temperature changes in the water. Results: The intensity of the laser diode is more stable, but the gas laser’s profile is more suitable for fringe analysis and has better temporal coherence. The laser requires a warm-up time of 4 hours before its output is stabilized (SNR>95). The fringe’s stability strongly depends on the thermal insulation. When the interferometer is exposed to ambient temperature swings of 0.7 K, it is not possible to stabilize the fringe pattern. Enclosing the system in a 2.5 cm-thick Styrofoam box improves the SNR, but further insulation will be needed to increase the SNR above 50. High frequency noise is significantly reduced by damping the system.Inducing a temperature rise in water, starting at 299 K, the average temperature increase for a 2π PS is 0.29 ± 0.02 K and the proportionality constant is -21.1 ± 0.8 radians/K. This is 5.8% lower than the calculated value using the thermocouple. Conclusion: Interferometric PS measurements of temperature may provide an alternative to thermistors for water calorimetry. The resolution of the current prototype is limited by ambient temperature stability. Calculated and measured thermally-induced PS in water agreed to within 5.8%

  19. Community structure and abundance of benthic infaunal invertebrates in Maine fringing marsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. MacKenzie; Michele Dionne; Jeremy Miller; Michael Haas; Pamela A. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Fringing marshes are abundant ecosystems that dominate the New England coastline. Despite their abundance, very little baseline data is available from them and few studies have documented the ecosystems services that they provide. This information is important for conservation efforts as well as for an increased understanding of how fringing marshes function compared...

  20. The first F-ring modified ciguatoxin analogue showing significant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yuuki; Lee, Nayoung; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Yamashita, Shuji; Inoue, Masayuki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are potent neurotoxic polycyclic ethers. We report herein the total synthesis of a 10-membered F-ring analogue of 51-hydroxyCTX3C, which constitutes the first example of an F-ring modified ciguatoxin that exhibits potent cytotoxicity as well as mouse acute toxicity.

  1. 49 CFR 1242.50 - Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00). 1242.50 Section 1242.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Equipment § 1242.50 Fringe benefits (account 12-27-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.63 - Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00). 1242.63 Section 1242.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.63 Fringe benefits (account 12-51-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  3. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution ...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.85 - Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00). 1242.85 Section 1242.85 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE....85 Fringe benefits (account 12-63-00). Separate the common expenses in proportion to the total common...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.75 - Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00). 1242.75 Section 1242.75 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.75 Fringe benefits (account 12-53-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.80 - Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00). 1242.80 Section 1242.80 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.80 Fringe benefits (account 12-55-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.70 - Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00). 1242.70 Section 1242.70 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.70 Fringe benefits (account 12-52-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the...

  8. Distributed energy generation techniques and the competitive fringe effect in electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Petrikaite, Vaiva; Scholtens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the impact of two different generation techniques used by fringe suppliers on the intensity of competition in the electricity wholesale market. For that purpose, we derive a Cournot model of this market taking into account long-term contracts, international trade and fringe suppliers

  9. 49 CFR 1242.38 - Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00). 1242.38 Section 1242.38 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Equipment § 1242.38 Fringe benefits (account 12-26-00). Separate common expenses in proportion to the split...

  10. Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands : Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Linda; Dijst, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management measures taken by firms could potentially result in more sustainable transport choices and hence reduce traffic congestion and emissions. Fringe benefits offered to employees are a means to implement those measures. This paper explores the most common commuting-related fringe

  11. Seismicity Pattern and Fault Structure in the Central Himalaya Seismic Gap Using Precise Earthquake Hypocenters and their Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, M.; Ghosh, A.; Rai, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    seismicity patterns, and assess the potential seismic hazard of the central Himalaya seismic gap.

  12. Comparison of DVH parameters and loading patterns of standard loading, manual and inverse optimization for intracavitary brachytherapy on a subset of tandem/ovoid cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamema, Swamidas V.; Kirisits, Christian; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Trnkova, Petra; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Poetter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of inverse planning with the standard clinical plan and with the manually optimized plan based on dose-volume parameters and loading patterns. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight patients who underwent MRI based HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer were selected for this study. Three plans were calculated for each patient: (1) standard loading, (2) manual optimized, and (3) inverse optimized. Dosimetric outcomes from these plans were compared based on dose-volume parameters. The ratio of Total Reference Air Kerma of ovoid to tandem (TRAK O/T ) was used to compare the loading patterns. Results: The volume of HR CTV ranged from 9-68 cc with a mean of 41(±16.2)cc. Mean V100 for standard, manual optimized and inverse plans was found to be not significant (p = 0.35, 0.38, 0.4). Dose to bladder (7.8 ± 1.6 Gy) and sigmoid (5.6 ± 1.4 Gy) was high for standard plans; Manual optimization reduced the dose to bladder (7.1 ± 1.7 Gy p = 0.006) and sigmoid (4.5 ± 1.0 Gy p = 0.005) without compromising the HR CTV coverage. The inverse plan resulted in a significant reduction to bladder dose (6.5 ± 1.4 Gy, p = 0.002). TRAK was found to be 0.49(±0.02), 0.44(±0.04) and 0.40(±0.04)cGy m -2 for the standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively. It was observed that TRAK O/T was 0.82(±0.05), 1.7(±1.04) and 1.41(±0.93) for standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively, while this ratio was 1 for the traditional loading pattern. Conclusions: Inverse planning offers good sparing of critical structures without compromising the target coverage. The average loading pattern of the whole patient cohort deviates from the standard Fletcher loading pattern.

  13. Comparison of DVH parameters and loading patterns of standard loading, manual and inverse optimization for intracavitary brachytherapy on a subset of tandem/ovoid cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamema, Swamidas V; Kirisits, Christian; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Trnkova, Petra; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Pötter, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Comparison of inverse planning with the standard clinical plan and with the manually optimized plan based on dose-volume parameters and loading patterns. Twenty-eight patients who underwent MRI based HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer were selected for this study. Three plans were calculated for each patient: (1) standard loading, (2) manual optimized, and (3) inverse optimized. Dosimetric outcomes from these plans were compared based on dose-volume parameters. The ratio of Total Reference Air Kerma of ovoid to tandem (TRAK(O/T)) was used to compare the loading patterns. The volume of HR CTV ranged from 9-68 cc with a mean of 41(±16.2) cc. Mean V100 for standard, manual optimized and inverse plans was found to be not significant (p=0.35, 0.38, 0.4). Dose to bladder (7.8±1.6 Gy) and sigmoid (5.6±1.4 Gy) was high for standard plans; Manual optimization reduced the dose to bladder (7.1±1.7 Gy p=0.006) and sigmoid (4.5±1.0 Gy p=0.005) without compromising the HR CTV coverage. The inverse plan resulted in a significant reduction to bladder dose (6.5±1.4 Gy, p=0.002). TRAK was found to be 0.49(±0.02), 0.44(±0.04) and 0.40(±0.04) cGy m(-2) for the standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively. It was observed that TRAK(O/T) was 0.82(±0.05), 1.7(±1.04) and 1.41(±0.93) for standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively, while this ratio was 1 for the traditional loading pattern. Inverse planning offers good sparing of critical structures without compromising the target coverage. The average loading pattern of the whole patient cohort deviates from the standard Fletcher loading pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Analysis of the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanamurthy, C S

    2009-01-01

    Fringes formed in a Michelson interferometer never localize in any plane, in the detector plane and in the localization plane. Instead, the fringes are assumed to localize at infinity. Except for some explanation in Principles of Optics by Born and Wolf (1964 (New York: Macmillan)), the fringe localization phenomena of Michelson's interferometer have never been analysed seriously in any book. Because Michelson's interferometer is one of the important and fundamental optical experiments taught at both undergraduate and graduate levels, it would be appropriate to explain the localization of these fringes. In this paper, we analyse the localization of Michelson interferometer fringes using Fourier optics and temporal coherence, and show that they never localize at any plane even at infinity

  16. A second-order approximation of particle motion in the fringing field of a dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The radial and axial motion of charged particles in the fringing field of an arbitrary dipole magnet has been considered with accuracy to the second-order of small quantities. The dipole magnet has an inhomogeneous field and oblique entrance and exit boundaries in the form of second-order curves. The region of the fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field of the dipole magnet is used. A better understanding of the influence of the fringing magnetic field on the motion of charged particles in the pole gap of the dipole magnet has been obtained. In particular, it is shown that it is important to take into account, in the second approximation, some terms related formally to the next approximations. The results are presented in a form convenient for practical calculations. (orig.)

  17. Assessing the relationship between water quality parameters and changes in landuse patterns in the Upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibena, J.; Nhapi, I.; Gumindoga, W.

    For the past 30 years, the increases in population pressure and external influences, such as economic growth, have accelerated the demand for land within the Upper Manyame River catchment in Zimbabwe which has caused substantial changes in landuse. The general objective of this research was to assess the impacts of landuse activities on the water quality of the Upper Manyame River which drains the rural and urbanised part of the catchment up to flow gauging station C21. Landcover data for the month of April in years of 1984, 1995, 2003 and 2011 were acquired from available Landsat TM and ETM images and were classified through the maximum likelihood digital image classification using the supervised classification approach. The status of water quality of the Upper Manyame River was also assessed through analyses of historical concentrations and pollution loads for TP, DO, COD, NH3-N, SS, Pb, NO3, BOD5, EC, PO4-P and TN at the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) gauging station CR21 sampling point for 1996, 2000/1 and 2008/9. Water quality of 15 monitoring sites comprising 25 water quality parameters were monitored monthly from January to June 2012. These locations were selected to reflect a wide array of landuse for both the dry and wet seasons. The results indicated that there was an increase in pollution load from 1995 to 2012; for TP from 130 kg/day to 376 kg/d, and for TN from 290 kg/day to 494 kg/d. This indicates high pollution levels which have severe impacts on downstream users and also severe sewage contamination. Significant deviations occurred in DO (0.1-6.8) mg/L, COD (11-569) mg/L, BOD5 (5-341) mg/L, PO4-P (0.01-4.45) mg/L, NH3-N (0.001-6.800) mg/L and EC (38-642) μS/cm. Hydrologic Response Unit and buffer analysis were used to determine the dominant landuse which contributes to a certain water quality. Results of digital image classification indicate that woodland/forest, grassland and bareland decreased between years 1984 to 2011 by 24.0%, 22.6% and

  18. Inspection of arterial-induced skin vibration by Moire fringe with two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chiu, Shih-Yung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system is implemented. This optical metrology system is constructed with shadow Moiré configuration and the fringe analysis algorithm. Developed with the Region of Interested (ROI) capturing technique and the Two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2D-CWT) method, this algorithm is able to retrieve the height-correlated phase information from the shadow Moiré fringe patterns. Using a commercial video camera or a CMOS image sensor, this system could monitor the skin-vibration induced by the cyclic deformation of inner layered artery. The cross-sectional variation and the rhythm of heart cycle could be continuously measured for health monitoring purposes. The average vibration amplitude of the artery at the wrist ranges between 20 μm and 50 μm, which is quite subtle comparing with the skin surface structure. Having the non-stationary motion of human body, the traditional phase shifting (PS) technique can be very unstable due to the requirement of several frames of images, especially for case that artery is continuously pumping. To bypass this fundamental issue, the shadow Moiré technique is introduced to enhance the surface deformation characteristic. And the phase information is retrieved by the means of spectrum filtering instead of PS technique, which the phase is calculated from intensity maps of multiple images. The instantaneous surface can therefore be reconstructed individually from each frame, enabling the subtle arterial-induced skin vibration measurement. The comparative results of phase reconstruction between different fringe analysis algorithms will be demonstrated numerically and experimentally. And the electrocardiography (ECG) results will used as the reference for the validity of health monitoring potential of the non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system.

  19. 20 CFR 641.873 - What minimum expenditure levels are required for participant wages and fringe benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for participant wages and fringe benefits? 641.873 Section 641.873 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... wages and fringe benefits? (a) Not less than 75 percent of the SCSEP funds provided under a grant from the Department must be used to pay for the wages and fringe benefits of participants in such projects...

  20. 29 CFR 4.1b - Payment of minimum compensation based on collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. 4.1b Section 4... collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. (a) Section 4(c) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 as amended provides special minimum wage and fringe...

  1. A new method for the characterization of micro-/nano-periodic structures based on microscopic Moiré fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dan; Xie, Huimin, E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Tang, Minjin; Hu, Zhenxing

    2014-01-15

    Linewidth and opening ratio (ratio of linewidth to period) are important parameters in characterizing micro-/nano-periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Periodic structures are conventionally characterized by the direct observation of specimens under a microscope. However, the field of view is relatively small, and only certain details can be acquired under a microscope. Moreover, the non-uniformity of the linewidth in quasi-periodic structures cannot be detected. This paper proposes a new characterization method for determining the linewidth and opening ratio of periodic structures based on Moiré fringe analysis. This method has the advantage of full-field characterization of the linewidth of micro-/nano-structures over a larger area than that afforded by direct observation. To validate the method, the linewidth of scanning electron microscope (SEM) scan lines was first calibrated with a standard grating. Next, a microperiodic structure with known geometry was characterized using this calibrated SEM system. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and effective, indicating a potential approach for the characterization of gratings over large areas. This technique can be extended to various high-power scanning microscopes to characterize micro-/nano-structures. - Highlights: • A characterization method of the linewidth of high frequency gratings based on the microscope Moiré fringes is introduced. • The principle is according to the geometrical relationship between the gratings and the Moiré fringes. • This method has the potential application in characterization of the micro-/nano-structures. • The advantage of this method is that the micro-/nano-structures can be characterized in large view field under the full field of the microscope. • The microstructure of a butterfly has been characterized to declare the feasibility of this method.

  2. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Maria Belen; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented

  3. Adaptive DIT-Based Fringe Tracking and Prediction at IOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Pedretti, Ettore; Bregman, Jesse; Mah, Robert W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2004-01-01

    An automatic fringe tracking system has been developed and implemented at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA). In testing during May 2002, the system successfully minimized the optical path differences (OPDs) for all three baselines at IOTA. Based on sliding window discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculations that were optimized for computational efficiency and robustness to atmospheric disturbances, the algorithm has also been tested extensively on off-line data. Implemented in ANSI C on the 266 MHZ PowerPC processor running the VxWorks real-time operating system, the algorithm runs in approximately 2.0 milliseconds per scan (including all three interferograms), using the science camera and piezo scanners to measure and correct the OPDs. Preliminary analysis on an extension of this algorithm indicates a potential for predictive tracking, although at present, real-time implementation of this extension would require significantly more computational capacity.

  4. Engaging Fringe Stakeholders in Business and Society Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Lauren; Muthuri, Judy N.

    2018-01-01

    Business and society (B&S) researchers, as well as practitioners, have been critiqued for ignoring those with less voice and power (e.g., women, nonliterate, or indigenous peoples) often referred to as “fringe stakeholders.” Existing methods used in B&S research often fail to address issues...... methods may be used by researchers to achieve more inclusive, and thus more credible, stakeholder research that can improve decision making within businesses. Furthermore, we argue that ingrained social and environmental problems tackled by B&S research and the unique context in which they occur may open...... of meaningful participation, voice and power, especially in developing countries. In this article, we stress the utility of visual participatory research (VPR) methods in B&S research to fill this gap. Through a case study on engaging Ghanaian cocoa farmers on gender inequality issues, we explore how VPR...

  5. Observations of infragravity motions for reef fringed islands and atolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    The frequency of flooding events that affect low lying islands and atolls in the Pacific is expected to increase under current sea level rise projections. Infragravity (IG) motions, with periods ranging from approximately 25 to 400 seconds, are an important component of wave driven flooding events for reef fringed islands and atolls. The IG variability during wave events is analyzed and interpreted dynamically from pressure and current observations at four cross-reef transects in the North Pacific Ocean that include sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Guam. The IG motions are shown to depend upon the spectral properties of the incident wave forcing and reef flat characteristics that include reef flat length (ranging from 100m to 450m at the four sites) and total water level due to setup and tides. A small inundation event at one of the sites is shown to occur due to large shoreline infragravity energy.

  6. Rapid matching of stereo vision based on fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Xiao, Yi; Cao, Jian; Guo, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    As the most important core part of stereo vision, there are still many problems to solve in stereo matching technology. For smooth surfaces on which feature points are not easy to extract, this paper adds a projector into stereo vision measurement system based on fringe projection techniques, according to the corresponding point phases which extracted from the left and right camera images are the same, to realize rapid matching of stereo vision. And the mathematical model of measurement system is established and the three-dimensional (3D) surface of the measured object is reconstructed. This measurement method can not only broaden application fields of optical 3D measurement technology, and enrich knowledge achievements in the field of optical 3D measurement, but also provide potential possibility for the commercialized measurement system in practical projects, which has very important scientific research significance and economic value.

  7. Accurate Calculation of Fringe Fields in the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, S; Siegel, N

    2000-01-01

    The ROXIE program developed at CERN for the design and optimization of the superconducting LHC magnets has been recently extended in a collaboration with the University of Stuttgart, Germany, with a field computation method based on the coupling between the boundary element (BEM) and the finite element (FEM) technique. This avoids the meshing of the coils and the air regions, and avoids the artificial far field boundary conditions. The method is therefore specially suited for the accurate calculation of fields in the superconducting magnets in which the field is dominated by the coil. We will present the fringe field calculations in both 2d and 3d geometries to evaluate the effect of connections and the cryostat on the field quality and the flux density to which auxiliary bus-bars are exposed.

  8. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: New results from the F-ring and proximal orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Bunce, E. J.; Hunt, G. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate planetary period oscillations (PPOs) in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini magnetic field data during the high cadence ( 7 days) F-ring and proximal orbits. Previous results have shown that there are two PPO systems, one in each hemisphere. Both PPO periods show seasonal dependence, and since mid-2014 the Northern PPO period has been 10.8 h and the Southern PPO period 10.7 h. The beat period of the two oscillations is 45 days. Previous results demonstrated that in the Northern (Southern) polar region only pure Northern (Southern) oscillations can be observed, whilst in the equatorial region both oscillations are present and constructively and destructively interfere over the beat-cycle of the two oscillations. The PPOs are believed to be driven by twin-cell convection patterns in the polar ionosphere/thermosphere regions, with two systems of field-aligned currents transmitting the PPO flows to the magnetospheric plasma.The F-ring and proximal orbits uniquely observe the PPOs over 6 orbits during each PPO beat cycle. This high-cadence data demonstrates that over a beat cycle both the periods and amplitudes of the PPO observed within the each polar region are modulated by the PPO system from the opposite hemisphere. When the two oscillations are in phase (anti-phase) the `drag' of one system on the other acts to decrease (increase) the amplitude of the oscillations and the two PPO periods diverge (converge). We present a theoretical model showing that this coupling is due to the PPO flows from one hemisphere not just being communicated to the magnetosphere as previously assumed, but also to the opposite hemisphere. The result is inter-hemispheric coupling of the PPO flow systems within the ionosphere/thermosphere system, so that the northern PPO system drives a northern twin-cell convection pattern in the southern hemisphere, and vice versa, thus leading to the observed polar modulations of the PPOs.We will also present PPO phase models determined

  9. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  10. Observation of electron beam moiré fringes in an image conversion tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yunfei; Liao, Yubo [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Long, Jing-hua [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Cai, Houzhi; Bai, Yanli [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jinyuan, E-mail: ljy@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-11-15

    An image conversion tube with a magnetic lens was designed to observe electron beam moiré fringes. Electron beam moiré fringes result from the interference between the photocathode and the anode meshes. The photocathode had a strip line structure with a spatial frequency of 10 L/mm. The anode mesh had a fixed spatial frequency of 10 L/mm, and could be rotated around the axis of the image tube. The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the photocathode and the anode mesh were examined. The experimental results agreed with the theoretical analysis. Moiré fringes with a modulation of ~20% were obtained using a 3 keV electron beam. - Highlights: • Observe the electron beam moiré fringes in large angle of view. • The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the two gratings were examined. • Modulations of the moiré fringes in different rotation angle are recorded.

  11. Observation of electron beam moiré fringes in an image conversion tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yunfei; Liao, Yubo; Long, Jing-hua; Cai, Houzhi; Bai, Yanli; Liu, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    An image conversion tube with a magnetic lens was designed to observe electron beam moiré fringes. Electron beam moiré fringes result from the interference between the photocathode and the anode meshes. The photocathode had a strip line structure with a spatial frequency of 10 L/mm. The anode mesh had a fixed spatial frequency of 10 L/mm, and could be rotated around the axis of the image tube. The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the photocathode and the anode mesh were examined. The experimental results agreed with the theoretical analysis. Moiré fringes with a modulation of ~20% were obtained using a 3 keV electron beam. - Highlights: • Observe the electron beam moiré fringes in large angle of view. • The changes to the fringe direction and the spacing as a function of the rotation angle between the two gratings were examined. • Modulations of the moiré fringes in different rotation angle are recorded.

  12. FIMBRIN1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-11-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes.

  13. Manic fringe inhibits tumor growth by suppressing Notch3 degradation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fuming; Amarasinghe, Baru; Dang, Thao P

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an essential role in development as well as cancer. We have previously shown that Notch3 is important for lung cancer growth and survival. Notch receptors are activated through the interaction with their ligands, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of the receptors. This interaction is modulated by Fringe, a family of fucose-specific β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify the extracellular subunit of Notch receptors. Studies in developmental models showed that Fringe enhances Notch's response to Delta ligands at the expense of Jagged ligands. We observed that Manic Fringe expression is down-regulated in lung cancer. Since Jagged1, a known ligand for Notch3, is often over-expressed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that Fringe negatively regulates Notch3 activation. In this study, we show that re-expression of Manic Fringe down-regulates Notch3 target genes HES1 and HeyL and reduces tumor phenotype in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for this phenomenon appears to be related to modulation of Notch3 protein stability. Proteasome inhibition reverses Manic Fringe-induced protein turnover. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Manic Fringe functions as a tumor suppressor in the lung and that the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is mediated by inhibition of Notch3 activation.

  14. Effective bias removal for fringe projection profilometry using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, William Wai-Lam; Lun, Daniel Pak-Kong

    2012-08-20

    When reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) object height profile using the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) technique, the light intensity reflected from the object surface can yield abruptly changing bias in the captured fringe image, which leads to severe reconstruction error. The traditional approach tries to remove the bias by suppressing the zero spectrum of the fringe image. It is based on the assumption that the aliasing between the frequency spectrum of the bias, which is around the zero frequency, and the frequency spectrum of the fringe is negligible. This, however, is not the case in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel (to our knowledge) technique to eliminate the bias in the fringe image using the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT). The new approach successfully identifies the features of bias, fringe, and noise in the DT-CWT domain, which allows the bias to be effectively extracted from a noisy fringe image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the traditional methods and facilitates accurate reconstruction of objects' 3D models.

  15. Acoustic grating fringe projector for high-speed and high-precision three-dimensional shape measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuebing; Zhao Huijie; Zeng Junyu; Qu Yufu

    2007-01-01

    A new acoustic grating fringe projector (AGFP) was developed for high-speed and high-precision 3D measurement. A new acoustic grating fringe projection theory is also proposed to describe the optical system. The AGFP instrument can adjust the spatial phase and period of fringes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Using rf power proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and CCD synchronous control, we obtain fringes with fine sinusoidal characteristics and realize high-speed acquisition of image data. Using the device, we obtained a precise phase map for a 3D profile. In addition, the AGFP can work in running fringe mode, which could be applied in other measurement fields

  16. Long–term variation of demographic parameters in four small game species in Europe: opportunities and limits to test for a global pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gée, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, decreases in several populations of some small sedentary game species have been reported in Europe. From the literature, we extracted mortality and reproductive rates that were available for European populations in four iconic species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix, the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix, the capercaillie (T. urogallus and the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, to examine how demographic parameters vary with time. Our study revealed the need to consider many confounding factors (age, sex, origin of studied individuals, season, country and methods and the scarcity of recent demographic studies. Statistical analyses showed contrasted patterns of demographic traits with time within and between species. Our results highlighted that there may be consistency with a population decrease in grey partridge and black grouse that has been reported in the literature. However, analyses in capercaillie and brown hare showed less support for a population decrease at the European scale. The significant effects of interactions between time and age (in grey partridge, capercaillie and brown hare, method or origin of individuals on demographic traits and the emergence of contrasted patterns between short, intermediate and long monitoring periods (in grey partridge and black grouse suggested that further studies should pay particular attention to potential confounding factors. Finally, the lack of recent data and doubts about the relative importance of reported causal factors indicate the need for further studies on the links between demographic traits, densities and environmental changes in the long term, and particularly on the role of predation and habitat change.

  17. Laws of evolution of slip trace pattern and its parameters with deformation in [1.8.12] – single crystals of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplyakova, Ludmila, E-mail: lat168@mail.ru; Koneva, Nina, E-mail: koneva@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kunitsyna, Tatyana, E-mail: kma11061990@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The slip trace pattern of Ni{sub 3}Fe alloy single crystals with the short range order oriented for a single slip were investigated on replica at different stages of deformation using the transmission diffraction electron microscopy method. The connection of staging with the formation of slip trace pattern and the change of its parameters were established. The number of local areas where two or more slip systems work is increased with the change of stages. In these conditions the character of slip localization in the primary slip system is changed from the packets to the homogeneous distribution. The distributions of the distances between slip traces and the shear power in slip traces were plotted. The correlation between the average value of the shear power in the primary slip traces and the average distance between them was revealed in this work. It was established that the rates of the average value growth of the relative local shear and the shear power in the slip traces reach the largest values at the transition stage.

  18. Fringe fields modeling for the high luminosity LHC large aperture quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Brett, D R; Appleby, R B; De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC Upgrade project relies on large aperture magnets (mainly the inner Triplet and the separation dipole D1). The beam is much more sensitive to non-linear perturbations in this region, such as those induced by the fringe fields of the low-beta quadrupoles. Different tracking models are compared in order to provide a numerical estimate of the impact of fringe fields for the actual design of the inner triplet quadrupoles. The implementation of the fringe fields in SixTrack, to be used for dynamic apertures studies, is also discussed.

  19. Analysis of isoclinic fringes of a circular disk under diametric compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Girl; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok; Kim, Myung Soo; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the process for obtaining isoclinic fringes from experiment and compares the experimental results with theoretical calculations. In this experiment, the polaris cope named 'Stress master' is used as a primary tool, combined with a circular disk made of urethane rubber called as 'Photoflex' and a CCD camera to record the isoclinic fringes. In photoelasticity, isoclinics can be used to get the stress trajectories and then to analyze the whole field stresses. But it must be emphasized that isoclinic fringes are not themselves stress trajectories. In this paper, isoclinics are measured accurately by use of sharpening technique. Experimental results are comparable to those of theory.

  20. Local blur analysis and phase error correction method for fringe projection profilometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Da, Feipeng

    2018-05-20

    We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors. For defocus phenomenon, this method can be directly applied. With the aid of spatially varying point spread functions and local frontal plane assumption, experiments show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate the system errors and improve the final reconstruction accuracy in various scenes. For a subsurface scattering scenario, if the translucent object is dominated by multiple scattering, the proposed method can also be applied to correct systematic errors once the bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function of the object material is measured.

  1. Characterization of black carbon in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Li, Liang; Pang, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wang, Lili; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hongliang; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-04-01

    Measuring black carbon (BC) is critical to understand the impact of combustion aerosols on air quality and climate change. In this study, BC was measured in 2014 at a unique community formed with rapid economic development and urbanization in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing. Hourly BC concentrations were 0.1-33.5 μg/m 3 with the annual average of 4.4 ± 3.7 μg/m 3 . BC concentrations had clear diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations, and were closely related with atmospheric visibility. The absorption coefficient of aerosols increased while its contribution to extinction coefficient decreased with the enhancement of PM 2.5 concentration. The high mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC was attributed to a combination of coal combustion, vehicular emission and rapidly coating by water-soluble ions and organic carbon (OC). BC concentrations followed a typical lognormal pattern, with over 88% samples in 0.1-10.0 μg/m 3 . Low BC levels were mostly bounded up with winds from north and northwest. Coal combustion and biomass burning were closely associated with severe haze pollution events. Firework discharge had significant UV absorption contribution. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in November 2014, air quality obviously improved due to various control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Payday Loans To Pawnshops: Fringe Banking, The Unbanked, And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Guyot, Jerzy; Firth, Caislin; Klawitter, Marieka; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-01

    The fringe banking industry, including payday lenders and check cashers, was nearly nonexistent three decades ago. Today it generates tens of billions of dollars in annual revenue. The industry's growth accelerated in the 1980s with financial deregulation and the working class's declining resources. With Current Population Survey data, we used propensity score matching to investigate the relationship between fringe loan use, unbanked status, and self-rated health, hypothesizing that the material and stress effects of exposure to these financial services would be harmful to health. We found that fringe loan use was associated with 38 percent higher prevalence of poor or fair health, while being unbanked (not having one's own bank account) was associated with 17 percent higher prevalence. Although a variety of policies could mitigate the health consequences of these exposures, expanding social welfare programs and labor protections would address the root causes of the use of fringe services and advance health equity.

  3. Fringe-tunable electrothermal Fresnel mirror for use in compact and high-speed diffusion sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Yuki; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2017-01-23

    This paper reports the development of an electrothermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror with serpentine shape actuators. A micro Fresnel mirror with fringe-spacing tunability is required to realize a compact and high-speed diffusion sensor for biological samples whose diffusion coefficient changes significantly because of a conformational change. In this case, the measurement time-constant is dependent on the fringe-spacing and diffusion coefficient of the sample. In this study, a fringe-tunable MEMS mirror with an actuation voltage less than 10 V was developed. The characteristics of the fabricated mirror were investigated experimentally. A high-visibility optical interference fringe was successfully demonstrated using both an ultranarrow-linewidth solid-state laser and a low-cost compact laser diode. The experimental results demonstrated a distinct possibility of developing a measurement device using only simple and low-voltage optical components.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  5. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...

  6. A low-cost and portable realization on fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Fringe projection three-dimensional measurement is widely applied in a wide range of industrial application. The traditional fringe projection system has the disadvantages of high expense, big size, and complicated calibration requirements. In this paper we introduce a low-cost and portable realization on three-dimensional measurement with Pico projector. It has the advantages of low cost, compact physical size, and flexible configuration. For the proposed fringe projection system, there is no restriction to camera and projector's relative alignment on parallelism and perpendicularity for installation. Moreover, plane-based calibration method is adopted in this paper that avoids critical requirements on calibration system such as additional gauge block or precise linear z stage. What is more, error sources existing in the proposed system are introduced in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed low cost and portable fringe projection system.

  7. Nitrogen dynamics in subtropical fringe and basin mangrove forests inferred from stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Carla Roberta Gonçalves; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld; Rochelle, André Luis Casarin; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Oliveira, Rafael Silva

    2017-03-01

    Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests. We quantified net N mineralization and nitrification rates in sediment and natural abundance of N stable isotopes (δ 15 N) in the sediment-plant-litter system. The fringe forest exhibited higher net N mineralization rates and δ 15 N in the sediment-plant-litter system, but net nitrification rates were similar to those of the basin forest. The results of the present study suggest that fringe forests exhibit higher N availability and N cycling in sediment compared to basin forests.

  8. Theoretical fringe profiles with crossed Babinet compensators in testing concave aspheric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Lancelot, J P

    1982-11-15

    This paper presents the theory for the use of crossed Babinet compensators in testing concave aspheric surfaces. Theoretical fringe profiles for a sphere and for an aspheric surface with primary aberration are shown. Advantages of this method are discussed.

  9. Comment on "Fringe projection profilometry with nonparallel illumination: a least-squares approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Bi, Hongbo

    2006-07-01

    We comment on the recent Letter by Chen and Quan [Opt. Lett.30, 2101 (2005)] in which a least-squares approach was proposed to cope with the nonparallel illumination in fringe projection profilometry. It is noted that the previous mathematical derivations of the fringe pitch and carrier phase functions on the reference plane were incorrect. In addition, we suggest that the variation of carrier phase along the vertical direction should be considered.

  10. Controversy among giants: Young's experiment and loss of fringe visibility at low photon-count levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William T.

    2011-09-01

    An ideal beam splitter model for an absorber presented by Leonhardt in his book Measuring the Quantum State of Light (Cambridge University Press, 1997) has intriguing implications for the simple Young's fringe experiment in the photon-counting regime. Specifically, it suggests that different results will be obtained depending on whether the light forming the fringes is attenuated at the source or at the slits.

  11. Fringing field optimization of hemispherical deflector analyzers using BEM and FDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@aku.edu.t [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut [Department of Physics, Science and Arts Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Martinez, Genoveva [Department Fisica Aplicada III, Fac. de Fisica, UCM 28040-Madrid (Spain); Zouros, Theo J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); TANDEM Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper we present numerical modeling results for fringing field optimization of hemispherical deflector analyzers (HDAs), simulated using boundary-element and finite-difference numerical methods. Optimization of the fringing field aberrations of HDAs is performed by using a biased optical axis and an optimized entry position offset (paracentric) from the center position used in conventional HDAs. The described optimization achieves first-order focusing thus also further improving the energy resolution of HDAs.

  12. Reentering the Gravitational Fringe Field of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. C.

    A 1998 proposal to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) described how to update an earlier proposal outline for an experiment involving a manned spacecraft that traveled to just outside the gravitational field of the solar system. The recent proposal briefly describes how to initiate a 25-year program to launch a seven-year mission. Very little thought has been given to astronomical/astrophysical investigations that might be carried out over seven years, but one or more generations of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder program might be included. Only a little serious thought has been given to how to reenter the solar system's gravitational fringe field, but access to several procedures and three-fold redundancy seems desirable. Some details of the proposed paper study will be given. Non-responsibility statement, from source document of calendar 1973. This document was prepared while the author was on an unpaid leave of absence from The Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) of Palo Alto, California. The comments made herein are partly the results of experiments carried out over a number of years. For a portion of this time, both NASA and LMSC financed the author's space astronomy investigations. It may be that either or both these institutions may possess some proprietary rights to portions of the ideas and information presented. This work was supported by Ruffner Associates, Inc.

  13. Isogyres - Manifestation of Spin-orbit interaction in uniaxial crystal: A closed-fringe Fourier analysis of conoscopic interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-09-01

    Discovered in 1813, the conoscopic interference pattern observed due to light propagating through a crystal, kept between crossed polarizers, shows isochromates and isogyres, respectively containing information about the dynamic and geometric phase acquired by the beam. We propose and demonstrate a closed-fringe Fourier analysis method to disentangle the isogyres from the isochromates, leading us to the azimuthally varying geometric phase and its manifestation as isogyres. This azimuthally varying geometric phase is shown to be the underlying mechanism for the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion observed in a diverging optical field propagating through a z-cut uniaxial crystal. We extend the formalism to study the optical activity mediated uniaxial-to-biaxial transformation due to a weak transverse electric field applied across the crystal. Closely associated with the phase and polarization singularities of the optical field, the formalism enables us to understand crystal optics in a new way, paving the way to anticipate several emerging phenomena.

  14. Response of birds to climatic variability; evidence from the western fringe of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Cooney, Tom; Jennings, Eleanor; Buscardo, Erika; Jones, Mike

    2009-05-01

    Ireland’s geographic location on the western fringe of the European continent, together with its island status and impoverished avifauna, provides a unique opportunity to observe changes in bird migration and distribution patterns in response to changing climatic conditions. Spring temperatures have increased in western Europe over the past 30 years in line with reported global warming. These have been shown, at least in part, to be responsible for changes in the timing of life cycle events (phenology) of plants and animals. In order to investigate the response of bird species in Ireland to changes in temperature, we examined ornithological records of trans-Saharan migrants over the 31-year period 1969-1999. Analysis of the data revealed that two discrete climatic phenomena produced different responses in summer migrant bird species. Firstly, a number of long-distance migrants showed a significant trend towards earlier arrival. This trend was evident in some species and was found to be a response to increasing spring air temperature particularly in the month of March. Secondly, (1) a step change in the pattern of occurrences of non-breeding migrant bird species, and (2) an increase in the ringing data of migrant species were found to correlate with a step change in temperature in 1987-1988. These results indicate that, for migrant bird species, the impact of a sudden change in temperature can be as important as any long-term monotonic trend, and we suggest that the impact of step change events merits further investigation on a wider range of species and across a greater geographical range.

  15. All-fiber maskless lithographic technology to form microcircular interference pattern on Azo polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junki; Jung, Yongmin; Oh, Kyunghwan; Chun, Chaemin; Hong, Jeachul; Kim, Dongyu

    2005-03-01

    We report a novel all-fiber, maskless lithograpic technology to form various concentric grating patterns for micro zone plate on azo polymer film. The proposed technology is based on the interference pattern out of the cleaved end of a coreless silica fiber (CSF)-single mode fiber (SMF) composite. The light guided along SMF expands into the CSF segment to generate various circular interference patterns depending on the length of CSF. Interference patterns are experimentally observed when the CSF length is over a certain length and the finer spacing between the concentric rings are obtained for a longer CSF. By using beam propagation method (BPM) package, we could further investigated the concentric interference patterns in terms of intensity distribution and fringe spacing as a function of CSF length. These intereference patterns are directly projected over azo polymer film and their intensity distrubution formed surface relief grating (SRG) patterns. Compared to photoresist films azo polymer layers produce surface relief grating (SRG), where the actual mass of layer is modulated rather than refractive index. The geometric parameters of the CSF length as well as diameter and the spacing between the cleaved end of a CSF and azo polymer film, were found to play a major role to generate various concentric structures. With the demonstration of the circular SRG patterns, we confirmed that the proposed technique do have an ample potential to fabricate micro fresnel zone plate, that could find applications in lens arrays for optical beam formings as well as compact photonic devices.

  16. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Han [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xiong, Yongqian, E-mail: yqxiong@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Pei, Yuanji [National Synchrotron Radiation laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China)

    2014-11-11

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  17. Development of a phase counter with real-time fringe jump corrector for heterodyne interferometer on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Okajima, S.; Kawahata, K.

    2005-01-01

    Phase counters, which are used with heterodyne interferometers for plasma density measurements, frequently suffer from phase jumping and cause difficulties for data interpretation. An automatic fringe jump corrector (AFJC) circuit has been developed to compensate for fringe jumps. The AFJC can correct phase jumps automatically in real-time. The AFJC, which is integrated on one chip, is installed on the presently working phase counter circuit. As for the specification of this phase counter the intermediate beat signal is 1 MHz, the phase detection range is 31 fringes with phase resolution of 1/80 of a fringe and the response time of 10 μs. The circuit has been tested on the far infrared (FIR) laser interferometer on LHD. The AFJC works fine to correct fringe jumps, when fringe jumps occurred due to the strong density gradient produced by the hydrogen pellet injection

  18. Determination of patterns of interplanar distances starting from crystalline parameters for the Cyber computer of the ININ; Determinacion de patrones de distancias interplanares a partir de parametros cristalinos para la computadora Cyber del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-03-15

    In this report a program in Fortran language that reproduces the pattern of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards is presented and that it can be applied to identify non well-known samples such as in those that only by means of articles or other sources the values of the parameters of the elementary cell are lightly known and by this way the correspondent diffraction pattern can be accurately generated. (Author)

  19. Toward full-chip prediction of yield-limiting contact patterning failure: correlation of simulated image parameters to advanced contact metrology metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Chou, Dyiann

    2006-03-01

    to manufacturing. This paper will focus on 130 nm node contact patterning, and will correlate SEM Profile Grade output to the extensive suite of model-based image tags from the Calibre TM opc-verification engine. With an understanding of which image parameters are most highly correlated to the occurrence of incomplete contact formation for a given process, the process model can be used to automatically direct inspection metrology to those layout instances that pose the highest risk of patterning failure through the lithographic process window. Such an approach maximizes the value content of in-line metrology.

  20. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, T.L.; Grabowski, T.J.; Boord, P.; Yagle, K.; Askren, M.; Mestre, Z.; Robinson, P.; Welker, O.; Gulliford, D.; Nagy, W.; Berninger, V.

    2015-01-01

    Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years) were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment) or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment) or as typical writers and readers (controls). The dysgraphia group (n = 14) and dyslexia group (n = 17) were each compared to the control group (n = 9) and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus) were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher). For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity), correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling) by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a) the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c) the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  1. Contrasting brain patterns of writing-related DTI parameters, fMRI connectivity, and DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations in children with and without dysgraphia or dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on comprehensive testing and educational history, children in grades 4–9 (on average 12 years were diagnosed with dysgraphia (persisting handwriting impairment or dyslexia (persisting word spelling/reading impairment or as typical writers and readers (controls. The dysgraphia group (n = 14 and dyslexia group (n = 17 were each compared to the control group (n = 9 and to each other in separate analyses. Four brain region seed points (left occipital temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, precuneus, and inferior frontal gyrus were used in these analyses which were shown in a metaanalysis to be related to written word production on four indicators of white matter integrity and fMRI functional connectivity for four tasks (self-guided mind wandering during resting state, writing letter that follows a visually displayed letter in alphabet, writing missing letter to create a correctly spelled real word, and planning for composing after scanning on topic specified by researcher. For those DTI indicators on which the dysgraphic group or dyslexic group differed from the control group (fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity but not radial diffusivity, correlations were computed between the DTI parameter and fMRI functional connectivity for the two writing tasks (alphabet and spelling by seed points. Analyses, controlled for multiple comparisons, showed that (a the control group exhibited more white matter integrity than either the dysgraphic or dyslexic group; (b the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed more functional connectivity than the control group but differed in patterns of functional connectivity for task and seed point; and (c the dysgraphic and dyslexic groups showed different patterns of significant DTI–fMRI connectivity correlations for specific seed points and written language tasks. Thus, dysgraphia and dyslexia differ in white matter integrity, fMRI functional connectivity, and white matter–gray matter

  2. Real-time microscopic 3D shape measurement based on optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in 3D measurement techniques, contributing to the realization of faster and more accurate 3D measurement. As a representative of these techniques, fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has become a commonly used method for real-time 3D measurement, such as real-time quality control and online inspection. To date, most related research has been concerned with macroscopic 3D measurement, but microscopic 3D measurement, especially real-time microscopic 3D measurement, is rarely reported. However, microscopic 3D measurement plays an important role in 3D metrology and is indispensable in some applications in measuring micro scale objects like the accurate metrology of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. In this paper, we proposed a method which effectively combines optimized binary structured patterns with a number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time microscopic 3D measurement. A slight defocusing of our optimized binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on four-step phase-shifting FPP, providing the binary patterns with a comparable performance to ideal sinusoidal patterns. The static measurement accuracy can reach 8 μm, and the experimental results of a vibrating earphone diaphragm reveal that our system can successfully realize real-time 3D measurement of 120 frames per second (FPS) with a measurement range of 8~\\text{mm}× 6~\\text{mm} in lateral and 8 mm in depth.

  3. FFT swept filtering: a bias-free method for processing fringe signals in absolute gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křen, Petr; Pálinkáš, Vojtech; Mašika, Pavel; Val'ko, Miloš

    2018-05-01

    Absolute gravimeters, based on laser interferometry, are widely used for many applications in geoscience and metrology. Although currently the most accurate FG5 and FG5X gravimeters declare standard uncertainties at the level of 2-3 μGal, their inherent systematic errors affect the gravity reference determined by international key comparisons based predominately on the use of FG5-type instruments. The measurement results for FG5-215 and FG5X-251 clearly showed that the measured g-values depend on the size of the fringe signal and that this effect might be approximated by a linear regression with a slope of up to 0.030 μGal/mV . However, these empirical results do not enable one to identify the source of the effect or to determine a reasonable reference fringe level for correcting g-values in an absolute sense. Therefore, both gravimeters were equipped with new measuring systems (according to Křen et al. in Metrologia 53:27-40, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/53/1/27 applied for FG5), running in parallel with the original systems. The new systems use an analogue-to-digital converter HS5 to digitize the fringe signal and a new method of fringe signal analysis based on FFT swept bandpass filtering. We demonstrate that the source of the fringe size effect is connected to a distortion of the fringe signal due to the electronic components used in the FG5(X) gravimeters. To obtain a bias-free g-value, the FFT swept method should be applied for the determination of zero-crossings. A comparison of g-values obtained from the new and the original systems clearly shows that the original system might be biased by approximately 3-5 μGal due to improperly distorted fringe signal processing.

  4. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  5. Material Stress Fringe Constant Measurement of Specimen under Pure Bending Load by Use of Photoelastic Phase Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guan Yong; Kim, Myung Soo; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In a photoelastic experiment, it is necessary to know the material stress fringe constant of the photoelastic specimen to determine the stresses from the measured isochromatic fringe orders. The material stress fringe constant can be obtained using a simple tension specimen and/or a circular disk under diametric compression. In these methods, there is generally a need to apply numerous loads to the specimen in response to the relationship of the fringe order. Then, the least squares method is used to obtain the material constant. In this paper, the fringe orders that appear on a four-point bending specimen are used to determine the fringe constant. This method requires four photoelastic fringes obtained from a circular polariscope by rotating the analyzer to 0, π/4, π/2, and 3π/4 radians. Using the four-point bending specimen to determine the material stress fringe constant has an advantage because measurements can be made at different locations by applying a constant load. The stress fringe constant measured with this method is within the range suggested by the manufacturer of the photoelastic material

  6. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Han, M.G.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. - Highlights: • We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method simple enough for practical implementations. • Our new image-wave-recovery algorithm follows from exact solution of holographic equations. • With autocorrelation band removal from holograms it is possible to achieve double-resolution electron holography data free from several commonly known artifacts. • The new fringe-shifting method can reach an image wave resolution close to single fringe spacing

  7. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, V.V., E-mail: volkov@bnl.gov; Han, M.G.; Zhu, Y.

    2013-11-15

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. - Highlights: • We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method simple enough for practical implementations. • Our new image-wave-recovery algorithm follows from exact solution of holographic equations. • With autocorrelation band removal from holograms it is possible to achieve double-resolution electron holography data free from several commonly known artifacts. • The new fringe-shifting method can reach an image wave resolution close to single fringe spacing.

  8. Mathematical models utilized in the retrieval of displacement information encoded in fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    All the techniques that measure displacements, whether in the range of visible optics or any other form of field methods, require the presence of a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a wave form modulated (modified) by an input, deformation of the medium. A carrier is tagged to the medium under analysis and deforms with the medium. The wave form must be known both in the unmodulated and the modulated conditions. There are two basic mathematical models that can be utilized to decode the information contained in the carrier, phase modulation or frequency modulation, both are closely connected. Basic problems connected to the detection and recovery of displacement information that are common to all optical techniques will be analyzed in this paper, focusing on the general theory common to all the methods independently of the type of signal utilized. The aspects discussed are those that have practical impact in the process of data gathering and data processing.

  9. Serial number coding and decoding by laser interference direct patterning on the original product surface for anti-counterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Yong; Ahn, Sanghoon; Kim, Youngduk; Bae, Han-Sung; Kang, Hee-Shin; Yoo, Jason; Noh, Jiwhan

    2017-06-26

    Here, we investigate a method to distinguish the counterfeits by patterning multiple reflective type grating directly on the surface of the original product and analyze the serial number from its rotation angles of diffracted fringes. The micro-sized gratings were fabricated on the surface of the material at high speeds by illuminating the interference fringe generated by passing a high-energy pulse laser through the Fresnel biprism. In addition, analysis of the grating's diffraction fringes was performed using a continuous wave laser.

  10. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2008-01-01

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  11. Modeling of Dipole and Quadrupole Fringe-Field Effects for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.

    2017-06-01

    The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice requires shorter and much stronger quadrupole magnets than are present in the existing ring. This results in longitudinal gradient profiles that differ significantly from a hard-edge model. Additionally, the lattice assumes the use of five-segment longitudinal gradient dipoles. Under these circumstances, the effects of fringe fields and detailed field distributions are of interest. We evaluated the effect of soft-edge fringe fields on the linear optics and chromaticity, finding that compensation for these effects is readily accomplished. In addition, we evaluated the reliability of standard methods of simulating hardedge nonlinear fringe effects in quadrupoles.

  12. Diffusive-dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe: Impact of water table fluctuations and heterogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Haberer, Cristina; Ye, Yu

    Diffusive–dispersive mass transfer in the capillary fringe is important for many groundwater quality issues such as transfer of volatile compounds into (and out of) the groundwater, the supply of oxygen for aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as for precipitation of minerals (e.g. iron...... hydroxides). 2D-laboratory scale experiments were used to investigate the transfer of oxygen into groundwater under non-reactive and reactive conditions, at steady state and with water table fluctuations. Results show that transfer of oxygen is limited by transverse dispersion in the capillary fringe...... and the dispersion coefficients are the same as below the water table. Water table fluctuations cause temporarily increased fluxes of oxygen into groundwater during draining conditions and entrapped air after water table rise. High-permeability inclusions in the capillary fringe enhance mass transfer of oxygen...

  13. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  14. High-speed X-ray phase tomography with Talbot interferometer and fringe scanning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibayashi, Shunsuke; Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    High-speed X-ray phase tomography based on the Fourier-transform method has been demonstrated with an X-ray Talbot interferometer using white synchrotron radiation. We report the experimental results of high-speed X-ray phase tomography with fringe-scanning method instead of Fourier-transform method to improve spatial resolution without a considerable increase of scan time. To apply fringe-scanning method to high speed tomography, we tested a scan that is a synchronous combination of one-way continuous movements of the sample rotation and the grating displacement. When this scanning method was combined with X-ray phase tomography, we were able to obtain a scan time of 5 s. A comparison of the image quality derived with the conventional approach and with the proposed approach using the fringe-scanning method showed that the latter had better spatial resolution.

  15. Fringe projection application for surface variation analysis on helical shaped silicon breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Shahimin, M. M.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Paitong, P.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Breast carcinoma is rated as a second collective cause of cancer associated death among adult females. Detection of the disease at an early stage would enhance the chance for survival. Established detection methods such as mammography, ultrasound and MRI are classified as non invasive breast cancer detection modality, but however they are not entire non-invasive as physical contact still occurs to the breast. Thus requirement for a complete non invasive and non contact is evident. Therefore, in this work, a novel application of digital fringe projection for early detection of breast cancer based on breast surface analysis is reported. Phase shift fringe projection technique and pixel tracing method was utilized to analyze the breast surface change due to the incidence of breast lump. Results have shown that the digital fringe projection is capable in detecting the existence of 1 cm sized lump within the breast sample.

  16. Feedback-stabilized fractional fringe laser interferometer for plasma density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Robertson, S.

    1979-01-01

    A feedback stabilization technique is described for a fractional fringe interferometer measuring plasma electron densities. Using this technique, a CO 2 laser Michelson interferometer with a pyroelectric detector exhibited a sensitivity of 3.4 x 10 -4 fringe on a 1-ms time scale and, due to acoustic pickup, 1.8 x 10 -2 fringe on a 10-ms time scale. The rise time is 45 μs. Stabilization against slow drifts in mirror distances is achieved by an electromechanically translated mirror driven by a servo system having a 0.2-s response time. A mechanical chopper in one of the two beam paths generates the signal which drives the servo system

  17. Dynamic consistency of leader/fringe models of exhaustible resource markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelot, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic feedback pricing model is developed for a leader/fringe supply market of exhaustible resources. The discrete game optimization model includes marginal costs which may be quadratic functions of cumulative production, a linear demand curve and variable length periods. The multiperiod formulation is based on the nesting of later periods' Kuhn-Tucker conditions into earlier periods' optimizations. This procedure leads to dynamically consistent solutions where the leader's strategy is credible as he has no incentive to alter his original plan at some later stage. A static leader-fringe model may yield multiple local optima. This can result in the leader forcing the fringe to produce at their capacity constraint, which would otherwise be non-binding if it is greater than the fringe's unconstrained optimal production rate. Conditions are developed where the optimal solution occurs at a corner where constraints meet, of which limit pricing is a special case. The 2-period leader/fringe feedback model is compared to the computationally simpler open-loop model. Under certain conditions, the open-loop model yields the same result as the feedback model. A multiperiod feedback model of the world oil market with OPEC as price-leader and the remaining world oil suppliers comprising the fringe is compared with the open-loop solution. The optimal profits and prices are very similar, but large differences in production rates may occur. The exhaustion date predicted by the open-loop model may also differ from the feedback outcome. Some numerical tests result in non-contiguous production periods for a player or limit pricing phases. 85 refs., 60 figs., 30 tabs

  18. Study of 3D solder-paste profilometer by dual digital fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yi-Hua; Yih, Jeng-Nan; Cheng, Nai-Jen

    2013-09-01

    In a 3D profilometer by the fringe projection, the shadow will be produced inevitably, thus the fringes cannot be detected in the region of the shadow. In addition, a smooth surface or a metal surface produces the specular reflection, and then, no projection fringe can be recorded in the region of oversaturation on CCD. This paper reveals a proposed system for improved these defects and shows some preliminary improved 3D profiles by the proposed dual fringe projection. To obtain the profile of sample hided in the shadow and the oversaturation, this study used the dual-projection system by two projectors. This system adopted two different directions of fringe projection and illuminates them alternately, therefore, the shadow and the oversaturation produced in their corresponding locations. Two raw 3D profiles obtained from taking the dual-projection by the four-step phase-shift. A set of algorithms used to identify the pixels of the shadow and the oversaturation, and create an error-map. According to the error-map to compensate, two 3D profiles merged into an error-reduced 3D profile. We used the solder paste as a testing sample. After comparatively analyzing the 3D images obtained by our measurement system and by a contact stylus profilometer, the result shows that our measurement system can effectively reduce the error caused by shadows and oversaturation. Fringe projection system by using a projector is a non-contact, full field and quickly measuring system. The proposed dual-projection by dual-projectors can effectively reduce the shadow and the oversaturation errors and enhance the scope of application of the 3D contour detection, especially in the detection of precision structure parts with specular reflection.

  19. The transmission diffraction patterns of silicon implanted with high-energy α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.

    1995-01-01

    2 mm thick silicon wafers, implanted with 4.8 MeV α-particles are studied by means of transmission section topography and additionally by Lang and double-crystal methods. It was found that all three methods produced a negligible contrast in the symmetric transmission reflection apart from some fragments of the implanted area's boundaries. The interference fringes were observed in the case of asymmetric reflections. The asymmetric section topographs revealed distinct interference fringes, which cannot be explained in terms of simple bicrystal models. In particular, the curvature of these fringes may be interpreted as being due to the change in the implanted ion dose along the beam intersecting the crystal. Some features of the fringe pattern were reproduced by numerical integration of Takagi-Taupin equations. (author)

  20. Fourier fringe analysis and its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena: a review [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews a technique for fringe analysis referred to as Fourier fringe analysis (FFA) or the Fourier transform method, with a particular focus on its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena. Examples include the measurement of extremely small magnetic fields with subfluxon sensitivity by electron wave interferometry, subnanometer wavefront evaluation of projection optics for extreme UV lithography, the detection of sub-Ångstrom distortion of a crystal lattice, and the measurement of ultrashort optical pulses in the femotsecond to attosecond range, which show how the advantages of FFA are exploited in these cutting edge applications.

  1. Explanations for Long-Distance Counter-Urban Migration into Fringe Areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark, as in most other European countries, there is a net migration from the less urbanized to the more urbanized parts of the country. This article summarizes the results of a Danish study on the extent and composition of migration fl ows; and on factors and conditions that have a decisive...... infl uence on migration to fringe areas. The study shows that a considerable share of movers to the fringe areas in Denmark can be characterised as income-transfer mover. They are people without employment moving to get lower housing costs. But there are also groups of people moving to employment...

  2. The effect of geographical centralization of education for outmigration from fringe areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    During the last 25 years population in fringe areas in Denmark has declined. The main reason has been that young people leave these areas and seldom come back. In this study is examined the connection between young people’s outmigration, their choice of education and the location of educational...... institutions. It is shown that geographical centralization of education since 1990 and the tendency for more young people to choose higher education has resulted in an increase in the outmigration of young people from fringe areas...

  3. The Acropora inheritance: A reinterpretation of the development of fringing reefs in Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John B.

    1984-11-01

    The discovery of the widespread occurrence of the remains of the reef coral Acropora palmata within the fabric of the fringing reefs on the west coast of Barbados requires a new interpretation of their Holocene development. Radiocarbon dating of the A. palmata framework suggests that reef construction by this species began as early as 2,300 years B.P. A. palmata probably flourished in Barbados into the present century but has now declined. The present fringing reefs are characterized by a core and base of A. palmata upon which subsequent colonization took place, especially by Montastrea annularis, Porites porites and coralline algae.

  4. High-efficiency holograms fixed in lithium niobate after recording using a digital fringe stabilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Luis; Ambite, Emilio J

    2012-02-20

    We used a digital feedback control loop system to produce reproducible fixed volume transmission holograms of high diffraction efficiency. Different strategies were investigated to obtain holograms of good quality and the highest refractive index modulation depth. Using this control system, we were able to record holograms with stationary fringes. Additionally to using the stationary fringe recording, a double recording-fixing schedule resulted in being the most appropriate one to produce reproducible holograms of better characteristics. This strategy is discussed and compared with other already established ones. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. Real-time detection and elimination of nonorthogonality error in interference fringe processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haijiang; Zhang Fengdeng

    2011-01-01

    In the measurement system of interference fringe, the nonorthogonality error is a main error source that influences the precision and accuracy of the measurement system. The detection and elimination of the error has been an important target. A novel method that only uses the cross-zero detection and the counting is proposed to detect and eliminate the nonorthogonality error in real time. This method can be simply realized by means of the digital logic device, because it does not invoke trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions. And it can be widely used in the bidirectional subdivision systems of a Moire fringe and other optical instruments.

  6. Urban fringe renewal with urban catalysts elements: connections in an unconnected area

    OpenAIRE

    Yanru, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Based on Santa Coloma as a main case,analyzing how can be update there in this crisis situation to do suitable interventions to achieve a great effect. After analyzing the Santa Coloma area,I pay attention to its urban marginality.It has the territorial marginality,the marginality of the relationship with Barcelona,the marginality of the people and life style and so on. Urban fringe is corresponding the city center, the city of mainstream.The socalled "fringe" can be underst...

  7. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  8. Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2009-09-10

    An actively stabilized interferometer with a constant optical path difference is a key element in long-term astronomical observation, and resolving interference fringe ambiguities is important to produce high-precision results for the long term. We report a simple and reliable method of resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer by measuring the interference visibility of a noncollimated single-frequency laser beam. Theoretical analysis shows that the interference visibility is sensitive to a subfringe phase shift, and a wide range of beam arrangements is suitable for real implementation. In an experimental demonstration, a Michelson interferometer has an optical path difference of 7 mm and a converging monitoring beam has a numerical aperture of 0.045 with an incidental angle of 17 degrees. The resolution of visibility measurements corresponds to approximately 1/16 fringe in the interferometer phase shift. The fringe ambiguity-free region is extended over a range of approximately 100 fringes.

  9. Uso de mesa vertical como parâmetro para regulagens de turboatomizadores The use of a vertical patternator as parameter for adjustments of air assited sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renildo L. Mion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O consumo excessivo de agrotóxicos na agricultura brasileira é preocupante, e um dos fatores que contribuem para este excesso é o uso incorreto dos equipamentos de aplicação, causando grandes problemas de contaminação ambiental. O sucesso de uma aplicação agrícola somente é efetivado quando se consegue atingir o alvo com a menor contaminação ambiental possível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o perfil da distribuição vertical de um turboatomizador com e sem fluxo de ar e o número de bicos utilizados nos ramais, utilizando-se de uma mesa vertical como parâmetro de avaliação. O conjunto utilizado foi um trator marca VALTRA, modelo BM-120 4x2 TODA, e um turboatomizador da marca Jacto, modelo ARBUS 400 GOLDEN, com pontas do tipo J5-2, pressão de 1378 kPa e velocidade do ar de 35 m s-1. O número de bicos não influenciou no perfil de distribuição volumétrico. O fluxo de ar influenciou no perfil de distribuição volumétrico tanto para o lado direito quanto para o lado esquerdo. Os maiores volumes ocorreram abaixo de 1,16 cm com o turboatomizador utilizando ou não o fluxo de ar, com 12 ou 6 pontas.Excessive consumption of pesticides in Brazilian agriculture is of concern, and one of the factors contributing to this surplus is the incorrect use of equipment for its applying, causing severe environmental contamination. The success of agricultural applications is effective only when it manages to hit the target with the lowest possible environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to compare the profile of the vertical distribution of an air assisted sprayer with and without air flow and the number of nozzles used in extensions, using a vertical patternator as the parameter. The set used was a Valtra tractor, model BM-120 4x2 TDA and one Jacto air assisted sprayer jet, model ARBUS 400 GOLDEN, with nozzle J5-2, and pressure of 1378 kPa, with air velocity of 35 m s-1 at the time of the test was conducted. The

  10. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  11. 29 CFR 4.54 - Locality basis of wage and fringe benefit determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertinent to the employment of particular classes of service employees on the varied kinds of service... of prevailing wage rates and prevailing fringe benefits in all situations under the Act. The locality... area. For example, a survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Baltimore, Maryland Standard...

  12. Color Fringes Bordering Black Stripes at the Bottom of a Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Rojas, Roberto; Slüsarenko, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a nice example of chromatic dispersion due to refraction in water, in the form of color fringes bordering the black stripes that exist at the bottom of a swimming pool. Here we give a qualitative description of the phenomenon, explaining the role of the black stripes and the dispersive index of refraction of water.

  13. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... to temporary and part-time employees. (a) As set forth in § 4.165(a)(2), the Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation provisions, between temporary, part-time, and full-time employees...

  14. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An experiment is conducted using liquid wedge interferometer where the fiber of a nearly quadratic .... For a fringe shift dz < ∆z, we obtain this inequality. µf − µL < λt2 .... [11] L M Boggs, H M Presby and D Marcuse, Bell System Tech. J. 58, 867 ...

  15. 48 CFR 22.406-2 - Wages, fringe benefits, and overtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exact cash amounts. In these cases, the hourly cash equivalent of the cost of these items shall be... the contractor's contributions, costs, or payment of cash equivalents for fringe benefits. Overtime... cash to the laborer or mechanic, or deducted from payments under the conditions set forth in 29 CFR 3.5...

  16. Applicability of neural networks to etalon fringe filtering in laser spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  17. Mapping landscape service provision of cropland in the urban fringe : the case of Wuhan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, T.; Koomen, E.; Ke, X.

    2016-01-01

    People benefit from cropland through food production and a variety of environmental and recreational benefits. However, the provision of the different functions offered by agricultural landscape deteriorates as a consequence of ongoing urban development, especially in urban fringe. To help define

  18. Singlet-to-triplet interconversion using hyperfine as well as ferromagnetic fringe fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenannt, M; Flatté, M E; Harmon, N J; Wang, F; Kent, A D; Macià, F

    2015-06-28

    Until recently the important role that spin-physics ('spintronics') plays in organic light-emitting devices and photovoltaic cells was not sufficiently recognized. This attitude has begun to change. We review our recent work that shows that spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields that may be present in the organic layer dramatically affect electronic transport properties and electroluminescence efficiency. Competition between spin-dynamics due to these spatially varying fields and an applied, spatially homogeneous magnetic field leads to large magnetoresistance, even at room temperature where the thermodynamic influences of the resulting nuclear and electronic Zeeman splittings are negligible. Spatially rapidly varying local magnetic fields are naturally present in many organic materials in the form of nuclear hyperfine fields, but we will also review a second method of controlling the electrical conductivity/electroluminescence, using the spatially varying magnetic fringe fields of a magnetically unsaturated ferromagnet. Fringe-field magnetoresistance has a magnitude of several per cent and is hysteretic and anisotropic. This new method of control is sensitive to even remanent magnetic states, leading to different conductivity/electroluminescence values in the absence of an applied field. We briefly review a model based on fringe-field-induced polaron-pair spin-dynamics that successfully describes several key features of the experimental fringe-field magnetoresistance and magnetoelectroluminescence. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. IN SITU ABIOTIC DETOXIFICATION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN THE CAPILLARY FRINGE ZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed site characterization data from the former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina suggested that the elevated Cr(VI) in the capillary fringe area had contaminated the ground water at the site. Most of the mobile Cr(...

  20. Telecentric 3D profilometry based on phase-shifting fringe projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Chunyang; Tian, Jindong

    2014-12-29

    Three dimensional shape measurement in the microscopic range becomes increasingly important with the development of micro manufacturing technology. Microscopic fringe projection techniques offer a fast, robust, and full-field measurement for field sizes from approximately 1 mm2 to several cm2. However, the depth of field is very small due to the imaging of non-telecentric microscope, which is often not sufficient to measure the complete depth of a 3D-object. And the calibration of phase-to-depth conversion is complicated which need a precision translation stage and a reference plane. In this paper, we propose a novel telecentric phase-shifting projected fringe profilometry for small and thick objects. Telecentric imaging extends the depth of field approximately to millimeter order, which is much larger than that of microscopy. To avoid the complicated phase-to-depth conversion in microscopic fringe projection, we develop a new system calibration method of camera and projector based on telecentric imaging model. Based on these, a 3D reconstruction of telecentric imaging is presented with stereovision aided by fringe phase maps. Experiments demonstrated the feasibility and high measurement accuracy of the proposed system for thick object.

  1. Investigation on the intense fringe formation phenomenon downstream hot-image plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Wenti; Chen, Shuming

    2015-11-30

    The propagation of a high-power flat-topped Gaussian beam, which is modulated by three parallel wirelike scatterers, passing through a downstream Kerr medium slab and free spaces is investigated. A new phenomenon is found that a kind of intense fringe with intensity several times that of the incident beam can be formed in a plane downstream the Kerr medium. This kind of intense fringe is another result in the propagation process of nonlinear imaging and it locates scores of centimeters downstream the predicted hot image plane. Moreover, the intensity of this fringe can achieve the magnitude of that of hot image in corresponding single-scatterer case, and this phenomenon can arise only under certain conditions. As for the corresponding hot images, they are also formed but largely suppressed. The cause of the formation of such an intense fringe is analyzed and found related to interference in the free space downstream the Kerr medium. Moreover, the ways it is influenced by some important factors such as the wavelength of incident beam and the properties of scatterers and Kerr medium are discussed, and some important properties and relations are revealed.

  2. Land Use Land Cover Change in the fringe of eThekwini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns on urban environmental quality, increasing knowledge on impacts of climate change and pursuit for sustainable development have increased the need for past, current and future knowledge on the transformation of remnant urban fringe green ecosystems. Using land-cover change modeler and a Markov chain ...

  3. Fringe proteins modulate Notch-ligand cis and trans interactions to specify signaling states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBon, Lauren; Lee, Tom V; Sprinzak, David; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Elowitz, Michael B

    2014-09-25

    The Notch signaling pathway consists of multiple types of receptors and ligands, whose interactions can be tuned by Fringe glycosyltransferases. A major challenge is to determine how these components control the specificity and directionality of Notch signaling in developmental contexts. Here, we analyzed same-cell (cis) Notch-ligand interactions for Notch1, Dll1, and Jag1, and their dependence on Fringe protein expression in mammalian cells. We found that Dll1 and Jag1 can cis-inhibit Notch1, and Fringe proteins modulate these interactions in a way that parallels their effects on trans interactions. Fringe similarly modulated Notch-ligand cis interactions during Drosophila development. Based on these and previously identified interactions, we show how the design of the Notch signaling pathway leads to a restricted repertoire of signaling states that promote heterotypic signaling between distinct cell types, providing insight into the design principles of the Notch signaling system, and the specific developmental process of Drosophila dorsal-ventral boundary formation.

  4. Western Pairie Fringed Orchid: Its Status, Ecology, and in Vitro Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna Sharma; J. W. Van Sambeek; Christopher J. Starbuck

    2002-01-01

    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles), listed in 1989 as federally threatened, has been extirpated from 75% of historic sites throughout its range. We describe (a) threats to the orchid; (b) seed germination on synthetic medium; and (c) in vitro germination with mycorrhizal fungi. Destruction of prairies for...

  5. Applicability of Neural Networks to Etalon Fringe Filtering in Laser Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-01-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  6. Transport-related fringe benefits: implications for moving and the journey to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; van der Vlist, A.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Firms offer compensation not only through wages, but also offer transport-related fringe benefits such as transport benefits (company cars, travel, and parking benefits) and relocation benefits to job applicants. We argue that these benefits are not randomly offered to employees, but depend on the

  7. Flexible Fringe Benefit Plans Save You Money and Keep Employees Happy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    1987-01-01

    This fringe benefit plan saves money for both employers and employees, provides a better fit for employees' actual benefit needs, and allows employees to choose options from a menu of benefits. One option is a flexible spending plan. Employees place a portion of their before-tax income into a special account from which allowable expenses are paid…

  8. 29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...

  9. New developments in NDT through electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S.; Murugesan, P; Mas, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Optical holography and speckle interferometry are the emerging optical techniques that can be used for the measurements of microscopic parameters such as displacement, strain, stress and slope. These techniques are applied in various fields such as surface studies, non destructive testing, speckle metrology and steller interferometry. Even though many new NDT methods are available, the suitability for a specific application is based on the material property, nature of defects and sensitivity of detection. Difficulty in radiographic technique is that it fails in detecting tight cracks, planar defects and debonds. Microwave techniques has limited sensitivity for the defect detection and it is not suitable for the objects with metallic cases since the metals are perfect reflectors for the microwaves. Low modulus material attenuates the acoustic energy completely, making ultrasonic testing techniques not feasible. The recently evolved optoelectronic technique namely Electronic Speckle Pattern interferometry (ESPI) is a fast developing optical technique widely used for measuring displacement components, their derivatives, surface roughness, surface contours, shape and others. Due to non contact nature and high sensitivity, this technique has been used as a powerful on line inspection tool for non destructive pattern of materials in industrial environment. The salient feature of ESPI is its capability to display the correlation fringes in a real time on a monitor without the need of photographic processing or optical filtering. ESPI is an alternate non destructive technique suitable for propellant grains and other low modulus materials used in space vehicle systems. The optoelectronic technique can be used to detect cracks, voids and residual stresses etc.., in the components in the industrial environment. In the present investigation, speckle non destructive testing has been carried out on some selected low modulus materials used in space vehicles. The

  10. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  11. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  12. FIMBRIN1 Is Involved in Lily Pollen Tube Growth by Stabilizing the Actin Fringe[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Zhu, Jinsheng; Cai, Chao; Pei, Weike; Wang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Huaijian; Ren, Haiyun

    2012-01-01

    An actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. However, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. Here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cDNA encoding a deduced 77-kD fimbrin-like protein from lily (Lilium longiflorum), named FIMBRIN1 (FIM1). Ll-FIM1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles in the shank of pollen tubes. Microinjection of Ll-FIM1 antibody into lily pollen tubes inhibited tip growth and disrupted the actin fringe. Furthermore, we verified the function of Ll-FIM1 in the fim5 mutant of its closest relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen tubes of fim5 mutants grew with a larger diameter in early stages but could recover into normal forms in later stages, despite significantly slower growth rates. The actin fringe of the fim5 mutants, however, was impaired during both early and late stages. Impressively, stable expression of fim5pro:GFP:Ll-FIM1 rescued the actin fringe and the growth rate of Arabidopsis fim5 pollen tubes. In vitro biochemical analysis showed that Ll-FIM1 could bundle actin filaments. Thus, our study has identified a fimbrin that may stabilize the actin fringe by cross-linking actin filaments into bundles, which is important for proper tip growth of lily pollen tubes. PMID:23150633

  13. Fringe Controls Naïve CD4+T Cells Differentiation through Modulating Notch Signaling in Asthmatic Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4+T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4+T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4+T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4+T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma. PMID:23071776

  14. Fringe controls naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through modulating notch signaling in asthmatic rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Tao; Guo, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Notch signaling to regulate T helper cell development and differentiation has been widely accepted. Fringe, O-fucose-β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases modulate Notch receptor expression and promote the Notch signaling pathway through receptor-ligand binding. In this study, we assayed the expression levels of three Fringe homologs in naive CD4(+)T cells in asthmatic rats. We found that Radical Fringe (Rfng) was highly expressed, whereas both Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) and Manic Fringe (Mfng) were expressed at low levels. Down-regulation of Rfng using siRNA, and overexpression of Lfng or Mfng enhanced Th1 subset lineages and diminished Th2 subset lineages. Notch signaling was more activated in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T cells than in control cells, and Lfng, but not Mfng or Rfng, partly inhibited Notch signaling in asthmatic naïve CD4(+)T lymphocytes. Lfng overexpression resulted in significantly decreased Th2 cytokine production in asthma, which was the same effect as the GSI (γ-secretase inhibitor) treatment alone, but had an increased effect on Th1 cytokines than GSI treatment. Collectively, these data identify the essential role of Fringe modulating naïve CD4(+)T cells differentiation through Notch signaling. Lfng regulated Th2 cells differentiation via a Notch-dependent manner and Th1 cells differentiation via a Notch-independent manner. Fringe could be a therapeutic strategy for the management and prevention of allergic asthma.

  15. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  16. 基于彩色条纹投影术的三维形貌测量%3D shape measurement based on colour fringe projection techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪飞; 张宗华

    2017-01-01

    物体表面三维形貌数据的获取在智能制造、航空航天、文物保护、医疗卫生、远程教育等领域有着广泛的应用.三维形貌数据的获取受限于系统硬件的性能,特别是现有数字投影系统的投影速度,无法快速测得物体面形的三维形貌.彩色成像和投影系统的出现,为并行多颜色通道三维成像系统提供了新的研究方向.详细综述了基于彩色条纹投影术的三维形貌数据测量研究的现状.具体包括彩色条纹投影术的基本原理、彩色条纹调制和解调相关技术、三维成像系统的标定、以及未来的研究方向.接着给出几个利用彩色条纹投影术获取物体表面三维形貌和彩色纹理的实例.为彩色条纹投影术测量物体表面三维形貌数据提供了详尽的综述,并指明了未来潜在的研究新方向.%3D shape acquisition of object surface has been widely used in the fields of intelligent manufacturing,aerospace,cultural relics protection,health care,remote education,and so on.Due to the limitation of hardware performance,especially the projection speed of existing digital projection system,3D shape of object can not be obtained quickly.Hence,the appearance of color imaging and projection system provides a new research direction for 3D imaging system of parallel color channel.This paper reviews the status of 3D shape measurement techniques by projecting and capturing colour fringe pattern images on the object surface in detail.The principle of colour fringe projection technique,the modulation and demodulation of colour fringe pattern,the calibration of 3D imaging system and the directions for future research are analyzed.Moreover,several case studies are illustrated to obtain the 3D shape and colour texture using colour fringe projection techniques.This paper summarizes the 3D shape measurement techniques based on colour fringe pattern images on the object surface elaborately,and the challenging issues and

  17. Characterizing Ecosystem and Watershed Response to Atmospheric Loading at the Urban Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, V.; Lopez, S.; Hogue, T.; Rademacher, L.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California region, although highly urbanized and densely populated, is also characterized by steep mountain ranges with extensive forests and diverse ecosystems. Growing population pressure in the region has forced continuing development at the urban fringe. The large mountain systems situated on the windward side of the Los Angeles basin experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates from various urban pollutants. Arroyo Seco, a watershed located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, is no exception to this trend. The present study uses hydrologic and geochemical data to assess current watershed dynamics and ecosystem responses to the impacts of regional urbanization. The Arroyo Seco stream runs through a deeply incised canyon originating in the San Gabriel Mountains and draining into the Los Angeles River. The current riparian habitat, which comprises only 15 percent of the total land cover within the watershed, contains over 705 species of plants and animals. We focused our studies on the upper reaches of the basin (~18 square miles), which remains undeveloped and consists primarily of chaparral and evergreen forests. This portion of the watershed has an average watershed slope of approximately 6 percent and relatively porous soils. However, estimated runoff ratio from the existing USGS gage and local precipitation gages indicates fairly high runoff (discharge/precipitation ratio of 0.29). Weekly stream samples have been collected over a several year period and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents and stable isotopes to assess deposition impacts on ecosystem function and overall watershed behavior. Stable isotopes of water measured in the weekly Arroyo Seco stream samples deviate from the global meteoric water line (GMWL), particularly during summer months. High evaporative rates in the summer may be responsible for the distinct summer pattern and overall deviation from the GMWL of stream isotope values. An

  18. Nonhydrostatic and surfbeat model predictions of extreme wave run-up in fringing reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Christopher H.; Roelvink, Dano; van Dongeren, Ap R.; Buckley, Mark L.; Lowe, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    The accurate prediction of extreme wave run-up is important for effective coastal engineering design and coastal hazard management. While run-up processes on open sandy coasts have been reasonably well-studied, very few studies have focused on understanding and predicting wave run-up at coral reef-fronted coastlines. This paper applies the short-wave resolving, Nonhydrostatic (XB-NH) and short-wave averaged, Surfbeat (XB-SB) modes of the XBeach numerical model to validate run-up using data from two 1D (alongshore uniform) fringing-reef profiles without roughness elements, with two objectives: i) to provide insight into the physical processes governing run-up in such environments; and ii) to evaluate the performance of both modes in accurately predicting run-up over a wide range of conditions. XBeach was calibrated by optimizing the maximum wave steepness parameter (maxbrsteep) in XB-NH and the dissipation coefficient (alpha) in XB-SB) using the first dataset; and then applied to the second dataset for validation. XB-NH and XB-SB predictions of extreme wave run-up (Rmax and R2%) and its components, infragravity- and sea-swell band swash (SIG and SSS) and shoreline setup (), were compared to observations. XB-NH more accurately simulated wave transformation but under-predicted shoreline setup due to its exclusion of parameterized wave-roller dynamics. XB-SB under-predicted sea-swell band swash but overestimated shoreline setup due to an over-prediction of wave heights on the reef flat. Run-up (swash) spectra were dominated by infragravity motions, allowing the short-wave (but not wave group) averaged model (XB-SB) to perform comparably well to its more complete, short-wave resolving (XB-NH) counterpart. Despite their respective limitations, both modes were able to accurately predict Rmax and R2%.

  19. Long-term changes in flood event patterns due to changes in hydrological distribution parameters in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the principal control parameters of flood events and precipitation and the relationships between corresponding hydrologic and climatologic parameters. The long-term generation of runoff and associated processes is important in understanding floods and droughts under changes in climate and land use. This study presents detailed analyses of flood events in a coastal amphitheatre catchment with a total area of 445 km 2 in western Japan, followed by analyses of flood events in both urban and forest areas. Using long-term (1962 to 2002) hydrological and climatological data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, the contributions of precipitation, river discharge, temperature, and relative humidity to flood events were analysed. Flood events could be divided into three types with respect to hydrologic and climatologic principal control parameters: the long-term tendency; medium-term changes as revealed by hydrographs and hyetographs of high-intensity events such as the relative precipitation, river discharge, and temperature; and large events, as shown by the flow-duration curve, with each cluster having particular characteristics. River discharge showed a decreasing tendency of flow quantity during small rainfall events of less than 100 mm/event from the 1980s to the present. An approximately 7% decrease from 44.8 to 37.3% occurred in the percentage of river water supplied by precipitation in the years after the 1980s. For the medium-term changes, no marked change occurred in the flow quantity of the peak point over time in event hydrographs. However, flow quantities before and after the peak tended to decrease by 1 to 2 m 3/s after the 1980s. Theoretical considerations with regard to the influence of hydrologic and climatologic parameters on flood discharge are discussed and examined in terms of observational data. These findings provide a sound foundation for use in hydrological catchment modelling.

  20. 3D-shape of objects with straight line-motion by simultaneous projection of color coded patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jorge L.; Ayubi, Gaston A.; Di Martino, J. Matías; Castillo, Oscar E.; Ferrari, Jose A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel technique to retrieve the 3D shape of dynamic objects by the simultaneous projection of a fringe pattern and a homogeneous light pattern which are both coded in two of the color channels of a RGB image. The fringe pattern, red channel, is used to retrieve the phase by phase-shift algorithms with arbitrary phase-step, while the homogeneous pattern, blue channel, is used to match pixels from the test object in consecutive images, which are acquired at different positions, and thus, to determine the speed of the object. The proposed method successfully overcomes the standard requirement of projecting fringes of two different frequencies; one frequency to extract object information and the other one to retrieve the phase. Validation experiments are presented.

  1. Left ventricular functional parameters and geometric patterns in Korean adults on coronary CT angiography with a 320-detector-row CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Young Dae [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Min; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To assess the normal reference values of left ventricle (LV) functional parameters in Korean adults on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with a 320-detector-row CT scanner, and to analyze sex-related differences and correlations with various clinical characteristics. This study retrospectively enrolled 172 subjects (107 men and 65 women; age, 58 ± 10.9 years; body surface area [BSA], 1.75 ± 0.2 m{sup 2}) who underwent CCTA without any prior history of cardiac disease. The following parameters were measured by post-processing the CT data: LV volume, LV functional parameters (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output, etc.), LV myocardial mass, LV inner diameter, and LV myocardial thickness (including septal wall thickness [SWT], posterior wall thickness [PWT], and relative wall thickness [RWT = 2 × PWT / LV inner diameter]). All of the functional or volumetric parameters were normalized using the BSA. The general characteristics and co-morbidities for the enrolled subjects were recorded, and the correlations between these factors and the LV parameters were then evaluated. The LV myocardial thickness (SWT, 1.08 ± 0.18 cm vs. 0.90 ± 0.17 cm, p < 0.001; PWT, 0.91 ± 0.15 cm vs. 0.78 ± 0.10 cm, p < 0.001; RWT, 0.38 ± 0.08 cm vs. 0.33 ± 0.05 cm, p < 0.001), LV volume (LV end-diastolic volume, 112.9 ± 26.1 mL vs. 98.2 ± 21.0 mL, p < 0.001; LV end-systolic volume, 41.7 ± 14.7 mL vs. 33.7 ± 12.2 mL, p = 0.001) and mass (145.0 ± 29.1 g vs. 107.9 ± 20.0 g, p < 0.001) were significantly greater in men than in women. However, these differences were not significant after normalization using BSA, except for the LV mass (LV mass index, 79.6 ± 14.0 g/m{sup 2} vs. 66.2 ± 11.0 g/m{sup 2},p < 0.001). The cardiac output and ejection fraction were not significantly different between the men and women (cardiac output, 4.3 ± 1.0 L/min vs. 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, p = 0.452; ejection fraction, 63.4 ± 7.7% vs. 66.4 ± 7.6%, p = 0.079). Most of the LV parameters were

  2. Spatial patterns of water quality parameters in upper layer of the Kara Sea in summer 2016 based on laser remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osokina, Varvara; Pelevin, Vadim; Shatravin, Alexander; Belyaev, Nikolay; Demidov, Andrey; Redzhepova, Zuleyha

    2017-04-01

    The paper represents results of remote sensing by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence LiDAR during the expedition in Kara Sea in summer 2016. The expedition took place in Western and Southern parts of Kara Sea including Ob and Yenisei areas from June, 14 to August, 20 2016. The LiDAR observations were obtained from the research vessel Mstislav Keldysh and included 4600 km of almost continuous measurements and 94 complex stations. As a result now there is a vast LiDAR database available for scientific purposes. The data were processed and recalculated providing a set of high resolution maps of distribution of main oceanographic water quality parameters including chlorophyll "a", total organic carbon and total suspended matter in surface layer. The proceeded maps give a precise information about the location of frontal zones between Ob and Yenisei waters and Kara Sea waters, provide a detailed picture of complex surface water structure in central Kara Sea and other locations and present data about spatial distinction of concentrations of measured water parameters. The LiDAR measurements were afterwards compared to data, obtained by underway flow-through CTD measuring system and satellite images providing adjunct information on water parameters' distribution features. The instruments of UFL (Ultraviolet fluorescent LiDAR) series were developed by the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, Russia, and have been successfully used in lots of scientific expeditions in different water areas. UFL LiDARs take measurements with sampling rate up to 2 Hz from the vessel under way in any weather or sunlight conditions. The measurements are linked to a GPS, and so all data are geo-tagged and can be used to create interpolated maps of the measured parameters. The instrument analyses backward signal from dual excitation (355, 532 nm) laser pulses emitted at 2 Hz. The signal is detected across 11 bands in series (355, 385, 404, 424, 440, 460, 499, 532, 620, 651, 685 nm) on

  3. A New Facility for Testing Superconducting Solenoid Magnets with Large Fringe Fields at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, D. [Fermilab; Carcagno, R. [Fermilab; Nogiec, J. [Fermilab; Rabehl, R. [Fermilab; Sylvester, C. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    Testing superconducting solenoid with no iron flux return can be problematic for a magnet test facility due to the large magnetic fringe fields generated. These large external fields can interfere with the operation of equipment while precautions must be taken for personnel supporting the test. The magnetic forces between the solenoid under test and the external infrastructure must also be taken under consideration. A new test facility has been designed and built at Fermilab specifically for testing superconducting magnets with large external fringe fields. This paper discusses the test stand design, capabilities, and details of the instrumentation and controls with data from the first solenoid tested in this facility: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) coupling coil.

  4. Rainbow fringes around crevice corrosion formed on stainless steel AISI 316 after ennoblement in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Zhang, X. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Wang, J. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang (China)

    2009-10-15

    The crevice corrosion occurrence probability of stainless steel (SS) AISI 316 was increased under ennoblement condition due to chemically added H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into seawater. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used to simulate the important factor causing ennoblement in natural marine biofilm. Morphology of the crevice corrosion was observed using an incident-light source microscopy. Some interesting ''rainbow'' fringes were observed around micro-crevices. The mechanism was discussed from the ions diffusion and potential distribution during the crevice formation. This result shows that under ennoblement condition the colored fringe is a distinct characteristic of the morphology of localized corrosion for stainless steel. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y

    2013-11-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fringe field interference of neighbor magnets in China spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kang, W.; Wu, X.; Deng, C.D.; Li, S.; Yang, M.; Zhou, J.X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Wu, Y.W.

    2016-01-01

    In CSNS accelerator construction, the field measurement of all RCS magnets have been finished and the magnets have been installed in the tunnel before the end of 2015. The electromagnetic quadrupoles have a large aperture and the core-to-core distance between magnets is rather short in some places. The corrector magnet or the sextupole magnet is closer to one of the quadrupole magnets which caused certain interference. The interference caused by magnetic fringe field has been appeared and it becomes a significant issue in beam dynamics for beam loss control in this high-intensity proton accelerator. We have performed 3D computing simulations to study integral field distributions between the quadrupole and the corrector magnets, and the sextupole and the other quadrupole magnets. The effect of the magnetic fringe field and the interference has been investigated with different distances of the neighbor magnets. The simulation and the field measurement results will be introduced in this paper.

  7. Entanglement detection from interference fringes in atom-photon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nemoto, Kae; Miniatura, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A measurement scheme of atomic qubits pinned at given positions is studied by analyzing the interference pattern obtained when they emit photons spontaneously. In the case of two qubits, a well-known relation is revisited in which the interference visibility is equal to the concurrence of the state in the infinite spatial separation limit of the qubits. By taking into account the superradiant and subradiant effects, it is shown that a state tomography is possible when the qubit spatial separation is comparable to the wavelength of the atomic transition. In the case of three qubits, the relations between various entanglement measures and the interference visibility are studied, where the visibility is defined from the two-qubit case. A qualitative correspondence among these entanglement relations is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the interference visibility is directly related to the maximal bipartite negativity.

  8. Polarization modeling and predictions for DKIST part 3: focal ratio and thermal dependencies of spectral polarization fringes and optic retardance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David M.; Sueoka, Stacey R.

    2018-01-01

    Data products from high spectral resolution astronomical polarimeters are often limited by fringes. Fringes can skew derived magnetic field properties from spectropolarimetric data. Fringe removal algorithms can also corrupt the data if the fringes and object signals are too similar. For some narrow-band imaging polarimeters, fringes change the calibration retarder properties and dominate the calibration errors. Systems-level engineering tools for polarimetric instrumentation require accurate predictions of fringe amplitudes, periods for transmission, diattenuation, and retardance. The relevant instabilities caused by environmental, thermal, and optical properties can be modeled and mitigation tools developed. We create spectral polarization fringe amplitude and temporal instability predictions by applying the Berreman calculus and simple interferometric calculations to optics in beams of varying F/ number. We then apply the formalism to superachromatic six-crystal retarders in converging beams under beam thermal loading in outdoor environmental conditions for two of the world's largest observatories: the 10-m Keck telescope and the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). DKIST will produce a 300-W optical beam, which has imposed stringent requirements on the large diameter six-crystal retarders, dichroic beamsplitters, and internal optics. DKIST retarders are used in a converging beam with F/ ratios between 8 and 62. The fringe spectral periods, amplitudes, and thermal models of retarder behavior assisted DKIST optical designs and calibration plans with future application to many astronomical spectropolarimeters. The Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph with polarimetry instrument at Keck also uses six-crystal retarders in a converging F / 13 beam in a Cassegrain focus exposed to summit environmental conditions providing observational verification of our predictions.

  9. Actors and processes behind urban fringe development: Mechanism to guide urban land management. Study on Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Fahria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to analyze and resolve urban fringe problems in Dhaka by incorporating different roles and interests of actors in land development processes. The research has revealed that these different actors have different interests, norms and ideologies which are playing an active role in guiding or regulating urban land development process. This situation is deploying existing rules and regulations in form of politics and affecting urban fringe management negatively. The resea...

  10. Record number (11 000) of interference fringes obtained by a 1 MV field-emission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Harada, Ken; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kasai, Hiroto; Tonomura, Akira; Furutsu, Tadao; Moriya, Noboru; Yoshida, Takaho; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Kitazawa, Koichi; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2002-01-01

    An electron biprism for a 1 million-volt field-emission electron microscope was developed. This biprism is controlled similarly as a specimen holder so that it can be driven and rotated precisely and is tough against mechanical vibration and stray magnetic field. We recorded the maximum number of interference fringes by using this biprism in order to confirm the overall performance as a holography electron microscope, and obtained a world record of 11,000 interference fringes

  11. Lunatic, Manic and Radical Fringe Each Promote T and B Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinghui; Kumar, Vivek; Wei, Hua-Xing; Qiu, Ju; Stanley, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Lunatic, Manic and Radical Fringe (LFNG, MFNG and RFNG) are N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify Notch receptors and regulate Notch signaling. Loss of LFNG affects thymic T cell development and LFNG and MFNG are required for marginal zone (MZ) B cell development. However, roles for MFNG and RFNG in T cell development, RFNG in B cell development, or Fringes in T and B cell activation, are not identified. Here we show that Lfng/Mfng/Rfng triple knockout (Fng tKO) mice exhibited reduced binding of DLL4 Notch ligand to CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) T cell progenitors, and reduced expression of NOTCH1 targets Deltex1 and CD25. Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of DN1/cKit+ and DN2 T cell progenitors and CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) T cell precursors, but increased frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ single positive (SP) T cells in thymus. In spleen, Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of CD4+, CD8+, central memory T cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, and an increased frequency of effector memory T cells, neutrophils, follicular (Fo) and MZ P B cells. The Fng tKO phenotype was cell-autonomous and largely rescued in mice expressing one allele of a single Fng gene. Stimulation of Fng tKO splenocytes with anti-CD3/CD28 beads or lipopolysaccharide gave reduced proliferation compared to controls, and the generation of activated T cells by concanavalin A or L-PHA was also reduced in Fng tKO mice. Therefore, each Fringe contributes to T and B cell development, and Fringe is required for optimal in vitro stimulation of T and B cells. PMID:26608918

  12. Biodegradation of phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and iomeprol by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Norman; Reinwand, Christian; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2015-12-01

    Mass transfer and biological transformation phenomena in the capillary fringe were studied using phenol, salicylic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and the iodinated X-ray contrast agent iomeprol as model organic compounds and the microorganism strain Pseudomonas fluorescens. Three experimental approaches were used: Batch experiments (uniform water saturation and transport by diffusion), in static columns (with a gradient of water saturation and advective transport in the capillaries) and in a flow-through cell (with a gradient of water saturation and transport by horizontal and vertical flow: 2-dimension flow-through microcosm). The reactors employed for the experiments were filled with quartz sand of defined particle size distribution (dp=200...600 μm, porosity ε=0.42). Batch experiments showed that phenol and salicylic acid have a high, whereas benzenesulfonic acid and iomeprol have a quite low potential for biodegradation under aerobic conditions and in a matrix nearly close to water saturation. Batch experiments under anoxic conditions with nitrate as electron acceptor revealed that the biodegradation of the model compounds was lower than under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the experiments showed that the moisture content was also responsible for an optimized transport in the liquid phase of a porous medium. Biodegradation in the capillary fringe was found to be influenced by both the moisture content and availability of the dissolved substrate, as seen in static column experiments. The gas-liquid mass transfer of oxygen also played an important role for the biological activity. In static column experiments under aerobic conditions, the highest biodegradation was found in the capillary fringe (e.g. βt/β0 (phenol)=0 after t=6 d) relative to the zone below the water table and unsaturated zone. The highest biodegradation occurred in the flow-through cell experiment where the height of the capillary fringe was largest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Wave Breaking Characteristics over a Fringing Reef under Monochromatic Wave Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fringing reefs play an important role in protecting the coastal area by inducing wave breaking and wave energy dissipation. However, modeling of wave transformation and energy dissipation on this topography is still difficult due to the unique structure. In the present study, two-dimensional laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the cross-shore variations of wave transformation, setup, and breaking phenomena over an idealized fringing reef with the 1/40 reef slope and to verify the Boussinesq model under monochromatic wave conditions. One-layer and two-layer model configurations of the Boussinesq model were used to figure out the model capability. Both models predicted well (r2>0.8 the cross-shore variation of the wave heights, crests, troughs, and setups when the nonlinearity is not too high (A0/h0<0.07 in this study. However, as the wave nonlinearity and steepness increase, the one-layer model showed problems in prediction and stability due to the error on the vertical profile of fluid velocity. The results in this study revealed that one-layer model is not suitable in the highly nonlinear wave condition over a fringing reef bathymetry. This data set can contribute to the numerical model verification.

  15. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  16. 2D fringe probing of liquid film dynamics of a plug bubble in a micropipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, H F; Qiu, H H

    2009-01-01

    An extended film thickness measurement method that can obtain the liquid film thickness profile of the whole plug bubble in a capillary tube simultaneously is presented. The approach is based on a 2D spatial fringe scattering technique, where the spatial frequency of scattered fringes is a function of liquid film thickness along the micropipe. Laser sheets are used instead of the laser beams, and the width of the laser sheets can be selected to cover the whole measurement field. Capillary tubes, with inner diameters of 1.0 mm and 0.3 mm, and lengths of 125 mm and 65 mm, are used. A gas plug bubble, 2.5–20 mm long, is introduced and moves through the testing part of the tube, which is filled with water as the working fluid. The interference fringes produced by two incident laser sheets are scattered from the interface between gas and water, and captured by a high-speed camera at a speed of up to 2000 frames s −1 . The experimental results show that the improved method can obtain the liquid film thickness profile at the different times and can be used to analyze the status of the plug bubble movement in a micropipe

  17. Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing Algorithm for Coarse Phasing Segmented Mirror Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Joshua A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.

    2013-01-01

    Segment mirror phasing, a critical step of segment mirror alignment, requires the ability to sense and correct the relative pistons between segments from up to a few hundred microns to a fraction of wavelength in order to bring the mirror system to its full diffraction capability. When sampling the aperture of a telescope, using auto-collimating flats (ACFs) is more economical. The performance of a telescope with a segmented primary mirror strongly depends on how well those primary mirror segments can be phased. One such process to phase primary mirror segments in the axial piston direction is dispersed fringe sensing (DFS). DFS technology can be used to co-phase the ACFs. DFS is essentially a signal fitting and processing operation. It is an elegant method of coarse phasing segmented mirrors. DFS performance accuracy is dependent upon careful calibration of the system as well as other factors such as internal optical alignment, system wavefront errors, and detector quality. Novel improvements to the algorithm have led to substantial enhancements in DFS performance. The Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing (ADFS) Algorithm is designed to reduce the sensitivity to calibration errors by determining the optimal fringe extraction line. Applying an angular extraction line dithering procedure and combining this dithering process with an error function while minimizing the phase term of the fitted signal, defines in essence the ADFS algorithm.

  18. Control of the Intrinsic Sensor Response to Volatile Organic Compounds with Fringing Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Swaminathan, Nandhini; Vaknin, Yonathan; Jurca, Titel; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Shalev, Gil; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-01-26

    The ability to control surface-analyte interaction allows tailoring chemical sensor sensitivity to specific target molecules. By adjusting the bias of the shallow p-n junctions in the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) chemical sensor, a multiple gate transistor with an exposed top dielectric layer allows tuning of the fringing electric field strength (from 0.5 × 10 7 to 2.5 × 10 7 V/m) above the EFN surface. Herein, we report that the magnitude and distribution of this fringing electric field correlate with the intrinsic sensor response to volatile organic compounds. The local variations of the surface electric field influence the analyte-surface interaction affecting the work function of the sensor surface, assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy on the nanometer scale. We show that the sensitivity to fixed vapor analyte concentrations can be nullified and even reversed by varying the fringing field strength, and demonstrate selectivity between ethanol and n-butylamine at room temperature using a single transistor without any extrinsic chemical modification of the exposed SiO 2 surface. The results imply an electric-field-controlled analyte reaction with a dielectric surface extremely compelling for sensitivity and selectivity enhancement in chemical sensors.

  19. Fringe Analysis around an Inclined Crack Tip of Finite-Width Plate under Tensile Load by Photoelastic Phase-Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weizheng; Baek, Tae Hyun; Lee, Byung Hee; Seo, Jin; Hong, Dong Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Photoelasticity is a technique of experimental methods and has been widely used in various domains of engineering to determine the stress distribution of structures. Without complicated mathematical formulation, this technique can conveniently provide a fairly accurate whole-field stress analysis for a mechanical structure. Here, stress distribution around an inclined crack tip of finite-width plate is studied by 8-step phase-shifting method. This method is a kind of photoelastic phase-shifting techniques and can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. According to stress-optic law, the stress distribution could be obtained from fringe patterns. The results obtained by polariscope arrangement combined with 8-step method and ABAQUS FEM simulations are compared with each other. Good agreement between them shows that 8-step phase-shifting method is reliable and can be used for determination of stress by experiment

  20. Spatial Recognition of the Urban-Rural Fringe of Beijing Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial identification of the urban-rural fringes is very significant for deeply understanding the development processes and regulations of urban space and guiding urban spatial development in the future. Traditionally, urban-rural fringe areas are identified using statistical analysis methods that consider indexes from single or multiple factors, such as population densities, the ratio of building land, the proportion of the non-agricultural population, and economic levels. However, these methods have limitations, for example, the statistical data are not continuous, the statistical standards are not uniform, the data is seldom available in real time, and it is difficult to avoid issues on the statistical effects from edges of administrative regions or express the internal differences of these areas. This paper proposes a convenient approach to identify the urban-rural fringe using nighttime light data of DMSP/OLS images. First, a light characteristics–combined value model was built in ArcGIS 10.3, and the combined characteristics of light intensity and the degree of light intensity fluctuation are analyzed in the urban, urban-rural fringe, and rural areas. Then, the Python programming language was used to extract the breakpoints of the characteristic combination values of the nighttime light data in 360 directions taking Tian An Men as the center. Finally, the range of the urban-rural fringe area is identified. The results show that the urban-rural fringe of Beijing is mainly located in the annular band around Tian An Men. The average inner radius is 19 km, and the outer radius is 26 km. The urban-rural fringe includes the outer portions of the four city center districts, which are the Chaoyang District, Haidian District, Fengtai District, and Shijingshan District and the part area border with Daxing District, Tongzhou District, Changping District, Mentougou District, Shunyi District, and Fangshan District. The area of the urban-rural fringe