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Sample records for frijol mungo vigna

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

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    Karthikeyan, A S; Sarma, K S; Veluthambi, K

    1996-01-01

    Transformed Vigna mungo (blackgram) calli were obtained by cocultivating segments of primary leaves with Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir helper strains harbouring the binary vector pGA472 having kanamycin resistance gene as plant transformation marker. Transformed calli were selected on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 50 mg/l kanamycin and 500 mg/l carbenicillin. Transformed calli were found to be resistant to kanamycin up to 900 mg/l concentration. Expression of kanamycin resistance gene in transformed calli was demonstrated by neomycin phosphotransferase assay. Stable integration of transferred DNA into V. mungo genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.

  2. A monomeric protein with hemagglutinating activity from seeds of Vigna mungo (Phaseolus mungo).

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    Singh, S S; Rao, S L

    1991-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are shown to contain a lectin with certain unusual features. The lectin agglutinates only trypsinized red cells, and its sugar specificity is complex as none of the common sugars, oligosaccharides or complex polysaccharides exhibit any affinity for the lectin. The purified lectin has a molecular weight of 58 kDa and is a monomer. Unlike other plant lectins, antibodies to the P. mungo lectin do not exhibit any immunological cross reactivity. The clot forming ability of the lectin is unusual in that the clot once formed is rapidly disaggregated indicated that it induces, as yet undefined, certain membrane alterations.

  3. Isolation and structural analysis of ajugose from Vigna mungo L.

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    Kotiguda, Girigowda; Peterbauer, Thomas; Mulimani, Veerappa H

    2006-09-01

    The hexasaccharide ajugose, alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(12)-beta-D-fructofuranoside, generally uncommon in legumes, was detected in the seeds of Vigna mungo L. by TLC and paper chromatography. Ajugose was then isolated by silica gel chromatography and its structure was established by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and both one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR techniques.

  4. Biosynthesis of alpha-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon.

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    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T

    1985-12-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that alpha-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of alpha-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the alpha-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-beta-H or endo-beta-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein.

  5. Biosynthesis of α-Amylase in Vigna mungo Cotyledon 1

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    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    1985-01-01

    In vitro translation of RNA extracted from Vigna mungo cotyledons showed that α-amylase is synthesized as a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 45,000, while cotyledons contain a form of α-amylase with a molecular mass of 43,000. To find out whether the 45,000 molecular mass polypeptide is a precursor to the 43,000 found in vivo, the cell free translation systems were supplemented with canine microsomal membrane; when mRNA was translated in the wheat germ system supplemented with canine microsomes, the 45,000 molecular mass form was not processed to a smaller form but the precursor form was partly processed in the membrane-supplemented reticulocyte lysate system. When V. mungo RNA was translated in Xenopus oocyte system, only the smaller form (molecular mass 43,000) was detected. Involvement of contranslational glycosylation in the maturating process of the α-amylase was ruled out because there was no effect of tunicamycin, and the polypeptide was resistant to endo-β-H or endo-β-D digestion. We interpret these results to mean that the 45,000 molecular mass form is a precursor with a signal peptide or transit sequence, and that the 43,000 molecular mass is the mature form of the protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664549

  6. Trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen H K; Wong, Jack H; Ng, T B

    2009-01-01

    Three trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were isolated from seeds of the black gram (Vigna mungo) with a procedure that entailed cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Mono Q and Mono S, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Two of the trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors were adsorbed on the first four types of chromatographic media. All three inhibitors have a molecular mass of 16 kDa as judged by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The trypsin inhibitory activity of the inhibitors was attenuated in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. The remaining inhibitor was unadsorbed on SP-Sepharose but adsorbed on Q-Sepharose, Mono Q and Mono S. The protease inhibitors did not exert any inhibitory effect on hepatoma (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF 7) cells or antifungal action toward Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Two of the inhibitors slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 in the millimolar range.

  7. CHROMIUM INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO L.

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    A. Chidambaram ، P. Sundaramoorthy ، A. Murugan ، K. Sankar Ganesh ، L. Baskaran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is known to be highly toxic to biological systems. This study was designed to determine the mutagenic effects of different concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of hexavalent chromium on root tip cells of blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper. The blackgram seeds were equi-spacially arranged in sterilized petriplates lined with filter paper and they were treated with different concentrations of chromium solution. In germination studies, the morphological growth parameters such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length fresh weight and dry weight of blackgram seedlings were decreased with increasing dose of chromium concentrations. No germination of blackgram seeds was recorded at 300mg/l chromium concentration. Chromosome aberration assay was used to determine the mitotic indices and rate of chromosome aberration in blackgram root tip cells due to chromium treatment. The results showed that the mitotic indices were complicated due to different concentrations of chromium. However, the increase in chromium concentration has led to a gradual increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberration and mitotic index. The chromosome length, absolute chromosome length and average chromosome lengths were gradually found to decrease. There was no considerable change in 2n number of chromosome with the increase in chromium concentrations. It is concluded that the hexavalent chromium has significant mutagenic effect on the root tip cells of blackgram.

  8. Characterization of seed storage proteins of urdbean (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R; Malhotra, S P; Singh, R

    1988-01-01

    Dehulled and defatted flour of urdbean (Vigna mungo), Var T-9, contained 25% protein with maximum contribution by globulins (63%). Albumins and glutelins contributed 12% and 21% respectively, whereas prolamins were present only in traces (1%). Globulins were further fractionated into legumin and vicilin type proteins which were present in the ratio of 4:1. All the protein fractions were heterogenous in nature as revealed by high performance liquid chromatography. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the total protein sample to contain 21 different components with molecular weights ranging from 8.92 to 117.49 kd. Albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins resolved into 4, 8, 6 and 13 different sized components of molecular weights ranging from 10.23 to 25.53, 10.84 to 112.72, 10.33 to 51.52 and 8.91 to 112.72 kd, respectively. Amino acid analysis of all fractions revealed that glutamic acid was present in maximum concentration followed by aspartic acid and lysine. Just like other pulse proteins, the urdbean proteins were also deficient in sulphur containing amino acids.

  9. Structure and expression of alpha-amylase gene from Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, D; Takeuchi, H; Minamikawa, T

    1994-06-01

    A single copy of the alpha-amylase gene, composed of three introns and four exons, was found in Vigna mungo. Examination of levels of alpha-amylase and its mRNA in detached cotyledons indicated that attachment of the embryonic axis is not required for expression of the gene in cotyledons of germinating seeds.

  10. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-03-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by 'SeqQC V2.2' bioinformatics tool.

  11. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing

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    Sayak Ganguli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731 of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by ‘SeqQC V2.2’ bioinformatics tool.

  12. Immunostimolatory activities of Vigna mungo L. extract in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Yogendrasinh B; Jain, Sunita M

    2010-01-01

    Vigna mungo L. (Fabaceae) is a popular food legume used in the traditional Indian system of medicine for the treatment of a variety of disease conditions. The objective of the study was to evaluate any immunostimulatory activities of the extract of V. mungo seeds in an animal model. The induction of any immunostimulatory effects were evaluated using measures of sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced humoral antibody titer, SRBC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion, and in vivo phagocytosis (via the carbon clearance method) after host treatment with the extract. The results here indicated that primary and secondary antibody titers in the rats were significantly increased by treatment with the V. mungo extract as compared with those noted among rats in a control group. Increases in DTH response, the percentage (%) neutrophil adhesion, and in situ phagocytosis were also observed after treatment with the extract. We summarize that the apparent immunostimulatory effect of the V. mungo seed extract might be attributed to an augmentation of humoral and cell-mediated responses, phagocytosis, and hematopoiesis in the treated rats. The findings in this study suggest that V. mungo seed extract possesses profound immunostimulatory activities. Whether such outcomes are also evidenced by consumption of the intact seeds themselves, as is most likely to be the case with humans, remains to be determined. Nonetheless, the present study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  13. Measurement of nitrite reductase in leaf tissue of Vigna mungo : A new method.

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    Srivastava, R C; Bose, B; Mukerji, D; Mathur, S N; Srivastava, H S

    1979-12-01

    The enzyme nitrite reductase (EC 1.6.6.4) is generally assayed in terms of disappearance of nitrite from the assay medium. We describe a technique which allowed estimation of the enzyme level in leaf tissues of Vigna mungo (L). Hepper in terms of the release of the product (NH3) of the enzyme reaction. The technique is offered as an alternative, possibly more convenient method for assay of nitrite reductase in plant tissue in vivo.

  14. Inheritance of resistance to yellow mosaic virus in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

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    Singh, D P

    1980-09-01

    The inheritance of resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) was studied in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper). The highly resistant donors Pant U-84 and UPU-2 and a highly susceptible line, UL-2, their F1's, F2's and backcrosses were grown with spreader located every 5 to 6 rows. The resistance was found to be digenic and recessive in all the crosses and free from cytoplasmic effect.

  15. Effect of Crude Brassinosteroid Extract on Growth and Biochemical Changes of Gosssypium hirsutum L. and Vigna mungo L.

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    Syed Ali Fathima M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to examine the influence of BRs on seed germination and seedling growth in Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var T9. The application of BRs on seed germination of Gossypium hirsutum increased the rate of germination considerably with varied percentage from 60.4 to 99. Vigna mungo seed also showed the varied percentage of germination from 56.8 to 80.1. Both the plants exhibited high percentage of vegetative growth such as shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area on 3% of BR supplementation. The amount of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll increased under BR treatments. Among the concentration, 3% BRs caused maximum effect than the other tested concentrations. High percentage of starch 53% and 31 % was observed in Gossypium and Vigna mungo respectively. The results of the present study shows that 3% BRs promotes the growth rate of Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var. T9. The results of the present study supplemented to the previous observations and practical utilization of the new steroidal group of phytohormones for large scale production of the economically important crops Gossypium hirsutum L. Var Svpr 2 and Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Var. T9.

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

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    Ganapathy Selvam G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  17. Involvement of gibberellins in expression of a cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

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    Taneyama, M; Okamoto, T; Yamane, H; Minamikawa, T

    2001-11-01

    The expression of a papain-type proteinase, designated SH-EP, in cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings has been shown to require some factors in the embryonic axes. Gibberellin A1 (GA(1)) and GA(20) were identified by GC-MS in embryonic axes of V. mungo seedlings. The level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings was greatly reduced by treatment of the seeds with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor for GA biosynthesis. The reduced level of accumulation of SH-EP in cotyledons by uniconazole-P was recovered by exogenous application of GA(1) and GA(20) to the seedlings.

  18. Temporal variation in protein content and yield of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper leaves.

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    Pandey, V N; Srivastava, A K

    1990-10-01

    Temporal variation in total protein and soluble protein contents and protein yield of Vigna mungo leaves at intervals of every three hours during day and night was studied. The study was done with the view to ascertain the hour of harvesting the leaves for maximum yield of leaf protein concentrate. Observations reveal that the total protein and soluble protein contents in the leaves are minimum during 3.00 to 6.00 hrs, which steadily rise with time to reach the maximum values during 12.00 to 15.00 hrs, after which the same shows a steady decrease with time.

  19. Gamma ray induced physiological variabilities in black gram (Vigna mungo L. )

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    Ram Mohan Rao, S.; Rao, D. (Kakatiya Univ., Warangal (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1983-06-01

    Various doses of gamma rays were used to irradiate dry seeds of Vigna mungo. 20KR induced increased seedling growth and lateral root number, while the 60 KR reduced them. Fresh and dry weights of whole seedlings were retarded with increasing dose rate. However, more fresh and dry weight values were recorded in the 20 KR treatment. Plant height, number of nodes, internodal length and yield were found to be favourably induced in the lower dose while in the higher doses particularly in 50 and 60 KR there was a reduction. But a reverse situation was found regarding chlorophyll metabolism in the foliage leaves.

  20. Production and composition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesized by a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

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    Mandal, Santi Mohan; Ray, Bimalendu; Dey, Satyahari; Pati, Bikas Ranjan

    2007-08-01

    An extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) was produced by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Maximum EPS production (346 mg l(-1)) was when the yeast extract basal medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%), biotin (1.5 mg l(-1)) and asparagine (0.3%). Ribose (53%) and mannose (47%) were the principle monomers of the EPS. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis showed that this polymer, which has Man(4)Rib(1) as an oligomeric subunit, has an apparent molecular mass of 750 kDa.

  1. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

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    Mitsuhashi, W; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1986-03-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts.

  2. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

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    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1986-01-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664675

  3. Genetic diversity as assessed by ISSR markers in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Nadarajan N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on a collection of 23 blackgram genotypes involving 16 releasedvarieties, six pre release cultures and one wild species Vigna mungo var. silvestris to study the genetic diversityusing twelve ISSR primers. The number of alleles produced by different ISSR primers ranged from eight to 17with an average of 11.5 per primer and the level of polymorphism was found to be 82.05 percent. Similaritymeasures and clustering analyses were made using ISSR data. The resulting dendrogram distributed the 23blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The highest genetic similarity coefficient was measured betweengenotypes CBG 671 and CBG 632. The results of PCoA were comparable to that of grouping based on UPGMAand 23 genotypes were grouped into four groups. Genotype Vigna mungo var. silvestris was placed separatelyfrom rest of the genotypes in both the analyses. Grouping of varieties using ISSR markers did not show anyrelevance to their pedigree. All the pre release cultures in one group revealed that only a portion of geneticvariation has been exploited. The results revealed that, genetic diversity is low among the varieties releasedfrom the respective institute and hence genotypes were grouped according to the research institutes from whichthey released. It suggests that the research institutes have to enlarge the genetic base for variety development.

  4. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaji; R Vanitharani; A S Karthikeyan; S Anbalagan; K Veluthambi

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5′-TGTATCGGTGT-3′) iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5′-ATCGGTGT-3′) had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMV-Vig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  5. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

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    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  6. Identification of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus infecting Vigna mungo var. silvestris L.

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    Kamaal NAIMUDDIN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Yellow mosaic of Vigna mungo var.  silvestris, a wild relative of blackgram (Vigna mungo [L.] Hepper, was noticed at the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India during 2008–2010, with an incidence of 100 per cent. The observed symptoms, consisting of veinal yellowing and scattered bright yellow spots, were suggestive of infection with a begomovirus. To characterize the virus, several sets of primer pairs were designed to amplify the targeted DNA fragments of the causal virus. The sequence data revealed that the coat protein (AV1 gene of the begomovirus under study contained a single open reading frame with 774 nucleotides, coding for 257 amino acids. Comparative analysis of the coat protein (AV1 gene of the virus under study (FJ821189 showed a 97 and 99% similarity with Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV-Mungbean strain at the nucleotide and the amino acid levels respectively. Sequence homology of different genes (AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4 of the isolate under study (FJ663015 with MYMIV-Mungbean (EU523045 was 94–97% for the nucleotides and 91–99% for the amino acids sequence. Therefore, the begomovirus infecting V. mungo var. silvestris at Kanpur is to be considered a strain of MYMIV and is

  7. STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL MUTAGEN (GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BLACK GRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L. HEPPER

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    *M. DHASARATHAN, 1N. MEENAKSHIGANESAN AND 2S. GEETHA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper variety TNAU (Bg CO 6 was exposed to varying doses of gamma rays to study their effect on various characters like seed germination and seedling survival, plant height at 30th day and at maturity, pollen and seed fertility. In M1 generation the results revealed that there was more reduction at higher doses compared to lower doses for all the characters studied. The higher doses of gamma rays lead to lethal injury and sterility. Effects on these traits have been attributed to the physiological disturbance or chromosomal damage of the cells caused by the gamma rays. The results of the present study clearly indicate that different doses of gamma rays can be effectively utilized to create variability for various quantitative traits in black gram.

  8. Imunohistochemical Localization of alpha-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings.

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    Tomura, H; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1985-12-01

    We studied the localization of alpha-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-alpha-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. alpha-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of alpha-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, alpha-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of alpha-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons.

  9. Imunohistochemical Localization of α-Amylase in Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, Hideaki; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1985-01-01

    We studied the localization of α-amylase with indirect fluorescence microscopy in transversely sectioned cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Tissue sections were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde and treated with anti-α-amylase immunoglobulin G followed by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G. α-Amylase appeared in the cells farthest from vascular bundles on the second day of growth and appeared gradually closer to the vascular bundles as growth progressed. The pattern of α-amylase appearance was similar in detached cotyledons, indicating that attachment of the embryonic axis has no effect on this pattern. However, in attached cotyledons, α-amylase disappeared from the regions where starch grains had been digested, but in detached cotyledons there was no disappearance of α-amylase, and digestion was slower than in intact cotyledons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16664548

  10. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  11. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops.

  12. BIO-ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF MERCURY IN VIGNA MUNGO (L. HEPPER SEEDLINGS

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    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of mercury on the seedling of Vigna mungo seedlings was studied by culturing the seedlings in Hoagland medium artificially contaminated with 5 and 10mM Mercuric Chloride. Histochemical localization of the mercury in shoot and root tissues was done by staining with dithizone and quantitative analyses of mercury content accumulated in root, stem and leaf tissues were done using mercury analyser. Localization of mercury was observed as coloured masses in the cells of root and stem. Stem tissues of seedlings showed anatomical modification in the epidermal cells as trichomes. Patterns of bioaccumulation of mercury was root> stem> leaves revealing feeble translocation to the shoot system. A comparison of residual mercury content retained in the growth medium after sample harvesting and quantity accumulated in the plant body reveals that some quantity of mercury is lost presumably through the trichomes developed on the stem and/ or through stomata of the leaves.

  13. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = -0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  14. Effect of Arsenic on Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Blackgram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Gouri, Samiran S; De, Debasis; Das, Bidus K; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R

    2011-01-01

    Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction is an efficient model system for soil remediation and reclamation. We earlier isolated an arsenic (As) (2.8 mM arsenate) tolerant and symbiotically effective Rhizobium strain, VMA301 from Vigna mungo and in this study we further characterized its efficacy for arsenic removal from the soil and its nitrogen fixation capacity. Although nodule formation is delayed in plants with As-treated composite when the inoculum was prepared without arsenic in culture medium, whereas it attains the significant number of nodules compare to plant grown in As-free soil when the inoculum was prepared with arsenic supplemented medium. Arsenic accumulation was higher in roots than root nodules. Nitrogenase activity is reduced to almost 2 fold in plants with As-treated soil but not abolished. These results suggest that this strain, VMA301, has been able to establish an effective symbiotic interaction in V. mungo in As-contaminated soil and can perform dual role of arsenic bioremediation as well as soil nitrogen improvement.

  15. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

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    Shefali Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r=-0.97 between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r=0.95 with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent.

  16. Synergism of VAM and Rhizobium on production and metabolism of IAA in roots and root nodules of Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Sisir; Chatterjee, Narayan Chandra; Dutta, Sikha

    2010-09-01

    Mature and healthy root nodules of Vigna mungo appeared to contain higher amount of indole-acetic acid (IAA) than non-nodulated roots. Dual effect of VAM fungus, Glomus fasciculatum and the nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Rhizobium sp. on the nodulation of roots of V. mungo was studied. It was recorded that the roots which were inoculated simultaneously with both the symbionts i.e., G. fasciculatum and Rhizobium exhibited greater amount of IAA production than the non-inoculated roots. A tryptophan pool present in the mature nodules and young leaves might serve as a precursor for IAA production in the roots and in the nodules. Activity of IAA-metabolizing enzymes, such as IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase was investigated which indicates the active metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules. The Rhizobium symbiont isolated from fresh nodules of V. mungo produced significant amount of IAA under in vitro condition when tryptophan was added to the medium as precursor. Present study represents some beneficial effects of Rhizobium and G. fasciculatum on the production and metabolism of IAA in roots and nodules of V. mungo. The important physiological implication of the study on IAA production and its metabolism in Rhizobium-Legume-VAM tripartite symbiosis is certainly representing a new approach to satisfy the hormonal balance in the host plant.

  17. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  18. Properties of a cyclic 3'5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Abidin, U Z

    1989-10-01

    Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) partially purified from roots of Vigna mungo exhibited optimum activity at pH 5.5 to 6.0 and maximum enzyme activity at 50 degrees C. Levels of PDE activity in roots remained relatively constant from the first to the eleventh day after germination; on the twelfth day there was a 400% increase in PDE activity. The enzyme was stable for at least 48 hours at 28 degrees C, retaining 92% of its original activity. Plant growth hormones including gibberellic acid, indoleacetic acid and kinetin at 1.0 and 10.0 microM concentrations did not have any significant effect on enzyme activity. Nucleotides tested including cyclic 2'3' AMP, cyclic 2'3' GMP completely abolished enzyme activity at 1.0mM while cyclic 3'5' GMP, cyclic 3'5' GMP, 2'deoxy 5' ATP, 2'deoxy 5'GTP and 5'ADP were also inhibitory to the enzyme. The enzyme was stimulated by Mg2+, Fe2+ and NH4+ while Cu2+ and Fe3+ were inhibitory. Theophylline, caffeine, phosphate, pyrophosphate and EDTA were inhibitory to the enzyme.

  19. Proteomic analysis of salicylic acid induced resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Pal, Amita

    2011-03-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in inducing resistance to MYMIV infection in Vigna mungo has been elucidated by proteomics. Twenty-nine proteins identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF, predicted to be involved in stress responses, metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction, showed increased abundance upon SA treatment. Susceptible plants showed characteristic yellow mosaic symptoms upon MYMIV infection. A concentration dependent decrease in physiological symptoms associated with MYMIV was observed upon exogenous SA treatment prior to viral inoculation; and no visible symptom was observed at 100 μM SA. SA treatment stimulated SOD and GPX activity and inhibited CAT activity thus preventing ROS mediated damage. Significant increase in chlorophyll, protein, carbohydrate, phenolic content and H(2)O(2) were observed. Involvement of calmodulin for transmission of defense signal by SA is suggested. A metabolic reprogramming leading to enhanced synthesis of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolisms is necessary for SA mediated resistance to MYMIV. Identification of proteins showing increased abundance, involved in photosynthetic process is a significant finding which restores virus-induced degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus and provides enhanced metabolites required for repartition of resources towards defense.

  20. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  1. Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

    2003-06-01

    Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

  2. Molecular characterization of urdbean (Vigna mungo) germplasm related to resistance against urdbean leaf crinkle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, R; Aslam Khan, M; Khan, A I; Azam Khan, M; Awan, F S; Khan, N A

    2011-01-01

    Urdbean (Vigna mungo) is an important pulse crop grown worldwide. Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a pathogen of urdbean found in Pakistan that causes huge losses in yield. Forty urdbean varieties/lines were screened against the virus under field conditions during spring season 2009. None of the lines appeared to be highly resistant or resistant. On the basis of a 0-5 disease rating scale and disease severity index, genotypes varied significantly in their reaction to ULCV. Four lines (M-6206, IAM-382-15, IAM-133, and Mash-1) were moderately resistant, eight were rated as moderately susceptible, and 21 as susceptible; the remaining seven lines were highly susceptible. RAPD analyses revealed an extensive amount of variation, which could be used for cultivar identification. Genetic differentiation among urdbean genotypes was similar to the field screening data. The varieties 6065-3 and 6206 were highly susceptible and moderately resistant, respectively, to ULCV under field conditions, confirmed by the RAPD analysis. These varieties were the most diverse varieties in the similarity matrix (67.2%), while the varieties IAM-382-9 and 07M003 were the most similar (98.4%). This information will help in the recognition of available resistant germplasms that can resist this disease and will be utilized for urdbean improvement in Pakistan.

  3. Regeneration of Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. on Changes of Hormonal Condition

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    Shariful Alam MONY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study comprised of experiments for shoot regeneration and plantlet formation from cotyledonary node of Vigna mungo by culturing them on low concentration of BAP followed by transfer to hormone free MS medium. Cotyledonary node explants were cultured on different concentrations of BAP (0, 1, 2.5 and 50 mg l-1. Shoot regeneration occurred from cotyledonary nodes irrespective of the presence or absence of BAP in the medium. However, culture of cotyledonary node explants for 10 days on medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 BAP followed by transfer to hormone free medium gave higher number of shoots (9.33/explant compared to culture of the explants on hormone free medium for 15 days followed by transfer to medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 BAP (8.33/explants. The regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA and NAA. The high frequency (100.0% of rooting was observed with MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 IBA. The rooted plants were transferred to pots for hardening.

  4. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

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    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  5. Zinc and copper induced changes in physiological characteristics of Vigna mungo (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Radha; Anju; Poonam; Dhankhar, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of deleterious concentration of zinc and copper provided either individually or in combination in the nutrient media was investigated in order to assess the effect of metal interaction in Vigna mungo (L.). Both metals showed negative effect and led to a marked decrease in seed germination (20%), seedling growth (91.7%) and nitrate reductase activity (85.7%) with the increase in metal concentrations. The present study also emphasizes on the response of catalase and peroxidase enzyme under zinc and copper stress. Both antioxidant enzymes exhibited an increasing trend under different treatment conditions but it was reverse at highly toxic metal concentration. The results showed active involvement of peroxidase enzyme in regulating oxidative stress rather than catalase enzyme, as the specific activity of peroxidase enzyme got increased by 8.94% under the combined metals stress whereas catalase activity got declined by 60.97% in comparison to control due to excessive stress. The combined effect of copper and zinc metal was more pronounced in comparison to their individual effects.

  6. Antioxidant Status of Vigna mungo L. in Response to Sulfur Nutrition

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    Neelam Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo L. var. DPU-88-31, an edible legume, was grown at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 meq S L−1 to study the effect of deficient and excess level of sulfur on oxidative metabolism. Plants supplied by 4 meq S L−1 showed optimum yield. Sulfur deficient plants (1 and 2 meq S L−1 showed reduction in growth and chlorosis of young leaves. Tissue sulfur and cysteine concentration was increased with increasing sulfur supply. The thresholds for critical concentration of sulfur deficiency and toxicity were 0.315% and 0.434% dry weight. Biomass and photoassimilatory pigments were decreased and carbohydrates (sugar and starch were accumulated in leaves of sulfur deficient and excess plants. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in sulfur deficient and excess plants caused oxidative damage in plants which was also evident by the increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and concentration of ascorbate and nonprotein thiols.

  7. Combining ability analysis for yield and its attributes in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    A.V.S. Durga Prasad and E. Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization in Line x Tester mating design was conducted with 11 MYMV susceptible lines and three resistant testers in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper to understand the nature of gene action, combining ability of the parents (gca and to assess the potential for the exploitation of heterosis (sca in hybrids. Data on nine quantitative characters viz.,days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight (g and seed yield per plant (g were collected on 33 hybrids and their 11 parents. Among the genotypes, PU 31, LBG 645, ADT 3, CO 6 and LBG 709 recorded relatively high per se performance and gca effects for majority of seed yield attributing traits. The hybrid, LBG 709 x PU 31 followed by CO 6 x PU 31 and LBG 645 x VBN (Bg 6 exhibited significant high per se and sca for most of the traits viz., number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and seed yield per plant .The crosses involving the parents, LBG 645 x PU 31 and ADT 3 x PU 31 recorded significant gca and non-significant sca effect for most of the characters inferring that these crosses would produce superior recombinants for seed yield.

  8. Screening three cultivars of Vigna mungo L. against ozone by application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, M

    2010-10-01

    Three Indian black gram cultivars (Vigna mungo L. cv. Barkha, Shekhar and TU-94-2) were grown at a tropical suburban site in Varanasi, India to evaluate the varietal differences in response to ambient O(3) under field conditions using ethylenediurea (EDU). EDU (400 ppm) was given as soil drench at 10-day intervals during the growth period of the cultivars. O(3) monitoring data clearly showed high concentrations with a mean value ranging between 41.3 and 59.9 ppb. EDU treatment caused significant increases in various growth parameters and total biomass accumulation in Barkha and Shekhar. EDU caused retention of more biomass in leaves during vegetative period and translocated more photosynthates towards reproductive parts, which resulted into yield enhancement. Weight of seeds plant(-1) was higher by 36.4% and 35.6% in Barkha and Shekhar, respectively, treated with EDU compared to non-EDU-treated plants. However, TU-94-2 did not exhibit any significant difference in weight of seeds plant(-1). Starch, total sugar, amino acids and K contents increased in seeds of EDU-treated plants leading to improvement in quality response index (QRI) of seeds. EDU helped in identifying the cultivar susceptibility to O(3) stress and therefore is very useful as a monitoring tool to assess the impact of ambient O(3) on plants under natural field conditions particularly in areas experiencing moderate concentrations of O(3).

  9. Occurrence of a Lysogenic Streptomyces sp. on the Nodule Surface of Black Gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, M; Ravindran, A D; Hariharan, K

    1984-07-01

    A lysogenic Streptomyces sp., strain NS.A4, which was isolated from the nodule surface of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), was found to inhibit rhizobia of fast-and slow-growing strains of cowpeas and soybeans. It exhibited plaques when there was a change in cultural conditions. Repeated culturing of the organism in nutrient agar and broth confirmed the infection of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 by an actinophage. Addition of the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. strain NS.A4 to shaken broth cultures of three other Streptomyces spp. resulted in phage infection.

  10. Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov., a novel plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Ehsan, Muhammad; Sin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Rifat; Chang, Young H

    2014-02-01

    The taxonomic status of a bacterium, strain NCCP-246(T), isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain NCCP-246(T) can grow at 16-37 °C (optimum 32 °C), at pH ranges of 6-8 (optimum growth occurs at pH 7) and in 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based upon on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain NCCP-246(T) belonged to genus Sphingobacterium. Strain NCCP-246(T) showed highest similarity to the type strain of Sphingobacterium canadense CR11(T) (97.67 %) and less than 97 % with other species of the genus. The DNA-DNA relatedness value of strain NCCP-246(T) with S. canadense CR11(T) and Sphingobacterium thalpophilum JCM 21153(T) was 55 and 44.4 %, respectively. The chemotaxonomic data revealed the major menaquinone as MK-7 and dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 [C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c] (37.07 %), iso-C15:0 (28.03 %), C16:0 (11.85 %), C17:0 cyclo (8.84 %) and C14:0 (2.42 %). The G+C content of the strain was 39.2 mol%. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses, physiological and, biochemical data, strain NCCP-246(T) can be differentiated from the validly named members of genus Sphingobacterium and thus represents as a new species, for which the name, Sphingobacterium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain NCCP-246(T) (= JCM18974 (T) = KCTC 23914(T)).

  11. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, W; Minamikawa, T

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 +/- 1 degrees C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme.

  12. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Minamikawa, Takao

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 ± 1°C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666526

  13. Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Anbu Selvam and R.Elangaimannan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A diallele analaysis of 8 x 8 was studied in black gram (Vigna mungo with a view to understand the combining ability, nature of gene action andpotential for the exploitation of heterosis using nine quantitative characters viz., days to first flower, plant height, number of branches per plant,number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight and seed yieldper plant in 28 hybrids and their eight parents. The parent ADT 3 recorded relatively high per se performance for seed yield, hundred seedweight, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of branches per plant with early floweringand short stature. Among the hybrids, ADT 3/99V48, ADT 3/LBG 645 and 2KU 53/LBG 645 were found to have high mean performance foralmost all the yield component characters besides seed yield. The gca effect of the genotypes ADT 3, LBG 645 and 2 KU 53 was high andsignificant for the traits seed yield per plant besides number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod. The SCAvariance was greater than GCA variance for all the traits studied thus indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. Among thehybrids, ADT 3/99V48 recorded the maximum significant sca effect indicating their suitability for heterosis breeding. The hybrids ADT 3/ LBG645 and 2 KU 53/ LBG 645 recorded non significant sca effects for almost all the traits studied including seed yield per plant. Hence, these twocrosses were adjudged as superior for recombination breeding based on sca effects

  14. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation.

  15. Ameliorative potential of Vigna mungo seeds on hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia in STZ diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangra Meenu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinally the seeds of Vigna mungo are used as cooling astringent, diet during fever, poultice for abscesses, soap alternative. The increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its various complications. This study was designed to examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (VME of V. mungo seeds on STZ-diabetic rats by measuring glycemia, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation parameters (MDA, PCO, and GSH and antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, CAT, and GPx. The levels of glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO were increased significantly whereas the levels of serum insulin, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and Glutathione peroxidise (GPx were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. Administration of VME (200 mg/kg bw and 400 mg/kg bw p.o. to diabetic rats for 28 days showed a significant decrease in serum glucose, TG, TC, MDA, and PCO. In addition, we also summarize here that the levels of serum insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx, and reduced glutathione (GSH were increased in VME treated diabetic rats. The antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effect of VME was compared with glibenclamide, a well-known antioxidant and antihyperglycemic drug. The findings in this study suggest that the VME possesses a significant favourable effect on antioxidant defense system in addition to its antidiabetic effect. Nonetheless, this study provides evidence that could help explain how the traditional use of V. mungo has been successful in the treatment of various disorders in humans.

  16. Isolation of a putative receptor for KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (SH-EP) from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru-Furuno, A; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-10-01

    SH-EP is the major papain-type proteinase expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds. The proteinase possesses a KDEL sequence at the C-terminus although the mature form of SH-EP is localized in vacuoles. It has also been shown that the proform of SH-EP is accumulated at the edge or middle region of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the accumulated proSH-EP is directly transported to vacuoles via the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase-accumulating vesicle, KV. In this study, to address the transport machinery of proSH-EP through KV, putative receptor for proSH-EP was isolated from membrane proteins of cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings using a proSH-EP-immobilized column. The deduced amino acid sequence from cDNA to the protein revealed that the putative receptor for proSH-EP is a member of vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR, that is known to be localized in the Golgi-complex and/or clathrin coated vesicle. We carried out subcellular fractionation of cotyledon cells and subsequently conducted SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with anti-V. mungo VSR (VmVSR) or SH-EP antibody. The results showed that VmVSR is co-localized in the fraction of the gradient in which KV existed.

  17. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sujay Paul; Anirban Kundu; Amita Pal

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformat-ic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resour-ces for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation.

  18. Genetic diversity analysis in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) using AFLP and transferable microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2009-02-01

    Genetic diversity in 20 elite blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes was studied using microsatellite and AFLP markers. Thirty-six microsatellite markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) were successfully amplified across the 20 blackgram genotypes and 33 microsatellite markers showed polymorphism. A total of 137 microsatellite alleles were generated with an average of 4.1 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine and the polymorphic information content value for the microsatellite markers varied from 0.10 to 0.87 with an average of 0.49. Microsatellite markers were highly informative and a combination of only three microsatellite markers (CEDG264, CEDG173, and CEDG044) was sufficient to discriminate all 20 blackgram genotypes. In the case of AFLP, 11 primer pairs generated 324 polymorphic marker fragments. The polymorphic information content values for AFLP primer combinations ranged from 0.21 to 0.34 with an average of 0.29. Similarity measures and clustering analyses were made using microsatellite and AFLP data separately. The resulting dendrograms distributed the 20 blackgram genotypes into five main clusters. The dendrograms were comparable with each other with the Mantel test between the cophenetic matrices of microsatellite data and AFLP data showing moderate correlation (r = 0.64). The results of the principal components analysis were well congruent with the dendrograms. In the dendrograms as well as in the principal components analyses, genotype Trombay wild (Vigna mungo var. silvestris) was placed separately from rest of the genotypes. This study demonstrated that the azuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and informative and can be successfully used for genome analysis in blackgram. Results indicate that sufficient variability is present in the blackgram genotypes and would be helpful in the selection of suitable parents for breeding purposes and gene mapping studies.

  19. Effects of cadmium-induced oxidative stress on growth and nitrogen assimilation in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

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    Mobin Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd accumulation, oxidative damage, and nitrogen metabolism were studied in roots and leaves of 30-d-old blackgram plants [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], grown in a mixture of soil and compost (3:1 with different Cd concentrations. Significant reductions in both root and shoot dry weight were noted. The concentration of Cd in roots and leaves increased with increasing Cd levels. The level of lipid peroxidation elevated with a consequent increase in H2O2 content under Cd stress in both plant organs. The activity of enzymes mediating the nitrogen assimilation in roots and leaves was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd, except glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH which showed a significant increase.

  20. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  1. Theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of a disease resistance gene homolog encoding resistance protein in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit P

    2006-10-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes, the key players of innate immunity system in plants encode 'R' proteins. 'R' protein recognizes product of avirulance gene from the pathogen and activate downstream signaling responses leading to disease resistance. No three dimensional (3D) structural information of any 'R' proteins is available as yet. We have reported a 'R' gene homolog, the 'VMYR1', encoding 'R' protein in Vigna mungo. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the 'VMYR1' protein. The model was created by using the 3D structure of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Vibrio cholerae as a template. The strategy for homology modeling was based on the high structural conservation in the superfamily of P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in which target and template proteins belong. This is the first report of theoretical model structure of any 'R' proteins.

  2. Appearance and Disappearance of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Vigna mungo Cotyledons during and following Germination of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Y; Matsushima, H

    1983-09-01

    Mitochondrial preparations isolated from black gram (Vigna mungo L.) cotyledons exhibited cyanide-resistant respiration which was of mitochondrial origin. The appearance and the disappearance of this alternative respiration took place during and following imbibition. During the first 6 hours of imbibition, the respiration was completely inhibited by cyanide, but after this time the alternative respiration markedly developed, reaching a maximal cyanide-resistance 12 to 16 hours after the start of imbibition. Subsequently, the alternative respiration gradually disappeared. The actions of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol indicated that the appearance was dependent on cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that the disappearance depended on both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The alternative pathway contributed to state 4 respiration, but not to state 3 respiration, in mitochondria from 1-day-old cotyledons. On day 3, it contributed to neither state 3 nor state 4.

  3. In Vivo Synthesis and Turnover of α-Amylase in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1983-01-01

    α-Amylase activity increased in attached cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds until the 5th day after imbibition and decreased thereafter, whereas in detached and incubated cotyledons the activity continuously increased and, at the 6th day, reached the value more than three times that of the maximum activity of attached cotyledons. Zymograms of the activities and Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test on the activities of attached and detached cotyledons showed that the increase of activity in detached cotyledons was due to the identical enzyme as in attached tissues. α-Amylase contents, determined by single radial immunodiffusion method, changed in parallel with enzyme activity in both attached and detached cotyledons, which also suggested the de novo synthesis of α-amylase in V. mungo cotyledons. The rate of incorporation of the label from [3H]leucine into α-amylase and the ratios of dpm in α-amylase/dpm in trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction did not show significant difference between attached and detached cotyledons. The results indicated that in attached cotyledons fluctuation of α-amylase activity was regulated by both synthesis and degradation of the enzyme, whereas in detached cotyledons α-amylase was synthesized and accumulated, because of low degrading activity during incubation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:16662780

  4. In Vivo Synthesis and Turnover of alpha-Amylase in Attached and Detached Cotyledons of Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1983-01-01

    alpha-Amylase activity increased in attached cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds until the 5th day after imbibition and decreased thereafter, whereas in detached and incubated cotyledons the activity continuously increased and, at the 6th day, reached the value more than three times that of the maximum activity of attached cotyledons. Zymograms of the activities and Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test on the activities of attached and detached cotyledons showed that the increase of activity in detached cotyledons was due to the identical enzyme as in attached tissues. alpha-Amylase contents, determined by single radial immunodiffusion method, changed in parallel with enzyme activity in both attached and detached cotyledons, which also suggested the de novo synthesis of alpha-amylase in V. mungo cotyledons.The rate of incorporation of the label from [(3)H]leucine into alpha-amylase and the ratios of dpm in alpha-amylase/dpm in trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction did not show significant difference between attached and detached cotyledons. The results indicated that in attached cotyledons fluctuation of alpha-amylase activity was regulated by both synthesis and degradation of the enzyme, whereas in detached cotyledons alpha-amylase was synthesized and accumulated, because of low degrading activity during incubation.

  5. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands.

  6. Construction of a genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, based on molecular markers and comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Souframanien, J; Gopalakrishna, T

    2008-08-01

    A genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, was constructed with 428 molecular markers using an F9 recombinant inbred population of 104 individuals. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. silvestris. The linkage analysis at a LOD score of 5.0 distributed all 428 markers (254 AFLP, 47 SSR, 86 RAPD, and 41 ISSR) into 11 linkage groups. The map spanned a total distance of 865.1 cM with an average marker density of 2 cM. The largest linkage group spanned 115 cM and the smallest linkage group was of 44.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 11 to 86 and the average distance between markers varied from 1.1 to 5.6 cM. Comparison of the map with other published azuki bean and black gram maps showed high colinearity of markers, with some inversions. The current map is the most saturated map for black gram to date and will provide a useful tool for identification of QTLs and for marker-assisted selection of agronomically important characters in black gram.

  7. Development of a black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] linkage map and its comparison with an azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] linkage map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitieng, B; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Isemura, T; Kuroda, Y; Vaughan, D A

    2006-11-01

    The Asian Vigna group of grain legumes consists of six domesticated species, among them black gram is widely grown in South Asia and to a lesser extent in Southeast Asia. We report the first genetic linkage map of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper], constructed using a BC(1)F(1) population consisting of 180 individuals. The BC(1)F(1) population was analyzed in 61 SSR primer pairs, 56 RFLP probes, 27 AFLP loci and 1 morphological marker. About 148 marker loci could be assigned to the 11 linkage groups, which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of black gram. The linkage groups cover a total of 783 cM of the black gram genome. The number of markers per linkage group ranges from 6 to 23. The average distance between adjacent markers varied from 3.5 to 9.3 cM. The results of comparative genome mapping between black gram and azuki bean show that the linkage order of markers is highly conserved. However, inversions, insertions, deletions/duplications and a translocation were detected between the black gram and azuki bean linkage maps. The marker order on parts of linkage groups 1, 2 and 5 is reversed between the two species. One region on black gram linkage group 10 appears to correspond to part of azuki bean linkage group 1. The present study suggests that the azuki bean SSR markers can be widely used for Asian Vigna species and the black gram genetic linkage map will assist in improvement of this crop.

  8. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  9. Purification and characterization of a Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, E R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Padmasree, K

    2010-03-01

    A proteinase inhibitor (BgPI) was purified from black gram, Vigna mungo (cv. TAU-1) seeds by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by ion-exchange, affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. BgPI showed a single band in SDS-PAGE under non-reducing condition with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 8kDa correlating to the peak 8041.5Da in matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum. BgPI existed in different isoinhibitor forms with pI values ranging from 4.3 to 6.0. The internal sequence "SIPPQCHCADIR" of a peak 1453.7 m/z, obtained from MALDI-TOF-TOF showed 100% similarity with Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) family. BgPI exhibited non-competitive-type inhibitory activity against both bovine pancreatic trypsin (K(i) of 309.8nM) and chymotrypsin (K(i) of 10.7muM), however, with a molar ratio of 1:2 with trypsin. BgPI was stable up to a temperature of 80 degrees C and active over a wide pH range between 2 and 12. The temperature-induced conformational changes in secondary structure are reversed when BgPI was cooled from 90 to 25 degrees C. Further, upon reduction with dithiothreitol, BgPI lost both its inhibitory activity as well as secondary structural conformation. Lysine residue(s) present in the reactive site of BgPI play an important role in inhibiting the bovine trypsin activity. The present study provides detailed biochemical characteristic features of a BBI type serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from V. mungo.

  10. Inheritance of the dwarf plant type in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Singh, D P

    1985-07-01

    The inheritance of the dwarf plant type was studied in blackgram (V. mungo (L.) Hepper). 'Type 9' has erect plant type with normal internode length. The mutant line, 'EMSD' has reduced internode length. The F1, F2 and F3 generations of a cross between 'Type 9' and 'EMSD' and its reciprocal were studied. The extreme dwarf plant type appeared to be governed by a single recessive gene, dw 1 dw 1 with no cytoplasmic effect.

  11. Correlation of endogenous free polyamine levels with root nodule senescence in different genotypes in Vigna mungo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Kajari; Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ghosh, Bharati

    2004-05-01

    Endogenous free polyamines, nitrogenase (EC 1.1.8.6.1, acetylene reduction), and leghaemoglobin (pyridine-hemochrome assay) levels were compared among five genotypes of developing Vigna root nodules grown under field conditions. Nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin level attained a peak at the flowering stage and gradually declined thereafter. Individual and total polyamine also followed the same pattern. Ranking on the basis of legume yield and other morphometric attributes was PDU-2 > UH-28 > UH-82 > T-9 > Sardhomash. Except spermine, the levels of putrescine, spermidine, and total polyamine showed significant differences (p<0.05) amongst the genotypes, particularly from flowering to mid-pod development stage. Genotype, development stage, and their interaction between the two had significant (p<0.01) effects on individual as well as total polyamines. Moreover, significant high linear correlations were found between total free polyamine and putrescine with conventional nodule senescence marker like nitrogenase (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.92, respectively). Putrescine had an overall positive correlation with high legume yield. The results strongly suggest a relationship between polyamine and nodule senescence. Endogenous free polyamine and putrescine may be considered as genotypic markers for nodule senescence in field grown V. mungo. It is suggested that the flowering stage is more suitable for selection.

  12. Effect of cooking and supplementation with different kinds of meats on the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, N; Gilani, A H; Nagra, S A

    2000-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of mash (Vigna mungo) in raw and cooked forms and as effected by supplementation with different kind of meat, i.e. poultry, mutton and beef at 10, 15 and 20% levels. Nutritional assessment of all mash-containing diets (without or with supplementation) was made by chemical analysis as well as through rat assay. Mash contained 23.83% protein. Cooking resulted in minor changes in nutrients. Mash had 1.79% lysine which was reduced by 35% on cooking. All other amino acids also showed losses during cooking. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of diet containing raw mash was 1.9% and cooking improved it to 2.8%. True digestibility (TD) also showed a significant improvement. Supplementation of mash with different kinds of meat did not improve the PER significantly over unsupplemented diet containing cooked mash only. TD, however, was improved from 74.89% in cooked to 75.58-87.06% in supplemented diets. Similarly net protein utilization (NPU), as a result of meat supplementation, improved from 43.54% in cooked to 42.88%-51.96%. Higher PER, TD and NPU values were observed in diets containing mash supplemented with 20% level of different meats.

  13. Genetic variability studies for yield and its component traits in RIL population of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmini.K and Jayamani. P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blackgram or Urdbean, being a fourth important pulse crop in India has low genetic variability, low harvest index and nosignificant improvement in its productivity till date. An inter sub specific mapping population was developed by crossingVBN(Bg 5 x Vigna mungo var. silvestris 22/10 by single seed decent method. The genetic variability parameters werestudied in a RIL (Recombinant Inbred Line population consisting of 193 lines and their parents. The higher estimates ofPCV were observed for all the traits when compared with GCV. However, GCV was found to be high for the traits singleplant yield, number of clusters per plant and number of pods per plant. High heritability per cent was observed for days tomaturity, number of seeds per pod and hundred seed weight. High genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed forplant height, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, single plant yield and hundred seed weight. Highheritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for hundred seed weight. Transgressivesegregants were observed for all the traits. These could be used further for yield testing apart from utilizing it as prebreeding material. The mapping population could be used for mapping of genes for important traits.

  14. Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anirban; Patel, Anju; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in

  15. Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

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    Anirban Kundu

    Full Text Available Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV, we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources

  16. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  17. Induced changes in the antioxidative compounds of Vigna mungo genotypes due to infestation by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggar, Gaurav Kumar; Gill, Ranjit Singh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sarvjeet

    2014-11-01

    Antioxidative compounds were quantified from the leaves of nine black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes over a period of two years, for potential whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae) resistance. Oviposition preference, nymphal and adult development were evaluated under screen-house conditions. Biochemical analysis revealed that higher per cent increase in the total phenol and o-dihydroxy phenol contents both at 30 and 50 days after sowing was evident in moderately resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 (49.6 and 50.8%, respectively) and KU 99-20 (47.8 and 50.8%, respectively) under whitefly stress conditions as compared to non-stressed plants. Tannin and flavonol contents in leaves increased to varying degrees (up to 11.1 and 7.1%, respectively) in resistant plants after whitefly infestation, indicating that the changes in tannin and flavonol contents were closely associated with the resistance to whitefly. Correlation studies relating leaf content of black gram antioxidative compounds from different genotypes with whitefly population were also worked out. Total phenols (r = -0.71 & -0.88), o- dihydroxy phenols (r = -0.56 & -0.76), flavonols (r = -0.80 & -0.81) and tannins (r= -0.16 & -0.26) showed significant negative correlation with whitefly population (nymphs and adults) suggesting that enhanced level of these biochemicals may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. Comparatively higher level of resistance in genotype NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 can serve as base for genetic improvement of black gram, focusing on the development of resistant varieties to B. tabaci.

  18. Synergism Among VA Mycorrhiza, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Rhizobium for Symbiosis with Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) UnderField Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the G.B. Pant University Research Station, Ujhani (U.P.) in rainy (Kharif) season of the year 1994-1995 to study the effect of Rhizobium, VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) and PSB (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) inoculation, with and without P, on blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) seed yield. Phosphorus application in soil with medium P content (5.4 mg kg1) increased nodulation, grain yield, N and P in plant and grain over no phosphorus control. Forty kilograms of P2O5 each hactare recorded an increase of 20.6 % in nodule dry weight, significant increases of 0.35 g kg-1 in N concentration and 1.28 g kg-1 in P concentration of plant over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Similar significant increases of 0.59 g kg-1 in grain yield and 0.54 and 0.23 g kg-1 in N and P concentrations of the grain, respectively, over 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 were also obtained with higher dose. Inoculation of Rhizobium + VAM + PSB at all the stages of plant growth recorded maximum increases in all the parameters studied. Dual inoculation of Rhizobium with either VAM or PSB was generally significant in the effect and better than that of VAM + PSB, however, P accumulation in plant and grain was more with VAM + PSB. Among single inoculations, Rhizobium gave highest and 21.0 % more nodule number, 34.7 % more nodule dry mass, 0.73 g kg-1 more N in grain and 4.2 % higher grain yield over PSB. PSB, however, registered significant increases in P concentration in plant and grain over VAM and Rhizobium.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and structure analysis of a non-TIR-NBS-LRR encoding candidate gene from MYMIV-resistant Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Soumitra; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2012-11-01

    Yellow mosaic disease of Vigna mungo caused by Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is still a major threat in the crop production. A candidate disease resistance (R) gene, CYR1 that co-segregates with MYMIV-resistant populations of V. mungo has been isolated. CYR1 coded in silico translated protein sequence comprised of 1,176 amino acids with coiled coil structure at the N-terminus, central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR) that belongs to non-TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily of plant R genes. CYR1 transcript was unambiguously expressed during incompatible plant virus interactions. A putative promoter-like sequence present upstream of this candidate gene perhaps regulates its expression. Enhanced transcript level upon MYMIV infection suggests involvement of this candidate gene in conferring resistance against the virus. In silico constructed 3D models of NBS and LRR regions of this candidate protein and MYMIV-coat protein (CP) revealed that CYR1-LRR forms an active pocket and successively interacts with MYMIV-CP during docking, like that of receptor-ligand interaction; indicating a critical role of CYR1 as signalling molecule to protect V. mungo plants from MYMIV. This suggests involvement of CYR1 in recognizing MYMIV-effector molecule thus contributing to incompatible interaction. This study is the first stride to understand molecular mechanism of MYMIV resistance.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone of UDP-galactose: flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) expressed in Vigna mungo seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mato, M; Ozeki, Y; Itoh, Y; Higeta, D; Yoshitama, K; Teramoto, S; Aida, R; Ishikura, N; Shibata, M

    1998-11-01

    Four cDNA clones were isolated from Vigna mungo seedlings by the screening with cDNA encoding UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) of Antirrhinum majus as a probe; the product of the gene corresponding to one cDNA was more highly expressed in the first simple leaves than in stems. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 1,691 bp (including 326 bp non-reading) containing an open reading frame of 455 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42% and 23% identity with those of A. majus UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) and Petunia hybrida UDP-rhamnose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase (RT), respectively. One region of the cDNA (amino acids 325 to 387) showed similarity to ceramide UDP-galactosyltransferases of mice, rats and humans. A crude extract from Escherichia coli, in which the protein was expressed from the cDNA, showed high UF3GaT activity but low UF3GT activity, and was similar in K(m), optimal pH and substrate specificity to UF3GaT from V. mungo. We conclude that we have obtained UDP-galactose:flavonoid 3-O-galactosyltransferase (UF3GaT) cDNA from V. mungo.

  1. In vitro high frequency regeneration of plantlets of Vigna mungo and their ex vitro growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, S; Singh, R R; Chaturvedi, H C

    2001-09-01

    Of the five explants of V. mungo var. T9 used, the excised shoot tips gave best response with regard to offshoot formation followed by the embryonal axis explants. While a treatment comprising 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.5 mgL(-1) 2iP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA induced differentiation of an average 10 offshoots in shoot tip explants, only 3 offshoots were formed in the explants of embryonal axis in a treatment containing 0.5 mgL(-1) BAP and 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA, found optimum for them. Multiple shoots differentiated when explants with earlier regenerated and growing offshoots were first cultured in a treatment containing 0.1 mgL(-1) BAP, 0.25 mgL(-1) IAA and 5 mgL(-1) CCC and then subcultured in the same treatment but having only 1 mgL(-1) CCC. The isolated shoots rooted in 0.5 mgL(-1) IAA resulted in the formation of complete plantlets of an average height of 15 cm in 20 days. The in vitro-regenerated plants grew normally under field conditions and came to flowering as well.

  2. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  3. Transcriptome profiling identifies candidate genes associated with the accumulation of distinct γ-glutamyl sulphur dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqun eLiao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and black gram (Vigna mungo accumulate γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulphur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately four-fold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was two-fold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulphydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methyl-cysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulphur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulphur amino acid γ-glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo.

  4. Leaf crinkle disease in urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper): An overview on causal agent, vector and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Narinder Kumar; Kumar, Krishna; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle disease (ULCD) is an economically significant widespread and devastating disease resulting in extreme crinkling, puckering and rugosity of leaves inflicting heavy yield losses annually in major urdbean-producing countries of the world. This disease is caused by urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). Urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is relatively more susceptible than other pulses to leaf crinkle disease. Urdbean is an important and useful crop cultivated in various parts of South-East Asia and well adapted for cultivation under semi-arid and subtropical conditions. Aphids, insects and whiteflies have been reported as vectors of the disease. The virus is also transmitted through sap inoculation, grafting and seed. The loss in seed yield in ULCD-affected urdbean crop ranges from 35 to 81%, which is dependent upon type of genotype location and infection time. The diseased material and favourable climatic conditions contribute for the widespread viral disease. Anatomical and biochemical changes take place in the affected diseased plants. Genetic variations have been reported in the germplasm screening which suggest continuous screening of available varieties and new germplasm to search for new traits (new genes) and identify new sources of disease resistance. There are very few reports on breeding programmes for the development and release of varieties tolerant to ULCD. Mostly random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as well as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers have been utilized for fingerprinting of blackgram, and a few reports are there on sequence-tagged micro-satellite site (STMS) markers. There are so many RNA viruses which have also developed strategies to counteract silencing process by encoding suppressor proteins that create hindrances in the process. But, in the case of ULCV, there is no report available indicating which defence pathway is operating for its resistance in the plants and whether same silencing suppression

  5. Assessment of peroxidase isozyme marker-based model for cross identifications in hybrids (F(1)) of urdbean [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, R.; Shukla, A.; Gaur, K.

    2002-12-01

    Four hybrids (4 F(1)s) were chosen out of crosses in the urdbean [ Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, 2n = 22] having contrasting morphological characters. Zymograms for isozyme peroxidase were drawn from the patterns obtained from parents and their respective F(1) hybrids on the basis of relative similarities to parental bands. The selfed or crossed nature of hybrid pods was determined from the zymograms and their analysis. The number of bands and their intensities gave an idea about the extent of crossing in F(1) populations. Genetic identity (I) values were indicative of their selfed nature. Dendrograms were constructed on the basis of genetic identity values to display the relative similarities between the populations. Analysis was based on individual pods to confirm their hybrid or selfed nature. Possible use of this technique for identification of F(1) pods and elimination of selfed pods might be implemented to shorten the breeding operations during crossing.

  6. Effect of foliar spray from seaweed liquid fertilizer of Ulva reticulata (Forsk.) on Vigna mungo L. and their elemental composition using SEM- energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Ganapathy Selvam; K Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the effect of seaweed liquied fertilizer (SLF) of Ulva reticulata, as biochemical characteristics of Vigna mungo as well as leaf morphometric analysis such as epidermal and stomata cell variation and distribution of minerals in the leaf. Methods:Experiments were conducted on black gram to study the potential green alga of Ulva reticulata as a biofertilizer. The seeds were sown in soil and SLF were added to soil bed in five different concentrations separately (1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% w/v). Results: Seaweed extract was applied as a foliar spray, the SLF treated plants show maximum growth in 2% of SLF among the various experimental concentrations as well as control. Biochemical profiles like chlorophyll a and b, protein, sugar and starch were found to be higher at 2%. A significant increase in the number of epidermal and stomata cells were observed in 2% SLF treated plants. Whereas at higher concentrations of SLF such as 4%, 6%, and 8% the values of all the parameters were significantly decreased than in the control group. Further the leaf of 2% SLF treated V. mungo have subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis it reveals that thepresence of ten elements in the following order: Ca>P>N>Na>K>Mg>Mn>S>Fe>Zn in treated and Ca>N>P>Na>Mg>Mn>K>Zn>S>Fe in control plant. The data generated from study reveal that SLF of U. reticulatea could be used as foliar spray at low concentration of 2% to maximize the growth and yield of V. mungo and also increase the number of stomata in the leaf. Conclusion:The main objective of study result would be the manorial requirement for organic forming and serve as a cost effective ecofriendliness for sustainable agriculture and environment.

  7. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Vigna mungo (Linn. Hepper on rifampicin-induced toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of seeds of Vigna mungo (AEVM (fabaceae against rifampicin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Settings and Design: Albino rats of either sex (200-250 g were selected and divided in to eight groups of six animals in each. Four groups for hepatoprotective activity and four groups for nephroprotective activity. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was positive control, group 3 was treated with standard drug, group 4 was treated with AEVM. Similarly it was done for nephroprotective activity. The results are evidenced on the basis of physical, biochemical, histological, and functional parameters. Materials and Methods: Drugs used are rifampicin, silymarin, diagnostic kits (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and BIT for hepatoprotective activity. BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid for nephroprotective activity. Seed powder of Vigna mungo was extracted with water. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done to identify the phytoconstituents. The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the AEVM were assessed in rifampicin-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic rats. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by "Tukey-Kramer" multiple comparison tests. Results: The AEVM showed the presence of amino acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, phytic acid, total phenolic compounds, saponins, and tannins. Rifampicin produced significant changes in physical (increased liver weight, decreased body weight, biochemical (increase in serum glutathione pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (BIT level, increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid level, histological (damage to hepatocytes, nephrons, and functional (barbiturates-induce sleeping time induced by rifampicin in liver and kidney

  8. Soil Management and Efficiency of Rhizobia Strains of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. in the Tropics Manejo de Suelo y Eficiencia de Cepas de Rizobio de Frijol Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. en los Trópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the humid tropics, the largest obstacle to the implementation of sustainable farming systems is the reduced efficiency of nutrient use by crops. This study assesses the effectiveness of five selected rhizobia strains in symbiosis with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., with the objective of replacing N fertilization in the predominant agricultural system used by smallholder farmers. The study was carried out in three adjacent areas with distinct agricultural uses: conventional tillage, itinerant agriculture, and a no-till system. The experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four replicates and seven treatments: five rhizobia strains (BR3262, BR3267, BR3299, INPA3-11B, and UFLA 3-84 and two controls without inoculation (one without mineral N and another fertilized with 74 kg N ha-1. We measured the dry mass of 100 grains, nodules and shoots, as well as cowpea yields and calculated relative and absolute efficiency indices for dry biomass production of cowpea shoots. Agricultural uses affected the number and dry mass of the nodules and, consequently, the mass of the dry plant matter and bean yield. In terms of yield, there was a major difference between the conventional and the itinerant systems. Yield was around four times as high in the itinerant system (1009.9 kg ha-1 compared to 243.7 kg ha-1. Under conditions of cohesion-prone soils, the system of conventional tillage reduces the possibility of cultivation of a second harvest in the year even with inoculation or N fertilization.En los trópicos húmedos, el mayor obstáculo para la aplicación de sistemas de agricultura sostenible es la reducción de la eficiencia del uso de nutrientes por los cultivos. Este estudio evalúa la eficacia de cinco cepas de rizobios seleccionados en simbiosis con frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., con el objetivo de sustituir la fertilización nitrogenada en el sistema de uso de suelo predominante utilizado por los pequeños agricultores

  9. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. UG157 and DPU915 were good general combiners. Two crosses namely PDB 88-31/DPU 915 and PLU 277/KAU7 had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  10. Genetic Parameters and Combining Ability Effects of Parents for Seed Yield and other Quantitative Traits in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Line x tester analysis was carried out in black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper], an edible legume, to estimate the gca (general combining ability effects of parents (3 lines and 3 testers and the SCA (specific combining ability effects of 9 crosses for seed yield and other eleven quantitative traits. Though additive and nonadditive gene actions governed the expression of quantitative traits, the magnitude of nonadditive gene action was higher than that of additive gene action for each quantitative trait. Two parents viz. �UG157� and �DPU915� were good general combiners. Two crosses namely �PDB 88-31�/�DPU 915� and �PLU 277�/�KAU7� had high per se performance along with positive significant SCA effect for seed yield/plant. The degree of dominance revealed overdominance for all the traits except clusters/plant with partial dominance. The predictability ratio also revealed the predominant role of nonadditive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits. Narrow sense heritability was also low for each trait. Recurrent selection or biparental mating followed by selection which can exploit both additive and nonadditive gene actions would be of interest for yield improvement in black gram. Due to presence of high magnitude of nonadditive gene action, heterosis breeding could also be attempted to develop low cost hybrid variety using genetic male sterility system in black gram.

  11. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225 mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225 mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress.

  12. Cotyledon cells of Vigna mungo seedlings use at least two distinct autophagic machineries for degradation of starch granules and cellular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, K; Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    2001-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is expressed in cotyledons of germinated Vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of starch that is stored in the starch granule (SG). Immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon cells with anti-alpha-amylase antibody showed that alpha-amylase is transported to protein storage vacuole (PSV) and lytic vacuole (LV), which is converted from PSV by hydrolysis of storage proteins. To observe the insertion/degradation processes of SG into/in the inside of vacuoles, ultrastructural analyses of the cotyledon cells were conducted. The results revealed that SG is inserted into LV through autophagic function of LV and subsequently degraded by vacuolar alpha-amylase. The autophagy for SG was structurally similar to micropexophagy detected in yeast cells. In addition to the autophagic process for SG, autophagosome-mediated autophagy for cytoplasm and mitochondria was detected in the cotyledon cells. When the embryo axes were removed from seeds and the detached cotyledons were incubated, the autophagosome-mediated autophagy was observed, but the autophagic process for the degradation of SG was not detected, suggesting that these two autophagic processes were mediated by different cellular mechanisms. The two distinct autophagic processes were thought to be involved in the breakdown of SG and cell components in the cells of germinated cotyledon.

  13. Effect of formulated root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria fluorescent pseudomonads R62 and R81 on Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarma, M V R K; Saharan, Krishna; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, A K

    2012-02-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of three beneficial organisms (root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and pseudomonads strains R62 and R81) and their four different consortia (Pi+R62, Pi+R81, R62+R81, Pi+R62+R81) was investigated on the plant Vigna mungo through their inorganic carrier-based (talcum powder and vermiculite) formulations. All the treatments resulted in significant increase in growth parameters under glasshouse as well as field conditions and showed a consistency in their performance on moving from glasshouse to field conditions. In glasshouse conditions, a maximum increase of 4.5-fold in dry root weight and 3.9-fold in dry shoot weight compared to control was obtained with vermiculite-based consortium formulation of Pi+R81. In field studies using vermiculite as carrier, a maximum enhancement of 3.2-fold in dry root weight, 3.0-fold in dry shoot weight, 8.4-fold in number of nodules and 4.0-fold in number of pods in comparison to control was obtained with the bio-inoculant formulation containing consortium of Pi+R81. The same treatment also caused the highest improvement of 1.9-fold in nitrogen content and 1.7-fold in phosphorus content, while the highest increase of 1.4-fold in potassium content was obtained with Pi alone.

  14. Fluctuations in peroxidase and catalase activities of resistant and susceptible black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes elicited by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggar, Gaurav Kumar; Gill, Ranjit Singh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleryrodidae), is a serious pest of black gram, (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important legume pulse crop grown in north India. This research investigated the potential role of selected plant oxidative enzymes in resistance/susceptibility to whitefly in nine black gram genotypes. Oxidative enzyme activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from leaf samples collected at 30 and 50 d after sowing (DAS) from whitefly infested and uninfested plants. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The results indicated that in general, whitefly infestation increased the activities of peroxidase and decreased the catalase activity. Resistant genotypes NDU 5-7 and KU 99-20 recorded higher peroxidase and catalase activities at 30 and 50 DAS under whitefly-stress conditions as compared with non-stressed plants. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of black gram plants against B. tabaci infestation. The potential mechanisms to explain the correlation of resistance to whitefly in black gram genotypes with higher activities of oxidative enzymes are also discussed.

  15. Transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, Vigna mungo L. Hepper, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apical meristem cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Raman; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of Vigna mungo L. Hepper transformation was significantly increased from an average of 1% to 6.5% by using shoot apices excised from embryonic axes precultured on 10 microM benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP) for 3 days and wounded prior to inoculation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA) interrupted by an intron. The transformed green shoots that were selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, and which tested positive for nptII gene by polymerase chain reaction, were established in soil to collect seeds. GUS activity was detected in whole T(0) shoots and T(1) seedlings. All T(0) plants were morphologically normal, fertile and the majority of them transmitted transgenes in a 3:1 ratio to their progenies. Southern analysis of T(1) plants showed integration of nptII into the plant genome.

  16. Transformation of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) by barley chitinase and ribosome-inactivating protein genes towards improving resistance to Corynespora leaf spot fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajan; Saini, Raman

    2014-12-01

    Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), an important grain legume crop, is sensitive to many fungal pathogens including Corynespora cassiicola, the causal agent of corynespora leaf spot disease. In the present study, plasmid pGJ42 harboring neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) a selectable marker gene, the barley antifungal genes chitinase (AAA56786) and ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP; AAA32951) were used for the transformation, to develop fungal resistance for the first time in blackgram. The presence and integration of transgene into the blackgram genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern analysis with an overall transformation frequency of 10.2 %. Kanamycin selection and PCR analysis of T0 progeny revealed the inheritance of transgene in Mendelian fashion (3:1). Transgenic plants (T1), evaluated for fungal resistance by in vitro antifungal assay, arrested the growth of C. cassiicola up to 25-40 % over the wild-type plants. In fungal bio-assay screening, the transgenic plants (T1) sprayed with C. cassiicola spores showed a delay in onset of disease along with their lesser extent in terms of average number of diseased leaves and reduced number and size of lesions. The percent disease protection among different transformed lines varies in the range of 27-47 % compare to control (untransformed) plants. These results demonstrate potentiality of chitinase and RIP from a heterologous source in developing fungal disease protection in blackgram and can be helpful in increasing the production of blackgram.

  17. A TGACGT motif in the 5'-upstream region of alpha-amylase gene from Vigna mungo is a cis-element for expression in cotyledons of germinated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, D

    2001-06-01

    Alpha-amylase is expressed at high levels in cotyledons of germinated seeds of Vigna mungo. The mRNA for alpha-amylase appeared in cotyledons of the seeds at 1 d after imbibition started (DAI). Two TGACGT motifs at -445 and at -125 in the promoter region of the gene interacted with nuclear proteins from cotyledons of dry seeds and the activities were detected until 3 DAI. A transient assay with particle bombardment showed that the downstream region from -135 in the promoter was required for high level expression in the cotyledons and the activity was reduced by mutation of the TGACGT motif at -125. The activities to bind the TGACGT motifs were detected in the axes of the seeds at 1 DAI but disappeared at 4 DAI, although the mRNA for alpha-amylase in the axes appeared at 4 DAI and increased in level by 6 DAI. A transient assay experiment showed that a positive regulatory element for the expression in the axes was located in the region from -630 to -453. These results indicated that the TGACGT motif at -125 was required for high level expression of the gene in the cotyledons of the germinated seeds.

  18. Characterization of a symbiotically effective Rhizobium resistant to arsenic: Isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper grown in an arsenic-contaminated field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Pati, Bikas R; Das, Amit K; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, grown in an arsenic-contaminated field and the strain was selected by its nodulation ability as well as better arsenic tolerant capacity compared to others. The selected strain was identified as Rhizobium by 16S rDNA sequencing and designated as VMA301. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences showed its close relatedness with Sinorhizobium fredii. LC(50) value of arsenate for the bacteria as determined by flow cytometry was found to be 2.8 mM and arsenic uptake was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.048 mg g(-1) biomass. The high amount of arsenic was toxic to the cell, which changed the morphology of the bacteria to an elongated shape. Presence of a transcriptional regulatory gene (ArsR) of the ars genetic system was confirmed by amplification and sequencing. The symbiotic property of the isolate was also confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the NodC gene. These results indicate that the isolated Rhizobium bacteria may exert dual roles in the environment, arsenic bioremediation from the soil as well as increase of soil fertility through nitrogen fixation.

  19. Caracterización de la Producción de Frijol (Vigna sp.) en los Municipios Turén y Santa Rosalía del Estado Portuguesa (2000-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Andrew; Paredes, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    En esta investigación se caracteriza la producción de frijol (Vigna sp.) en los Municipios Turén y Santa Rosalía del estado Portuguesa. Se aplicó una encuesta a los productores de la Unidad de Estudio, luego se determinaron diversas estadísticas descriptivas. Se aplicó un Análisis Factorial de Componentes Principales (AFCP) a fin de identificar variables subyacentes. Entre los resultados destacan: 1) los productores consideran importante la integración empresarial, sugiriendo que existe una g...

  20. Allergic manifestation by black gram (Vigna mungo) proteins in allergic patients, BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Dinesh; Roy, Ruchi; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of black gram (Vigna mungo) induced allergic reactions are reported from several parts of the world including Asia and Australia. But, a thorough exploration of the allergic reactions induced by black gram proteins is still lacking. Therefore, efforts have been made to explore black gram allergy using in vivo and in vitro approaches. In this study, Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) assay and IgE immunoblotting were carried out to identify clinically relevant allergens of black gram. BALB/c mice and RBL-2H3 cells were used for elucidation of allergenic reactions of black gram proteins. Further, this study was extended to screen black gram sensitive patients among nasobronchial allergic patients on the basis of clinical history, skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE levels and IgE immunoblotting. Enhanced levels of specific IgE, IgG1/IgG2a (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), clinical symptoms, pathological indications in the lungs, intestine and spleen were evident in black gram sensitized BALB/c mice. Moreover, the expression of Th2 cytokine transcripts and GATA-3/T-bet ratio was found enhanced in the treated group. In vitro studies on RBL-2H3 cells,showed increased release of β-hexosaminidase (p < 0.05), histamine (p < 0.05), cysteinyl leukotriene (p<0.05) and prostaglandin D2 (p < 0.05). Further, 8.5% of screened patients were found allergic to black gram and concomitant sensitization with other allergens has shown the possibility of further enhancement in allergenic problem. Conclusively, the present study suggested that black gram consumption may be responsible for inducing immediate type of allergic sensitization in susceptible subjects.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  2. Improvement of the Chinese bean [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], through radioinduced mutagenesis; Mejoramiento de Frijol Chino [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.], Mediante Mutagenesis Radioinducida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F.; Solis M, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Iguala (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad (Mexico); Cruz T, E. de la [ININ, Carretera Mexico-La Marquesa S/N, La Marquesa Ocoyoacac, Mexico. C.P. 52750 (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-07-01

    The advances in the process of genetic improvement of the Chinese bean (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) are presented, high nutritious value that it is evaluating as alternative for marginal areas producers of the State of Guerrero. The method of improvement applied it is recurrent radiation, continued by selection cycles applying the method of progeny by plant. The applied radiation doses were 200 and 250 Gray. The established selection approaches are: resistant plants or tolerant to the plagues attack and illnesses, vigorous, with more height to the first sheath, of compact and certain growth, with short internodes, bigger number of sheaths by plant and of grains by sheath, bigger number of grain size, among others. The obtained results show that the dose that induces bigger variability and that it has propitiated the biggest quantity in possible mutants it is 200Gy. Precocious plants with more height to the first sheath, with certain growth as well as with bigger number and sheaths size have been detected. The selected plants have incorporated to an increment process by means of the progeny method by plant. (Author)

  3. Comportamento de linhagens de feijão-mungo(Vigna radiata L. em Santa Catarina Behaviour of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. in Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shong Lin Shiow

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos na fazenda experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. A finalidade do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de 29 linhagens de feijão mungo provenientes do "Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center" (AVRDC. Avaliaram-se as características agronômicas (formacão da primeira flor, primeiro legume maduro, estatura da planta, o peso de mil sementes e o rendimento. As linhagens foram testadas em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela foi constituída por 4 linhas de 6m de comprimento, espaçadas de 50cm, com vinte sementes por metro de sulco. A floração inicial das linhagens ocorreu entre os 33 e 49 dias após o plantio, enquanto a maturação do primeiro legume se deu entre os 70 e 78 dias após a semeadura. A estatura das plantas e o peso de mil sementes variaram entre 22,5 e 63,8cm e 33,0 e 76,4g respectivamente. As linhagens mais produtivas foram: VC 3890B, VC 1973C e VC 2764B com rendimento acima de 1140kg.ha-1. Estas linhagens apresentaram peso de mil sementes e estatura de planta boas para cultivo e um ciclo biológico médio. A colheita foi feita em uma única operação, entre 80 e 85 dias após a semeadura no primeiro e segundo experimentos. No terceiro experimento, a colheita foi feita em duas vezes, aos 80 e 85 dias e aos 95 e 100 dias, sendo que na primeira colheita foram colhidos 78% dos legumes; os restantes 22% foram colhidos 15 dias após a primeira.Three experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Science Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Ressacada, Florianópolis, SC. Brazil. Twenty nine lines of mungbean from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, Taiwan, Republic of China were evaluated about their agronomic characters (first flower formation, first legume mature, plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The experimental design

  4. Development of an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Dahiya, Savita; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    An efficient, rapid and direct multiple shoot regeneration system amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation from primary leaf with intact petiole of blackgram (Vigna mungo) is established for the first time. The effect of the explant type and its age, type and concentration of cytokinin and auxin either alone or in combination and genotype on multiple shoot regeneration efficiency and frequency was optimized. The primary leaf explants with petiole excised from 4-day-old seedlings directly developed multiple shoots (an average of 10 shoots/ explant) from the cut ends of the petiole in 95 % of the cultures on MSB (MS salts and B5 vitamins) medium containing 1.0 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Elongated (2-3 cm) shoots were rooted on MSB medium with 2.5 μM indole-butyric acid and resulted plantlets were hardened and established in soil, where they resumed growth and reached maturity with normal seed set. The regenerated plants were morphologically similar to seed-raised plants and required 8 weeks time from initiation of culture to establish them in soil. The regeneration competent cells present at the cut ends of petiole are fully exposed and are, thus, easily accessible to Agrobacterium, making this plant regeneration protocol amenable for the production of transgenic plants. The protocol was further successfully used to develop fertile transgenic plants of blackgram using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 that contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) interrupted with an intron. The presence and integration of transgenes in putative T0 plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization, respectively. The transgenes were inherited in Mendelian fashion in T1 progeny and a transformation frequency of 1.3 % was obtained. This protocol can be effectively used for transferring new traits in blackgram and other legumes for their

  5. Physicochemical properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. meals and their apparent digestibility in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone Propiedades fisicoquímicas de harinas de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. y su digestibilidad aparente en camarón Litopenaeus vannamei Boone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Rivas-Vega

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different feed processing methods on the physicochemical properties, and apparent digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata meals as ingredients in diets for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Five experimental cowpea meals were prepared: whole raw (WRC, dehulled (DC, cooked (CC, germinated (GC and extruded (EXC. The physicochemical properties of the meals were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. The meals were included at 15% in diets for L. vannamei (15.4 g to determine firmness of pellets and in vivo digestibility of nutrients by using chromic oxide as inert marker. Six diets were evaluated: a control diet, and five diets containing the different cowpea meals. Transition enthalpy significantly decreased after thermal treatment, from 6.1 J/g in WRC to 1.4 J/g in CC, and disappeared in EXC. Firmness of pellets varied from 1.1 N in the EXC diet to 2.8 N in the WRC diet. A significant negative correlation between transition enthalpy and carbohydrate digestibility was found. Dry matter, protein, carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of cowpea meals significantly increased after germinating, cooking or extruding. It is concluded that germinated, cooked and extruded cowpea meals are highly digestible for shrimp and that enthalpy of transition is negatively correlated with the digestibility of carbohydrates.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes procesos sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y digestibilidad aparente de la harina de frijol yorimón (Vigna unguiculata como ingrediente en alimentos para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se elaboraron cinco harinas de frijol yorimón: entero crudo (WRC, decorticado (DC, cocido (CC, germinado (GC y extruido (EXC. Las características térmicas de las harinas fueron evaluadas usando calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Se elaboraron seis alimentos experimentales: un alimento control y cinco alimentos conteniendo 15% de las diferentes harinas de frijol yorim

  6. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Souframanien

    Full Text Available Black gram [V. mungo (L. Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678 followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263. A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35% followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%. PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS and untranslated regions (UTRs respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3% were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram.

  7. De novo Assembly, Characterization of Immature Seed Transcriptome and Development of Genic-SSR Markers in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souframanien, J; Reddy, Kandali Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Black gram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important legume crop extensively grown in south and south-east Asia, where it is a major source of dietary protein for its predominantly vegetarian population. However, lack of genomic information and markers has become a limitation for genetic improvement of this crop. Here, we report the transcriptome sequencing of the immature seeds of black gram cv. TU94-2, by Illumina paired end sequencing technology to generate transcriptome sequences for gene discovery and genic-SSR marker development. A total of 17.2 million paired-end reads were generated and 48,291 transcript contigs (TCS) were assembled with an average length of 443 bp. Based on sequence similarity search, 33,766 TCS showed significant similarity to known proteins. Among these, only 29,564 TCS were annotated with gene ontology (GO) functional categories. A total number of 138 unique KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways were identified, of which majority of TCS are grouped into purine metabolism (678) followed by pyrimidine metabolism (263). A total of 48,291 TCS were searched for SSRs and 1,840 SSRs were identified in 1,572 TCS with an average frequency of one SSR per 11.9 kb. The tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (35%) followed by di-nucleotide repeats (32%). PCR primer pairs were successfully designed for 933 SSR loci. Sequences analyses indicate that about 64.4% and 35.6% of the SSR motifs were present in the coding sequences (CDS) and untranslated regions (UTRs) respectively. Tri-nucleotide repeats (57.3%) were preferentially present in the CDS. The rate of successful amplification and polymorphism were investigated using selected primers among 18 black gram accessions. Genic-SSR markers developed from the Illumina paired end sequencing of black gram immature seed transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for genetic diversity, evolution, linkage mapping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection in black gram.

  8. Mapping of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV and powdery mildew resistant gene in black gram [Vigna mungo(L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Anjum,K. Sanjeev Gupta and Subhojit Datta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Black gram, one of the important species of Asian Vigna group of grain legumes, is widely grown in South Asia and is animportant source of dietary protein. The two main biological constraints particularly Mungbean Yellow Mosaic IndiaVirus(MYMIV and powdery mildew pose a major threat to black gram production in India. Several reports on mappingmungbean yellow mosaic virus disease and powdery mildew resistant genes on black gram using parental lines suitable forcountries viz. Australia and Japan are available. However, to achieve precision in plant breeding, it is important that mappingof traits are done using parental lines which are best suited for the target area/country. Microsatellite markers facilitateeffective screening of mapping population and marker assisted selection for target traits such as disease resistance in manycrops. Linkage mapping for identification of genes conferring resistance to these target traits in the crop is underway. Theparents selected for MYMIV mapping population are DPU 88-31 as resistant source and AKU 9904 as susceptible one. Forestablishment of powdery mildew mapping population RBU 38 was used as resistant and DPU 88-31 as the susceptible one.Parental polymorphism was assessed using 363 SSR and 24 RGH markers. Efforts are being made to identify the markerstightly linked to the genes responsible for resistance which will be useful for marker assisted breeding for developingMYMIV and powdery mildew resistant cultivars in black gram.

  9. Fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso de broto de feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando a importância dos compostos fenólicos em alimentos e que o broto de feijão-mungo vem sendo incluído na culinária brasileira, este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar o teor de fenólicos totais deste vegetal e avaliar a ação antioxidante do seu extrato aquoso. MÉTODOS: Os compostos fenólicos foram extraídos por quatro sistemas de solventes e dois métodos de extração, os quais foram diferenciados no tempo (2 e 1h e número de extrações (2 e 3 extrações. Os fenólicos totais dos extratos foram quantificados por método espectrofotométrico. RESULTADOS: Os extratos obtidos com água à temperatura ambiente (28ºC, nos dois métodos de extração, foram os que apresentaram maior quantidade de fenólicos totais, sem contudo apresentar diferença significativa entre eles. O método II, que consistiu de três extrações em 1h, pode ser considerado o melhor por ter utilizado menor tempo de extração. O extrato aquoso em sistema modelo b-caroteno/ácido linoléico exibiu ação antioxidante (48,07% de inibição da oxidação, entretanto foi inferior ao padrão BHT. CONCLUSÃO: O broto de feijão-mungo possui considerável quantidade de fenólicos totais, compostos responsáveis por sua ação antioxidante, cujo consumo pode proporcionar efeitos benéficos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: Considering the importance of phenolic compounds in foods and the increasing consumption of mung bean sprouts in Brazil, this study had the objective of quantifying the total phenolic content in this vegetable and to assess the antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract. METHODS: The phenolic compounds were extracted by four solvent systems and two extraction methods, which were different in time (2 and 1h and in number of extractions (2 and 3 extractions. The total phenolic content of the extracts were quantified by the spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The extracts obtained with water at room temperature (28ºC in both extraction

  10. Microwave assisted dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, J Jerish; Yadav, B K

    2015-04-01

    This article summarises the results of the investigation of application of microwave exposure on the dehulling characteristics of the black gram and the properties of the dehulled grains. Black gram was exposed to 3 microwave power levels, viz., 450, 630 and 810 W for 7 different exposure, ranging from 60 to 150 s at an interval of 15 s with a view to determine the suitable combination of dosage in order to get the maximum yield with little change in colour. Related changes in properties were also studied. It was observed that the surface temperature of the grain increased with the increase in microwave power level from 450 to 810 W as well as exposure time from 60 to 150 s in the range from 58 to 123 °C while the dehulling time reduced from 445 to 170 s. The dehulling yield increased with increasing microwave dosage in the beginning and reached to the maximum value followed by decreasing trend. The colour of the dehulled grain changed slowly up to a microwave dosage of 972 J/g after that it changed vividly darker than the control. The dehulling and dhal yields and colour change were polynomial functions of microwave dosage. The highest yield of 73.7 % was achieved at about 972 J/g with a little change in colour (CIELAB ΔE* value of 2.58). The corresponding dehulling time, cooking time and losses during dehulling were respectively 185 s, 10 min and 15.1 % as compared to 492 s, 20 min and 31.5 % for control respectively. It is concluded that a dosage of about 972 J/g was the best for the black gram dehulling at a rate of 630 W or higher power level.

  11. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated.

  12. Emerging tuberculosis pathogen hijacks social communication behavior in the group-living banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium mungi, a novel M. tuberculosis complex pathogen (MtbC), has emerged in wild banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. Unlike other members of the MtbC, M. mungi is not transmitted through a primary aerosol route. Rather, pathogen invasion occur...

  13. Microflora en semillas de frijol

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    Jos\\u00E9 B. Membre\\u00F1o

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflora en semillas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se estudió la microflora bacteriana presente en semillas de frijol y su relación con Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp, en 118 genotipos procedentes de VIDAC-98, INTA- Nicaragua, TARS-USDA e Isabela-P.R. Se utilizaron cinco métodos de aislamiento: semilla desinfectada con hipoclorito de sodio, semilla en caldo nutritivo refrigerada por una hora, dispersión de 0,1 ml de suspensión de semillas en medio sólido, siembra líquida de 1 ml de suspensión y semilla en caldo nutritivo, agitado y refrigerado por 24 horas. Se aislaron 104 colonias amarillas de 41 genotipos. Treinta y seis colonias fueron KOH positivo (Gram negativo, 68 negativo (Gram positivo y 34 hidrolizaron almidón. Las colonias de pigmentación amarilla resultaron no patogénicas bajo condiciones de invernadero. Estas se identificaron con el sistema BIOLOG como: Pantoea agglomerans (25, Xanthomonas campestris (2, Enterobacter agglomerans (2, Sphingomonas paucimobilis (2, Pseudomonas fluorescens y Flavimonas oryzihabitans. En adición, los genotipos portaron colonias con pigmentación distinta a la amarilla. En las pruebas de antagonismo se identificaron colonias con actividad de deoxyribonucleasa y de antibiosis a Xcp. De éstas, 15 colonias inhibieron a Xcp significativamente. Se identificaron los hongos Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus nigricans y Macrophomina phaseolina en un 52,9 % del total de genotipos evaluados

  14. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program.

  15. Genetic confirmation of mungbean (Vigna radiata and mashbean (Vigna mungo interspecific recombinants using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam eAbbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate recombination between mungbean (female and mashbean (male interspecific crosses using molecular markers i.e., URP (Universal Rice Primers, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats. As a first step parental screening was performed and polymorphic markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombinations were then confirmed through polymorphic DNA markers in many of the hybrids. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was found to be most successful interspecific cross as many of true recombinants, confirmed by molecular markers, belonged to this cross combination. The SSR markers were more efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombinations with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci, while SSR (RIS and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. The DNA based marker assisted approach provided evidence for genetic confirmation of mungbean and mashbean interspecific recombinants and escalated the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement programme.

  16. Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano

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    Lourdes Mart\\u00EDnez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano. En los últimos años, el sub-sector de frijol en Centro América ha sido testigo de varios cambios dinámicos. Si no se encuentran medidas para incrementar la competitividad regional de este sub-sector, los países centroamericanos experimentarán impactos negativos en las áreas sociales y económicas de considerable magnitud, especialmente ahora que Centro América necesita ajustar su economía a los nuevos requerimientos de mercados mas abiertos, como el Tratado Centroamericano de Libre Comercio con USA (TLC. Vendedores de frijoles a nivel intermediario y de consumo final, así como técnicos de oficinas gubernamentales dedicadas al mercadeo de frijoles en Centro América fueron entrevistados para documentar los cambios experimentados, identificar los obstáculos que frenan la viabilidad del sub-sector e identificar las oportunidades de incremento de mercados en el futuro para los productores y vendedores de frijol. Los resultados muestran que para que continúen siendo competitivos, los países centroamericanos deben incrementar la productividad a través del apoyo a las investigaciones para el mejoramiento de variedades de frijol, especialmente aquellas que los consumidores prefieren por características específicas (e.g. color. También es imprescindible el fortalecimiento de los programas de distribución de variedades mejoradas a los productores; las mejoras en la transmisión de información de mercado a los productores; el fortalecimiento de los contactos entre productores, comercializadores a nivel mayorista y supermercados; y una política más específica de apertura de mercados de exportación, especialmente con los Estados Unidos.

  17. Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Mart\\u00EDnez; Richard Bernsten; Miguel Zamora

    2004-01-01

    Estrategias de mercado para el frijol centroamericano. En los últimos años, el sub-sector de frijol en Centro América ha sido testigo de varios cambios dinámicos. Si no se encuentran medidas para incrementar la competitividad regional de este sub-sector, los países centroamericanos experimentarán impactos negativos en las áreas sociales y económicas de considerable magnitud, especialmente ahora que Centro América necesita ajustar su economía a los nuevos requerimientos ...

  18. ALTERACIONES ULTRAESTRUCTURALES EN LOS CLOROPLASTOS Y NÓDULOS DE LAS RAÍCES DE PLANTAS DE FRIJOL CAUPÍ DESARROLLADAS BAJO CONDICIONES DE ESTRÉS SALINO

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Gómez Padilla; Beatriz Ruiz-Diez; Susana Fajardo; Bettina Eichler-Loebermann; Raúl López Sánchez; Mercedes Fernández-Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Se ha evaluado el efecto del estrés salino sobre la ultraestructura de los cloroplastos y los nódulos radicales de plantas de frijol Caupí ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), var . IT 86 D-715, mediante Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión (TEM). Las plantas se sometieron a 150 y 0,02 mM de NaCl, siendo considerado este último como control. La cepa VIBA-1 ( Bradyrhizobium liaoningense ), aislada de suelos salinos del Valle del Cauto (Cuba), fue inoculada en el momento de la siembra. Cuarenta d...

  19. (VIGNA SUBTERRANEA [L.] VERDC.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... genetic enhancement of yield and quality traits through breeding. However, the ... (Fabaceae), genus Vigna and species subterranea. (Fatokun et ... Bambara nut is an important source of dietary protein .... specifically that black ants (Monomorium minimum ..... Artificial Hybridization in Bambara nut (Vigna.

  20. Interspecific hybridization of Vigna radiata x 13 wild Vigna species for developing MYMV donar

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    M. Pandiyan , N.Senthil, N. Ramamoorthi, AR.Muthiah, N.Tomooka V.Duncan and T.Jayaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek is having a desirable characters like short duration, high protein, less anti nutritionalfactors, nitrogen fixing capacity, suitable for inter cropping, making many kinds of foods for higher human consumption andcosmetics products and some of the undesirable characters like low yield, low test weight.The aim of the study is to checkcrossabil;ity of Vigna radiata with all wild Vigna species and to create variability through wide hybridization and to developsuperior segregants for yield component coupled with pest and disease resistance. The interspecific crosses were attemptedwith thirteen wild relatives of mungbean (V. radiata were employed with V. radiata as male parent. The highest pod set of25 and crossability of 21.92 per cent was recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata and lowest pod set of2.0 per cent recorded by the cross V. radiata x V. dalzelliana in the direct cross combinations. The highest pollengermination 69.72 per cent was recorded by V. radiata x V. radiata var. sublobata. The estimates of pollen fertility wassufficient enough to recover F2 segregants in all the crosses combination.For all the traits in majority of the crosses, In the F2generation the skewness was positive indicating that predominance of dominant alleles. Among the direct crosses V. radiatax V. mungo var. silvestris exhibited highest value for four characters viz., number of clusters per branch, number of clustersper plant, number of pods per plant and single plant yield. The cross V. umbellata x V. radiata showed better performancefor the characters viz., number of branches and number of clusters in reciprocal direction In advanced generation of Vignaradiata x Vigna umbellata cross combination has expressed virus resistance for nine seasons. The same line was tested byagro inoculation for confirmation of resistance and was resulted found effective resistance. This line can be used MYMVdonar. Conclusion of

  1. Analysis of Genetic Variation of Seed Proteins in the Genus Vigna and among Its Relatives Cultivated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chanyou; PAN Lei; HU Yaojun; HU Zhihui; DING Yi

    2006-01-01

    The genetic variation of seed proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE foR24 cultivars belonging to 5 species in Vigna and 7 species in its 7 relative genera cultivated in China. There were 48 polymorphic subunit bands discriminated from electrophoretic profiles. Two dendrograms were constructed by UPGMA cluster analyses using PHYLIP3.6 respectively.Variation among genera or species was larger than that among lower taxonomic categories level. Little variation among cultivars of yardlong bean (Vigna sesquipedalis ) and small variation of lablab (Lablab purpureus ),pea (Pisum sativum ), or sword bean (Canavalia gladiata ), but large variation of soybean or rice bean in their origin of China were all revealed.The seed proteins profiles of traditionally regarded as typical species in Vigna such as yardlong bean, rice bean and small bean were more similar than mungbean (Vigna radiata) and black gram (Vigna mungo) were.Mungbean and black gram had distinct seed proteins pattern, they should be of two species.

  2. Oligosaccharins of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) as affected by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girigowda, K; Prashanth, S J; Mulimani, V H

    2005-12-01

    The oligosaccharide content was determined in 12 different cultivars of black gram. The effect of various treatments such as soaking, cooking, and enzyme treatment on the raffinose family oligosaccharides of dry seeds and flour was studied. Ajugose, a higher oligosaccharide (DP 6) found in trace quantities in seeds, was shown in black gram by HPLC. The percent reduction of raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and ajugose after soaking for 16 hr was 41.66%, 47.61%, 28.48%, and 26.82%, respectively in Local-I variety and 43.75%, 20.58%, 23.60%, and 15.88%, respectively in Local-II variety. Cooking for 60 min resulted in decrease of 100% for raffinose, 76.19% for stachyose, 36.39% for verbascose, and 60.97% for ajugose in Local-I variety and 100% for raffinose, 55.88% for stachyose, 48.52% for verbascose, and 56.07% for ajugose in Local-II variety. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of 3 hr enzyme-treated samples revealed almost complete hydrolysis of raffinose family of oligosaccharides. Among the different methods employed, enzyme treatment was found to be the most effective for removing alpha-galactosides in black gram.

  3. Molecular marker for screening yellow mosaic disease resistance in blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Prasanthi, B.V.Bhaskara Reddy, B.Geetha, Ramya Jyothi and Abhishek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow mosaic disease is a serious disease in blackgram which causes severe yield losses. Screening of 45 lines along with PU-31 and PU-19 resistant checks for YMD under field conditions with artificial inoculation, identified 19 lines having 1 score with no disease symptoms. PCR reactions using SCAR marker for screening the disease reaction with genomic DNA of these lines resulted in identification of 19 resistant sources with specific amplification for resistance to YMV at 532bp with SCAR 20F/20R developed from OPQ1 RARD primer linked to YMV disease. Considering the YMV reaction and resistance linked SCAR marker, it is possible to identify the new resistance sources in a short time and they can be utilized in breeding programme or for direct release.

  4. Estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) by gas liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-01-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide is used for post emergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of quizalofop ethyl in black gram for two seasons. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on black gram seed, foliage and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following a single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods. Application of the herbicide is quite safe from a consumer and environmental point of view.

  5. Genetic divergence in mutants and land races of blackgram (Vigna mungo [L.] Hepper from odisha

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    K. K .Panigrahi1*, B. Baisakh, M. Kar, and A. Mohanty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester crossing programme was taken up with ten lines and five testers with a view to identify the best Genetic diversity using Mahalanobis D-square (D2 techniques was studied for yield and yield contributing traits of 44 (17 Land races genotypes from diverse origin and 27 mutants blackgram genotypes of Odisha. These genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. Cluster II and cluster V had maximum of nine genotypes each followed by cluster IV having eight genotypes. The inter cluster distance were greater than the intra cluster distance revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accession. The maximum and minimum divergence was revealed between cluster IV with XI and cluster I with X respectively. Cluster VI exhibited high mean values for number of clusters/plant, pods/plant and seeds/pod. Cluster V recorded high mean values for pod length and 100 seed weight. The characters contributing maximum towards diversity among the accessions are days to maturity (27.16 %, yield/plant (22.19 %, 100 seed weight (18.07 % and plant height (15.85% .These characters combining with early maturity are the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. The genotypes in cluster XI with VI, XII with V and V with VI are having moderate divergence with high mean for many characters including yield and can be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants. It is assumed that maximum amount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters

  6. VARIABILITY STUDIES IN M3 GENERATION IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L.HEPPER

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    M P MESHRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pure line seeds of black gram variety viz. T-9, TPU-4 and one promising genotype AKU-18 was treated with gamma irradiation (15kR, 25kR and 35kR with the objective to assess the variability in M3 generation.. Highest GCV and PCV and high estimates of heritability were recorded for the characters sprouting percentage, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield plant-1 (g. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was recorded for number of pods plant-1 governed by additive gene effects and therefore selection based on phenotypic performance will be useful to improve character in future.

  7. Gamma-rays and EMS induced pentaphyllous mutant in black gram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S; Prakash, D

    1988-01-01

    Pentaphyllous mutants in black gram were isolated in M2 generation of a segregating family, irradiated at 20 kR. The genetic nature of mutants was tested by hybridizing with controls, and chi-square tests applied to the F2 population, proved it to be a monogenic recessive. The pentaphyllous mutant had a greater number of pods and leaves per plant and larger and more root nodules. It also showed improved nutritional value with increased seed protein percentage and no increase in TIA (trypsin inhibitor activity).

  8. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase from a germinating black gram (Vigna mungo L. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaduzzaman A.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An acid phosphatase has been isolated and purified from an extract of a germinating black gram seedling. The method was accomplished by gel filtration of a germinating black gram seedling crude extract on sephadex G-75 followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The acid phosphatase gave a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the acid phosphatase determined by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis was estimated to be 25 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5 and at temperature of 55°C. Mg2+, Zn2+ and EDTA had an inhibitory effect on the activity of the acid phosphatase. Black gram seedling acid phosphatase was activated by K+, Cu2+ and Ba2+. The Km value of the enzyme was found to be 0.49 mM for pNPP as substrate.

  9. Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah, W H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking.

  10. Genetic assessment of traits and genetic relationship in blackgram (Vigna mungo) revealed by isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Shukla, Arvind

    2009-08-01

    Sixty blackgram accessions were evaluated and classified into different clusters to assess genetic diversity and traits using isoenzymes. Trait-specific expression was assessed, and isoenzyme bands were observed: a peroxidase band (Rm 0.60) associated with dwarfness and an esterase band (Rm 0.25) with tallness. Early maturing varieties were characterized by a specific esterase isoenzyme band of Rm 0.51. All yellow mosaic virus susceptible genotypes had two bands of esterase isoenzyme, Rm 0.42 and 0.70. Resistant genotypes showed three bands (0.32, 0.33, and 0.35) of alkaline phosphatase. Peroxidase isoenzyme was helpful to differentiate green-seeded from black-seeded varieties. Two bands (0.58 and 0.83) were observed in black-seeded accessions, and two different bands (0.74 and 0.76) were observed in green-seeded accessions. Clustering of germplasm and assessment of traits will facilitate the use of germplasm for the improvement of blackgram.

  11. Temperature Effect on Morphobiochemical Characters in Some Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manasi; Shree, Dhara

    2013-01-01

    Lack of suitable varieties and genotypes of black gram with adaptation to local conditions is among the factors affecting its production. Efforts to genetically improve the crop mostly involve identifying important morphological descriptors followed by development of advanced breeding lines for locale-specific cultivars. The present day available black gram varieties have not been properly characterized for their thermo sensitiveness with respect to morphological and biochemical characters. Hence efforts were taken in the present research to study the effect of the temperature on these characters in seven black gram varieties over different development stages. We aimed at studying the effect of 3 temperature regimes for identifying suitable stress tolerant genotypes. High percent germination (87.2%), root length (3.68 cm), carbohydrate content (3.72 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) among the genotypes was highest at 10°C-20°C temperature. High shoot length (13.39 cm), free amino acid content (3.73 mg g(-1) fresh tissue), and protein content (9.54 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) was found to be present when the genotypes were exposed to 20°C-30°C temperature. The black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best in all the temperature regimes over characters. Thus suitable varieties for all temperature regimes were identified using biochemical analysis.

  12. Detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, Vigna mungo, seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, M; Takeuchi, W

    1989-02-01

    A new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. The enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a pH optimum of 5.0. The enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (Km, 3.0 X 10(-5) M), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. The Km value for NADPH (1.5 X 10(-4) M) was much lower than that for L-ascorbic acid (1.0 X 10(-2) M), although the Vmax value was almost the same with both electron donors. The enzyme was potently inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol (Ki, 3.5 X 10(-6) M) and diethyldithiocarbamate (Ki, 2.3 X 10(-4) M), but was insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoate. The enzyme was localized in the cell organelles which sedimented between mitochondria and endplasmic reticulum on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme activity in the seedling was changed in response to induction by light in a manner suggesting its involvement in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in mung bean seedlings.

  13. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %.

  14. Growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... EM (effective microorganisms) is a commercial biofertilizer mainly consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast ... an effective technique for stimulating release of nutrients ... A basal dose of 20 mg kg-1 N as urea, 30 mg kg-1 P2O5 as triple supper ... i) Control (without any microbial inoculation).

  15. Morphological responses of pulse (Vigna spp. crops to soil water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroowa Bhaswatee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted with two common pulse crops namely black gram (Vigna mungo L. and green gram (Vigna radiata L. with the objective to study the morpho-physiological changes that took place in response to low moisture stress. Parameters such as plant height, leaf number, leaf area and pod number were studied under moisture stress condition as well as subsequent recovery stages. At harvest, yields of these two crops were recorded and various yield indexes like drought susceptibility index, drought tolerance index, mean and productivity rate were calculated. The study revealed that moisture stress has a significant impact on all these parameters in both crops. The effect was more significant in green gram compared to black gram. From the findings it is observed that moisture stress during flowering stage is detrimental for yield of the pulse crops and re-watering does not have a significant impact on yield improvement. Black gram variety T9 and green gram variety Pratap were identified as drought-tolerant varieties.

  16. El proyecto "campana educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles"

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    Ligia Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto “Campaña educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles”. Se describen las diferentes etapas que se siguen en el desarrollo de un proyecto denominado “Campaña educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles”. La Campaña tuvo como objetivo “incrementar el consumo de frijoles en la población urbana de clase media de Costa Rica” y contribuir a contrarrestar la disminución en el consumo de este alimento, que se ha presentado en forma muy marcada en el área urbana. El artículo pretende ofrecer una visión global del mencionado proyecto, de manera que le permita al lector la ubicación dentro del proceso, al mismo tiempo que lo refiere a los artículos específicos que ofrecen el detalle de las diferentes etapas y resultados. La metodología describe las características generales del abordaje que se utiliza y la forma en que se desarrolla cada una de las etapas. Los resultados sumarizan los hallazgos de la evaluación y otros aspectos globales del proyecto. Además, ofrece pautas para un abordaje de la educación nutricional focalizada alrededor de un alimento y sustentada en la realidad social y cultural de la población.

  17. Evaluación de mercados para el frijol centroamericano en comunidades étnicas de EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zamora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de mercados para el frijol centroamericano en comunidades étnicas de EE.UU. Este documento presenta información sobre el mercado étnico del frijol centroamericano en EE.UU., describe las oportunidades y dificultades potenciales para estos países, y ofrece información a exportadores potenciales en estos países para aminorar estas dificultades. No existen estudios que describan la demanda étnica potencial por frijol centroamericano en EE.UU. Se determinaron los estados y ciudades con las más altas concentraciones de personas de origen centroamericano en EE.UU. Los costarricenses y panameños no fueron incluidos en este estudio por tener poblaciones relativamente pequeñas en EE.UU. Chicago, Miami, Los Ángeles, San Francisco y Washington D.C fueron visitadas para: a recoger datos sobre la disponibilidad de frijol en tiendas detallistas, b entrevistar consumidores centroamericanos acerca de sus preferencias de frijol, c entrevistar organizaciones centroamericanas, distribuidores e importadores de frijol para entender la dinámica del comercio del frijol. Comerciantes estadounidenses también estaban importando frijol de Honduras. Los frijoles centroamericanos se venden al detalle a precios entre 25-50% mayores que otros frijoles similares. Además, los centroamericanos en EE.UU. prefieren fuertemente los frijoles de su país.

  18. Emerging Tuberculosis Pathogen Hijacks Social Communication Behavior in the Group-Living Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo

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    Kathleen A. Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC pathogen, M. mungi, infects wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. This MTC pathogen did not appear to be transmitted through a primary aerosol or oral route. We utilized histopathology, spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR, quantitative PCR (qPCR, and molecular markers (regions of difference [RDs] from various MTC members, including region of difference 1 [RD1] from M. bovis BCG [RD1BCG], M. microti [RD1mic], and M. pinnipedii [RD1seal], genes Rv1510 [RD4], Rv1970 [RD7], Rv3877/8 [RD1], and Rv3120 [RD12], insertion element IS1561, the 16S RNA gene, and gene Rv0577 [cfp32], including the newly characterized mongoose-specific deletion in RD1 (RD1mon, in order to demonstrate the presence of M. mungi DNA in infected mongooses and investigate pathogen invasion and exposure mechanisms. M. mungi DNA was identified in 29% of nasal planum samples (n = 52, 56% of nasal rinses and swabs (n = 9, 53% of oral swabs (n = 19, 22% of urine samples (n = 23, 33% of anal gland tissue (n = 18, and 39% of anal gland secretions (n = 44. The occurrence of extremely low cycle threshold values obtained with qPCR in anal gland and nasal planum samples indicates that high levels of M. mungi can be found in these tissue types. Histological data were consistent with these results, suggesting that pathogen invasion occurs through breaks in the nasal planum and/or skin of the mongoose host, which are in frequent contact with anal gland secretions and urine during olfactory communication behavior. Lesions in the lung, when present, occurred only with disseminated disease. No environmental sources of M. mungi DNA could be found. We report primary environmental transmission of an MTC pathogen that occurs in association with social communication behavior.

  19. EFECTO DE LA ROTACIÓN DE CULTIVOS EN LA INCIDENCIA DEL AMACHAMIENTO (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie EN FRIJOL

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    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la rotación de cultivos en la incidencia del amachamiento en frijol se evaluó en la región Brunca de Costa Rica durante 2009 y se complementó con una observación de campo en el 2010. La incidencia en 2009 se cuantificó en las etapas de desarrollo vegetativo (V3 o V4, floración (R6 y llenado de vainas (R8 en planta - ciones comerciales de frijol provenientes de rota - ción con arroz, maíz, chile picante, ayote o frijol. En cada plantación se establecieron al azar 4 microparcelas de 10 m 2 , excepto en la secuencia frijol-frijol, donde fueron solo 2; los datos obte - nidos se transformaron angularmente y con un ANDEVA se separaron las medias entre rotacio - nes. La observación de campo del 2010 se llevó a cabo en una finca con 3 parcelas comerciales de frijol en etapa de floración y en suelos previa - mente sembrados con jengibre, tiquizque y maíz, respectivamente; en cada parcela, se establecie - ron sistemáticamente 10 puntos de muestreo para cuantificar la incidencia de amachamiento y se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para deter - minar diferencias entre rotaciones. En el 2009, durante la etapa R8 se presentó una incidencia mínima de amachamiento en la rotación chile picante-frijol (4%, niveles intermedios en las rotaciones ayote-frijol (15% y arroz-frijol (29% y altas incidencias en las rotaciones frijol-frijol (62% y maíz-frijol (64%. En la observación de campo del 2010, durante la etapa de floración se presentaron incidencias de 4% en la rotación jengibre-frijol y de 5% en la rotación tiquizque- frijol, que fueron entre 5 y 6 veces menores que la cuantificada en la rotación maíz-frijol (25%. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, el uso de cultivos como chile picante, jengibre, tiquizque y ayote en el ciclo previo a la siembra de frijol, podría contribuir a bajar la incidencia de amacha - miento y las pérdidas que ocasiona en ese cultivo.

  20. ENCUESTA A PRODUCTORES PARA ORIENTAR EL FITOMEJORAMIENTO DE FRIJOL EN ECUADOR

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    Emmalea Garver Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta a más de cincuenta productores de frijol de los valles de Chota y Mira, ubicados al norte de Ecuador, en el año 2003, con la finalidad de recabar información y plantear objetivos para la implementación de un programa de mejoramiento participativo de frijol en Ecuador. Los productores fueron consultados acerca de las variedades de frijol que están cultivando actualmente, los métodos de producción empleados, los problemas de producción del cultivo y las características que deberían mejorarse en las nuevas variedades. Los principales problemas de producción reportados fueron los daños causados por mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y brúquidos (Acanthoscelides obtectus. Los agricultores han cambiado recientemente las clases comerciales de frijol que tradicionalmente cultivaban en respuesta a la demanda del mercado. En cuanto a las características que deberían poseer las nuevas variedades de frijol, indicaron alto rendimiento y semilla de tamaño grande con color y forma comercial. La costumbre de los agricultores de comprar semilla para cada siembra, y no de producir su propia semilla, fue identifi cada como un obstáculo potencial para el uso y mantenimiento de las nuevas variedades mejoradas de frijol en el área estudiada.

  1. Quebra de dormência de sementes do feijão-mungo Dormancy suppression in mungbean seed

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    Shiow Shong Lin

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available No laboratório de sementes da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, avaliou-se o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos sobre a quebra de dormência em sementes do feijão-mungo (Vigna radiata L., Leguminosae. As sementes de quatro cultivares (Pusa 9173, ML 267, NM 51 e Chun Nam 4 foram submetidas aos tratamentos com água quente (80°C, álcool à temperatura ambiente e ácido sulfúrico concentrado. Os tratamentos com ácido sulfúrico concentrado foram os que apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de germinação. Os tratamentos com imersão em álcool durante 5 e 10 minutos, e em água à temperatura de 80°C por 5 e 10 minutos mostraram-se eficientes, atingindo percentuais de germinação superiores aos da testemunha. No tratamento de imersão em água à temperatura de 80°C por 15 minutos, verificou-se acentuada mortalidade de sementes, reduzindo drasticamente o percentual de germinação. O tratamento com ácido sulfúrico concentrado, por 6 minutos, possibilitou uma porcentagem de germinação de 96%, sendo assim o mais indicado. As cultivares Pusa 9173, ML 267 e NM 51 apresentaram maior intensidade de dormência em comparação à cultivar Chun Nam 4.The effects of pre-germination treatments on the dormancy of mungbean seeds were evaluated in the seed laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Seeds of four mungbean (Vigna radiata L., Leguminosae cultivars (Pusa 9173, ML 267, NM 51 and Chun Nam 4 were submitted to treatments with hot water (80°C, alcohol at room temperature and concentrated sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid treatments were the most effective treatments in terms of germination percentage. The immersion of seeds in alcohol at room temperature during 5 and 10 minutes and seeds immersed in hot water (80°C during 5 and 10 minutes showed results significantly higher than the control. The hot water (80°C treatment during 15 minutes caused pronounced seed

  2. Micropropagation and production of camptothecin form in vitro plants of Ophiorrhiza mungos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. G. Namdeo; Priya T.; B. B. Bhosale

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the biotechnological potential of Ophiorrhiza mungos for micropropagation and camptothecin (CPT) production from in vitro grown plants.Methods: Surface sterilized explants of O. mungos were transferred aseptically in MS media containing various combinations of phytohormones for callus initiation and multiple shoot proliferation. The content of CPT was quantified in the methanolic extract of O. mungos plants and in in vitro grown plants by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Maximum fresh weight and dry weight biomass of O. mungos callus was obtained from MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 ppm)+ BAP (2 ppm) + GA (1 ppm). The maximum shoot proliferation (25) and elongation (6.5 cm) was found in MS medium supplemented with Picloram + Thidiazuron + Gibberellic Acid in 1:2:1 ratio after four weeks of incubation. The maximum content of CPT (0.0768 % w/w) was found in wholein vitro plants whereas the minimum CPT was observed in adventitious buds (0.0026 % w/w) as compared to the naturally grown O. mungos plants (0.0030% w/w).Conclusions: Present findings indicate that O. mungos plants respond favourably for in vitro propagation and also produce higher amount of CPT as compared to naturally grown plants.

  3. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L. MEJORADO NUTRICIONALMENTE EN DOS COMUNIDADES CUBANAS

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    Robert Manuel Leyva-Mart\\u00EDnez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar sensorialmente el frijol común mejorado nutricionalmente (línea 38 y la variedad local (BAT 304 con productores y consumidores de dos comunidades de Holguín, Cuba. Se aplicó una encuesta exploratoria que determinó el alto consumo de los frijoles negros pequeños, y las recetas: arroz con frijoles y potaje. Se seleccionó una muestra de 80 personas y se aplicaron tres pruebas entre marzo y junio del 2008: discriminatoria triangular, aceptabilidad y preferencia. Se encontró que 50 personas discriminaron correctamente entre las dos variedades (P<0,000001. No hubo diferencia significativa (P=0,9 en el porcentaje de participantes que clasificaron (en una escala de uno a cuatro la consistencia del caldo, el sabor del potaje y la textura del grano entre las variedades; sin embargo, al calificar estas características con palabras, notaron una diferencia en consistencia y textura, mas no en el sabor del potaje elaborado con los dos tipos de frijol. Finalmente, siete evaluadores no indicaron una preferencia por el potaje elaborado con uno u otro tipo de frijol. De los 73 que sí expresaron una preferencia, no manifestaron diferencia estadísticamente importante (P=0,13. En conclusión, existió diferencia sensorial entre los frijoles, pero la preferencia fue similar, lo que sugiere una buena aceptación del consumidor por el frijol mejorado nutricionalmente.

  4. Combining ability, heterosis and inbreeding depression in inter specific hybrids involving greengram [ Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek] and blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal, M. N. Singh, N. Pathak and S. K. Saroj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester analysis of interspecific hybrids involving greengram (female and blackgram (male was carried out for 11 quantitative traits. As expected in wide crosses, none of the parent was found to be good general combiner for yield. However, PDM-11, HUM-26 Azad-U-1 and KUG-427 were spotted out as superior general combiners for 2-5 yield traits. Likewise, hybrids, PDM-11 × KUG-427, HUM-26 × Azad-U-1, HUM-6 × BHU-U-1 and HUM-26 × BHU-U-1 were identified as best specific cross combinations for few yield components only. Further, economic heterosis for seed yield and few important yield traits such as, pod length, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight, was significantly negative, while it was mostly positive for days to first flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary and secondary branches including pods per plant. All the crosses showing negative yield heterosis reflected positive inbreeding depression. Non-additive gene action was of prime importance for all the characters except for days to 50% flowering.

  5. Late-kharif : Best season for inter-specific hybridization involving greengram [Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek] and blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal, M. N. Singh, N. Pathak and S. K. Saroj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an objective to identify best season for highest success rate of crossing in inter-specific hybrids involving four genotypes each of greengram and blackgram. Sowing was done on first week of March (Summer season crop, June (Kharif season crop and September (Late-kharif season crop, 2011. Crosses were made in line x tester fashion using greengram as female parent during Summer, Kharif and Late-kharif, with average crossability of 3.19%, 6.37% and 9.33%, respectively. The rate of success during late-kharif reached as high as 153.80% and 688.11%, as against kharif and summer, respectively. The optimum weather parameter during late-kharif such as wind velocity ~2.35 Km/hr, moderately warm ambient temperature (27.87˚C, poorly-rained, longer bright sunshine hours (8.8 hr. with optimum relative humidity (67.75% favored pollen germination and highest rate of successful fertilization.

  6. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al(3+)) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al(3+) were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and (1)H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al(3+) induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al(3+) can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al(3+) concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  7. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  8. A DWARF DETERMINATE PLANT TYPE FOR ACHIEVING HIGHER AND STABLE YIELD IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO L. HEPPER

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    R. B. RAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a dwarf determinate type of urdbean was used along with two traditional varieties and two elite lines to test their performance at higher plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels. Genotype differ significantly for all the traits studied, spacing showed significant difference for total number of pods per plant, harvest index and plot yield while nitrogen levels showed significant difference for total number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, dry weight of stem, husk, biological yield and harvest index. Closer spacing enhanced seed yield by 36.5 percent, harvest index by 29.9 percent and plot yield by 47.9 percent while higher nitrogen level enhanced dry weight of stem, husk and biological yield by 26.7, 34.1 and 17.5 percent respectively but reduced harvest index by 18.1 percent. The dwarf determinate line (V.K.6 recorded lower values of pods per plant, dry weight of stem, leaves, husk and biological yield but higher number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant and seed yield per plot. Mean performance and stability parameter for grain yield and its component traits revealed that the genotype V.K.6 exhibited the highest seed yield per plant (2.87 g and plot yield (60.53 g - over six environments. The dwarf determinate type showed wider adaptability and higher stable yield over environments and therefore can be recommended for cultivation by the farmers

  9. Protection of DNA and erythrocytes from free radical induced oxidative damage by black gram (Vigna mungo L.) husk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Talakatta K; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidants present in various plant tissues exhibit health benefits by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated under various pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, bioactive compounds from black gram husk were extracted with water and the protection of black gram husk (BGH) extract against oxidative damage in DNA and erythrocytes were studied. BGH extract had total polyphenol content of 59 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The phenolic acids identified in the extract using RP-HPLC were gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and ferulic acids. The extract showed good antioxidant properties. The IC(50) value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 3.92 μg of GAE. The BGH extract also showed α-glucosidase inhibition and the IC(50) value was found to be 2.78 μg of GAE. The oxidative hemolysis caused by hydrogen peroxide in rat erythrocytes was inhibited by BGH extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) values for BGH extract and BHA for hemolysis were 11.5 and 14 μg of GAE, respectively. Morphological changes in erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by BGH extract. As BGH extract exhibited various antioxidant properties in different systems, it could be used as a functional food or nutraceutical product for health benefits.

  10. Stimulation of indoleacetic acid production in a Rhizobium isolate of Vigna mungo by root nodule phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Santi; Mandal, Mahitosh; Das, Amit K; Das, Amit; Pati, Bikas R; Pati, Bikas; Ghosh, Ananta K; Ghosh, Ananta

    2009-04-01

    The influence of endogenous root nodules phenolic acids on indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by its symbiont (Rhizobium) was examined. The root nodules contain higher amount of IAA and phenolic acids than non-nodulated roots. Presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes, IAA oxidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase indicate the metabolism of IAA in the nodules and roots. Three most abundant endogenous root nodule phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid) have been identified and their effects on IAA production by the symbiont have been studied in L-tryptophan supplemented yeast extract basal medium. Protocatechuic acid (1.5 microg ml(-1)) showed maximum stimulation (2.15-fold over control) of IAA production in rhizobial culture. These results indicate that the phenolic acids present in the nodule might serve as a stimulator for IAA production by the symbiont (Rhizobium).

  11. DIAGNOSIS AND IMPLICATIONS OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN BANDED MONGOOSES (MUNGOS MUNGO) IN THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüns, Angela C; Tanner, Manfred; Williams, Mark C; Botha, Louise; O'Brien, Amanda; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; van Helden, Paul D; Clarke, John; Michel, Anita L

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was first diagnosed in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 1990. Research has since focused on the maintenance host, the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) and clinically affected lion ( Panthera leo ). However, little is known about the role of small predators in tuberculosis epidemiology. During 2011-12, we screened banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo ) in the bTB high-prevalence zone of the KNP for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members. Fecal swabs, tracheal swabs, and tracheal lavages of 76 banded mongooses caught in cage traps within a 2-km radius of Skukuza Rest Camp were submitted for Mycobacterium culture, isolation, and species identification. Lesions and lymph node samples collected from 12 animals at postmortem examination were submitted for culture and histopathology. In lung and lymph nodes of two banded mongooses, well demarcated, irregularly margined, gray-yellow nodules of up to 5 mm diameter were identified with either central necrosis or calcification, characterized on histopathology as caseating necrosis with epithelioid macrophages or necrogranuloma with calcified centre. No acid fast bacteria were identified with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. We isolated Mycobacterium bovis from lung, lymph node, and liver samples, as well as from tracheal lavages and tracheal swab from the same two banded mongooses. Blood samples were positive by ElephantTB STAT-PAK® Assay for 12 and Enferplex™ TB Assay for five animals. Only the two banded mongooses positive on pathology and M. bovis culture were positive on both serologic assays. We provide evidence of bTB infection in banded mongooses in the KNP, demonstrate their ability to shed M. bovis , and propose a possible antemortem diagnostic algorithm. Our findings open the discussion around possible sources of infection and their significance at the human/wildlife interface in and around Skukuza.

  12. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de madres de escolares con respecto a los frijoles

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    Shirley Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de escolares con respecto a los frijoles. En el presente estudio se identificaron los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas de escolares de tercer y cuarto grados, con respecto a frijoles. Una prueba complementaria sobre actitudes se realizó con los niños de primero, segundo y tercer grados. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el año 1998 en Sabanilla de Montes de Oca, comunidad urbana de Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó como parte de un diagnóstico, previo a una campaña educativa orientada a incrementar el consumo de frijoles. En el mismo se utilizó tanto la metodología cualitativa como la cuantitativa. El estudio determinó que los niños (as tenían conocimientos básicos sobre el valor nutritivo de los frijoles. Además, a la mayoría les gustaban los frijoles. Sin embargo, casi un 10% de los niños (as los rechazaba, y esta actitud fue más marcada conforme aumentaba la edad. También permitió identificar algunas otras barreras que limitaban el consumo de frijoles por parte de los escolares, muchas de las cuales estaban influenciadas por actitudes negativas de los adultos o porque el alimento no estaba disponible en el hogar. Esta información fue importante para orientar la planificación de la campaña educativa arriba mencionada, en la cual los niños (as, por su estrecho contacto con las madres, habían sido seleccionados como grupo interactivo.

  13. PINTO BRAVO: NUEVA VARIEDAD DE FRIJOL PARA EL ALTIPLANO SEMIÁRIDO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto Rosales Serna; Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos; Francisco Javier Ibarra Pérez; Evenor Idilio Cuéllar Robles

    2011-01-01

    En el Altiplano Semiárido de México el frijol pinto, es una de las principales clases comerciales producidas en condiciones de temporal. Se requieren variedades con grano tolerantes al oscurecimiento de la testa, maduración precoz y semillas de mayor tamaño en relación con Pinto Saltillo, la cual es la variedad más popular en la región. El objetivo fue desarrollar una variedad de frijol superior a Pinto Saltillo en precocidad, tamaño de grano y calidad comercial. El personal del Instituto Nac...

  14. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris): su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000). Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los ...

  15. Adaptabilidad de genotipos de frijol resistentes a enfermedades y a suelos ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto López Salinas; Óscar Hugo Tosquy Valle; Bernardo Villar Sánchez; Enrique Noé Becerra Leor; Francisco Javier Ugalde Acosta; Javier Cumpián Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    La productividad del frijol en la región tropical del sureste de México está limitada principalmente por factores bióticos, entre los que destacan las enfermedades, y factores abióticos como sequía y suelos ácidos. Este trabajo se hizo para identificar genotipos de frijol con adaptación en la región, resistencia a enfermedades y tolerancia a suelos ácidos. Durante el ciclo primavera-verano 1999 y otoñoinvierno 1999-2000, se establecieron seis experimentos conformados por 16 genotipos entre lo...

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant and melanogenesis inhibitory properties of pracparatum mungo (lu-do huang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Yu; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Huang, Hui-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang) is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (Lǜ Dòu) mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME) and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE) possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Melanogenesis Inhibitory Properties of Pracparatum Mungo (Lu-Do Huang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Kao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pracparatum mungo (Lu-Do Huang is a traditional Chinese functional medicine made from the natural fermentation of mung bean (綠豆 Lǜ Dòu mixed with other Chinese medicines. It has been recognized as having liver protecting and detoxifying effects. As mung beans have been verified to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, and whitening actions, the present research utilized the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models to investigate the antioxidant and melanin inhibiting effects of P. mungo on the skin. The in vitro experiment revealed that P. mungo methanol extract (PMME and P. mungo ethanol extract (PMEE possess the capacity to clear α,α-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and inhibit tyrosinase activity. The ex vivo experiment indicated that PMEE can promote the growth of MDCK cells and increase the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase in MDCK cells. On the other hand, PMME and PMEE can suppress the proliferation of A375 cells, and PMEE can reduce the enzymatic activities of SOD and catalase in A375 cells. The in vivo results showed that P. mungo can enhance the enzymatic performance of SOD, Catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the liver. The results also showed that P. mungo has antioxidant characteristics and can inhibit tyrosinase activity, thereby promoting the growth of skin tissues and suppressing the proliferation of A375 cells, and thus enhancing the effects that the antioxidant enzymatic performance has on the liver. These results can be applied in the development of tyrosinase inhibitors or antioxidants used for the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis or for auto-oxidation in further industrial applications, particularly those relating to functional food or cosmetic compositions.

  18. Producción de genotipos de frijol negro en condiciones de humedad residual y sequía terminal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oscar Hugo Tosquy Valle; Ernesto López Salinas; Rigoberto Zetina Lezama; Bernardo Villar Sánchez; José Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    ... de sequía durante la etapa reproductiva, lo que causa bajos rendimientos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el rendimiento de genotipos de frijol, evaluados bajo condiciones de humedad residual...

  19. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris: su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodríguez-Castillo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000. Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los cuales son de utilidad en la prevención y tratamiento de varias de las patologías que afectan a la población costarricense. La presente revisión, documenta los efectos positivos que algunos nutrientes y otros elementos que aporta el frijol tienen en la prevención y el control de algunas de las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen problemas de salud pública en el país. Se abordan de manera particular la fibra, el ácido fólico y el magnesio. Asimismo, se hace referencia a otras sustancias fitoquímicas, presentes en los frijoles, que constituyen elementos protectores de la salud y que hacen de los frijoles un "alimento funcional". Finalmente, se ofrecen recomendaciones prácticas orientadas a mejorar la digestibilidad de este alimento, de manera que se contribuya a mantener e incrementar su consumo a nivel de los hogares costarricenses.

  20. Estrategias para seleccionar frijol común con mayor resistencia a mustia hilachosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Beaver

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para aumentar el rendimiento y calidad de grano de frijol producido en las regiones calientes y húmedas de Centroamérica y el Caribe, es necesario contar con mayores niveles de resistencia a la mustia hilachosa. El frijol común solamente tiene niveles moderados de resistencia a esta enfermedad y los patrones de virulencia del patógeno (Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank Donk, varían entre regiones geográficas. Las evaluaciones en el campo en busca de resistencia a la mustia hilachosa están limitadas a las épocas favorables al desarrollo de la enfermedad, y no permiten diferenciar entre plantas que evitan la enfermedad debido a características de arquitecturas y aquellas que poseen resistencia fisiológica. Se han desarrollado técnicas de laboratorio e invernadero que facilitan la evaluación de líneas de frijol con respecto a su resistencia fisiológica. Se propone un esquema de selección recurrente para seleccionar frijoles con mayores niveles de resistencia y el uso de cruces interespecí- ficos podría aumentar la base de genes resistentes a la mustia hilachosa. Se han identificado líneas de P. coccineus con buenos niveles de resistencia a la mustia hilachosa y las plantas de frijol transgénicas con tolerancia a herbicidas serían útiles para labranza mínima. Una cobertura de vegetación muerta, podría reducir también la difusión de la enfermedad.

  1. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  2. Growth Response of Two Phaseolus mungo L. Cultivars Induced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navnita Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to quantify the difference in response of two Phaseolus mungo L. cultivars (i.e., UH-1 and IPU-94-1 to Glomus mosseae (G, that is, Funneliformis mosseae, Acaulospora laevis (A, and Trichoderma viride (T, in different combinations or alone. All the treatments were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum to ensure nodulation as soil used in the experiment was sterilized. After 120 days of inoculation, plants were analyzed for chlorophyll content, nodulation, mycorrhization, leaf area, and protein content. Results indicate variation in growth response of two cultivars with different treatments. Triple inoculation of plants with G + A + T proved to be the best treatment for growth followed by G + T in both cultivars. Our work allowed the selection of P. mungo L. cultivar UH-1 as highly mycorrhizal responsive as compared to IPU-94-1 and G. mosseae to be an efficient bioinoculant as compared to A. laevis for growth enhancement of P. mungo. Further characterization of P. mungo genotypes will enhance our knowledge of physiological and genetic mechanism behind increase in plant growth and yield due to AM symbiosis.

  3. Phytotoxicity attenuation in Vigna radiata under heavy metal stress at the presence of biochar and N fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Mihiri; Weerasundara, Lakshika; Ok, Yong Sik; Rinklebe, Jörg; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-01-15

    This study assesses the effect of N-fixing bacteria and biochar synergism on plant growth and development of Vigna mungo under heavy metal stress (HM). Heavy metal stress is a worldwide problem, which causes critical effects on plant life due to oxidative stress. Application of biochar is a recent biological remediation technique, which often leads to an immobilization of heavy metals in soil. . Synergism of bacteria and biochar is a novel aspect to enhance plant growth under heavy metal stress. Woody biochar a byproduct of a dendro power industry was added as 1, 2.5 and 5% amounts combination with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, where mung seedlings were planted in serpentine soil rich in Ni, Mn, Cr and Co. Pot experiments were conducted for 12 weeks. The plant height, heavy metal uptake by plants, soil bioavailable heavy metal contents, soil N and P and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. The plant growth was enhanced with biochar amendment but a retardation was observed with high biochar application (5%). The soil N and P increased with the increase of biochar addition percentage while soil MBC showed reductions at 5% biochar amendment. Both soil bioavailable fractions of HM and up take of HMs by plants were gradually reduced with increase in biochar content. Based on the results, 2.5% biochar synergism with bacteria was the best for plant growth and soil nutrition status. Despite the synergism, available N was negatively correlated with the decrease of bioavailable metal percentage in soil whereas it was conversely for P.

  4. OLEORRESINA DE JÍCAMA Y CALIDAD DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL INFESTADA CON Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

    OpenAIRE

    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio; Jos\\u00E9 Mayolo Ju\\u00E1rez-Goiz; Edmundo Garc\\u00EDa-Moya; Mar\\u00EDa Dolores Fern\\u00E1ndez-Andr\\u00E9s; Ces\\u00E1reo Rodr\\u00EDguez-Hern\\u00E1ndez; Est\\u00E9fana Alvarado-B\\u00E1rcenas

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l). Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml) del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2); C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2); C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1) y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de...

  5. Digestibilidad del almidón en diferentes variedades de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Apolonio Vargas-Torres; Perla Osorio-Díaz; Edith Agama-Acevedo; Leticia Morales-Franco; Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió la composición química y la digestibilidad del almidón de cuatro variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas (p¿0,05) en el contenido de proteína y el contenido de lípidos fue bajo pero sin diferencias apreciables. Estos frijoles son buena fuente de minerales (3,67-5,15% cenizas). El valor de almidón total (AT) menor fue para la variedad Flor de Mayo (34,70%) y el mayor para Peruano (42,81%) y Mayocoba (40,24%). Los valores mayores...

  6. Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus Vulgaris l. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Navarrete

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotipos de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. resistentes a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli de México. Durante 1995 se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol de diversos origenes a Xcp, bajo condiciones de invernadero en el Campo Experimental del Valle de México, del INIFAP. Se realizaron tres experimentos con a120, b44 y csiete genotipos de frijol. Las plantas se inocularon por corte con navajas en la etapa V3, a y b con una mezcla de nueve cepas de Xcp y el c, con cada una de siete cepas con diferente grado de patogenicidad. La severidad se evaluó 20 días después de la inoculación, por comparación con una escala visual de nueve grados. Los datos se analizaron bajo un diseño completamente al azar. En a, los genotipos que mostraron reacción de resistencia a Xcp fueron: A 36, A 475, G 5686, G 11867, Harowood, SEA 14, XAN 266, MCD 4012 y REN 27. En b los genotipos resistentes fueron: Sequía Durango, Taylor y XAN 30. En los experimentos anteriores la severidad de la enfermedad mostró una distribución normal, con el máximo número de genotipos en el grado de severidad cinco en a y seis en b. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el uso de mezclas de cepas de bacterias con diferente patogenicidad es eficiente para identificar genotipos de frijol resistentes a Xcp. Los genotipos resistentes identificados en el último experimento, mostraron respuesta diferencial e interacciones genotipo por cepa. REN 27 y SEA 14 mostraron resistencia a las cepas utilizadas

  7. OLEORRESINA DE JÍCAMA Y CALIDAD DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL INFESTADA CON Acanthoscelides obtectus Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Antonio Rangel-Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la oleorresina de jícama en la calidad de la semilla de frijol. En laboratorio se obtuvo el extracto de oleorresina media nte HPLC y se detectó la presencia de rotenona (15 mg/l. Se ensayaron tres concentraciones (Ci, g/ml del extracto: C1 (5x10-7, 5x10-6, ¿5x10-2; C2 (1x10-2, 2x10-2,¿6x10-2; C3 (5x10-1, 6x10-1,¿9x10-1 y testigo por concentración, en frascos de 300 ml con 50 g de semilla de frijol (varie dades Flor de Ma yo, Flor de Junio, Ma - yocoba y veinte gorgojos adultos. El ensayo sólo comprendió semillas de frijol tratadas con C2 por 48 horas para evaluar vigor y germinación estándar a los tres y sie te días después de la siembra, bajo normas de IS TA. El aumento de C2 fue gradual en el número de plántulas normales y germinación estándar en el primer recuento, en particular con las diluciones 3 x 10-2 a 6 x 10-2; en el segundo recuento se confirmó la germinación estándar total con estas mismas diluciones. El frijol Ma yocoba en presencia del extracto de semilla de jícama, mantuvo el vigor y valores porcentuales aceptables de germinación estándar de la semilla.

  8. [Chemical constituents from seeds of Vigna umbellata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ying; Sun, Jian; Lv, Hai-Ning; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation was carried out on the seeds of Vigna umbellata. The 70% ethanol extract of the seeds of V. umbellata was subjected to silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies and preparative HPLC. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data Eight compounds were obtained and identified as carboxyatractyligenin (1), 2beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-15alpha-hydroxy-kaur-16-ene-18,19-dicarboxylic acid (2), 2beta-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) atractyligenin (3), 3R-O-[beta-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] oct-1-ene-3-ol (4), (6S, 7E, 9R) -roseoside (5), liriodendrin (6), resveratrol (7) and maltol (8). Compounds 1-7 were isolated from Vigna genus for the first time, and compound 8 was isolated from V. umbellata for the first time.

  9. Estimation of camptothecin and pharmacological evaluation of Ophiorrhiza prostrata D. Don and Ophiorrhiza mungos L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishnakumar G; Rameshkumar KB; Priya Srinivas; Satheeshkumar K; Krishnan PN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To carry out the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of camptothecin, estimation of total phenolic compounds and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxic activity of Ophiorrhiza prostrata and Ophiorrhiza mungos. Methods: Direct Analysis in Real Time- Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed for the detection of camptothecin in the Ophiorrhiza species, while high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used for the estimation of camptothecin. Total phenolic compounds were estimated by modified Folins-Ciocalteu’s reagent method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging assays and reducing power assay. The cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using MTT assay on MCF-7 cell lines. Results: The presence of camptothecin was confirmed in both the species by the [M++H] peak at 349 by DART-MS analysis. Camptothecin content was estimated as 1.47 μg/gm (dry wt) in O. prostrata and 188.60 μg/gm (dry wt) in O.mungos using HPTLC method. The moderate in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts corroborates with the low content of phenolic compounds in O. prostrata (9.88 GAE mg/g) and O. mungos (12.73 GAE mg/g). The methanol extract of O. prostrata exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity on human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7), with IC50 value 1.10μg/mL compared to O. mungos (3.48μg/mL) and standard camptothecin (3.51μg/mL). Conclusions: The application of DART-MS proved to be a simple and rapid technique for the detection of camptothecin in Ophiorrhiza species. The higher cytotoxicity for O. prostrata, despite the low content of camptothecin suggests the presence of other potential cytotoxic compounds in O. prostrata.

  10. Interspecific Hybridization AmongVigna Species%豇豆属食用豆类间的远缘杂交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长友; 范保杰; 曹志敏; 苏秋竹; 王彦; 张志肖; 程须珍; 田静

    2015-01-01

    粒的发育;黑吉豆与小豆、饭豆杂交时存在胚败育现象;饭豆作母本与小豆杂交经幼胚拯救可以获得可育的F1植株;小豆与近缘野生种的杂交亲和性优于饭豆;豇豆与其他食用豆类间杂交均未成功。%Objective]The aim of this study was to analyze the crossability of differentVigna species, which will facilitate the distant hybridization breeding ofVigna.[Method] Interspecific crossabilities were investigated among 5 cultivar species of Vigna,V. radiata (mungbean),V. mungo (black gram),V. umbellata (rice bean),V. anguluris (adzuki bean),V. unguiculata (cowpea), and 3 wild relative species of adzuki bean,V. minima,V. nakashiame andV. riukiuensis. Embryo rescue was conducted for 3 interspecific combinations, namely,V. radiata×V. angularis,V. angularis×V. umbellataandV. umbellata×V. angularis, respectively. The pod setting ratio of hybrid and performance of F1 plant were investigated to analyze the crossabilities between food legumes ofVigna genus.[Result] The genetic relationship between different food legumes and the choice of female parent influenced the result of distant hybridization. Except for cowpea cross combinations, hybrid pods were set successfully in the other interspecific crosses. The growth of hybrid pods and seeds showed variations in different combinations. No genetic disorders before fertilization were found from the hybridizations ofV. radiata×V. mungo,V. angularis×V. minima,V. angularis×V. nakashiame, andV. angularis×V. riukiuensis. The hybrid seeds of them germinated normally, and the hybrid plants were fertile, but the fruiting rates were lower. The pod setting ratio was significantly higher whenV. radiatawas selected as female parent in the interspecific crosses betweenV. radiataandV. umbellata. F1 plants were obtained without embryo culture, but they showed complete hybrid sterility. No fertile seeds were obtained even backcross toV. radiataorV. umbellata. Hybrid plants were obtained from cultured

  11. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Silvina R.; González, Rolando J.; Luis Chel-Guerrero; Mirta E Valencia

    2007-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación). Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación...

  12. Respuesta de frijol al Endospor 33® a dosis 50% de fertilizante nitrogenado/fosfatado en agricultura protegida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sanchez-Yañez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El frijol requiere fertilización nitrogenada y fosfatada (FNP, cuya indiscriminada aplicación causa pérdida de productividad del suelo, una alternativa de solución para este problema es reducir y optimizar la dosis de FNP con un inoculante mixto con bacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (BPCV y hongos micorricicos vesículo arbusculares (HMA. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la respuesta del frijol al inoculante mixto Endospor 33® a dosis reducida al 50% del FNP. En un suelo ferralítico rojo pobre de Nitrógeno (N y materia orgánica. Con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 5 tratamientos y 6 repeticiones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de germinación del frijol con Endospor 33® a la dosis 20 mg/semilla fue de 100%. A plántula con 10 mg/planta, tuvo 6,13g de peso fresco total (PFT y de 0,66g de peso seco total (PST comparado con el frijol control relativo (CR con 0,28g de PST con el 100% del FNP. A floración con 30 mg/planta Endospore 33® tuvo 1,5g de PST comparado con 1,07g de PST del frijol CR. A madurez fisiológica con 30mg/planta registro 34,83g/100 semillas, en contraste a su homologo CR con 20,39g/100 semillas. Lo anterior indica que este inoculante mixto es una opción en la producción del frijol a dosis reducida del FNP, sin afectar negativamente su crecimiento y/o rendimiento.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  14. Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del Estado de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del estado de Veracruz, México. El objetivo del presentetrabajo, fue validar genotipos de frijol con el paquete tecnológico del INIFAP, en parcelas de productores. Durante los ciclosde humedad residual de 1998 a 2001 se establecieron nueveparcelas de validación. Los genotipos utilizados fueron: las lí-neas II-307 y DOR-500 y las variedades Negro Huasteco 81,Negro Cotaxtla 91 y Negro INIFAPy como testigo del productor la variedad Jamap...

  15. UTILIZACIÓN DE EXTRACTOS DE PLANTAS PARA EL CONTROL DE GORGOJO PARDO ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS (SAY) EN FRIJOL ALMACENADO

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Nava-Pérez; Patricia Gastélum-Hurtado; Jesús Ricardo Camacho-Báez; Benigno Valdez-Torres; Carlos Ramón Bernal-Ruiz; René Herrera-Flores

    2010-01-01

    El frijol es uno de los principales cultivos en el norte de Sinaloa. Las mayores pérdidas ocurren durante su almacenamiento y éstas son ocasionadas por enfermedades y plagas, como el gorgojo pardo del frijol (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say). Para controlar este tipo de plagas se aplican malatión, fosfuro de aluminio y bromuro de metilo. Debido a la alta toxicidad de estos productos, se utilizaron, extractos de Bacharis glutinosa, Eucaliptus globulos y Melia azedarach, para el control del gorgoj...

  16. RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DEL EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE BIOBRAS-16 EN EL CULTIVO DEL FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lissy Rosabal Ayan; Lisbel Martínez González; Yanelis Reyes Guerrero; Miriam Núñez Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    En Cuba anualmente se importan alrededor de 60 000 t de frijoles para poder satisfacer la demanda de la población. El gobierno cubano ha creado p rogramas para la sustitución de importaciones mediante la producción y comercialización de productos naturales que faciliten el incremento de la producción nacional. En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto que el Biobras -16 (BB-16), asperjado a las semillas o foliarmente, ejerce en el crecimiento y rendimiento de plantas de frijol negro variedad Tomegu...

  17. Digestibilidad de garbanzo, maíz alta calidad proteica y frijol quebrado en tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Mejía, Magnolia

    2014-01-01

    El garbanzo, maíz de alta calidad proteica y frijol quebrado, son cereales y leguminosas de gran producción en la región de Sinaloa, al momento de la cosecha algunos granos se quiebran y estos son considerados como granos de segunda, estos pueden ser utilizados como ingredientes en la formulación de alimentos balanceados para la acuicultura. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la digestibilidad de garbanzo, maíz de alta calidad proteica y frijol quebrado in vivo en ...

  18. Cartografía de QTL asociados a la tolerancia a estrés hídrico en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Villordo Pineda, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol común o judía) es una leguminosa de gran demanda para la nutrición humana y un producto agrícola muy importante. Sin embargo, la producción de frijol se ve limitada por presiones ambientales como la sequía. En México, el 85% de la cosecha de frijol se produce en la temporada de primavera-verano, principalmente en las regiones del altiplano semiárido con una precipitación anual entre 250 y 400 mm. A pesar del implemento de tecnología en el campo, los factores natu...

  19. Defoliación en maíz y su efecto sobre el rendimiento de frijol-maíz en asociación

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Delgado Martínez; José Alberto Salvador Escalante Estrada; Ramón Díaz Ruíz; Antonio Trinidad Santos; Edgar Jesús Morales Rosales; Eliseo Sosa Montes

    2014-01-01

    El rendimiento tanto de maíz y frijol en monocultivo está determinado por el genotipo y el ambiente. Sin embargo, la siembra asociada de estos cultivos puede incrementar la producción por unidad de área. No obstante, el efecto de competencia interespecifica donde el frijol es más afectado y que se asume al sombreado del maíz sobre el frijol ha sido poco atendido. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto de la defoliación del maíz sobre la biomasa total (BT), índice de cosecha ...

  20. DISTRIBUCIÓN ESPACIAL DEL AMACHAMIENTO DEL FRIJOL (Aphelenchoides besseyi CHRISTIE EN CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la distribución espacial del amachamiento en campo. La investigación se realizó entre mayo y julio del 2009 en las comunidades de Veracruz de Pérez Zeledón, San José y Concepción de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Para ello se evaluó la incidencia de la enfermedad por punto de siembra en dos parcelas de frijol provenientes de distintas rotaciones (arroz/frijol y maíz/fri - jol, con lo cual, posteriormente se determinó la distribución espacial de la enfermedad en campo por medio de un análisis de corridas y los índices de varianza/media (V/M, Lloyd y Morisita. En el análisis de corridas se obtuvo un valor pro - medio de Z de -1,06 para la parcela sembrada previamente con arroz, y de -0,98 para la parcela sembrada previamente con maíz, lo que indica una tendencia a la agregación. Los índices de V/M, Lloyd y Morisita fueron mayores que 1 en ambas parcelas, por lo que se determinó que el amacha - miento presentó un patrón espacial agregado (en parches en condiciones de campo. El patrón espacial del amachamiento en campo tiende a enmascararse debido a la rotación con cultivos hospederos de Aphelenchoides besseyi , – su agente causal –, en especial la rotación maíz/frijol donde el produc - tor redistribuye el inóculo de la enfermedad cuando esparce las cañas de maíz sobre el terreno de cultivo

  1. Producción artesanal de semilla de frijol en Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto L\\u00F3pez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Para solucionar la escasez se semilla mejorada de frijol en los municipios de Veracruz y Jamapa se estableció el proyecto de Producción Artesanal de Semillas de Frijol (PASF, desde el ciclo 1998/99, con un modelo de coparticipación de las Jefaturas de Fomento Agropecuario de los Ayuntamientos, productores e investigadores del programa de frijol. En el primer ciclo se establecieron parcelas demostrativas y de validación con variedades y líneas, respectivamente y se capacitó a los agricultores aprendiendo - haciendo. En el siguiente ciclo se multiplicaron las variedades con productores asesorados por los investigadores y se hizo la entrega de semilla PASF. Con base en cuatro toneladas de semilla y el pago por parte de las municipalidades de Veracruz y Jamapa del 50% del costo de la semilla, 118 productores sembraron 100 hectáreas en el ciclo otoño-invierno 99-2000; además se distribuyeron 800kg a agricultores frijoleros. En las parcelas comerciales los rendimientos fueron variables debido a la lluvia irregular; en el municipio de Veracruz, las variedades PASF promediaron 550 kg y en Jamapa fueron de 650 kg/ha. Estos rendimientos fueron superiores a los obtenidos con semilla de programas emergentes y a los criollos regionales (300 kg/ha. La estrategia propuesta es una alternativa viable para satisfacer la demanda de semilla municipal e iniciar un proceso de adopción entre los agricultores. Este modelo se está promoviendo

  2. Efectos de una campaña educativa sobre frijoles en escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Efectos de una Campaña Educativa sobre frijioles en escolares. Una “Campaña Educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles”, se realizó en una comunidad urbana costarricense. El grupo objetivo de la Campaña estuvo conformado por madres de niños escolares de clase media. Por su estrecho contacto con las madres los escolares entre 9 y 11 años, de tercero y cuarto grados, constituyeron el grupo interactivo. Con los escolares se realizaron una serie de actividades que tenían como objetivo motivarlos a consumir frijoles y capacitarlos para que pudieran contribuir a reforzar los mensajes que se dirigían al grupo objetivo de la Campaña. El presente estudio corresponde a una evaluación que se realiza a los escolares, alrededor de un año después de haberse iniciado la Campaña en la comunidad. Los resultados revelaron que un 73% de los escolares consumían más frijoles después de la Campaña. La mayoría lo hacía por convicción propia y dieron razones que pueden asociarse directamente a la Campaña. Esto refleja un efecto positivo sobre sus actitudes, que resulta importante para la modificación de hábitos alimentarios. Con respecto a conocimientos, un 100% de los escolares reconocía los frijoles como beneficiosos para la salud y la mayoría los asoció con razones nutricionales. En general, la confrontación de los resultados obtenidos con los “indicadores de éxito” fijados en el Plan de Comunicación de la Campaña, reveló efectos positivos de la Campaña en la población escolar.

  3. ALBICAMPO, VARIEDAD DE FRIJOL DE TEMPORAL PARA VALLES ALTOS DE LA MESA CENTRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoberto Garza-García; Ramón Garza-García; Carmen Jacinto-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Albicampo (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es una variedad de grano negro opaco pequeño, tipo Jamapa, liberada en 2010 por el programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP). Se obtuvo mediante una cruza simple, utilizando selección masal hasta la generación F4. En la F5 se realizó selección individual para resistencia a enfermedades, calidad de grano y características agronómicas. Esta variedad se...

  4. PRODUCTIVIDAD Y RENTABILIDAD DEL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL CON FERTIRRIEGO EN VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto del fertirriego en el cultivo de frijol en las zonas centro y sur del estado de Veracruz, México. Durante los ciclos invierno-primavera 2000 y 2001 se evaluaron tres tratamientos: 1) Riego rodado (por gravedad) y fertilización sólida manual (testigo regional), con la dosis 40N-40P-0K (RR-40), 2) Riego por goteo y fertilización sólida manual, con la dosis 4N-40P-0K (RG-40); en ambos tratamientos se aplicó el fertilizante a los quince días de...

  5. Relaciones hídricas y temperaturas altas en frijol del tipo "flor de mayo"

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del déficit hídrico del suelo y temperatura alta del aire en las relaciones hídricas y temperatura del dosel del cultivo (Tc), rendimiento de semilla (RS) y sus componentes en 8 variedades de frijol del tipo ?Flor de Mayo? (FM) y una variedad criolla. Se realizaron 3 experimentos de campo; Montecillo en riego (MR) con la aplicación de agua de la siembra a la madurez, Montecillo en secano (MS) con la lluvia como fuente única de humedad y Celaya en secano (CS) con lluvia y ...

  6. Location and Shallow Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, Pescadero, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Lent, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M. R.; Steedman, C. E.; Prentice, C. S.

    2003-12-01

    The San Gregorio fault is one of the principal faults of the San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area. Located west of the active trace of the San Andreas fault and near the coast, the San Gregorio fault zone consists of at least two northwest-southeast-trending strands, the Coastways and Frijoles faults. Little is known about the slip history on the San Gregorio, and information for the Frijoles fault is especially scarce, as it lies mostly offshore. To better understand the contribution of the San Gregorio fault zone to slip along the San Andreas fault system, we conducted a high-resolution, seismic imaging investigation of the Frijoles fault to locate near-surface, onshore, branches of the fault that may be suitable for paleoseismic trenching. Our seismic survey consisted of a 590-meter-long, east-west-trending, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across Butano Creek Valley, in Pescadero, California. The profile included 107 shot points and 120 geophones spaced at 5-m increments. Seismic sources were generated by a Betsy Seisgun in 0.3-m-deep holes. Data were recorded on two Geometrics Strataview RX-60 seismographs at a sampling rate of 0.5 ms. Seismic p-wave velocities, determined by inverting first-arrival refractions using tomographic methods, ranged from 900 m/s in the shallow subsurface to 5000 m/s at 200 m depth, with higher velocities in the western half of the profile. Migrated seismic reflection images show clear, planar layering in the top 100-200 meters on the eastern and western ends of the seismic profile. However, to within the shallow subsurface, a 200-m-long zone near the center of the profile shows disturbed stratigraphic layers with several apparent fault strands approaching within a few meters of the surface. The near-surface locations of the imaged strands suggest that the Frijoles fault has been active in the recent past, although further paleoseismic study is needed to detail the slip history of the San Gregorio

  7. Efecto de la cocción sobre algunas características nutricionales del frijol

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se estudiaron siete variedades de frijol de los tipos: Flor de Mayo, Negro, Bayo y Canario, además de la línea BAT 104. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las características tecnológicas y nutricionales, así como los cambios que por efecto de la cocción resultan en la digestibilidad de la proteína y la actividad del inhibidor de tripsina en el grano de los materiales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre variedades en el peso, tamaño, porcentaje de testa, tiempo de cocc...

  8. Adopción de variedades de frijol en el noroeste de Zacatecas

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Galindo-González; Román Zandate-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    En el noroeste de Zacatecas, en el primer semestre de 2003, se realizó un estudio que tuvo como objetivo conocer el grado de adopción de 11 variedades de frijol en condiciones de temporal. Estas variedades fueron: Negro Durango, Negro Altiplano, Negro 8025, Negro Vizcaya, Negro Otomí, Flor de Mayo 2000, Flor de Junio Victoria, Negro Ontiveros, Pinto Bayacora, Flor de Mayo Sol y Flor de Mayo M-38. Las variedades mencionadas se difundieron por medio del establecimiento de parcelas demostrativas...

  9. Experiencias y aprendizajes del desarrollo de variedades de frijol de manera participativa en el norte de Nicaragua

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conny Almekinders; Julio Molina-Centeno; Rolando Herrera-Torrez; Santos Luis Merlo-Olivera; José Manuel González-Suárez; Juan García-Carrasco

    2006-01-01

    .... Por medio de selección dentro y entre familias, cada agricultor desarrolló una línea avanzada de frijol con resistencia al Mosaico Dorado adaptado a sus condiciones de producción y preferencias. La comparación y validación...

  10. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... distribution pattern of fodder yield in the various crosses, the field ...... Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and Japan International Research Center.

  11. Fish otolith geochemistry, environmental conditions and human occupation at Lake Mungo, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kelsie; Stern, Nicola; Williams, Ian S.; Kinsley, Les; Wood, Rachel; Sporcic, Katarina; Smith, Tegan; Fallon, Stewart; Kokkonen, Harri; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Fish otoliths from the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area (south-western New South Wales, Australia) have been analysed for oxygen isotopes and trace elements using in situ techniques, and dated by radiocarbon. The study focused on the lunettes of Lake Mungo, an overflow lake that only filled during flooding events and emptied by evaporation, and Lake Mulurulu, which was part of the running Willandra Creek system. Samples were collected from two different contexts: from hearths directly associated with human activity, and isolated surface finds. AMS radiocarbon dating constrains the human activity documented by five different hearths to a time span of less than 240 years around 19,350 cal. BP. These hearths were constructed in aeolian sediments with alternating clay and sand layers, indicative of fluctuating lake levels and occasional drying out. The geochemistry of the otoliths confirms this scenario, with shifts in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca marking the entry of the fish into Lake Mungo several years before their death, and a subsequent increase in the δ18O by ˜4‰ indicating increasing evaporation of the lake. During sustained lake-full conditions there are considerably fewer traces of human presence. It seems that the evaporating Lake Mungo attracted people to harvest fish that might have become sluggish through oxygen starvation in an increasingly saline water body (easy prey hypothesis). In contrast, surface finds have a much wider range in radiocarbon age as a result of reworking, and do not necessarily indicate evaporative conditions, as shown by comparison with otoliths from upstream Lake Mulurulu.

  12. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris: su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodríguez-Castillo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000. Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los cuales son de utilidad en la prevención y tratamiento de varias de las patologías que afectan a la población costarricense. La presente revisión, documenta los efectos positivos que algunos nutrientes y otros elementos que aporta el frijol tienen en la prevención y el control de algunas de las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen problemas de salud pública en el país. Se abordan de manera particular la fibra, el ácido fólico y el magnesio. Asimismo, se hace referencia a otras sustancias fitoquímicas, presentes en los frijoles, que constituyen elementos protectores de la salud y que hacen de los frijoles un "alimento funcional". Finalmente, se ofrecen recomendaciones prácticas orientadas a mejorar la digestibilidad de este alimento, de manera que se contribuya a mantener e incrementar su consumo a nivel de los hogares costarricenses.Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are an important part of the Costa Rican diet. Nevertheless, the amount and the frequency of its consumption has been decreasing over time, especially in the urban areas. This tendency is a concern to those involved in health and nutrition since beans are a source of protein, non-heme iron, fiber, folic acid, thiamin, potassium , magnesium and zinc. The nutritional contribution of beans lo the Costa Rican diet is important in spite of the reduction in consumption. Beans are important because of their nutrient content and the presence of phytochemicals that have been recognized as part of

  13. Controles alternativos para el gorgojo del frijol (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say en granos almacenados a partir de materiales naturales y minerales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Lopez-Monzon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de controlar el daño del gorgojo del frijol [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say], se evaluó la efectividad en polvo de raíces deshidratadas de chilca (Senecio salignus DC., frutos deshidratados de pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L., fragmentos de madera de pino (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, maíz pulverizado (Zea mays L., cascabillo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cal mezclada con ceniza, y arena de río. Se evaluaron ocho tratamientos, con cuatro repeticiones cada uno, en arreglo totalmente al azar. Los materiales naturales y minerales fueron colectados en el municipio de Malacatancito, Huehuetenango y el ensayo se montó en el laboratorio del Centro Universitario de Nor Occidente (Cunoroc, empleando por réplica un frasco de vidrio con capacidad de 1 L y aplicando a cada uno 100 g de semilla de frijol, 10 parejas de gorgojos adultos y 1 g de polvo de los materiales evaluados, según su tratamiento. El análisis se realizó 60 días después de la infestación, donde se evaluó: el porcentaje de daño del gorgojo del frijol, número de gorgojos vivos, correlación del porcentaje de daño versus número de gorgojos vivos y porcentaje de germinación del frijol. El polvo de pimienta negra y la mezcla de cal con ceniza evidenciaron los mejores resultados con el menor porcentaje de daño (1.64% y 3.55%, respectivamente. Las variables porcentaje de daño y número de gorgojos vivos marcaron una fuerte correlación con valor de r = .892. Se estableció que ninguno de los materiales utilizados influyó en la viabilidad de la semilla, registrándose porcentajes de germinación por arriba del 97% en todos los tratamientos. Se recomienda implementar estos productos en el almacenamiento del frijol, para contrarrestar los daños ocasionados por la plaga, obteniendo así beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales.

  14. Mejoramiento genético del frijol rojo y negro mesoamericano para Centroamérica y El Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Rosas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de frijol en Centroamérica es llevada a cabo mayormente en laderas de suelos marginales, limitada por diversos factores bióticos y abióticos. Más de 350,000 t de este grano se producen en cerca de 0,5 millones de hectáreas, con rendimientos promedios de 678 kg/ha. La mayoría de los productores de frijol utilizan bajos insumos y muy pocas fincas están mecanizadas. El autoconsumo es alto; sin embargo, una alta proporción de este grano es comprado por intermediarios. En Honduras, el frijol es el sétimo cultivo en valor económico y es el de mayor rentabilidad entre el maíz, arroz y sorgo. Las dos clases comerciales más importantes en Centroamérica son el frijol rojo y negro pequeños (raza Mesoamérica. El mejoramiento de estos tipos de frijol se ha enfocado en el desarrollo de resistencia a enfermedades (mosaico común, mosaico dorado, antracnosis, mancha angular, roya, mustia hilachosa y bacteriosis común e insectos (principalmente picudo de la vaina; y tolerancia a baja fertilidad, sequía y calor. Programas adecuados de hibridación, evaluación y selección son usados para el desarrollo de cultivares con resistencia múltiple, alto rendimiento, buena adaptación y aceptación comercial. La ampliación de la base genética se obtiene usando fuentes de germoplasma Andino y Mesoamericano en la etapa de hibridación. La selección simultánea por varios caracteres y pruebas multilocalidades son utilizadas. Los viveros y ensayos de adaptación y rendimiento de líneas avanzadas son distribuídos a países de Centroamérica, México, y El Caribe. Las pruebas y validaciones en fincas y la liberación de variedades, son efectuadas por los programas nacionales de frijol de los países miembros de PROFRIJOL, en colaboración con el Zamorano, CIAT y el Bean/Cowpea CRSP

  15. CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF SEED YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING COMPONENTS OF BLACKGRAM ( VIGNA MUNGO L. HEPPER UNDER RAINFED CONDITION FROM ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation coefficient and path analysis studies werecarried out with seventeen parents (fourteen lines and three testers resulting 42 F1crosses for fifteen yield contributing component characters. The phenotypic and genotypic correlation analysis revealed that seed yield was highly significantly and positively correlated with number of branches, number of clusters, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant pod weight, total biomass and also highly significantly and positively correlated among themselves. Path coefficient analysis for seed yield revealed that significant phenotypic and genotypic direct effect with seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index, pod weight and number of clusters per plant. Hence selection for these characters may be carried out in the field and lab for overall yield improvement in blackgram.

  16. Co-inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and rhizobia in the presence of L-tryptophan for the promotion of mash bean (Vigna mungo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Qureshi, Arshad Iqbal, Naseem Akhtar, Masood Ahmad Shakir and Ajmal Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and leguminous plants results in active nitrogen fixation and plays a marvelous role in agriculture systems. L-tryptophan (L-TRP is an amino acid that acts as physiological precursor of auxins and is responsible for biosynthesis of auxins in the rhizosphere. Pot experiment was conducted at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad to assess the co-inoculation effect of N2-fixing (Rhizobium and P-solubilizing (Bacillus sp in the presence of L-TRP. Results revealed that co-inoculation improved the pod and straw yield considerably but the effect was more pronounced with L-TRP. Co-inoculation increased the root length, root mass, number of nodule and mass as compared to control with L-TRP. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced 30.87 pod and 32.73 g pot-1 straw yield followed by 30.47 and 31.10 g pot-1 with rhizobial inoculation, respectively. Co-inoculation produced higher root mass (33.5 g, root length (36.0 cm, nodule number (34, nodule mass (0.131 g and these values were further enhanced with L-TRP (40.5 g, 49 cm, 48 and 0.145 g. Co-inoculation enhanced the nutrient concentration in mash plant, grains and improved the nodulation as compared to the separate bacterial inoculations. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced higher soil N and available P in post harvest soil samples as compared to control. Study demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus species influenced the yield components positively than their separate inoculation and this effect could be more assenting with L-TRP. However, the approach of precursor-inocula interaction should be studied more comprehensively in different ecological zones to sustain the crop yield.

  17. Mutagenic efficiency and effectiveness of gamma rays and EMS and their combination in inducing chlorophyll mutations in M2 generation of Urdbean (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Usharani and C.R. Ananda Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of any mutagenic agent depends on its ability to induce high frequency of desirable changes as compared to undesirable ones. Hence, often it is necessary to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of mutagens for efficient and effective use. Though some studies have been carried out in blackgram, studies involving gamma rays and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS are scanty. The present investigation was undertaken in a blackgram variety VBN 4 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of physical and chemical mutagen viz., gamma ray and EMS respectively in single and combination dose/concentration. The mutagenic efficiency was found to be highest, at lower and intermediate concentration of mutagenic treatments. Based on lethality, injury and sterility, EMS was more efficient than gamma rays and combination of both in producing chlorophyll mutants. The effectiveness of chlorophyll mutants was high in gamma rays treatment than EMS.

  18. Comparative Effects of Auxins, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid on Callus Initiation and Organogenesis in Vigna mungo (L. Hepper Using Hypocotyl Explant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lingakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to compare the effects of conventional phytohormones like IAA, NAA, BAP to the recent hormones viz., JA and SA in callus induction in blackgram using hypocotyl as explant source. Instead of testing the hormone individually, a combination of hormones was used to induce callus and organogenesis. A significant callusing response was noticed in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 ppm of 2,4-D and 1 ppm of IAA. Likewise, Salicylic acid at 1 ppm induced high percentage of callus induction proving its efficiency in inducing the root formation. Jasmonic acid induced a high percentage of callus induction at 1.5 ppm and greater rooting response than SA. Organogenic callus was observed at JA and SA supplementation. The combination of NAA, BAP and SA showed that 0.75 & 1.5 ppm of NAA, 1 ppm of BAP and 0.5 ppm of SA showed a better response in culture medium. Thus, the combination of these hormones seems serve as efficient growth supplements for in vitro culture of many agricultural crops.

  19. Growth, nodulation and yield of mash bean (Vigna mungo L. as affected by Rhizobium inoculation and soil applied L-tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal Hussain*, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Hafiz Naeem Asghar and Maqshoof Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the grain legumes in Pakistan are poorly nodulated either because of low indigenous rhizobialpopulation or due to inefficient strains of native rhizobia. However, improvement in nodulation could be achievedthrough inoculation with effective rhizobial strains. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Rhizobiuminoculation along with L-tryptophan (L-TRP, a precursor of indole acetic acid (IAA on growth, yield andnodulation of mash been. The results indicated that Rhizobium inoculation along with L-tryptophan application (6mg kg-1 soil significantly improved plant height (44.6% as compared to control. Different improvements in rootlength (72.4%, oven dry root weight (Five fold, no. of pods plant-1 (86.4%, no. of grains per pod (42.8%, 100-grain weight (18.9% and nitrogen concentration in grains (two fold, was noted as compared with the controlwhere L-TRP was applied @ 2 mg kg-1 soil. There was a significant increase in number of nodules plant-1 (one fold,nodule fresh weight plant-1 (two fold and nodule dry weight plant-1 (four fold with Rhizobium inoculation alongwith L-TRP application @ 2 mg kg-1 soil as compared to Rhizobium inoculation alone. The study showed thatRhizobium inoculation along with L-TRP application could be a better approach for sustainable legume production.

  20. Evaluación de la Disponibilidad de Minerales en Harinas de Frijol y en Mezclas de Maíz/Frijol Extrudidas Evaluation of Mineral Availability in Cowpea Flour and in Maize/Cowpea Extruded Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina R Drago

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se analizaron los efectos de la extrusión sobre la disponibilidad de minerales, utilizando mezclas de maíz y frijol (con y sin tratamiento previo de inactivación. Al formular alimentos destinados a programas alimentarios se debe considerar el contenido y la calidad proteica y la biodisponibilidad de nutrientes. Una alternativa explorada en este trabajo es utilizar harinas de frijol, asegurando la calidad organoléptica del producto mediante tratamientos de inactivación de lipooxigenasa. La disponibilidad de los minerales se estimó a través del porcentaje dializado tras la digestión in vitro. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas maíz/frijol presentaron una mejora significativa de la cantidad y calidad proteica, con respecto al maíz. La inactivación no afectó la dializabilidad de hierro en la harina de frijol, mientras que la extrusión la mejoró. Si bien ambos procesos tuvieron un ligero efecto desfavorable en la dializabilidad del zinc, el valor de ésta fue bastante altoIn the present work the effects of extrusion on mineral availability of extruded mixtures based on maize and cowpea (with and without previous inactivation treatment were analyzed. In the formulation of foods aimed to food programs the amount and the quality of protein and bioavailability of the nutrients must be considered. One alternative, explored in this work, is to use bean flours, assuring the organoleptic quality, by lipoxigenase inactivation treatments. Mineral availability was estimated as the percentage of dialyzed mineral after in vitro digestion. Results showed that maize/cowpea mixture had a significant improvement in the amount of protein and its quality in comparison with maize. The inactivation treatment did not affect iron dialyzability of the cowpea flour while extrusion increased it. Although both process moderately impaired zinc dialyzability, the values were still high

  1. Detección por PCR de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum en cultivos y semillas de frijol en Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martínez Pacheco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, agente causal de la antracnosis del frijol, es uno de los patógenos más limitantes en la producción de este cultivo. La detección y correcta identificación de este hongo resulta fundamental para el manejo de la enfermedad, siendo las pruebas moleculares alternativas rápidas y sensibles para este fin. Mediante la técnica de PCR se evaluaron cuatro juegos de cebadores (CY1/CY2, CD1/CD2, ClF4/ITS4 y ClF432/ClR533 para la detección de C. lindemuthianum a partir de tejidos foliares, de vainas y de semillas procedentes de cultivos de frijol de Antioquia, Colombia. Los resultados indicaron que el par CD1/CD2, dirigido al pseudogen de permeasa de hierro Ftr1, fue el más efectivo para detectar el hongo en tejidos y semillas de frijol, así como para identificar aislamientos en cultivos microbiológicos. Para los cebadores CY1/CY2, dirigidos a los ITS del rDNA, se recomienda un esquema de PCR-RFLPs con MseI (=Tru1I para la diferenciación con las especies C. orbiculare y C. trifolii. Estos cebadores generaron resultados consistentes cuando se utilizaron en combinación con ITS1 (ITS1/CY2 e ITS4 (CY1/ITS4. Finalmente, los cebadores ClF4/ITS4 resultaron en amplificaciones inespecíficas y ClF432/ClR533 en fragmentos de difícil resolución en electroforesis de agarosa. Este estudio servirá de apoyo para los programas de certificación de semilla y mejoramiento genético de frijol.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  3. Efecto de rastrojos de malezas y herbicidas pre-emergentes en el control de malezas en frijol

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    Franklin Herrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica de setiembre de 1998 a febrero de 1999, se evaluó el efecto de los rastrojos de Ixophorus unisetus, Digitaria spp., Cynodon dactylon y Rottboellia cochinchinensis sobre: las malezas, la eficacia de los herbicidas pendimetalina, alaclor e imazetapir, y sobre la nodulación por Rhizobium y el crecimiento del frijol. Se encontró que la presencia de rastrojos sobre la superficie del suelo a razón de 4,5 t de materia seca/ha no fue efectiva para reducir el crecimiento de malezas en el cultivo del frijol sembrado en labranza de conservación. La eficacia de los herbicidas pendimetalina, imazetapir y alaclor no fue afectada por la presencia de los rastrojos sobre la superficie del suelo. Los rastrojos de Ixophorus unisetus afectaron negativamente el crecimiento y la producción del frijol, mientras que los rastrojos de Digitaria spp. y Cynodon dactylon tuvieron efectos positivos sobre el cultivo

  4. Manejo orgánico de la milpa: rendimiento de maíz, frijol y calabaza en monocultivo y policultivo

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    José Gonzalo Pozas Cárdenas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La milpa es un tradicional policultivo Mesoamericano que incluye maíz (Zea mays L., calabaza (Cucurbita spp. y frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se caracteriza por una sinergia entre estos tres cultivos que favorece su rendimiento en conjunto y genera resiliencia ante perturbaciones externas. No obstante, retos actuales ambientales y socio-económicos disminuyen el atractivo de la milpa para los productores por lo que es necesario innovar este sistema de producción sin perder su principal fortaleza, la agrobiodiversidad. En un experimento implementado en 2015 en Piedras Blancas, Estado de México, se compararon todas las posibles combinaciones de policultivos de maíz, calabaza y frijol con los monocultivos de cada una de estas plantas. Todo el manejo fue orgánico y la nutrición se basaba en estiércol compostado de bovino. De todos los tratamientos investigados, la asociación de maíz y frijol demostró la mayor producción total, donde el maíz rindió 7.9 Mg ha‑1 y el frijol 1.9 Mg ha-1. En este policultivo, cada planta de maíz produjo 68.3 g, 1.2 veces superior al rendimiento por planta en monocultivo; y cada planta de frijol 27.5 g, lo que corresponde a su rendimiento en el monocultivo. Todas las demás combinaciones de cultivos (maíz-calabaza, frijol-calabaza y maíz-frijol-calabaza superaron también los respectivos monocultivos en cuanto a su rendimiento total. Con respecto a la calabaza se destacó que las diversas asociaciones incrementaron su rendimiento por planta, pero disminuyeron la producción por planta de maíz y frijol asociados con la calabaza. Se confirmó la sobrecosecha de maíz y frijol asociados comparado con los respectivos monocultivos, lo que subraya el potencial productivo de los sistemas de producción diversificados.

  5. The tropics and the rise of the British Empire: Mungo Park's perspective on Africa in the late eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Larissa

    2011-03-01

    The young Scottish physician Mungo Park, aged 23, arrived in Africa in 1795 with a mission as specific as it was complex in those bygone days, namely to travel the entire length of the River Niger. In 1799, the story of this journey was published in a book that sold 1500 copies in the first month alone, with two further editions published that same year, as well as the translation of the work into French and German the following year. In this article, the narrative of Mungo Park is examined by taking due consideration of the relationship between the tropics, science and travel in the early days of British expansionism into the heart of Africa.

  6. Efecto del estado de desecación del rastrojo de arroz en las malezas y en el rendimiento del frijol

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    Franklin Herrera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicada en el distrito San José, provincia de Alajuela, en la zona de vida Bosque Húmedo Premontano y, entre junio del 2000 y enero del 2001, se realizó un experimento con el propósito de medir el efecto de desecar rastrojo de arroz con glifosato en diferentes periodos antes de la siembra directa del frijol, en el combate de malezas y en el rendimiento del frijol. La aplicación de glifosato sobre los rastrojos de arroz y malezas, desde cinco días antes de la siembra del frijol, hasta dos días después de la siembra pero antes de la emergencia, permitió una adecuada cobertura del suelo por los rastrojos durante el periodo crítico de competencia del frijol, con lo cual se redujo la presencia de malezas y se logró obtener altos rendimientos de frijol sin necesidad de aplicar otros herbicidas. Cuando el periodo de espera después de la aplicación del glifosato fue muy prolongado (30-45 días, la cobertura del suelo por el rastrojo fue pobre, debido a su avanzado estado de descomposición, por lo que hubo mayor presencia de malezas y efectos negativos en la producción de frijol, cuando no hubo control oportuno de esas malezas.

  7. Mejora genética participativa de la variedad criolla de frijol "Sacapobres"

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    Rodolfo Araya-Villalobos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultores experimentadores de la Región Brunca de Costa Rica solicitaron en el año 1999, al Programa de Investigación y Transferencia de Tecnología Agropecuaria en frijol (PITTA Frijol, la mejora genética de la variedad criolla Sacapobres, una de las principales variedades criollas de la Región Brunca, que posee precocidad (60 días a cosecha, superando en más de diez días a la variedad mejorada más precoz y alto potencial de rendimiento en grano (no había podido ser sustituida por las variedades mejoradas en sus campos de producción, pero de alta emisión de guías y acame. En el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT y la Escuela Agrícola Panamericana Zamorano, se efectuaron hibridaciones con esta variedad criolla. La selección de los materiales segregantes se inició en los años 2000 y 2001, en Costa Rica y se basó en la metodología de fitomejoramiento participativo (FP. Los sitios de selección fueron fincas de agricultores y una estación experimental. El principal criterio empleado por los agricultores fue la arquitectura erecta (ausencia o poca emisión de guías y sin acame para facilitar el tránsito por el terreno en las labores de deshierba y fumigación, seguido del tipo, tamaño y color de grano e incidencia de patógenos. Se seleccionaron, en el año 2005, dos líneas promisorias, que pasarán a la etapa de validación. Se describe la estrategia de selección en FP, la genealogía de los progenitores empleados y se concluye sobre el futuro mejoramiento de Sacapobres

  8. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions.

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    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available The genus Vigna (Fabaceae consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed.

  9. EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) EN LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó en el municipio La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, para evaluar el impacto del fitomejoramiento participativo sobre el sistema local de semillas de los pequeños agricultores del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). El trabajo de investigación consideró realizar el primer ejercicio de selección participativa de variedades de frijol en una feria de diversidad efectuada en una comunidad rural en Cuba, la cual fue organizada por un agricultor en la localidad ...

  10. Diversidad de frijoles nativos de diferentes regiones del estado de Puebla Native beans diversity of different regions from state of Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Ramírez-Pérez; Ramón Díaz-Ruiz; Carmen Jacinto-Hernández; Juan Alberto Paredes-Sánchez; Ramón Garza García

    2012-01-01

    El frijol común representa un cultivo básico en México con una gran variabilidad en sus características morfológicas. En estudios sobre la diversidad genética se han usado marcadores moleculares, entre los que se encuentran los RAPD. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar mediante caracteres morfológicos, agronómicos, de calidad y marcadores RAPD, variedades de frijoles nativos cultivadas en diferentes comunidades del estado de Puebla. La extracción de ADN se realizó en una muest...

  11. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

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    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  12. Consideraciones e importancia social en torno al cultivo del frijol en el centro de México Considerations and social importance of the bean crop in central Mexico

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    Dora Ma. Sangerman-Jarquín

    Full Text Available En México, el grano de frijol por su alto contenido de proteína es básico para la alimentación de su población; ocupa el segundo lugar en importancia nacional después del maíz. La producción de las leguminosas, principalmente el frijol ha disminuido una tasa de 3.2%, con respecto a un crecimiento de población más rápido que la producción. El frijol es una leguminosa que constituye una fuente de proteínas e hidratos de carbono natural; además es abundante en vitamina B como: niacina, ácido fólico y tianina; también proporciona hierro, cobre, zinc, fósforo, potasio, magnesio y calcio, contiene un alto contenido de fibra. Existen múltiples variedades de frijol que se caracterizan por su tamaño, color, forma y tipo de crecimiento. Se considera que en total existen 70 especies; en México estás ascienden a 50, destacan cinco especies que se han domesticado Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol común, Phaseolus coccineus L. (frijol ayocote, Phaseolus lunatus L. (frijol comba, Phaseolus dumosus (frijol gordo y Phaseolus acutifolius Gray (frijol tepari. En México se cultivan cerca de 70 variedades, de acuerdo a la norma son: negros, pintos, bayos, amarillos y rosados. El cultivo del frijol presenta características propias y definidas en el marco de la soberanía alimentaria, en virtud de que representa un alimento principal para la población rural y urbana. El programa de mejoramiento genético de frijol del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP del Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX, ha contribuido en gran medida en generar la tecnología necesaria para que el país alcance la autosuficiencia alimentaria sostenida en este cultivo. Esta tecnología incluye la liberación de variedades con mayor capacidad de rendimiento y mejor calidad alimentaria y culinaria.In Mexico, common bean is an essential component in the diet of the population due to its high protein content; it ranks second

  13. Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. en el estado de Chiapas, Mexico

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    Bernardo Villar S\\u00E1nchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrategia para el manejo de suelos ácidos en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el estado de Chiapas, México. Por su contribución en la dieta alimenticia y la generación de empleos, y por existir una ancestral cultura productiva y una superficie de siembra de más de 100 mil hectáreas, el cultivo de frijol es de fundamental importancia en el estado de Chiapas. Sin embargo, se ha determinado una brecha tecnológica de más de 700 kg/ha entre el potencial del cultivo y los rendimientos actuales. Esta es ocasionada por numerosos factores limitantes entre los que destaca la presencia de suelos de baja fertilidad y ácidos. La estrategia adoptada para el manejo de este problema incluye: 1.Aplicación de cal y fósforo; 2. Mejoramiento genético para resistencia; 3.Manejo de los ciclos de materia orgánica y nutrientes del suelo; y 4.Combinación de las tres alternativas. En este reporte se dan los avances obtenidos con relación a la primera alternativa considerada como el paso inicial para el logro de un manejo integral de suelos en Chiapas. Durante 1997 se estudiaron cinco dosis de cal y tres de fósforo en condiciones de invernadero y campo para suelos de diferentes localidades. Se utilizó un experimento factorial completo con cuatro repeticiones, los experimentos fueron evaluados en términos de la producción de grano y al efecto de la cal sobre las propiedades químicas del suelo. Hubo respuesta del frijol en rendimiento a la aplicación de cal y fósforo

  14. EFECTO DEL ABONO DE SUSTRATO GASTADO DE CHAMPIÑÓN EN EL RENDIMIENTO DE FRIJOL Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Helio Adán García Mendívil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La manipulación de los desechos orgánicos y sus compostas representan una fuente de nutrientes imprescindible para la agricultura sostenible, ya que provee de fertilizantes naturales y reduce la contaminación ambiental, bajando con ello el costo de producción. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de composta a base de sustrato gastado de champiñón, enriquecida con silicio, al suelo, en cultivo de frijol, a través de mediciones fisiológicas y rendimiento en frijol. El experimento se estableció en campo, sembrándose frijol var. Pinto Saltillo en Huatabampo, Sonora, en un suelo de tipo aluvión ligero. El diseño experimental utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar, compuesto de 4 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones: 1.- testigo (sin aplicación, 2-2.5, 3 5 y 4-7.5 Mg ha 1 de composta. Las variables evaluadas fueron: clorofila total, tasa fotosintética (µg CO2 S-1 cm-2, número de vainas por planta y rendimiento. Con los datos se realizó un análisis de varianza y las medias se compararon con la prueba de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05. Se observaron respuestas significativas en la mayoría las variables evaluadas, en clorofila total hubo aumentos de hasta 26.2% en el tratamiento dos, para fotosíntesis de 26.1% en el tratamiento cuatro, en el número de vainas 8.7% en el tratamiento tres, siendo este el de mayor rendimiento (P ≤ 0.05 con 2.91 Mg ha-1, seguido del tratamiento dos con 2.89 Mg ha-1, el tratamiento cuatro con 2.85 Mg ha-1, y por último el testigo con 1.4 Mg ha 1. Los resultados sugieren que el empleo de composta es una alternativa de fertilización viable para la producción de frijol.

  15. Efecto del antraceno en la estimulación del crecimiento en maíz y frijol

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Pérez-Armendáriz; Dolores Castañeda-Antonio; Guadalupe Castellanos; Teresita Jiménez-Salgado; Armando Tapia-Hernández; Daniel Martínez-Carrera

    2011-01-01

    Los efectos de hidrocarburos residuales en suelos agrícolas después de una remediación es un tema de gran interés por sus implicaciones sociales. En Acatzingo Puebla, México se restauró un suelo agrícola contaminado por un derrame de diesel. En este trabajo se evaluó la remoción de antraceno agregado a un suelo de Acatzingo, en concentraciones iniciales inducidas de 200 y 400 mg kg-1, utilizando plantas de importancia agrícola de la región, maíz (Zea mays) y frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) para l...

  16. Producción artesanal de semilla de frijol con participación municipal en Veracruz, México.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la producción artesanal de semilla de frijol municipal (PASF-Municipal). La estrategia se implementó de 1998-2010, en veintitrés municipios de las regiones Centro-sur y de las Altas Montañas del estado de Veracruz, México. El estudio constó de dos fases: una de establecimiento de parcelas de validación de variedades para seleccionar las de mayor productividad; la segunda fase fue la de instalación de parcelas de producción de semilla de las variedades m...

  17. PRODUCCIÓN ARTESANAL DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL CON PARTICIPACIÓN MUNICIPAL EN VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la producción artesanal de semilla de frijol municipal (PASF-Municipal). La estrategia se implementó de 1998-2010, en veintitrés municipios de las regiones Centro- sur y de las Altas Montañas del estado de Veracruz, México. El estudio constó de dos fases: una de establecimiento de parcelas de validación de variedades para seleccionar las de mayor productividad; la segunda fase fue la de instalación de parcelas de producción de semilla de las varie...

  18. Evaluación de alternativas para el manejo integrado de plagas del frijol ejotero en Chapingo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Manuel Pinto; Priscilia Olivia Cruz Carrada; Samuel Ramírez Alarcón; Juan Fernando Solís Aguilar; Luis Emilio Castillo Márquez

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluaron diversas alternativas de manejo para reducir la incidencia de las principales plagas en el cultivo de frijol ejotero (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en la zona de Chapingo, Estado de México, en comparación con el manejo convencional. Se estableció en un lote experimental de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, de mayo a octubre de 1996, bajo dos sistemas de labranza, cuatro fechas de siembra, dos densidades de siembra, y con o sin control químico. También se efectuó un análi...

  19. Efectos de la suplementación alimenticia sobre la producción de gallinas de patio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduberto Sánchez Sevilla

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación experimental realizada en las comunidades de San Andrés de la Palanca y La Ceiba, del municipio de Mateare, departamento de Managua. El estudio es parte de las actividades desarrolladas en el marco del Proyecto de Desarrollo Rural, ejecutado por el Programa de Desarrollo Agrario y Agronomía (ADAA-UCA. Se analizaron los efectos de la implementación de dos dietas compuestas de Maíz y Frijol Mungo (Maíz Zea mays L + Mungo Vigna radi@ta y de Maíz y Frijol Gandul (Maíz + Gandul Çqjanusaian, como suplementos proteicos para "gallinas de patio". El objetivo de este experimento fue mejorar la condición física de las gallinas de patio, principal fuente de alimentos (huevo y carne de que disponen las familias rurales de las mencionadas comunidades.

  20. Callus induction from protoplasts of V. unguiculata, V. sublobata and V. mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R; Eapen, S; Rao, P S

    1987-05-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyl of V. mungo (L.) Hepper or hypocotyl-derived callus of V. sublobata (Phaseolus sublobata Roxb.) and V. unguiculata (L.) Walp (syn. V. sinensis (L.) Saviex Hassk) using an enzyme solution comprising Cellulase 2.5%, Macerozyme, Hemicellulase and Driselase each at a 0.5% level in 0.5 M sorbitol. Isolated protoplasts were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (1962) basal liquid medium supplemented with BA, NAA, 2,4-D (1 mg/l each) and sucrose (14%). After four weeks, protoplast colonies were transferred to the same medium with a reduced level of sucrose (7%). Colonies proliferated into actively growing calli. Further attempts to regenerate plants from such calli were not successful. However, protoclones of V. unguiculata differentiated roots on auxin/cytokinin supplemented media. Alternative methods for shoot differentiation from protoplastderived cultures were tried by the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wild type strain B6S3.

  1. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color, los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijación de nitrógeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen

  2. Dinámica de la producción de maíz y frijol en México de 1980 a 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio De los Santos Ramos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la dinámica de la producción de maíz y frijol en México. Se efectuó un análisis retrospectivo para identi car los puntos críticos, los cambios y ajustes dados en el sector como resultado de las políticas del gobierno mexicano. Los datos fueron obtenidos de SAGARPA, Banco de México, Secretaría de Economía y de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. Se evaluaron indicadores de tasa de crecimiento media anual (TCMA, tendencia y precios constantes. Al realizarse el análisis nacional, se consideró como variable al país en su conjunto. Se analizaron los datos de superficie sembrada, producción, precios e importaciones de maíz y frijol en México entre los años 1980 a 2014. La superficie sembrada de maíz y frijol tuvo un decremento de 1,8 millones y 193 mil hectáreas, respectivamente; el rendimiento se incrementó para el maíz en 1,47 t/ha y en frijol 160 kg/ha, la producción de maíz tuvo una TCMA de 1,8% equivalente 10,1 millones de toneladas, el frijol tuvo una TCMA 0,89% con un incremento de 338 783 t. El maíz y frijol a precios constantes han tenido una disminución del 64,6% y 59,0%, correspondiente a 441,9 y 976,3 dólares por tonelada, respectivamente. Las importaciones de maíz tuvieron una TCMA de 2,8%, nalizó el 2012 con 9,5 millones de toneladas, las importaciones de frijol no mostraron ninguna tendencia. El punto crítico en las importaciones se dio con la entrada en vigor del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, pasó de una economía cerrada a una abierta, donde se incrementaron más las importaciones que la producción nacional.

  3. PRODUCTIVIDAD Y RENTABILIDAD DEL CULTIVO DE FRIJOL CON FERTIRRIEGO EN VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

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    Francisco Javier Ugalde-Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto del fertirriego en el cultivo de frijol en las zonas centro y sur del estado de Veracruz, México. Durante los ciclos invierno-primavera 2000 y 2001 se evaluaron tres tratamientos: 1 Riego rodado (por gravedad y fertilización sólida manual (testigo regional, con la dosis 40N-40P-0K (RR-40, 2 Riego por goteo y fertilización sólida manual, con la dosis 4N-40P-0K (RG-40; en ambos tratamientos se aplicó el fertilizante a los quince días de nacido el cultivo, y 3 riego por goteo y fertilización soluble, con la dosis 60N-60P-60K, aplicada en forma fraccionada durante el ciclo del cultivo (RG-60. De 2002 a 2005 se validó el mejor tratamiento y se realizó análisis económico para determinar su rentabilidad en comparación con el testigo regional. En la etapa de evaluación, con el tratamiento RG- 60 se redujo en 85% el gasto de agua y se obtuvo el mayor rendimiento promedio (2256 kg/ha, que superó en 145% al obtenido con RG-40 y en 186% al RR-40 (testigo regional. En la etapa de validación con riego por goteo y fertilización soluble fraccionada 60N-60-P-60K se obtuvo 110% más rendimiento que el testigo regional y mejor relación beneficio/ costo (1:1,80.

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE ACCESIONES CULTIVADAS Y SILVESTRES DE FRIJOL COMÚN DE HONDURAS

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    Marcelino Santiago Guachambala-Cando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la diversidad genética de las accesiones de Phaseolus que se conservan en el Banco de Germoplasma, un grupo de 69 accesiones de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y de P. coccineus de Honduras, fueron evaluadas con 30 cebadores mediante la técnica de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar, generándose 341 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN. Las distancias genéticas fueron determinadas según el coeficiente (o índice de similaridad de Dice y el método UPGMA. Estos análisis moleculares identificaron dos grupos a partir de un coeficiente de Dice (CD de 0,48, uno perteneciente a P. vulgaris y el otro a P. coccineus. Las accesiones de P. vulgaris, mostraron una división marcada (CD de 0,64 entre las pertenecientes a los reservorios andino y mesoamericano. Por otro lado, las accesiones mesoamericanas se separaron (CD de 0,76 en cuatro grupos, correspondientes a las accesiones silvestres, las variedades de la raza Jalisco, y las variedades mejoradas y criollas de la raza Mesoamérica. Los resultados confirmaron las distancias genéticas esperadas, incluyendo mayor distancia entre las especies de Phaseolus, seguidas de la separación entre las accesiones del reservorio andino y el mesomericano de P. vulgaris. En el reservorio mesoamericano, las dos accesiones de la raza Jalisco presentaron menor similitud que las de la raza Mesoamérica, y dentro de la raza Mesoamérica, los silvestres separados de los cultivados; adicionalmente, las mejoradas relativamente diferentes a las criollas.

  5. Nomenclatura de variedades de frijol común liberadas en Centro América y El Caribe

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    Juan Carlos Rosas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatura de variedades de frijol común liberadas en Centro América y El Caribe. En los últimos años varias líneas mejoradas de frijol común han sido liberadas como variedades en diferentes países de Centro América y El Caribe. Los programas nacionales e instituciones involucradas en los procesos de liberación han asignado estas variedades con diferentes nombres, dando como resultado que algunas de ellas sean conocidas con un nombre diferente en cada país donde se le ha liberado. A corto plazo, esta situación podría causar confusiones en la identificación de estas variedades mejoradas actualmente utilizadas por los agricultores. El propósito de este documento es servir de referencia para guiar a investigadores, productores, distribuidores de semilla, funcionarios de gobierno y comercializadores, en sus decisiones con respecto al uso de estas variedades mejoradas para producción comercial de grano o semilla, su procesamiento industrial y mercadeo en la región.

  6. Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México

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    Ernesto Lopez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo durante los ciclos agrícolas de 1999-2000 y 2000-2001; se evaluó la adaptación y rendimiento de 15 líneas avanzadas de frijol negro, así como un testigo local. Dichos genotipos forman parte al Ensayo Centroamericano de Adaptación y Rendimiento (ECAR. La evaluación se realizó en 11 localidades, cinco en el estado de Chiapas y seis en Veracruz, los experimentos se establecieron bajo condiciones de riego, temporal y humedad residual. Las líneas ICTA-Ju 97-1, ICTA-Ju II- 307, DOR-678 y Cut-45, resultaron sobresalientes por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación y estabilidad. En el ciclo agrícola de otoño-invierno 1999-2000, se evaluó la respuesta de las líneas a las siguientes enfermedades: mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaseoisariopsis griseola, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Las líneas que resultaron tolerantes fueron ICTA Ju 97-1 y Cut-45. Ambas serán validadas en campos de agricultores para su posible liberación como nuevas variedades para algunas regiones productoras de Veracruz y Chiapas, México

  7. Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol ( phaseolus vulgaris l. en el valle de san juan

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    Juan Cedano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraccionamiento de nitrógeno en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el valle de San Juan. Se realizó un estudio para determinar el efecto del fraccionamiento de la fertilización nitrogenada y el momento adecuado para la aplicación de nitrógeno en el cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en cinco localidades del Valle de San Juan, R. D. Los experimentos fueron establecidos del 5 al 14 de noviembre (1997 , se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar y nueve tratamientos en cada localidad, encontrándose que en los terrenos con altos niveles de nitrógeno no hubo respuesta a la aplicación de nitrógeno ni al fraccionamiento de este nutrimento; mientras que en los suelos con deficiencia en nitrógeno si hubo respuesta a la fertilización nitrogenada encontrándose diferencia estadística significativa a la aplicación y al momento de aplicación del fertilizante. Entre las localidades hubo diferencia estadística significativa (P>0.05, mientras que no se encontró interacción entre los tratamientos y las localidades

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN PRELIMINAR CON MICROSATÉLITES DE LA COLECCIÓN GUATEMALTECA DE FRIJOL COMÚN TREPADOR

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    Karla Melina Ponciano-Samayoa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar con microsatélites una colección de 558 accesiones de frijol voluble guatemalteco. En el Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Agrícolas (ICTA, en el periodo enero 2008 a junio 2009, con base en seis marcadores microsatélites, se analizaron agrupamientos y diversidad genética dentro de los grupos de frijol. Todos los loci analizados fueron polimórficos, se detectaron 25 alelos con un promedio de 4,12 alelos por marcador. El análisis de similaridad detectó genotipos duplicados que al ser eliminados dio lugar a una colección reducida de 261 muestras diferentes (46,8 % de la original. Los análisis de similaridad y correspondencia identificaron 12 grupos, incluyendo un control andino. La diversidad genética de Nei para la colección reducida fue 0,4310, y la diferenciación genética (Gst de 0,5747. La diversidad genética entre los grupos (57,5 % fue mayor que la detectada dentro de los grupos (42,5 %. Las distancias genéticas entre grupos se calcularon en un rango de 0.1566 a 1,6205. Un alto nivel de heterocigosidad fue observado.

  9. Experiencias y aprendizajes del desarrollo de variedades de frijol de manera participativa en el norte de Nicaragua

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    Conny Almekinders

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación describe un proyecto piloto de fitomejoramiento en el Norte de Nicaragua. Semillas de frijol de la generación F3 con base en tres cruces triples, hechos en CIAT, Colombia, fueron entregadas a cinco agricultores de dos localidades. Por medio de selección dentro y entre familias, cada agricultor desarrolló una línea avanzada de frijol con resistencia al Mosaico Dorado adaptado a sus condiciones de producción y preferencias. La comparación y validación de las líneas avanzadas con una variedad testigo, resultó en la identificación de dos materiales que se comportaron mejor que el testigo en el área, considerando las evaluaciones de rendimiento, valor comercial (color de grano y características culinarias. Estas líneas promisorias fueron bautizadas y lanzadas en octubre 2004. El proceso de participación es descrito considerando un número de factores incluyendo el proceso en el transcurso de tiempo. Los resultados de este proyecto piloto prueban que es posible desarrollar variedades superiores en campos de agricultores y con la participación de ellos. El desafío del escalamiento e institucionalización presentan preguntas que solamente se puede contestar con experiencias reales

  10. Producción de genotipos de frijol negro en condiciones de humedad residual y sequía terminal

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    Oscar Hugo Tosquy Valle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En Veracruz y Chiapas, el cultivo de frijol del ciclo otoño-invierno, sufre periodos de sequía durante la etapa reproductiva, lo que causa bajos rendimientos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el rendimiento de genotipos de frijol, evaluados bajo condiciones de humedad residual y de sequía terminal durante el ciclo otoño-invierno de 2013-2014, en las localidades de La Candelaria, Medellín, Veracruz, Campo Experimental Ixtacuaco (CEIXTA, municipio de Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, y Campo Experimental Centro de Chiapas (CECECH, municipio de Ocozocoautla, Chiapas. Se evaluaron 11 líneas avanzadas de frijol, comparadas con las variedades Negro Tacaná y Negro Jamapa, en diseño experimental bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Las variables de respuesta fueron: días a floración media, días a madurez fisiológica, peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento de grano. En la Candelaria y el CECECH, ambas con ocurrencia de sequía terminal, se obtuvieron valores significativamente inferiores en las cuatro variables de respuesta, con respecto a los obtenidos en el CEIXTA, sin estrés por sequía. Las líneas SEN-56, SCN-2, SEN-70 y NCB-229 fueron las más precoces en alcanzar su floración media en las tres localidades de prueba, la cual en promedio ocurrió antes de 35 días después de la siembra. Las tres primeras líneas también mostraron menor tiempo a la madurez fisiológica, en promedio antes de los 71 días. La línea SCN-2 obtuvo en promedio el mayor peso de 100 semillas (27 g, el cual fue significativamente superior a los obtenidos por el resto de los genotipos, que registraron pesos menores a 25 g. Así mismo SEN-70, NGO-17-99 y Jamapa Plus, junto con otras cuatro líneas obtuvieron un rendimiento promedio mayor a 1000 kg ha-1, significativamente superior al de las variedades Negro Jamapa y Negro Tacaná. SEN-70 fue la de mayor rendimiento con y sin sequía terminal.

  11. Actividad biológica de la raíz de senecio salignus contra zabrotes subfasciatus en frijol almacenado

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto López Pérez; Cesáreo Rodríguez Hernández; Laura D. Ortega Arenas; Ramón Garza García

    2007-01-01

    El brúquido Zabrotes subfasciatus es la principal plaga del frijol almacenado en zonas cálidas, y puede ocasionar daño total si no se controla. Se realizó una serie de experimentos en confinamiento y libre elección en condiciones controladas para conocer la actividad biológica del polvo de la raíz de chilca Senecio salignus en Z. subfasciatus, utilizando un diseño completamente al azar. El polvo al 0.01, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 y 1% o con tamaños 0.25, 0.25-0.99, 1-2, y 4 mm se mezcló con ...

  12. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  13. SELECCIÓN DE GENOTIPOS DE FRIJOL COMÚN POR SU RESISTENCIA AL TIZÓN BACTERIANO

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    Odile Rodr\\u00EDguez-Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En noviembre del 2007, se evaluó la reacción de genotipos de frijol común al tizón común producido por el aislamiento EAP 9506 de Xcp de Honduras y se identificaron nuevas líneas y variedades tolerantes a este patógeno. El estudio se desarrolló en el invernadero del área experimental del Programa de Investigaciones en Frijol (PIF, Escuela Agrícola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras. Se sembraron dos experimentos: 1 37 genotipos procedentes de Cuba, 2 27 genotipos procedentes del PIF de Honduras. Las plantas fueron inoculadas con el método de punción múltiple en la etapa V3. La severidad del daño se evaluó a los 20 días después de la inoculación, utilizando una escala visual de 1 a 9 (1=sin síntomas; 9= síntomas severos. El genotipo que mostró reacción de resistencia a Xcp en el experimento 1 fue: XAN 159 ; y en el experimento 2: VAX 3, VAX 5, VAX 6, XAN 309 y XAN 310, y líneas procedentes de la cruza Tío Canela 75/VAX6, destacándose X0104-45-3-5-5, X104-45-5-1-4 y X104-45-5-5-3, con los valores de resistencia más sobresalientes.

  14. Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común

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    Juan Carlos Rosas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común. Entre 1994-95 se identificaron fuentes de frijol tolerantes a altas temperaturas mediante la evaluación de germoplasma y líneas mejoradas en Choluteca y Nacaome (≤ 50 msnm, en la región Sur de Honduras. La tolerancia al calor de los mejores genotipos fue confirmada en Geneva, Nueva York, EE.UU., bajo condiciones de invernadero con temperatura controlada (35/27 oC día/noche. Posteriormente, se realizaron cruzamientos para desarrollar líneas de grano rojo-pequeño tolerantes al calor y resistentes al VMDF y a otros factores limitantes. Las poblaciones segregantes F2-F5 fueron evaluadas por caracteres múltiples incluyendo VMDF, bacteriosis, baja fertilidad, roya, valor agronómico y valor comercial del grano. En 1998, 217 líneas F6 y F7 fueron evaluadas en el distrito de riego Lempa-Acahuapa (20 msnm, región Pacífica de El Salvador, por tolerancia a altas temperaturas y al VMDF. Estas mismas líneas se evaluaron en la localidad de Liberia, en la región Noroeste de Costa Rica, por tolerancia a altas temperaturas; y en El Zamorano, Honduras por resistencia a bacteriosis, mancha angular y roya. Se logró identificar un grupo de líneas que superaron a los testigos comerciales bajo condiciones de altas temperaturas en El Salvador y Costa Rica. Algunas de las líneas seleccionadas presentaron alta resistencia al VMDF en El Salvador, resistencia moderada a mustia en Costa Rica, y excelente comportamiento agronómico y valor comercial del grano

  15. Efecto de la compactación del suelo en la producción de frijol

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    Alfonso Claro A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Oxisol representativo de La Llanura Roja del sur de La Habana en vías de degradación por compactación, ubicado en la Estación Experimental de Suelos La Renee, se llevó a cabo en el periodo 1993- 1995, un ensayo de simulación de diferentes grados de compactación, obtenidos por medio de pases sucesivos de grada mediana . El objetivo fue definir la relación entre la baja fertilidad que presentan estos suelos y la compactación antrópica. El cultivo indicador fue el frijol, en relación con maíz. La evaluación de la compactación se efectuó mediante perfiles cartográficos, con los cuales se observó y midió: la penetrometría, el estado interno de la estructura y la colonización radical. Los resultados indicaron una relación directa entre la degradación por compactación y la disminución de la porosidad estructural. El espesor y valor de la capa compacta formada aumentó en dependencia del número de pases de grada. De forma similar la colonización radical se vio restringida a la capa suelta superficial, siendo menos favorecida en la variante de 20 pases de grada, donde su profundidad resultó menor. Los rendimientos de frijol y maíz disminuyeron presentando una relación estrecha con la compactación

  16. Obtención de un híbrido de frijol arbustivo para una cosecha mecanizada

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    Carlos Muñoz Ruiz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron tres variedades de frijol negro (Brunca, Guaymí y Talamanca, obtenidas en la estación experimental Fabio Baudrit de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y una variedad (Negro Chapingo, obtenida en la Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo, México. Estas variedades no presentaron las características genéticas deseadas para ser utilizadas como donadores y aceptores de polen para obtener un híbrido arbustivo y de floración determinada para su cosecha en forma mecánica en la zona norte del país. Sin embargo, se lograron obtener cinco híbridos F1 entre los cruces realizados, ellos son: BCh, ChT, TCh, BT y TB. Todos ellos presentaron en la F2 características genéticas de porte semiarbustivo (TII y TIII y de floración indeterminada, no compatibles para la obtención de un híbrido adecuado para la cosecha de frijol mecanizada. En este proyecto de investigación se utilizó el método de polinización dirigida o artificial y el cruce simple recíproco entre las variedades participantes y se hicieron 341 polinizaciones entre sí, respectivamente.

  17. Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del Estado de Veracruz, México

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    Francisco Javier Ugalde Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del estado de Veracruz, México. El objetivo del presentetrabajo, fue validar genotipos de frijol con el paquete tecnológico del INIFAP, en parcelas de productores. Durante los ciclosde humedad residual de 1998 a 2001 se establecieron nueveparcelas de validación. Los genotipos utilizados fueron: las lí-neas II-307 y DOR-500 y las variedades Negro Huasteco 81,Negro Cotaxtla 91 y Negro INIFAPy como testigo del productor la variedad Jamapa. En las parcelas se realizaron las laboresde manejo agronómico recomendadas por el INIFAPpara esazona de producción. Cada parcela ocupó una superficie total de3000 m2. Se realizaron análisis de varianza individuales por localidad, considerando como repetición los rendimientos obtenidos por cada genotipo (500 m2 por ciclo de evaluación; también se efectuaron análisis combinado con prueba deseparación de medias (DMS 5% y un análisis económico mediante la Tasa de Retorno Marginal. Los resultados indicaronque las variedades y líneas mejoradas fueron superiores en másdel 100% en rendimiento al testigo. El análisis económicomostró que el mayor beneficio económico se obtuvo al sembrarlas variedades Negro INIFAPy Negro Cotaxtla 91, con utilidades superiores a los US $ 286/ha y una relación beneficio/costo de 1,52 y 1,51, respectivamente.

  18. Interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Marín Bruzos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron, mediante análisis de los parámetros fenológicos de las plantas, la interacción de Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924 con Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el cultivo de frijol. Se emplearon cuatro tratamientos: plantas sin inocular (control, inoculadas con T. paurometabola C-924, inoculadas con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH e inoculadas con ambas cepas. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P < 0.01 en los porcentajes de germinación de las plantas tratadas con microorganismos de forma independiente o conjunta con respecto al control sin inocular. Se determinó que la inoculación de T. paurometabola C-924 afectó el proceso de nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH. Sin embargo, esto no incidió de manera significativa en la altura de las plantas ni en el diámetro del tallo, ya que no se encontraron diferencias entre los tratamientos para estos parámetros. Para el número de hojas, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924. Se concluyó que la interacción de T. paurometabola C-924 con R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH en el frijol estimuló significativamente la germinación de las semillas y el número de hojas de las plantas con respecto al control sin inocular. Aunque la aplicación de T. paurometabola C-924 no favoreció la nodulación de R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli CFH, esto no afectó las características fenológicas del cultivo.

  19. Negro Comapa, nueva variedad de frijol para el estado de Veracruz Negro Comapa, a new bean variety for the State of Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Salinas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Cotaxtla, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP, ubicado en el municipio de Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz; durante varios años se han realizado trabajos de investigación en mejoramiento genético orientados a la generación de nuevas variedades de frijol negro, opaco y pequeño. Actualmente, Chiapas, Nayarit, Oaxaca y Veracruz son las principales entidades productoras de frijol Negro Comapa, en las cuales durante 2008 se sembraron 256 099 hectáreas, principalmente en otoño-invierno con humedad residual, que corresponde a 15.7% de la superficie sembrada en el país. En Veracruz en ese año se sembraron 42 593 hectáreas de frijol, cuyo rendimiento promedio fue de 730 kilogramos por hectárea.During several years in the bean program at Experimental Field Cotaxtla belonging to National Research Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Institute (INIFAP, located in the municipality of Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz, research works have been carried out in genetic improvement with the aim of generation of new varieties of small opaque black bean. Currently, Chiapas, Nayarit, Oaxaca and Veracruz are the main producers states of this commercial grain type, in which 256 099 hectares were sowed during 2008, mainly in autumn-winter with residual humidity that corresponds to 15.7% of sowed surface in the country. In Veracruz in that year 42 593 hectares of bean were sowed whose average yield was of 730 kilograms per hectare.

  20. Uso de un vivero móvil para obtener patrones de virulencia de la roya del frijol común

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steadman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de identificar nuevas fuentes de resistencia a la roya, causada por Uromyces appendiculatus, es necesario saber si las variedades con nuevos genes conservarán su resistencia cuando sean sembradas en diferentes regiones de producción. Para ello, se pueden utilizar viveros móviles con líneas/variedades de frijol con diferentes genes de resistencia para obtener los patrones de virulencia del patógeno de la roya. El vivero contiene plantas de frijol con seis días después de la germinación. El vivero se coloca por dos a tres horas en un campo de frijol infectado con la roya, y luego se exponen a las plantas bajo neblina por un periodo de 15 horas dentro de un ambiente controlado, para un un período de incubación de ocho a diez días en una casa de malla. En las hojas primarias, se efectúan las lecturas del tamaño de la uredinia (pústulas. Se utilizan las reacciones para evaluar los patrones de virulencia y para predecir estrategias de uso de genes de resistencia. El vivero móvil economiza tiempo y dinero (10-12 días comparado con dos a cuatro meses para identificar patotipos de roya con inoculaciones en el invernadero y permite el conocimiento de los resultados durante el ciclo del cultivo del frijol. El concepto del vivero móvil podría ser especialmente útili en paí- ses donde hay una escasez de invernaderos y puede ser utilizado con otros sistemas de cultivos-patógenos.

  1. Avances en la selección de fuentes de resistencia a las principales enfermedades del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Araya,Carlos M.; Araya, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    En esta investigación se evaluaron diversos genotipos de frijol en la búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) y a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola). Se evaluó germoplasma del programa nacional de hibridaciones y de tres viveros internacionales distribuidos por el CIAT: VIFURE, VIPADOGEN y CORE COLLECTION. Los ensayos se establecieron en Puriscal (1017 msnm), Alajuela (814 msnm) y Fraijanes (1650 msnm), durante los ciclos agrícolas 97-98 y...

  2. Avances en la selección de fuentes de resistencia a las principales enfermedades del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Araya,Carlos M.; Rodolfo Araya

    2000-01-01

    En esta investigación se evaluaron diversos genotipos de frijol en la búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) y a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola). Se evaluó germoplasma del programa nacional de hibridaciones y de tres viveros internacionales distribuidos por el CIAT: VIFURE, VIPADOGEN y CORE COLLECTION. Los ensayos se establecieron en Puriscal (1017 msnm), Alajuela (814 msnm) y Fraijanes (1650 msnm), durante los ...

  3. Gestión de nuevos cultivares de frijol común en las condiciones de la UBPC “Santa Maria 4”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Avila Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se real izó en la UBPC Santa Maria 4 perteneciente a la UEB Antonio Guiteras del municipio Puerto padre, provincia Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 28 de noviembre de 2012 hasta el 16 de febrero de 2013, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de siete cultivares de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. , en un suelo Pardo sialítico mullido carbonatado con vista a incrementar la biodiversidad y elevar el rendimiento agrícola de este cultivo. Los cultivares evaluados fueron (Velazco Largo, Colorado E-120, frijol Rayado, Rojo E-114, Frijol Crema Japones, Rojo E-130, frijol Blanco Español, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas, la fitotecnia aplicada fue la tradicional establecida para este cultivo, los aspectos evaluados fueron los siguientes, altura de las plantas, número de hojas, grosor del tallo, altura de la primera vaina, granos por vainas, peso de 100 granos, rendimiento agrícola, incidencia de las principales plagas y valoración económica de la producción. El cultivar que obtuvo mayor rendimiento fue el Velazco Largo y los de menor el Rojo E-114 y el Rayado, los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar que desde el punto de vista económico es factible la realización de estas siembras, pues se pueden obtener incrementos en el ingreso por ventas de $ 6242.90 – 20108.85 pesos por hectárea. En el experimento las condiciones edafoclimáticas fueron favorables en todo el ciclo del cultivo, no se registraron altos niveles de infestación de plagas y enfermedades.

  4. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Difo, V. H.; Onyike, E.; D.A. Ameh; Njoku, G. C.; Ndidi, U. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were ana...

  5. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin) as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml) was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding eli...

  6. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in Phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseo-linone; levamisole gives protection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suchandra Sett; Santosh K Mishra; Kazia I Siddiqui

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the role of phaseolinone, a phytotoxin produced by Macrophomina phaseolina, in disease initiation, three nontoxigenic avirulent mutants of the fungus were generated by UV-mutagenesis. Two of them were able to initiate infection in germinating Phaseolus mungo seeds only in the presence of phaseolinone. The minimum dose of phaseolinone required for infection in 30% seedlings was 2·5 g/ml. A human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus was also able to infect germinating seeds of P. mungo in the presence of 5 g/ml concentration of phaseolinone. Phaseolinone seemed to facilitate infection by A. fumigatus, which is not normally phytopathogenic, by reducing the immunity of germinating seedlings in a nonspecific way. Levamisole, a non-specific immunopotentiator gave protection against infection induced by A. fumigatus at an optimum dose of 50 g/ml. Sodium malonate prevented the effects of levamisole.

  7. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in Phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseolinone; levamisole gives protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, S; Mishra, S K; Siddiqui, K A

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the role of phaseolinone, a phytotoxin produced by Macrophomina phaseolina, in disease initiation, three nontoxigenic avirulent mutants of the fungus were generated by UV-mutagenesis. Two of them were able to initiate infection in germinating Phaseolus mungo seeds only in the presence of phaseolinone. The minimum dose of phaseoli-none required for infection in 30% seedlings was 2 5 mg/ml. A human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus was also able to infect germinating seeds of P. mungo in the presence of 5 mg/ml concentration of phaseolinone. Phaseolinone seemed to facilitate infection by A. fumigatus, which is not normally phytopathogenic, by reducing the immunity of germinating seedlings in a nonspecific way. Levamisole, a non-specific immunopotentiator gave protection against infection induced by A. fumigatus at an optimum dose of 50 mg/ml. Sodium malonate prevented the effects of levamisole.

  8. Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras. Aunque se reconoce que los enfoques tradicionales de fitomejoramiento han sido efectivos en incrementar los rendimientos y solucionar problemas de plagas que limitan la producción de cultivos, se argumenta que los niveles de adopción, y los impactos esperados, han sido limitados. Bajo este contexto, se incluyen a los pequeños productores de cultivos básicos, que no poseen los recursos para modificar su ambiente productivo para poder obtener las respuestas en rendimiento de variedades mejoradas de mayor potencial. Sin embargo, en el caso de frijol en Centro América, las variedades mejoradas generadas de manera convencional han sido valiosas en reducir la diseminación de enfermedades que hubieran causado una reducción significativa del rendimiento, pe. el mosaico dorado amarillo. El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP, que involucra una participación activa de los agricultores en el desarrollo de variedades con adaptación específica, se presenta como una alternativa para incrementar el acceso y la adopción de variedades mejoradas para pequeños productores con limitado acceso a las tecnologías y/o bajo uso de insumos. En Centro América, ya existen algunas iniciativas de FP en los cultivos de frijol y maíz; a raíz de estas iniciativas, el interés y las expectativas de los agricultores, organizaciones y donantes ha crecido recientemente. La presente publicación, trata de dar algunas pautas sobre la aplicación de este enfoque de FP en el mejoramiento genético del frijol, con base a la experiencia del Programa de Investigaciones en Frijol de Zamorano, a través de los dos primeros años de actividades de un proyecto conducido con la colaboración de técnicos de una organización no gubernamental y agricultores de comunidades de Yorito y el Lago Yojoa, en Honduras

  9. Rendimiento del frijol ayocote y maíz del agrosistema asociado en función del número de plantas por mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Jorge Rojas Victoria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El frijol ayocote (Phaseolus coccineus L. es una leguminosa nativa de México con potencial alimenticio. Para lograr mayor distribución en el espacio, captación de radiación solar y producción de materia seca (MS, el ayocote trepador necesita un soporte. Los soportes convencionales como postes, mallas, rafia, elevan el costo de producción, sin embargo el ayocote puede sembrarse utilizando al maíz como soporte. Para incrementar el rendimiento de grano, se ha recurrido al manejo de la densidad de población y arreglo topológico. El objetivo del estudio conducido en Montecillo, México, en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2014, fue determinar si el número de plantas de frijol ayocote y maíz por mata en asociación, afectan la producción de biomasa, índice de cosecha, rendimiento de grano y sus componentes. Los tratamientos fueron nueve, resultado de la combinación de 1, 2 y 3 plantas de frijol ayocote y de 1, 2 y 3 de maíz por mata. Se registraron las etapas fenológicas, biomasa total (BT, índice de cosecha (IC, rendimiento de grano (RG y sus componentes en ambos cultivos. El diseño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los días a ocurrencia de las fases fenológicas en frijol ayocote y maíz, fueron similares entre tratamientos. En la asociación maíz-frijol los cambios en el número de plantas por mata de ambos cultivos, afectaron la BT, IC, RG y sus componentes tanto en ayocote como en maíz. En el agrosistema ayocote-maíz, la BT, RG y sus componentes, presentaron cambios por el número de plantas de ayocote y de maíz por mata. La combinación para lograr la mayor BT, RG e ingreso neto se logró con tres plantas de ayocote y una de maíz.

  10. Genetic studies in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

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    S. Suresh, S. Jebaraj, S.Juliet Hepziba and M.Theradimani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in mungbean Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek with eight ‘lines’ and four ‘testers’ crossed in a Line x Tester design toestimate mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance for 13 trait viz., days to 50 %flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of podsper plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, harvest index, protein content and single plant yield. High heritability coupledwith high genetic advance as per cent of mean were observed for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, numberof pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index and single plant yield confirming the additive gene action.

  11. SEÑALES PRODUCIDAS POR Rhizobium leguminosarum EN LA INTERACCIÓN CON FRIJOL COMÚN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    María C. Nápoles García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La interacción Rhizobium-leguminosas depende de un complejo intercambio de señales, que se mantiene durante todo el proceso simbiótico y de las que solamente una combinación correcta permitirá una simbiosis eficiente. Estas plantas secretan flavonoides, reconocidos por bacterias compatibles y que inducen sus genes nod. Estos codifican las proteínas que sintetizan y exportan lipoquitooligosacáridos conocidos como factores Nod. Los factores Nod activan los procesos de infección e inician la división celular en la raíz, hasta la formación del nódulo y participan también en la fijación biológica del nitrógeno. Existen evidencias de que el uso de inductores de los genes nod incrementa la nodulación en algunas leguminosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la producción de algunas moléculas señales, inducidas por la isoflavona genisteína en una cepa de R. leguminosarum y evaluar el impacto de esa inducción en el efecto del inóculo sobre plantas de frijol común. La fracción lipídica en los inóculos fue extraída con n-butanol y analizada por cromatografía de capa fina, cromatografía líquida de alta resolución y cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a un espectrómetro de masas. En los inóculos inducidos con genisteína se detectó una cantidad superior de lipooligosacáridos (factores de nodulación y de ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular, con diferencias significativas respecto a los controles sin inducir. En relación con ese enriquecimiento en moléculas señales, los inóculos inducidos con genisteína, mostraron un efecto positivo en las plantas de frijol de la variedad Cubacueto 25-9, con mayor número de nódulos y contenido de clorofila que las plantas no inoculadas (control.

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE PROTEÍNAS Y CONTENIDO MINERAL DE DOS VARIEDADES NATIVAS DE FRIJOL DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Raya-P\\u00E9rez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar a nivel bioquímico la semilla de dos variedades mexicanas de frijol, Bayo Berrendo y Patzcuareño. En el año 2011, en Celaya, México, se extrajeron proteínas de reserva de las dos variedades criollas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, con el fin de obtener sus perfiles electroforéticos. El contenido de proteína soluble en el caso de Bayo Berrendo fue de 16,47% y 14,53% para el Patzcuareño. Se detectaron diferencias en el patrón electroforético, sobre todo en la fracción de albúminas, que permitió di- ferenciar las variedades. La harina presentó alta actividad inhibitoria contra tripsina, principalmente en la fracción de faseolinas, 355 unidades en el Bayo Berrendo y 507 unidades en el Patzcuareño. Se determinó la composición elemental de la harina observándose diferencias en cuanto al contenido mineral. El Bayo Berrendo tiene un contenido de 0,15% de Ca, 5,53% de K y 0,60% de Mg. Los valores respectivos para el Patzcuareño fueron: 0,17%, 3,52% y 0,67%. El Bayo posee 18,8 ppm de Fe y el Patzcuareño 3,63 ppm. Se midieron otras variables relacionadas con su utilización con fines alimenticios, como capacidad de absorción de agua, con valores cercanos al 100% y tiempos de cocción menores a 110 min. Fenotípicamente las dos variedades se distinguen fácilmente, tanto en tamaño de semilla como en color. El peso de 100 semillas del Bayo Berrendo fue de 14,6 g y del Patzcuareño 32,6 g.

  13. Flor de Mayo Eugenia, nueva variedad de frijol para riego y temporal en el centro de México Flor de Mayo Eugenia, new bean cultivar for irrigated and rainfall conditions in Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos; Yanet Jiménez Hernández; Bertha María Sánchez García; Francisco M. Mendoza Hernández; María Guadalupe Herrera Hernández; Rafael A. Salinas Pérez; Mario González Chavira

    2010-01-01

    Dentro del frijol tipo Flor de Mayo, el subtipo 'media oreja' esta cobrando importancia en el norte-centro de México, éste es de tamaño mediano, forma alargada y color rosa atractivo. Se describe una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME). FME se derivó de una cruza interracial entre Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA) (raza Jalisco) y Rayado Rojo (raza Nueva Granada). El rendimiento promedio de FME en temporal varia de 0.8 a 2.0 t ha-1 y bajo riego el máximo rendimiento ha si...

  14. Características morfo-fisiológicas de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) relacionadas con la adaptación a sequía

    OpenAIRE

    Polanía, José A; Idupulapati M Rao; Sara Mejía; Beebe, Stephen E.; César Cajiao

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de raíces de 21 líneas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarrolla...

  15. Resistencia a sequía terminal en frijol negro tropical Comportamiento de variedades de maíz normal y con alta calidad de proteína para la región Golfo de México

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Frahm; Juan Carlos Rosas; Netzahualcoyotl Mayek; Ernesto L\\u00F3pez; Jorge A. Acosta; Kelly, James D.

    2003-01-01

    Con el objetivo de identificar cultivares de frijol negro tropical con resistencia a sequía y adaptación a la región Centroamericana, se diseñó un proyecto piloto colaborativo entre los programas de frijol de Zamorano, Honduras; Veracruz, México y la Universidad Estatal de Michigan (MSU); EE.UU, en el año 2002. Se desarrollaron dos poblaciones de líneas endog ámicas recombinantes (RILs) derivadas de cruces entre la lí- nea resistente a sequía B98311 de MSU con TLP 19 y VAX 5, dos líneas mejor...

  16. Caracterización de los productores, adopción e impacto económico del uso de la variedad de frijol "Pinto Saltillo" en el norte centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Mario René Ávila Marioni; José de Jesús Espinoza Arellano; Horacio González Ramírez; Rigoberto Rosales Serna; Arnulfo Pajarito Ravelero; Román Zandate Hernández

    2011-01-01

    En la región Norte-Centro de México, principal zona productora de frijol en el país se realizó un estudio durante el período 2008-2009, cuyos objetivos fueron caracterizar a los productores, determinar el grado de adopción y evaluar el impacto del uso de la variedad de frijol Pinto Saltillo, generada por el INIFAP. El procedimiento metodológico se basó en una entrevista formal a una muestra de agricultores, los cuales fueron seleccionados al azar de una población de 45,000 productores registr...

  17. PRODUCCIÓN ARTESANAL DE SEMILLA DE FRIJOL CON PARTICIPACIÓN MUNICIPAL EN VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ugalde-Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la producción artesanal de semilla de frijol municipal (PASF-Municipal. La estrategia se implementó de 1998-2010, en veintitrés municipios de las regiones Centro- sur y de las Altas Montañas del estado de Veracruz, México. El estudio constó de dos fases: una de establecimiento de parcelas de validación de variedades para seleccionar las de mayor productividad; la segunda fase fue la de instalación de parcelas de producción de semilla de las variedades mejoradas seleccionadas. Durante la validación en la región Centro-sur, las mejoradas superaron en 78,7% al testigo Negro Michigan (743 kg/ha. En las Altas Montañas, los cultivares mejorados registraron un rendimiento de 1219 kg/ ha, mientras que Negro Michigan produjo 751 kg/ha. En la producción de semilla, se obtuvieron 28 300 kilogramos, para la siembra de 628 hectáreas en beneficio de 1545 productores. El incremento promedio obtenido por los productores con semilla PASF-Municipal de variedades mejoradas fue de 109,4% en relación a la obtenida con el grano utilizado como semilla de la variedad del productor.

  18. Comportamiento agroproductivo de 10 variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en el agroecosistema del municipio de Yaguajay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del comportamiento agroproductivo de 10 variedades de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L., en las condiciones edafoclimáticas de la CCS “Luis La O” del municipio Yaguajay, provincia de Sancti Spíritus. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el período diciembre 2013- marzo 2014.Con un marco de siembra de 0,50 m x 0,10 m, para 200 000 - 250 000 plantas por hectárea. Utilizamos un diseño Latinizado con tres bloques de 10 parcelas distribuidas al azar y de 5 m2 cada una. El estudio fenológico manifestó que las variedades más precoces resultaron: Velazco Largo y Cul-156. Las de ciclo más largo: CC-25-9 (n y Tomeguín 93. La información reveló diferencias en el comportamiento fenológico de las variedades, al comparar los parámetros del experimento, con los que publica el Instituto de Investigaciones de Granos (IIG. Se apreció que las variedades: Buena Ventura (r y CC-25-9 (r como las de mejor comportamiento en cuanto al rendimiento, con diferencias significativas respecto a las demás variedades. Estas variedades no lograron sus rendimientos potenciales, pero superaron los rendimientos del territorio.

  19. Mejoramiento de la producción del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, L con el uso de alternativas de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ramírez Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argumenta la evaluación de algunas alternativas de nutrición en el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variedad Velasco Largo, que se desarrolló en áreas de la subestación de Granos de la Unidad de Extensión, Investigación y Capacitación Agropecuaria de Holguín (UEICA-H, ubicada en Velasco, municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido entre diciembre de 2007 y marzo de 2008. Se aplicaron seis (6 variantes de fertilización, que comprendió el uso de fertilizantes químicos a dosis menores que las recomendadas, la utilización de abonos orgánicos: humus de lombriz tanto sólido como líquido y el biofertilizante Ecomic. Se tomaron mediciones de altura de las plantas, nodulación y rendimiento y sus componentes, así como, se realizó un análisis económico en base a los rendimientos obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que la utilización de diferentes alternativas de fertilización provocó un efecto directo sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de frijol, sobre la nodulación natural y el rendimiento y sus componentes, los mismos sugieren la utilización de combinaciones de fertilizantes químicos, orgánicos y biofertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos de forma sostenible en el cultivo del frijol.

  20. Características agronómicas y contenido de Fe y Zn en el grano de frijol tipo Rosa de Castilla (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Jiménez-Hernández; Jorge Alberto Acosta-Gallegos; Bertha María Sánchez-García; Miguel Ángel Martínez Gamiño

    2012-01-01

    El frijol de tipo Rosa de Castilla (RC) es popular en áreas de Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, donde se produce bajo temporal. El objetivo fue comparar características agronómicas de 22 colectas de tipo RC con dos variedades mejoradas de tipo Flor de Mayo (FM) bajo condiciones de temporal. El experimento se estableció en 2008 en dos localidades de Guanajuato, Celaya (1 785 msnm) y Ocampo (2 200 msnm) y una de San Luis Potosí, Villa de Arriaga (2 200 msnm). Se utilizó un diseño de blo...

  1. Contenido de osmoprotectores, ácido ascórbico y ascorbato peroxidasa en hojas de frijol sometidas a estrés por sequía

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Susana Herrera Flores; Joaquín Ortíz Cereceres; Adriana Delgado Alvarado; Jorge Alberto Acosta Galleros

    2014-01-01

    La acumulación de osmoprotectores en plantas que se encuentran en condiciones de estrés por sequía, le permiten contrarrestar el efecto negativo que le provoca dichas condición ambiental. En el presente trabajo se estudió la respuesta bioquímica de plantas de frijol con base en la acumulación de carbohidratos solubles, almidón, ácido ascórbico, así como la actividad de la enzima ascorbato peroxidasa, en las hojas simples y en las dos primeras hojas trifolioladas de la variedad resistente, Pin...

  2. Albicampo, variedad de frijol de temporal para Valles Altos de la Mesa Central Albicampo, rainfed bean variety for the High Valleys of the Central Mexican Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoberto Garza-García; Ramón Garza-García; Carmen Jacinto-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Albicampo (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es una variedad de grano negro opaco pequeño, tipo Jamapa, liberada en 2010 por el programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX) del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP). Se obtuvo mediante una cruza simple, utilizando selección masal hasta la generación F4. En la F5 se realizó selección individual para resistencia a enfermedades, calidad de grano y características agronómicas. Esta variedad se...

  3. Prácticas de conservación de suelos en sistemas de cultivo maíz-frijol en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Se realizaron dos ensayos en segmentos de microcuencas en condiciones de producción de la Provincia de Pinar del Río: uno en Campo Hermoso y el otro en La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. En ambas localidades se rotó el frijol variedad Bat 304 y Tomeguin 93, seguidos de maíz asociado con Mucuna deeringianum y se establecieron bordes de desagüe protegidos con barreras vivas de Leucaena leucocephala y Gliricidia sepium. Las pérdidas de suelos se estimaron en piscinas de sediment...

  4. Uso y difusión del frijol de abono (Mucuna deeringiana) en las laderas del litoral Atlántico de Honduras.

    OpenAIRE

    Buckles, Daniel; Ponce, Ignacio; Sain, Gustavo; Medina, Gilmer

    2016-01-01

    La conservación del suelo, los nutrimentos y el agua son los principales problemas que afrontan los agricultores e investigadores agrícolas en los sistemas de cultivo basados en el maíz en Centroamérica y México. Algunos productores de Honduras han ideado y refinado una tecnología eficaz para el cultivo del maíz en ladera en la que se siembra el frijol de abono (Mucuna deeringiana) en rotación con el maíz de postrera (o temporada seca). Los resultados de la encuesta realizada en el Departamen...

  5. Efecto de la labranza mínima y la convencional en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l.) En la región Huetar norte de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Rojas; Gerardo Chavez

    2002-01-01

    Se realizó un trabajo en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica en donde se establecieron dos lotes: uno de labranza mínima (1,85 ha) y otro de labranza convencional (2 ha). La siembra en ambos sistemas de labranza se realizó con una sembradora abonadora hidraúlica. La variedad sembrada fue la Brunca. La población de plantas de frijol evaluada durante la etapa vegetativa fue de 9,37 plantas/m lineal en labranza mínima, y de 9,55 plantas/m lineal en labranza convencional. ...

  6. "Azufrasin": nueva variedad de frijol tipo Azufrado para el estado de Sinaloa "Azufrasin": a new yellow seeded dry bean cultivar for the state of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Atanasio Salinas Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En el estado de Sinaloa, México el frijol amarillo del tipo Azufrado-Peruano, raza Nueva Granada, es el que mayor superficie ocupa para satisfacer la demanda interna y para la exportación a EE.UU. Se describe el desarrollo y características agronómicas de la nueva variedad de frijol, 'Azufrasin'; cuya utilización permitirá ampliar el número de variedades disponibles de este frijol en el estado. Esta nueva variedad se desarrolló a partir de la cruza de tres líneas entre ((Azufrado Pimono-78/Canario-72//AZPA-5; durante el desarrollo la selección se basó en la tolerancia a las enfermedades virales (BCMV y BCMNV, moho blanco (Sclerotinia sclerotorium y resistencia a la roya (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus. Azufrasin es de hábito determinado tipo I, de porte alto con plantas de 45 cm, 100 días a la madurez fisiológica y el peso de cien semillas varia de 44 a 46 g. Azufrasin muestra adaptación en las áreas productoras de frijol del norte de Sinaloa bajo condiciones de riego, donde ha mostrado alta capacidad de rendimiento y alto grado de tolerancia a enfermedades durante el ciclo de otoño-invierno, superando en rendimiento a la variedad Azufrado Higuera con un promedio de 339 kg ha-1.In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico; the yellow bean of Azufrado-Peruano, Nueva Granada race, which occupies most of the surface area to meet the domestic demand and for exporting to the United States. The development and agronomic characteristics of the new bean variety are described, 'Azufrasin'; whose use will expand the number of available varieties of this bean in the state. This new variety was developed from crosses between three lines ((Azufrado Pimono-78/Canario-72//AZPA-5; during the development, the selection was based on tolerance to viral diseases (BCMV and BCMNV, white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotorium and resistance to rust (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus. Azufrasin has a determinate growth habit (Type I, high bearing

  7. Diagnóstico de la actividad productiva del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en la Región Brunca de Costa Rica: Cosecha 1995-1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Juan Carlos; Araya, Rodolfo; González, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Se seleccionaron nueve localidades caracterizadas por su tradición en la siembra de frijol para efectuar un monitoreo y diagnosticar la situación de esta actividad productiva. Con base en encuestas y visitas a fincas de agricultores se obtuvo que en la mayoría de las localidades predominó el empleo de variedades criollas, de las que se caracterizaron por su precocidad las de mayor uso comercial. Las variedades mejoradas mostraron como desventaja su mayor ciclo vegetativo lo que influyó en may...

  8. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (phaseolus vulgaris) y arveja (pisum sativum). efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la...

  9. Diversidad agronómica, morfológica y molecular en variedades nativas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivadas por agricultores en el estado de Puebla.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2011-01-01

    El frijol común representa un cultivo básico en México con una gran variabilidad en sus características morfológicas y moleculares. La descripción del germoplasma de una especie en las regiones donde se cultiva es el primer paso que permite conocer las características principales de las variedades que lo forman, para así propiciar un sistema integral que vincula el estudio experimental con la aplicación de los conocimientos a beneficio del productor. En éste trabajo se hizo la evaluación en c...

  10. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

  11. Roller milled black gram (Phaseolus mungo) semolina and its influence on the quality characteristics of high protein pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv, Jyotsna; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Sakhare, Suresh; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2015-04-01

    Black gram (Phaseolus mungo) was roller milled into semolina (BGS) and was substituted at 25, 50 and 75 % levels in vermicelli making in this investigation. There was an increase in ash and protein content as the inclusion of BGS in blends increased. The quality characteristics of pasta showed marginal increase in cooking loss up to 50 % level of BGS. The firmness value did not change much up to 50 % BGS in pasta. At 75 % level of BGS, the cooking loss and stickiness value were highest (6.10 % and 0. 90 N) whereas firmness value and overall quality score were lowest (4 N and 27.5/40) indicating that the pasta had mushy, indiscrete, sticky strands and had a prominent beany odour making it unacceptable. Hence 50 % BGS was considered optimum in vermicelli. The pasta made with 50 % BGS inclusion had a protein and dietary fiber content of 15.30 % and 8 % as against the control value of 11.30 and 4.20 % respectively.

  12. RESPUESTA A BACTERIOSIS COMÚN (Xanthomonas axonopodis p.v phaseoli EN LOS CULTIVARES COMERCIALES DE FRIJOL COMÚN DE CUBA, EN CONDICIONES DE CAMPO. AFECTACIÓN DE LOS RENDIMIENTOS POR EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el germoplasma de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L., en Cuba, es posible identificar cultivares con niveles de resistencia ante un aislamiento patogénico de Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, a fin de disminuir las pérdidas y aumentar el rendimiento promedio del cultivo en campos infectados con este patógeno. Los objetivos de este trabajo estuvieron dirigidos a evaluar, en genotipos de frijol común respuestas contrastantes frente a la incidencia natural e inoculación del aislamiento patogénico Xap527 (Xanthomonas axonopodis; identificar los cultivares comerciales con mejor comportamiento en follaje y vainas y con menores pérdidas de rendimiento en campos infectados por este patógeno. Los resultados permitieron seleccionar los genotipos de frijol, con buen comportamiento frente al aislamiento de Xap estudiado y se determinó la disminución del rendimiento en los cultivares de frijol por su reacción de susceptibilidad frente a Bacteriosis común, con la inoculación del aislamiento Xap 527, de Cuba

  13. Isolation & Characterization of Rhizobia and their Effect on Vigna radiata Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Rajpoot and Kain Singh Panwar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia is Gram negative bacteria that fix nitrogen , bacteria colonize plant cell with root nodules and commonly found in pulse . In present study rhizobia isolated from root nodules of vigna radiata and characterized morphologically, biochemical test were to as certain its physiology under normal conditions , three bacterial strain (Rp1 , Rp2, Rp3 were tested for their effect on root, Shoot and no. of nodules of vigna radiata plant in green house condition. Comparatively in all three strains Rp1 strain was found to most effective in positively Enhancing the growth of the plant in all parameters.

  14. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  15. Variación patogénica y fuentes de resistencia a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc & magn Scrib., patógeno de la antracnosis del frijol, en Colombia Variación patogénica y fuentes de resistencia a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc & Magn) Scrib., patógeno de la antracnosis del fríjol, en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobo S. Felipe; Pastor Corrales Marcial A

    1987-01-01

    ... patogénica de aislamientos colombianos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc& Magn) Scrib. También se evaluó germoplasma de frijol con grano de color comercial con el objetivo de identificar...

  16. Respuesta fotosintética de algunas variedades de maíz, frijol y café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anundo Polanía

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de caracterizar fotosintéticamente algunas variedades de maíz, frijol y café, se estudió el comportamiento de la rata de fotosíntesis neta, de la transpiración y de los diferentes tipos de resistencia foliar a ia difusión y fijación de CO2 en la hoja, frente a las variables temperatura, intensidad de luz y concentración de CO2 en el aire. La variedad de maíz ICA H 507 presentó un comportamiento típico de plantas C 4 con altas ratas de fotosíntesis neta, insaturación de luz y baja fotorespiración. El fríjol Dlacol Andino presentó bajas ratas de fotosíntesis, alta fotorespiración y saturación de luz a bajas Intensidades, características propias de plantas C3. Las dos varíedades de café, Típica y Caturra, presentaron bajas ratas de fotosíntesis, valores de fotorespiración cercanos a los del fríjol, comportamiento típico de plantas C3; no lo es su respuesta a la intensidad de luz, ya que se saturaron a intensidades más altas que las presentadas por plantas C3 reconocidas. Estas varíedades presentaron ratas de fotosíntesis mayores que las observadas por otros autores en plantas de café de más edad. Los resultados obtenidos brindan información útil acerca del comportamiento ecoflslológico de

  17. Evaluación de genotipos mejorados de frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en Barinas y Monagas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Duran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló en la finca la Alborada, sector Mamon Mamonal, municipio Rojas, en Barinas y finca La Ceiba, sector Aparicio, municipio Piar, estado Monagas en época seca en el período comprendido entre noviembre, 2011 y febrero, 2012, sobre suelos Inceptisoles y Entisoles respectivamente. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta agroproductiva de siete genotipos de frijol negro:SA 029, Línea 13, Minita, Balina, Sesentera, Silvinera y la variedad comercial Tacarigua. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo bifactorial, los factores fueron la localidad y los genotipos, con siete tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones, distribuidos en 28 parcelas con un área total del experimento de 554,8 m2. El marco de siembra fue de 0,60 x 0,07 m para un total 13200 plantas totales. Se evaluaron la altura de la planta (cm, número de vainas por planta, número de semillas por vaina, peso de 100 semillas (g y el rendimiento (t.ha-1. Los rendimientos en el estado de Barinas fueron superiores para las variedades Balina con 1,10 t/ha y Tacarigua con 1,06 t/ha y en estado de Monagas, la Línea 13 con 1,92 t/ha, seguida de la Tacarigua con 1,68 t. ha-1 y Silvinera con 1,65 t.ha-1. El efecto económico para todas las variedades por localidad y entre ambas fue satisfactorio.

  18. Estudio etnobotánico del frijol yepatlaxtle (Phaseolus coccineus L., en el área natural protegida Corredor Biológico Chichinautzin, Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monroy

    2010-01-01

    alimentación y la comercialización de excedentes y aporta ingresos económicos. En otras localidades de la entidad, aún se cultiva en parcelas pequeñas o en el traspatio. El conocimiento tradicional del manejo y uso del frijol es fundamental como alternativa para su conservación; por tanto, se planteó describir el proceso productivo hasta su comercialización y las formas tradicionales de consumo. El proceso productivo del yepataxtle, desde la siembra hasta la cosecha, se registró durante un ciclo agrícola en una parcela cuyo dueño lo explicó. La comercialización se documentó a través de entrevistas a comerciantes y compradores en el mercado municipal durante los días de selecplaza. Las formas de consumo se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas abiertas a las amas de casa que preparan platillos con el yepataxtle. El sistema milpa, cuando incluye yepataxtle, dura 240 días; cuando es solo, 120. Se explican las técnicas campesinas desde la cosmovisión de los informantes. El yepataxtle se comercializa directamente en el mercado, de febrero a mayo como ejote fresco, y en abril, como frijol seco. La información culinaria tradicional del yepataxtle se organizó en un recetario mediante un uso ceremonial para las fiestas patronales del pueblo.

  19. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  20. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  1. Near Surface Structure of the Frijoles Strand of the San Gregorio Fault, Point Año Nuevo, San Mateo County, California, from Seismic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Weber, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Gregorio Fault Zone (SGFZ) is one of the major faults of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The SGFZ is nearly 200 km long, trends subparallel to the SAF, and is located primarily offshore with two exceptions- between Point Año Nuevo and San Gregorio Beach and between Pillar Point and Moss Beach. It has a total width of 2 to 3 km and is comprised of seven known fault strands with Quaternary activity, five of which also demonstrate late Holocene activity. The fault is clearly a potential source of significant earthquakes and has been assigned a maximum likely magnitude of 7.3. To better understand the structure, geometry, and shallow-depth P-wave velocities associated with the SGFZ, we acquired a 585-m-long, high-resolution, combined seismic reflection and refraction profile across the Frijoles strand of the SGFZ at Point Año Nuevo State Park. Both P- and S-wave data were acquired, but here we present only the P-wave data. We used two 60-channel Geometrics RX60 seismographs and 120 40-Hz single-element geophones connected via cable to record Betsy Seisgun seismic sources (shots). Both shots and geophones were approximately co-located and spaced at 5-m intervals along the profile, with the shots offset laterally from the geophones by 1 m. We measured first-arrival refractions from all shots and geophones to develop a seismic refraction tomography velocity model of the upper 70 m. P-wave velocities range from about 600 m/s near the surface to more than 2400 m/s at 70 m depth. We used the refraction tomography image to infer the depth to the top of the groundwater table on the basis of the 1500 m/s velocity contour. The image suggests that the depth, along the profile, to the top of groundwater varies by about 18 m, with greater depth on the west side of the fault. At about 46 m depth, a 60- to 80-m-wide, low-velocity zone, which is consistent with faulting, is observed southwest of the Frijoles strand of the

  2. Novedades en Especies de Vigna e Inga (Leguminosae para la Argentina Novelties on species of Vigna and Inga (Leguminosae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Hoc

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la subtribu Phaseolinae (Papilionoideae y de la tribu Ingeae (Mimosoideae para la Flora de Jujuy hemos encontrado colecciones que permiten ampliar la distribución de: Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, a las primeras estribaciones de las Selvas de Transición jujeñas, en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas; Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a las provincias de Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero y Córdoba, posiblemente, por su carácter ruderal e Inga saltensis hasta la provincia de Jujuy, ampliando, además, las dimensiones del fruto.During the study of the subtribe Phaseolinae (Leguminosae, Phaseoleae and the tribe Ingeae (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae for the Flora of Jujuy we detected the existence of collections which confirm that: 1 Vigna candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier, till now, known growing in the Paraná basin with the southern limit of distribution in the province of Misiones, now is reported as a component of the first slopes of Yungas rain forest at the province of Jujuy. 2 Vigna luteola (Jacq. Benth., a species of african origin and dispersed over the pantropical areas, was known in our country, growing in the marginal forests of the Paraná and Uruguay basins southern to Buenos Aires. The studied collections allow us to amplify the distribution of the species to the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Santiago del Estero and Córdoba, perhaps introduced by humans. 3 Inga saltensis Burkart was described growing in the south of Bolivia and in the province of Salta (Argentina with its southern limit of distribution in the Capricorn tropic. A recent collection allow us to extend the distribution of the species southern to the north of the province of Jujuy, also, the fruit dimension is modified.

  3. O feminino e a psicanálise em Nada a dizer, de Elvira Vigna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Fux

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o livro Nada a dizer, de Elvira Vigna, em relação à posição e escrita feminina. Além disso, este artigo elucida alguns conceitos psicanalíticos referentes à mulher e ao feminino a partir da narrativa construída pela autora.

  4. Cultivo do feijão-mungo-verde no verão em Viçosa e em Prudente de Morais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Rogério F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados no verão, 25 genótipos de feijão-mungo-verde em Viçosa (plantio em dezembro de 1997 e em Prudente de Morais (plantio em janeiro de 1999 (MG: dezenove linhagens do "Asian Vegetable Research Development Center", quatro do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, uma cultivar de origem peruana além da cv. Ouro Verde. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os rendimentos variaram de 1,2 a 2,0 t/ha em Viçosa e de 1,3 a 2,6 t/ha em Prudente de Morais. Muitas linhagens renderam mais que a cultivar Ouro Verde, destacando-se a 'VC 3984-B-2-B-4-1-B' pela resistência ao acamamento. O feijão-mungo-verde mostrou-se bem adaptado ao verão, proporcionando alto rendimento em tempo relativamente curto.

  5. Monitoreo de los materiales escritos y de los puestos de información de una campaña educativa para aumentar el consumo de frijoles

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    Marcela Dumani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoreo de los materiales escritos y de los puestos de información de una Campaña educatitva para aumentar el consumo de frijoles. Se presentan los resultados del monitoreo de los principales materiales educativos y de algunas actividades interactivas desarrolladas en la etapa de ejecución de una Campaña educativa para incrementar el consumo de frijoles. El estudio incluye el seguimiento de un recetario y dos panfletos desplegables, así como de los puestos promocionales ubicados en los supermercados. Los materiales y las actividades de la Campaña fueron elaborados y planeados tomando en cuenta los criterios aportados por la población que participó en la etapa diagnóstica de la investigación. Para valorar la contribución a la Campaña del material y las actividades educativas ya mencionadas, se obtuvieron las opiniones de la población hacia la cual iban dirigidos. Esto permitió, determinar su utilidad para campañas o programas educativos similares en el futuro. El recetario “De Todo con Frijoles” constituyó un recurso importante para la Campaña. Este material tuvo una amplia aceptación por parte de las madres. El monitoreo aplicado a los panfletos desplegables permitió confirmar que las mujeres valoran la información que se ofrece en un material educativo impreso y que la forma de ilustrarlo y presentarlo, complementan la información y captan la atención de la población. Las actividades interactivas son importantes en una campaña educativa, ya que permiten el contacto directo con la población, la evacuación de dudas y la generación de información adicional sobre las percepciones que tienen las personas en relación con el alimento que se promueve. El monitoreo de estas actividades posibilitó realizar ajustes sobre la marcha que favorecieron el cumplimiento de los objetivos de la Campaña..

  6. Janasa, nueva variedad de frijol tipo azufrado para el estado de Sinaloa, México Janasa, new variety of Azufrado type beans for the state of Sinaloa, Mexico

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    Rafael Atanasio Salinas Pérez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En Sinaloa el frijol de grano amarillo del tipo Azufrado-Peruano, raza Nueva Granada, particularmente la variedad Azufrado Higuera, ocupa la mayor superficie cultivada con esta leguminosa. En esta nota se describe el desarrollo y características agronómicas de una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, "Janasa"; la cual permitirá ampliar el número de variedades disponibles en esta clase comercial. Esta nueva variedad se desarrolló a partir de la cruza de tres líneas entre ((Azufrado Pimono-78 / Canario-72 // AZPA-5. Durante el desarrollo la selección se baso en la tolerancia a las enfermedades virales (BGMV, BCMV y BCMNV y fungosas como son el moho blanco (Sclerotinia sclerotorium y roya (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus. La planta de Janasa es de hábito determinado tipo I, de porte alto con 44 cm, 104 días a la madurez fisiológica y su peso de cien semillas varia de 42 a 44 g. Janasa muestra adaptación en las áreas productoras de frijol del norte de Sinaloa bajo condiciones de riego, donde ha mostrado alto potencial de rendimiento y tolerancia a enfermedades durante el ciclo de otoño-invierno, superando en rendimiento a la variedad Azufrado Higuera con un promedio de cuatro años en 322 kg ha-¹.In Sinaloa, the yellow-grained bean of the type Azufrado-Peruvian, Nueva Granada breed, particularly the variety Azufrado Higuera, has the greatest area planted with this legume. In this article, we describe the development and the agronomic characteristics of a new variety of this type of bean, "Janasa", which will help broaden the number of varieties available in this commercial class. This new variety was developed from the breeding of three lines between ((Azufrado Pimono-78 / Canario-72 // AZPA-5. The development of the selection was based on the tolerance to viral (BGMV, BCMV and BCMNV and fungal diseases such as (Sclerotinia sclerotorium and rust (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus. The Janasa plant has determined

  7. Contenido de aflatoxinas y proteína en 13 variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Aflatoxin and protein content in 13 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

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    Silvia Denise Peña-Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En México el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una semilla leguminosa de elevado consumo (11 kg per cápita anualmente, por lo que su cultivo es amplio en diferentes regiones. En este estudió se determinó la presencia de aflatoxinas en ocho variedades de frijol común y cinco variedades de frijol mejorado; además del contenido de proteína y humedad. En todas las variedades evaluadas el contenido de humedad mostró grandes variaciones (6 a 16%, encontrándose 16% de las variedades estudiadas fuera de la normatividad (In Mexico, the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a highly consumed legume seed (11 kg per capita annually, so that its cultivation it' s quite extensive in different regions. In this study we investigated the presence of aflatoxins in eight common bean varieties and five improved bean varieties, in addition to protein and moisture. In all the varieties tested, the moisture content showed large variations (from 6 to 16%, being 16%of the varieties studied outside the normal (< 12%. The highest content of protein was detected in the improved bean varieties (26.1% and, the lowest in commercial (19.8% ± 3.09 and wild varieties (20.78% ± 1.93. All of them showed aflatoxins on average of 7.46 ng g-¹ and a range from 5 to 13 ng g-¹. The highest level of contamination was observed in the improved bean varieties (9.2 ±2.9 ngg-¹, followed by the commercial ones ±0.95 7.25 ngg-¹ and wild varieties 6 ± 1 ng g-¹. Tannins were detected in wild bean varieties at a level of 0.44%± 0.13. The results obtained confirm the presence of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the different varieties of common and wild beans at levels permitted by national law, but may pose a risk to the consumer's health due to its high consumption.

  8. Los impactos del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte en la producción de frijol de Zacatecas

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    Elivier Reyes Rivas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La apertura comercial total, prevista en el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN para 2008, puede afectar la agricultura y el empleo rural de Zacatecas, particularmente la producción de frijol, donde la entidad ocupa el primer lugar como productor nacional. Dicha leguminosa ocupa 57 por ciento del área sembrada en el estado y emplea a cerca de 70 mil personas. Al revisar los términos comerciales pactados, datos estadísticos y fuentes primarias, se concluye que la competitividad que genere la apertura comercial puede precipitar el abandono de los cultivos y el deterioro de las condiciones de vida de miles de agricultores. El gobierno mexicano debería reevaluar los términos del tratado para impulsar la producción agrícola y establecer políticas públicas nuevas generadoras de empleo.

  9. LOCI DE CARACTERES CUANTITATIVOS LIGADOS CON LA RESISTENCIA A MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA, FUSARIUM SP. Y SEQUÍA EN FRIJOL COMÚN.

    OpenAIRE

    MÉNDEZ AGUILAR, REINALDO

    2015-01-01

    El frijol común es originario de México. Es la fuente de proteínas más importante y constituye junto con el maíz la base de la alimentación de los mexicanos con menores ingresos. La sequía es la causa principal en la reducción de la producción de este grano básico seguido por las enfermedades entre las cuales destacan principalmente dos géneros de hongos causantes de pudriciones de la raíz y el tallo: Macrophomina y Fusarium. En la actualidad, con las herramientas de la biología molecular tal...

  10. Channel and hillslope processes revisited in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Emmett, William W.; Leopold, Luna B.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the original study sites were relocated and surveyed in the mid-1990's to determine subsequent channel and hillslope changes and to determine whether trends of channel and hillslope aggradation and degradation that were evident in the 1950's and 1960's have continued. In general, the net change in channel geometry has been small over the last 30n40 years. The average change in cross-sectional area of 32 resurveyed cross sections was erosion of 0.27 square meter, which equates to a 4-percent increase in cross-sectional area. The average net change in thalweg elevation for 51 resurveyed cross sections was degradation of 0.04 meter. Unpublished data (1964n68) from the scour chains showed that 371 chains had an average scour of 0.14 (+/-) 0.14 meter and that 372 chains showed an average fill of 0.13 + 0.11 meter. Scour, found in the original study (1958n64) to be proportional to the square root of discharge, was confirmed with the addition of unpublished data (1964?68). The observed channel changes have no consistent trend, compared either to results observed in the original 1966 study or to distance from the watershed divide. The conclusion drawn in the original study was that most channels were aggrading; the resurvey showed that aggradation did not continue. An increase in housing and population in the Arroyo de los Frijoles watershed since the 1950's has led to more roads. Channel degradation is most noticeable at road crossings. The greatest degradation of the main channel Arroyo de los Frijoles, 1.53 meters, and the greatest aggradation, 0.38 meter, occur downstream and upstream, respectively, from a culvert in a dirt road. Periods of high average annual rainfall intensity reported for Santa Fe for 1853?80 immediately preceded late 19th century arroyo incision, and another period of high-intensity rainfall began in 1967. This may indicate that climatic factors are again favorable for arroyo incision in this part of New Mexico; data from this resurvey

  11. Efecto del encalado en la respuesta vegetal y fijación simbiótica del nitrógeno en frijol común

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Garc\\u00EDa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En casa de cristales se evaluó mediante el método de valor A, utilizando el isótopo estable 15N, el efecto del encalado de un suelo Rhodic ferralsol sobre la fijación simbiótica de nitrógeno (FSN de los genotipos de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BAT 58, BAT 477, DOR 364, CC 25-9 (N. La isolínea NN 125, genotipo de frijol no nodulante, fue utilizado como cultivo de referencia. El efecto del encalado incrementó la fracción de nitrógeno en planta derivado del aire, principalmente en CC 25-9 (N que posee muy poca capacidad de fijación de N atmosf érico cuando no se encala el suelo. Además, se encontró un efecto beneficioso del encalado sobre las reservas de N del suelo, visto que los incrementos de las extracciones totales de N por las plantas provienen del N del aire, e incluso, la cantidad de N en planta derivado del suelo disminuyó para todos los genotipos, principalmente en DOR 364 y CC 25-9(N. Por otra parte, la relación %Nddf/%Ndds, por ciento de N en planta derivado del fertilizante y por ciento de N en planta derivado del suelo respectivamente, varió debido a la aplicación de cal. Por consiguiente, es necesario utilizar dos tratamientos con el cultivo de referencia para evaluar acertadamente la FSN: cultivo de referencia con y sin suelo encalado. Se discute la interpretación del parámetro Eficiencia de Uso del N.

  12. Maximización física y económica del agua de riego en la producción del cultivo del frijol

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    Norge Tornés Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló entre los meses de noviembre de 2013 a marzo de 2014 con el objetivo maximizar los niveles físicos y económicos de uso de agua en la producción del frijol mediante la simulación de los rendimientos con el modelo AquaCrop. El área de la investigación pertenece a la UBPC Grito de Yara, la cual se encuentra ubicada a los 20 0 25’ de Latitud N y a los 76 0 53’ de Longitud O con una altura de 6 m.s.n.m. Se realizó un total de 7 riegos. Se sembró la variedad Delicia 360, el día 20 de diciembre con un marco de plantación de 0,5 x 0,8 m. Una vez calibrado el modelo AquaCrop, se simularon los rendimientos del cultivo de frijol bajo diferentes niveles de agua disponible para obtener la función de producción con la cual se realizó la maximización física y económica del agua. El volumen de agua que garantiza un máximo físico es de 2 244,37 m 3 ·ha -1 para la obtención de rendimientos de 2 406,51 kg·ha -1 . El volumen de agua que garantiza el máximo económico es de 2 438,06 m 3 ·ha -1 con lo cual se garantiza una ganancia de 47 .38 $·ha -1.

  13. Fuentes fosfóricas de diferente solubilidad para frijol común evaluadas por método isotópico

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    Aurelio Garc\\u00EDa Altunaga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se condujeronexperimentos en casa de cristales de la Estación ExperimentalLa Renée ubicada en la provincia Habana en el año 2003. Elobjetivo fue evaluar fuentes fosfóricas de diferente solubilidadpara frijol común (Phaseolus vulgarisL. utilizando dos sue-los, Acrisol y Ferralsol ródico, y la técnica de dilución isotópica con 32P. Las fuentes fosfóricas evaluadas fueron roca fosfórica (RF Trinidad de Guedes, RF parcialmente solubilizadaal 50 % con H2SO4(producto denominado comercialmenteFPA50 y superfosfato simple (SS en el Acrisol y superfosfato triple (SFT en el Ferralsol ródico. Los genotipos de frijol empleados en el Acrisol fueron BAT477, DOR 364, DOR390 y Censa, mientras que en el Ferralsol fueron BAT58, BAT477, DOR 364 y CC-25-9(N. Se evaluó producción de mate-ria seca y extracción de Py se determinó la fracción (% y cantidad de Pen planta derivado de los portadores y % de eficiencia de uso del fertilizante. La RF en aplicación directa fuepoco efectiva mientras que los superfosfatos y el FPA50 resultaron efectivos en ambos suelos. Hubo diferencia varietalen la respuesta vegetal y en la utilización del Pde las fuentes,que también dependió de las características del suelo.

  14. Efectos de la aplicación simultanea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación simultánea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con dos tratamientos y ocho réplicas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación combinada de Fitomas E (2,0 l.ha-1 y Biobras 16 (0,12 l.ha-1 y una variante control. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas a los 25 y 40 días post siembra, vaina por planta, granos por vainas, granos por plantas, masa de 100 granos y rendimiento agrícola. Se observó en la altura de las plantas diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ambos tratamientos, superando la combinación de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 al tratamiento control, en un 19,43 % y un 17,73 % respectivamente. La variable vainas por planta también mostró diferencias significativas favorables al tratamiento con los bioestimulantes, no así el número de granos por vainas y la masa de 100 granos. El mayor rendimiento agrícola se obtuvo con la variante donde se aplicó Fitomas E y Biobras 16, el cual difirió significativamente del control. Se concluye que el comportamiento agroproductivo del cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se favoreció con el tratamiento evaluado.

  15. REACCIÓN DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL A LA INOCULACIÓN ARTIFICIAL DE Aphelenchoides besseyi, AGENTE CAUSAL DE LA FALSA MANCHA ANGULAR

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    Walter Barrantes-Santamar\\u00EDa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Especímenes adultos y juveniles de A. besseyi provenientes de cultivo in vitro se inocularon sobre el follaje de plantas de frijol de las variedades Bribri, Huetar, Telire y Chirripó Rojo. Las edades de las plantas inoculadas en el invernadero fueron de diez, 20 y 30 días después de siembra (dds. Los bioensayos se realizaron en los invernaderos de la Escuela de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional, Heredia-Costa Rica en el 2006. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la reacción de variedades de frijol al nematodo A. besseyi. Las variedades estudiadas mostraron similar nivel de resistencia al ataque del nematodo, de acuerdo a la escala de severidad utilizada; sin embargo, las variedades Huetar y Bribri mostraron menor severidad de infección y población de nematodos que las otras dos variedades. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad se desarrollaron en las hojas primarias. El período de incubación fue más corto a medida que las inoculaciones se realizaron en plantas de mayor edad. Igualmente, las hojas maduras fueron más susceptibles que las jóvenes a la infección del nematodo. El desarrollo de la enfermedad difi rió entre hojas primarias y trifoliadas y dependió de la disponibilidad de tejido foliar, la madurez del follaje y la producción de inóculo secundario.

  16. Crecimiento y contenido de prolina y carbohidratos de plántulas de frijol sometidas a estrés por sequía Growth and, proline and carbohydrate content of bean seedlings subjected to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Susana Herrera Flores; Joaquín Ortíz Cereceres; Adriana Delgado Alvarado; Jorge Alberto Acosta Galleros

    2012-01-01

    El estrés por sequía en el altiplano de México, es un factor limitante en el rendimiento del frijol. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las respuestas fisiológicas (crecimiento) y bioquímicas (carbohidratos solubles y prolina) en la radícula de plántulas de frijol resistente, Pinto Villa, y susceptible a la sequía Bayo Madero, ambas de la raza Durango, para identificar características rápidas de medir que sean confiables para selección por resistencia a estrés por sequía. La radícula de las...

  17. Computational Identification of Novel MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiaoyun

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, noncoding, short RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. High conservation of miRNAs in plant provides the foundation for identification of new miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Here, previous known plant miRNAs were BLASTed against the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS) databases of Vigna unguiculata, and according to a series of filtering criteria, a total of 47 miRNAs belonging to 13 miRNA families were identified, and 30 potential target genes of them were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode transcription factors or enzymes participating in regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes. Overall, our findings lay the foundation for further researches of miRNAs function in Vigna unguiculata.

  18. COMBINED EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND FUNGI ON MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.

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    Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Gaurav Bhushan Jaspal Singh *, Sudhir K. Upadhyay and A.P. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, screened PGPR and Fungi were influence the growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata plant in the pot. Two rhizobacteria viz. Rhizobium sp., Pseudomonas putida and three fungi Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma viride were isolated and purified. The effect of inoculation of different strains of bacteria and fungus on growth responses of Vigna radiata under pot condition was enumerated. The result revealed that the single and dual inoculation of these microbial strains enhances the plant growth in terms of root and shoot length and dry-biomass. The maximum increase in root length (up to 86.57%, shoot length (up to 56.91%, root dry weight (up to 94.42%, and shoot dry weight (up to 56.09% was observed in response to dual inoculation of Pseudomonas putida with Trichoderma viride compared to uninoculated control.

  19. Infectividad y efectividad de rizobios aislados de Suelos de la Costa Caribe Colombiana en Vigna unguiculata

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    Jonathan Alberto Mendoza Labrador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study in Colombia which covers an evaluation of native rhizobium associated to the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in the departaments of Cesar and Guajira. In this research it was demonstrated that the use of native rhizobium isolated from nodes, improved the development of the Caupí bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., being this bacteria more efficient than the chemical and absolute treatments (without inoculum and fertilization also improving the biological nitrogen fixation and the photosynthetic rate. As contribution of the study, it was determined that in greenhouse conditions and according to the results obtained from differents measured agronomic variables, this could influence positively in the nutritional performance of the crop, basis of food of the cattle system of this regions of the country and the food source of the indigenous community of low economic income.

  20. PENGARUH JENIS DAN DOSIS PUPUK BOKASHI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL KACANG PANJANG (Vigna sinensis L.

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    Achmad Djunaedy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this Research to determine the effect of fertilizer type and dose of bokashi of growth and yield bean (Vigna sinensis L.. Results of research: 1 bokashi fertilizer and chicken manure effect on plant length and number of leaves at the age of 24 days after the plant, 2 dose of fertilizer bokashi or chicken manure is best for the total fruit weight per plant is 20 tons / ha.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKERS LINKED TO MYMV RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L). WILCZEK)

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVEEN HOLEYACHI; D L SAVITHRAMMA

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker associated with mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) by employing bulk segregant analysis in recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Out of 20 random decamers, only ten primers viz; OPA-03, A-06, A-03, OPA-09, A-09, OPB 7, UBC-391, OPC-08, UBC 499 and A-04 showed polymorphism between parents Chinamung and BL 849. Out of these ten primers only one ...

  2. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

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    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co in the variability of chinese bean [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}; Efecto de la radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co en la variabilidad de frijol chino [Vigna unguiculata (l.) Walpers] en R{sub 4}M{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Bueno J, J.E.; Valencia E, F. [CSAEGro, Iguala, Guerrero, Tel and Fax 01 733 (33) 24328 (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [IREGEP (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-07-01

    Selection of plants of Chinese bean coming from seed irradiated with gammas of {sup 60}Co in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 4} (fourth recurrent irradiation, fourth segregate generation) were carried out, taking as selection approaches the plant architecture, the numbers of sheaths for plant, sheath longitude, position of the sheaths, grain size and resistance to plagues and illnesses. 17 lines were selected for grain and 3 lines with fodder characteristics of black grain color were also obtained. (Author)

  4. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  5. Effects of Chicken Manure and Mineral Fertilizer on Some Nutritive Parameters and Lead Accumulation in Two Vigna Species Grown in Lead Contaminated Soil

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    N. Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer on Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata plants grown in lead contaminated soil were examined. Plants were grown in lead polluted soil, which is amended with different concentrations of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer (NPK. Accumulation of lead in the leaves of both Vigna species was reduced when chicken manure was added. Application of mineral fertilizer increased the accumulation of lead in Vigna radiata, but caused a decrease in Vigna unguiculata. Application of both fertilizers improved the chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate contents of both species. Results are discussed in relation to the significance of organic and inorganic manure with accumulation of heavy metals such as lead particularly in contaminated soils and their consequences on protein and chlorophyll synthesis.

  6. Labranza mínima y efecto alelopático en la producción de frijol común en la Empresa Agropecuaria 19 de Abril de la provincia Mayabeque

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    Idalmis Hernández Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de preparación de suelo en particular de labranza mínima, conjuntamente con el aprovechamiento biológico- natural que se suceden en las especies vegetales juega un papel importante en el manejo de los sistemas agrícolas sostenibles. Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia de la labranza mínima y el efecto alelopático en la producción del frijol común (Phaseolus vilgaris,L cv Tomeguín 93-N se realizo el estudio en áreas productivas de la Empresa Agropecuaria 19 de Abril, Quivicán, provincia Mayabeque, sobre un suelo Ferralítico-típico. Se utilizaron como cultivo precedente al frijol común los residuos de: boniato (Ipomoea batata, L cv CEMSA 78- 354, maíz (Zea mays, L cv. Francisco, girasol (Helianthus annus, L cv. Cuba–Sol y frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L cv. Tomeguín 93- N, los cuales fueron incorporados al suelo a razón de 0,3 kg×m-2. Las variantes objeto de estudio fueron el resultado de los cuatros residuos vegetales empleados incorporados y el testigo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar constituido por los referidos tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Las variables respuestas fueron: supervivencia de las plantas (porcentaje de reducción, rendimiento (t×ha-1 y el análisis de los costos y utilidades en el cultivo del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. Los resultados reflejan la influencia negativa del método de labranza mínima en la supervivencia y rendimiento del frijol común cuando demuestra el efecto alelopático de los mismos, lo que hacen incosteable la producción del cultivo.

  7. Rojo INIFAP, nueva variedad de frijol de grano rojo para el trópico de México Rojo INIFAP, a new red grain bean variety for the Tropic of Mexico

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    Bernardo Villar Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los Distritos de Desarrollo Rural, Centro y Altos de la Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación del estado de Chiapas, existen áreas donde se siembran materiales criollos de frijol de grano rojo, los cuales se comercializan tanto en los mercados locales de las comunidades, como en la capital del estado, donde también se comercializa grano de frijol rojo proveniente de Centroamérica. Aunque estos genotipos tienen adaptación específica, son de bajo rendimiento potencial y susceptible a enfermedades. En esta entidad existe un creciente interés por parte de los agricultores por la siembra de este tipo de grano, lo cual obedece al establecimiento cada vez mayor de inmigrantes centroamericanos en el estado, que culturalmente consumen frijol de grano rojo y por lo tanto aumenta la demanda local de este tipo de frijol. Por otra parte, al incrementar la superficie de siembra y el rendimiento de frijol de grano rojo, representa una oportunidad para el estado de Chiapas de exportar este tipo de grano, considerando la demanda que hay en El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua, así como en los Estados Unidos de América, donde radican habitantes de estos países centroamericanos, además de promover su consumo en el país.In the Rural Development Districts (DDR, Centro y Altos of Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (SAGARPA in the State of Chiapas, there are areas where creole materials of red grain bean are sowed, which are traded in local markets where they are produced, as in those of State capital, where it is also traded red grain bean from Central America. Although these genotypes have specific adaptation, they are from low yield potential and susceptible to diseases. In this state there is a growing interest in the farmers for sowing of this type of grain, which stands for the increasing establishment of Central American immigrants in the state that culturally

  8. Bayo Azteca, primera variedad mejorada de frijol con resistencia a Apion godmani Wagner Bayo Azteca, first improved bean variety with resistance to Apion godmani Wagner

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    Ramón Garza-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bayo Azteca, la primera variedad mejorada de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., con resistencia a una plaga insectil, ha sido obtenida por el programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Valle de México, del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias por cruzas múltiples, esto involucró un largo proceso de mejora genética. Bayo Azteca es la primera variedad mejorada resistente al picudo del ejote (Apion godmani Wagner, un curculiónido que ataca al frijol en las zonas templadas de los valles altos de la Mesa Central de México, causando pérdidas que varían desde 50% hasta 90%. Al igual que otras variedades es también resistente a antracnosis [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc & Magn. Briosi & Cav.] y tizón común [Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli (Smith Dye]. La nueva variedad fue desarrollada para los Valles Altos de la mesa central desde 1 800 a 2 300 m de altitud. Su hábito de crecimiento es indeterminado tipo III, guías cortas y flor blanca, las vainas son de tamaño mediano a grandes con 5 a 6 granos medianos, tiene alto potencial de rendimiento y plasticidad fenológica. En los Valles Altos, es de precocidad intermedia (102 a 118 días a madurez; Bayo Azteca es además de rápida cocción y con alto contenido de proteína.Bayo Azteca, the first improved bean variety (Phaseolus vulgaris L., with resistance to an insect plague, has been obtained via multiple crossing by bean program of the Valley of Mexico Experimental Station (CEVAMEX, of the National Research Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Institute (INIFAP, which required a long process of genetic improvement. Bayo Azteca is the first improved variety resistant to bean pod weevil (Apion godmani Wagner, which is a curculionidae that attacks beans in template zones of the Central Highlands of Mexico and causes 50-90% losses. Similar to other varieties, the Bayo Azteca is resistant to anthracnose [Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc & Magn. Briosi

  9. DETERMINACIÓN DEL PERÍODO CRÍTICO DE COMPETENCIADE LAS ARVENSES CON EL CULTIVO DEL FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisys Blanco Valdés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo sostenible de arvenses dentro de uncultivo económico de ciclo corto como el frijol (Phaseolusvulgaris, L en el trópico, resulta extremadamente complejo, porla alta diversidad y cantidad de arvenses acompañantes, razonespor las cuales con el florecimiento de los métodos químicos enla década del 70, el uso de herbicidas pre emergentes seimplementó casi universalmente; sin embargo, este método haprovocado el establecimiento de especies altamente agresivas,de difícil manejo, donde hay que acudir a los métodos conven-cionales para lograr bajar sus poblaciones. Por otra parte, se hademostrado, el daño ecológico que provocan los cultivos limpiosde arvenses al eliminarse el refugio de insectos, dado que bajoesas condiciones, se rompe el equilibrio en el agroecosistema,lo que facilita la reproducción de los insectos afines al cultivo,convirtiéndose en organismos plaga. La determinación delperíodo crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el cultivoeconómico es la única vía eficiente para establecer métodos demanejo de arvenses sólo durante el tiempo que el cultivo lorequiere y de esta forma facilitar la convivencia interespecíficaarvenses-cultivo económico. Para lograr ese objetivo, se llevó acabo una investigación durante dos años donde se evaluómediante un diseño de bloques al azar, con tratamientos a los8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48 y 54 días después de la germinación con y sinarvenses, y dos testigos, con y sin manejo durante todo el ciclodel frijol. Las arvenses dominantes en el sistema, fueron Cyperusrotundus y Sorghum halepense atribuible a los métodos químicosde manejo precedentes. De acuerdo con los análisis estadísticos realizados el período crítico de competencia de las arvenses conel cultivo del frijol se encontró en el período que transcurredesde 24 a 40 días después de germinado el cultivo, períododurante el cual al cultivo no le pueden faltar las labores de manejode las arvenses

  10. Compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés en respuesta a las dosis tóxicas y deficientes de Nitrógeno en frijol ejotero

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    Esteban Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un amplio rango de estreses ambientales, tales como baja temperatura, sequía, alcalinidad, salinidad, deficiencia y toxicidad de nutrientes son potencialmente dañinos para las plantas. El papel del nitrógeno como nutriente esencial y componente estructural de aminoácidos, proteínas, ácidos nucleicos y otros constituyentes esenciales para el desarrollo ha sido ampliamente documentado en varias especies debido a la importancia en los procesos de crecimiento y producción agrícola. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, existe escasa literatura del efecto de la deficiencia y toxicidad de nitrógeno sobre los compuestos osmoreguladores como indicadores de estrés en plantas. Por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés (prolina, glicinabetaina y colina en respuesta a las dosis tóxicas y deficientes de N en frijol ejotero desarrollado en cámara de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas y sistema hidropónico. Método: El nitrógeno fue aplicado a la solución nutritiva en la forma de NH4NO3 y en dosis crecientes: N1 = 1.5 mM, N2 = 3.0 mM, N3 = 6.0 mM, N4 = 12.0 mM, N5 = 18.0 mM y N6 = 24.0 mM de N. Los parámetros analizados fueron la acumulación de biomasa, la concentración de prolina, glicinabetaina y colina en hojas, raíces, semillas y vainas de frijol ejotero cv. Strike. Resultados: La aplicación de dosis deficientes y tóxicas de N afectó la producción de biomasa en frijol, siendo las dosis tóxicas las que afectaron más este parámetro. Por otro lado, resaltar que los osmoreguladores prolina, glicinabetaina y colina solamente se acumularon bajo condiciones de toxicidad de N (N6, sin embargo, en condiciones de estrés provocado por la deficiencia de N (N1 no se produce la acumulación de estos compuestos. Discusión o Conclusión: Los compuestos nitrogenados indicadores de estrés solamente se acumulan bajo condiciones de toxicidad de N (N6, sin embargo en

  11. Diversidad morfológica del frijol ayocote del Carso Huasteco de México Morphologic diversity of ayocote beans from Huasteco Karst of Mexico

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    Patricia Vargas-Vázquez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El frijol ayocote (Phaseolus coccineus L. se cultiva en zonas templadas y subtropicales de México. La colección nacional de la especie incluye 800 accesiones y está resguardada por un banco de germoplasma nacional ubicado en Chapingo, México. En este trabajo se caracterizaron 98 accesiones de frijol ayocote de la subprovincia fisiográfica Carso Huasteco de Puebla, México con base en características fenológicas y del color y dimensión de la semilla. Los colores que predominaron fueron el negro (N1 y variantes de violeta (5R y de beige (10YR y 7.5YR. Además, se registraron las variables climáticas de los sitios de recolección originales de cada accesión. El germoplasma se separó en 2 grupos: uno incluyó 42 accesiones con ciclo biológico tardío (días a madurez fisiológica > 110, semillas grandes (peso de 100 semillas > 40 g y vainas largas (longitud > 8 cm con 1 a 3 semillas, desarrollados por selección empírica de los agricultores locales en sitios con temperaturas mínimas de 2 a 5 °C, y otro incluyó 56 accesiones con ciclo precoz (≤ 110 días, semilla chica (peso ≤ 40 g y vainas cortas (longitud ≤ 8 cm con 2 a 4 semillas, cultivadas en sitios con temperaturas mínimas de 0 a - 2 °C. El cultivo del frijol ayocote del Carso Huasteco se limita a una superficie relativamente pequeña; no obstante, con base en las formas y épocas de cultivo, se observó notable variación y diferenciación fenotípica en el germoplasma local. Futuros trabajos determinarán las medidas de conservación y aprovechamiento de dicho germoplasma.Ayocote beans (Phaseolus coccineus L. are cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions in Mexico. The national collection of the species includes 800 accessions and it is preserved by one national germplasm bank places in Chapingo, Mexico. In this work 98 ayocote bean accessions from sub-province Huasteco Karst of Puebla, Mexico were characterized based on phenological traits as well as seed color

  12. COMPARACIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES DEL RENDIMIENTO EN VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL EN CONDICIONES DE ACIDEZ Y HUMEDAD RESIDUAL DEL SUELO EN EL SUR DE VERACRUZ

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    Aurelio Morales Rivera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se cultiva en suelos ácidos (pH<5 con humedad residual en el sur del estado de Veracruz, México. El cultivo se realiza en unas 6600 ha al final de la temporada de lluvias a mediados de septiembre o principios de octubre. La humedad residual, aunado a la acidez del suelo frecuentemente afectan el periodo de formación de la semilla, reduciendo el rendimiento. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar variedades de frijol de tipo III en cuanto a su rendimiento de semilla y sus componentes, cultivadas bajo restricciones de humedad residual y acidez del suelo, y altas temperaturas en el ciclo otoño-invierno 2012-2013, en el Municipio de Juan Rodríguez Clara, Veracruz. Se emplearon seis variedades de testa de color negro, seis del tipo ‘Flor de Mayo’ y una del tipo ‘Flor de Junio’. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La unidad experimental se constituyó de cinco surcos de 5 m de longitud y 0.8 m de separación. Se fertilizó con una dosis de 40-40-00. Las variedades “Negro Veracruz”, “San Andrés”, “Negro Cotaxtla” y “Flor de Junio Marcela”, exhibieron mayor rendimiento de semilla, vainas por m2 y peso de 200 semillas, altura de planta y menor biomasa aérea final que las demás. El mayor rango de variabilidad genética entre las variedades se observó para la biomasa aérea final y altura de planta. La respuesta en rendimiento y sus componentes sugiere que algunas variedades de testa negra han desarrollado mecanismos de tolerancia a la acidez, restricción de humedad residual del suelo y altas temperaturas durante la floración y formación de la semilla, que les permiten producir altos rendimientos a pesar de estar sometidas a estrés ambiental. La variedad de Valles Altos (“Flor de Junio Marcela”, también mostró que podría tener buena adaptación a estas condiciones.

  13. Reacción de germoplasma de frijol común a macrophomina phaseolina en condiciones de riego-secano en Veracruz, México

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    Netzahualcoyotl Mayek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Reacción de germoplasma de frijol común a Macro phomina phaseolina en condiciones de riego-secano en Veracruz, México. Se establecieron cuatro experimentos en Isla y Cotaxtla, Veracruz, México con los objetivos de determinar la reacción de 56 genotipos de frijol común a M. phaseolina bajo condiciones de riego-secano y para identificar germoplasma resistente al hongo y con estabilidad del rendimiento bajo condiciones de deficiencia hídrica. El germoplasma evaluado incluyó diferentes orígenes, razas genéticas, colores de la testa de la semilla, variedades y líneas experimentales. Se aleatorizó en diseños experimentales látice 7x8 cultivado bajo condiciones de riego y de secano (suspensión del riego en la fase reproductiva. El déficit de humedad adelantó la madurez fisiológica e incrementó la severidad de la pudrición carbonosa; además de reducir el rendimiento de grano. En promedio de los cuatro experimentos, TLP20/NT81, NGO 99165, Negro Veracruz, A 774 y BAT 477 mostraron los mayores rendimientos de grano (más de 1000 kg/ha y los promedios menores de severidad de la pudrición carbonosa; mientras que Negro Otomí, 9457-43, NGO 99176, CNC 2 y VAX 2 exhibieron un comportamiento inverso. La intensidad de la sequía en cada experimento fue variable y los valores mayores se observaron en Isla (0,53 y 0,38 en 2000 y 2001, respectivamente. No hubo asociación clara entre el índice de susceptibilidad a la sequía y la severidad de la pudrición carbonosa o rendimiento de grano, aunque si relación negativa entre rendimiento de grano y severidad de la pudrición carbonosa (r = -0,26* en promedio. No obstante lo anterior, el germoplasma con menores daños por M. phaseolina y mayores rendimientos de grano mostró, en general, valores menores de índice de susceptibilidad a la sequía.

  14. Diversidad de frijoles nativos de diferentes regiones del estado de Puebla Native beans diversity of different regions from state of Puebla

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    Ana Rosa Ramírez-Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El frijol común representa un cultivo básico en México con una gran variabilidad en sus características morfológicas. En estudios sobre la diversidad genética se han usado marcadores moleculares, entre los que se encuentran los RAPD. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar mediante caracteres morfológicos, agronómicos, de calidad y marcadores RAPD, variedades de frijoles nativos cultivadas en diferentes comunidades del estado de Puebla. La extracción de ADN se realizó en una muestra de hojas jóvenes de las variedades sembradas bajo invernadero. Se utilizaron 7 iniciadores RAPDs de la serie OPERON Technologies. Las bandas polimórficas se codificaron por presencia y ausencia. Con el programa NTSYS pc 2.2 se generó un dendograma empleando el índice de similitud de Dice, con nivel de corte a un valor de 0.48, donde se definieron 13 grupos. Seis grupos estuvieron integrados por una variedad, 4 grupos por 2 variedades, 2 grupos por 3 variedades y un grupo formado por 7 variedades. Los grupos definidos se integraron por colores de grano distintos y coincidieron en otras características morfológicas como días a floración, tiempo de cocción y contenido de proteína.Common bean is basic crop in Mexico with great variability in its morphological characteristics. RAPD is among molecular markers, which have been used in studies about genetic diversity. The aim of this work was to characterize by morphological, agronomical, quality characters and RAPD markers the varieties harvested in different localities from state of Puebla. DNA extraction was made from sample of young leaves of varieties planted under greenhouse. 7 RAPDs starters from OPERON Technologies were used. Polymorphical bands were coded by presence and absence. With NTSYS pc 2.2 software dendrogram was created using Dice's similarity index, with cut level at value of 0.48 where 13 groups were defined. Six groups were comprised by single variety, 4 groups by 2

  15. Interferencia de malezas en el cultivo de frijol en dos sistemas de labranzas Weeds influence in bean crop in two tillage systems

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    M.C. Parreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo, se busco determinar el período anterior a la interferencia de las malezas que conviven con el cultivo de frijol, en ausencia o presencia de residuos vegetales de Crotalaria juncea. Los tratamientos estaban constituidos de siete períodos de convivencia del cultivo con las malezas: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60 y 0-70 días después de la emergencia y también de un testigo sin presencia de las malezas en ausencia o presencia de crotalaria. El diseño experimental utilizado fue de bloques completos seleccionados al azar, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Hubo reducciones de 40,6% y 55,1% en la productividad de granos de frijol en convivencia con malezas durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, en ausencia y presencia de los residuos vegetales, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la productividad de granos fue afectada negativamente a partir de 29 y 38 días después de la emergencia, sin y con residuos, respectivamente, y eso constituyó los períodos anteriores a la interferencia.The research aim to determine the period prior to weed interference on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The treatments had been made out of seven periods of coexisting by the culture with the weed 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, and 0 70 days after crop emergence in absence and presence crop residue. It had reduction of 40.56% and 55.12%, the productivity of grains in the culture of the common bean when the coexistence with the weed was during all the cycle of the culture, in absence and presence crop residue, respectively. It was concluded that grain yield was negatively affected from the 29th and 38th days after emergence, in the absence and presence of crop residue, respectively.

  16. Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

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    Sommanas Warunee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mungbean is an important economical crop in Asia. However, genomic research has lagged behind other crop species due to the lack of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from genome shotgun sequencing of mungbean. Result We have generated and characterized a total of 470,024 genome shotgun sequences covering 100.5 Mb of the mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek genome using 454 sequencing technology. We identified 1,493 SSR motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 192 tested primer pairs in 17 mungbean accessions, 60 loci revealed polymorphism with polymorphic information content (PIC values ranging from 0.0555 to 0.6907 with an average of 0.2594. Majority of microsatellite markers were transferable in Vigna species, whereas transferability rates were only 22.90% and 24.43% in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, respectively. We also used 16 SSR loci to evaluate phylogenetic relationship of 35 genotypes of the Asian Vigna group. The genome survey sequences were further analyzed to search for gene content. The evidence suggested 1,542 gene fragments have been sequence tagged, that fell within intersected existing gene models and shared sequence homology with other proteins in the database. Furthermore, potential microRNAs that could regulate developmental stages and environmental responses were discovered from this dataset. Conclusion In this report, we provided evidence of generating remarkable levels of diverse microsatellite markers and gene content from high throughput genome shotgun sequencing of the mungbean genomic DNA. The markers could be used in germplasm analysis, accessing genetic diversity and linkage mapping of mungbean.

  17. THE ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF SHREDDED LEAVES OF ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND A. ALTILIS ON VIGNA RADIATA L

    OpenAIRE

    Romilly Margaret Mendez* & Glaxy Ezekel.V

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg  on seed germination, seedling growth and total phenolic content of Vigna radiata L. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of germination, growth of the seedlings and the chlorophyll content of the cultivar seeds exposed to four concentrations (10 ppm, 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm) of the leaf extracts of A. heterophyllus and A. altilis.   I...

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Warin Pimpa; Chanin Umponstira; Suckaluck Nanegrungsun

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than ...

  19. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  20. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  1. (Helianthus annuus L.-frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en función del nitrógeno y fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar J. Morales Rosales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2003 se realizó un estudio en Montecillo, Estado de México, para determinar el efecto de la aplicación de nitrógeno (0, 40 y 80 kg ha–1 y fósforo (0, 30 y 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 en la siembra combinada de girasol (cv. Victoria y frijol (cv. Michoacán. Con el suministro de 80 kg N ha–1 (80 – 00 – 00 se incrementó la producción de biomasa y rendimiento de semilla superando al testigo sin fertilizante en 32% y 35%. Cuando se adicionaron 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 (00 – 60 – 00 se obtuvo una producción de materia seca y rendimiento de semilla superior al testigo en 24 y 27%, respectivamente. Aunque la interacción nitrógeno x fósforo no fue significativa, existió una tendencia positiva a medida de que se incrementaron los niveles de nitrógeno y fósforo (80 – 60 – 00, alcanzando los máximos valores en la producción de biomasa (2667.9 g m–2 y rendimiento de semilla (644.6 g m–2, los cuales superaron en 49 y 50% al testigo sin fertilizante.

  2. Evanescencias en las traducciones del Chilam Balam de Chumayel: el maíz y el frijol del Sur, los ibes del Oriente y el pozol ritual

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    Miguel Mauricio Vassallo Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta restituir a las traducciones del maya el sentido original de algunos párrafos de la primera página del Chilam Balam de Chumayel, que fueron alterados en algunas ediciones de este libro. Los parágrafos contenidos al inicio del texto reflejan la concepción de que al comienzo de esta Era los elementos del axis mundi se desdoblaron en los cuadrantes del cosmos, replicándose pero adquiriendo el color y ciertas características inherentes a cada uno de los cuatro rumbos del cosmos. Algunas traducciones y ediciones omitieron al maíz y/o al frijol del rumbo sur y a los ibes del oriente; esto mutila el sentido general de esa parte del texto original, donde dichos elementos están indubitablemente presentes. También intento restituir la presencia del pozol ritual (saka’ y del tzune en dos de las interrogantes de Zuyua than que han sido erróneamente identificados como "atole" en todas las ediciones del Chumayel.

  3. Diversidad de razas de colletotrichum lindemuthianum en Antioquía y evaluación de germoplasma de frijol crema-rojo por resistencia a antracnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E. Santana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar si la composición de razas en el Oriente de Antioquía se caracterizaron 15 aislamientos de C. lindemuthianum, usando 12 variedades diferenciales de frijol aceptadas internacionalmente. Se identificaron 11 razas, seis de las cuales (9, 131, 135, 139, 643, y 645 fueron caracterizadas por primera vez. Además, se evaluaron 49 genotipos procedentes de los bancos de germoplasma del CIAT y CORPOICA y cultivares de agricultor de municipios productores. Los genotipos fueron evaluados en campo y en invernadero con las razas más virulentas del patógeno (651 y 653 encontradas en Antioquía. Sólo cuatro genotipos (AND1084, SUG130, LAS106 y DiacolCatio mostraron resistencia a ambas razas. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como parentales para un plan de cruzas, con el fin de introducir genes de resistencia a variedades de importancia comercial que presenten susceptibilidad a la antracnosis.

  4. Efecto de la labranza mínima y la convencional en frijol (phaseolus vulgaris l. En la región Huetar norte de Costa Rica

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    Luis Antonio Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo en la Región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica en donde se establecieron dos lotes: uno de labranza mínima (1,85 ha y otro de labranza convencional (2 ha. La siembra en ambos sistemas de labranza se realizó con una sembradora abonadora hidraúlica. La variedad sembrada fue la Brunca. La población de plantas de frijol evaluada durante la etapa vegetativa fue de 9,37 plantas/m lineal en labranza mínima, y de 9,55 plantas/m lineal en labranza convencional. La densidad de malezas fue mayor en labranza convencional y las malezas de mayor dominancia fueron Ri- chardia scabra, Rottboellia cochinchinensis y Spermacoce sp. El peso seco de malezas fue de 37,6 g de malezas/ cuadrí- cula de 0,25 m2 en labranza mínima, mientras que en el sistema de labranza convencional fue de 46,4 g de malezas/ cuadr ícula. La incidencia y severidad de mustia hilachosa (Tanatheporus cucumeris en el sistema de labranza mínima fue de un 42,8% y de 0,83, respectivamente, mientras que en labranza convencional fue de un 52,2% y 1,22, respectivamente. En el sistema de labranza mínima el rendimiento fue de 930 kg/ha, y en labranza convencional de 676 kg/ha.

  5. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  6. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  7. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  8. Transformation of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Cells with an Antibiotic Resistance Gene Using a Ti-Plasmid-Derived Vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, Jacques; Goldbach, Rob

    1986-01-01

    A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene was transferred to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a member of the legume family. This transfer was established by inoculating cowpea leaf discs with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a Ti-plasmid-derived vector that contained two copies of a chimaeric

  9. The phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) in Botswana soils : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramolemana, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdec.) is a legume crop grown especially by small farmers mainly in semi-arid parts of Africa both in mixed cultivation and pure stands. It is considered as a hardy crop because of its drought tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases and ability to yie

  10. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  11. Ecofisiología de seis variedades de frijol bajo las condiciones climáticas de la Región Lagunera Ecophysiology of six bean varieties under the weather conditions of the Lagunera region

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Armando Chávez-Simental; Vicente de Paul Alvarez-Reyna

    2012-01-01

    En la problemática existente en la Comarca Lagunera sobre la disponibilidad de agua, es importante considerar cultivos alternos que se adapten a las condiciones climáticas de la región. Algunas variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulagris L.) son susceptibles a sequía lo que limita el óptimo desarrollo del cultivo provocando bajo rendimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la tasa de fotosíntesis neta, tasa de transpiración, conductancia estomatal y rendimiento de seis variedades de f...

  12. Relación entre el Vigor Inicial del Frijol Común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) con la Resistencia a Sequía y a Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich

    OpenAIRE

    Netzahualcóyotl Mayek Pérez; Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos; Cándido López Castañeda

    2002-01-01

    Se estableció un experimento para determinar la relación entre el vigor inicial de la planta de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y las características responsables de la resistencia a la pudrición carbonosa causada por el hongo Macrophomina phaseolina, bajo condiciones de deficiencia hídrica en invernadero. Las semillas de la línea BAT 477 (resistente, 230 ± 5 mg de peso promedio) y de la variedad Pinto UI-114 (susceptible, 250 ± 5 mg de peso promedio) se sembraron en macetas con suelo inocu...

  13. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

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    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  14. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  15. Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus in Post-harvest Contaminated Vigna ungulculata Seeds

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    Ajay Kumar Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with a specific objective to study postharvest spoilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata seeds contaminated with Aspergillus flavus. Infected seeds were collected and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA media, at 25±2 °C. Aspergillus flavus isolates were primarily characterized by its morphological and microscopic characteristics. Collected fungal isolates were also screened for their afaltoxigenic nature on preliminary basis and at molecular level. For preliminary screening, 5 mm disc of fungal culture was soaked with few drops of liquid ammonia. Color change from yellow pigment to plum-red with different intensities showed the mycotoxic nature of the fungus. DNA from fungal isolates was isolated and amplified using PCR with aflatoxin specific primers, apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1. Amplicons of 1032 bp, 895 bp and 596 bp were obtained in most of the isolates regardless of primer set used which was useful to differentiate between mycotoxic and nontoxic isolates of A. flavus. The isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus during post-harvest period of lobhiya seeds raise a serious concern over the quality of seeds and a threat to heath of consumers. It was concluded that Aspergillus flavus is responsible for postharvest spolilage of Lobhiya (Vigna unguiculata.

  16. Comparative Studies of Nitrogen Fixing Potential of Desmodium ramississimon and Vigna unquiculata for Soil Fertility Management

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    Ngwu, OE.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large numbers of legume species in the tropics with potentials for nitrogen fixation could be exploited to supply nitrogen, if they can be integrated into the farming system. The N2 – fixing potential of a native herbaceous leguminous species namely, Desmodium ramississimon (Dm and grain legume, Vigna unquiculata (Cp were studied in the green house and field, on three types of soil. In both situations, nodulation was influenced by the soil type. Nsukka soil, which had sandy texture, highest level of available phosphorus among the soils investigated in the study and moderate level of other plant nutrients (Mg and K enhanced nodulation, which supported N-fixation. Soil type also influenced the quantity of N accumulated by each species, but had no effect on nitrogen concentration in the different plant parts. Desmodium ramississimon had higher nodule weight and accumulated more nitrogen and fixed more N2 than Vigna unquiculata in the three soils. The mean nodule dry weights were in the ranges of 61.6- 239.2 mg/plant for Dm in the three soils as compared to the range 3.2-31.4 mg/plant for Cp. Symbiotic dependence of DM varied with soil type ranging from 63.62% in Adani soil to 88% in Nkpologu soil, whereas Cp had the least symbiotic dependence value. These trends were confirmed in the field thereby indicating that Desmodium ramississimon had greater N2- potential than the cultivated legume studied.

  17. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  18. Purification and enzymatic characterization of a chitinase from Phaseolus mungo%绿豆几丁质酶的纯化和酶学性质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪少芸; 李邦德; 吴金鸿; 叶秀云; 饶平凡

    2004-01-01

    A chitinase was isolated from the seeds of mung bean ( Phaseolus mungo ) by the procedure containing aqueous extraction, affinity chromatography Affi - gel and ion exchange chromatography on SP- Toyopearl. The purified enzyme exhibited a single band on SDS - PAGE with a molecular weight of 30.8 kDa both in reduced and oxidized conditions, indicating it is monomeric protein. The pI was measured to be 6.3 by isoelectric focusing. This enzyme showed its optimum activity at pH 5.4, and a temperature between 40 ℃ and 50 ℃. These results demonswated the purified protein was a kind of new chitinase.%利用亲和色谱Affi-gel和离子交换色谱SP-Toyopearl从绿豆种子中分离纯化出几丁质酶.纯化的蛋白通过SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳鉴定达到电泳纯,分子质量为30.8 kDa.还原和非还原状态下的几丁质酶蛋白均显示单一区带,说明该几丁质酶为单倍体蛋白.通过等点聚焦法测得pI为6.3.该酶的最适pH为5.4,最适反应温度为40~50℃.

  19. Biochemical and biophysical changes induced by fungicide sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (SDD), in phytocystatin purified from Phaseolus mungo (Urd): a commonly used Indian legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Rashid, Fouzia; Bano, Bilqees

    2005-07-27

    Phytocystatins are the plant thiol protease inhibitors involved in several reaction mechanisms of the plant system like regulation of proteolytic activity and storage of proteins. Biochemical and biophysical changes induced by fungicide SDD in phytocystatin purified from Phaseolus mungo have been investigated in terms of mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy, at pH 7.0, with varying fungicide concentrations (1-9 mM) and a time of incubation ranging from 2 to 8 h at 37 degrees C, with a fixed cystatin concentration (1.5 mM). Reactive oxygen species responsible for inhibitor damage were also investigated, and thiourea was found to scavenge the free radicals generated by SDD. FTIR analysis indicates a significant conformational transition from alpha-helix to beta-sheet structure; quenching of fluorescence is evident by fluorescence spectroscopy. The activity assay showed a decrease in inhibitory activity, as well as a fragmentation of the inhibitor was observed in electrophoresis. Results obtained implicate that exposure of phytocystatins to SDD involves physicochemical changes in cystatins leading to damage and a decrease in the activity of the inhibitor.

  20. An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-02-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding.

  1. Estabilidad de rendimiento en genotipos mesoamericanos de frijol de grano en México Yield stability of improved mesoamerican genotypes of black common bean in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Salinas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En México se consumen más de 400 000 t de frijol de grano negro y la producción nacional es insuficiente por lo que se recurre a la importación. Con la siembra de variedades de mayor rendimiento potencial que las de uso actual y amplia adaptación, es factible obtener una mayor producción y disminuir o evitar las importaciones. El objetivo fue determinar el rendimiento y adaptabilidad de líneas y variedades de frijol negro, raza mesoamericana, en diferentes ambientes de México (uno en Chiapas, tres en Veracruz, uno en Puebla, uno en el Estado de México, dos en Guanajuato, uno en Tamaulipas, dos en Durango, uno en Zacatecas, uno en Nayarit y dos en Sinaloa en 2008. El experimento se estableció en diseño látice 4*4 con cuatro repeticiones, en parcelas de cuatro surcos de 5 m de longitud, separados 0.76 m. Durante la conducción de los ensayos se determinaron diversas características agronómicas, entre ellas el rendimiento. Con los datos de rendimiento se realizó análisis combinado (ambientes-genotipos y se estimaron los parámetros de estabilidad, con el modelo de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa. Se detectaron diferencias altamente significativas (pIn Mexico, over 400 000 t of black beans are consumed every year, and the country's production is insufficient, which is why it is also imported. By planting varieties with a higher potential yield tan those used nowadays, greater amounts can be produced, and imports reduced or even avoided. The aim was to establish the yield and adaptability of lines and varieties of Mesoamerican breed of black beans, in different environments in Mexico (one in Chiapas, three in Veracruz, one in Puebla, one in the State of Mexico, two in Guanajuato, one in Tamaulipas, two in Durango, one in Zacatecas, one in Nayarit and two in Sinaloa in 2008. The experiment was set up in a 4*4 lattice design with four repetitions, in fields of four five-meter long furrows, separated by 0.76 m

  2. Pinto Coloso, nueva variedad de frijol para el estado de Durango Pinto Coloso, a new dry bean variety for the State of Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Rosales Serna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Durango los productores agrícolas demandan variedades de frijol pinto con grano tolerante al oscurecimiento acelerado de la testa y tamaño mayor en relación con Pinto Saltillo, la cual es la variedad más popular actualmente. El objetivo fue generar variedades superiores a Pinto Saltillo en calidad comercial, tolerancia similar al oscurecimiento de la testa y mayor tamaño de grano. En el INIFAP-Durango se generó la variedad Pinto Coloso (PT08036, con el método genealógico, a partir de la cruza entre Pinto Mestizo y Pinto Saltillo [(Pinto Mestizo/Pinto Saltillo-69-2-2]. Esta variedad mostró rendimiento promedio de 1 715 kg ha-1 y fluctuaciones entre 923 kg ha-1 hasta 2 645 kg ha-1. En promedio Pinto Coloso, comparado con Pinto Saltillo, presentó mayor precocidad a floración (40 vs 45 días, madurez (81 vs 88 días y tamaño del grano (39 vs 30. El crecimiento de Pinto Coloso es de enredadera indeterminada, con guías cortas no trepadoras, la altura del dosel oscila entre 34 y 38 cm y la guía crece 75 cm. Pinto Coloso tiene granos de 48 g por 100 semillas y un intervalo de peso entre 30 y 48 g por cada 100 semillas. El grano es transversalmente elíptico, de forma externa elíptica-romboidal, color crema de la testa, pintas de color café y el hilio es amarillo-naranja. Pinto Coloso mostró tolerancia a la antracnosis y roya; así como valores medios y altos de susceptibilidad a tizón común y pudriciones de raíz. Esta variedad está en proceso de validación en terrenos de productores para establecer su adaptabilidad y potencial para incrementar la calidad del frijol pinto producido en México.In Durango, farmers demand pinto bean cultivars with slow darkening grains and larger seed size compared to Pinto Saltillo, which is currently the most popular variety. The aim was to generate commercially superior varieties showing slow darkening coat, earlier maturity and larger seed size in comparison to Pinto Saltillo. Pinto Coloso (PT

  3. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris y arveja (Pisum sativum. Efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

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    Bilbao Reboredo Tania

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y la arveja (Pisum sativum y tampoco se han estudiado los cambios que pueden sufrir durante su almacenamiento, así como la efectividad de los tratamientos caseros. Muestras de estos granos fueron analizadas durante un año de almacenamiento comercial a una temperatura promedio de 27 °C y 79 % de humedad relativa. Se evaluó la presencia de taninos, ácido cianhídrico, ácido fítico, inhibidores de proteasas y lectinas, en los granos crudos y después de dos tratamientos: remojo y cocción y cocción directamente, en olla de presión. Todos los antinutientes disminuyeron con el tiempo de almacenamiento (p<0,05. Los tratamientos aplicados eliminaron el ácido cianhídrico, los inhibidores de tripsina y las lectinas en los dos tipos de granos, comprobándose la efectividad de la combinación remojo-cocción sobre la aplicación únicamente del tratamiento térmico, sobre el resto de los antinutrientes.

  4. Adaptación, resistencia múltiple a enfermedades y tolerancia a suelos ácidos en genotipos de frijol

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    Ernesto L\\u00F3pez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue seleccionar genotipos de frijol con alto potencial de rendimiento, amplia adaptación, resistencia múltiple a enfermedades y tolerancia a suelos ácidos. Para lo cual, durante el ciclo otoño-invierno 1999-2000, se estableció un experimento uniforme de rendimiento de 16 genotipos incluyendo al testigo Negro Jamapa en cuatro ambientes en Veracruz y Chiapas, México. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de grano mediante análisis de varianza individual, combinado y parámetros de estabilidad. Los datos de reacción a enfermedades se cuantificaron con una escala de 1- 9. Para evaluar la tolerancia a suelos ácidos se utilizó el Índice de Eficiencia (IE. Los resultados de rendimiento de grano y reacción a enfermedades, señalaron diferencias significativas para localidades, genotipos y la interacción localidad-genotipo; mientras que para suelos ácidos no hubo significancia entre localidades y la interacción. Los mejores genotipos en cuanto a rendimiento, adaptación y tolerancia a suelos ácidos fueron Negro 8025, DOR-454, Icta Ju 95-112, Icta Ju 93-15 y DOR-448, de los cuales el primero y el último presentaron resistencia múltiple a enfermedades. Las líneas UCR-55, TLP- 22 y DOR-500, mostraron también buenos rendimientos y resistencia múltiple a enfermedades.

  5. Prácticas de conservación de suelos en sistemas de cultivo maíz-frijol en Cuba

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    Alfonso Claro A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos ensayos en segmentos de microcuencas en condiciones de producción de la Provincia de Pinar del Río: uno en Campo Hermoso y el otro en La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. En ambas localidades se rotó el frijol variedad Bat 304 y Tomeguin 93, seguidos de maíz asociado con Mucuna deeringianum y se establecieron bordes de desagüe protegidos con barreras vivas de Leucaena leucocephala y Gliricidia sepium. Las pérdidas de suelos se estimaron en piscinas de sedimentación y limnígrafos Valday en Campo Hermoso y en el caso de La Leña sólo se determinaron las variaciones de la pendiente y el espesor máximo de sedimentos (EMS al final de cada ciclo. El suelo fue un Ferralítico Cuarcítico (Ultisol, la fertilización se realizó de acuerdo a sus reservas, la preparación y labores culturales con tracción animal. Los resultados al cabo de cinco años mostraron una reducción en las pérdidas de suelos por debajo del umbral permisible (5 t/ha, aumento de la altura de las terrazas debido a los sedimentos acumulados, mayor disponibilidad de agua en la sección receptora, mayor cobertura en el período lluvioso, disminución del efecto erosivo de la lluvia, reciclaje de nutrimentos a través de los abonos verdes e incremento de los rendimientos respecto a las áreas donde no se realizaron prácticas de manejo. Se concluyó que el manejo integrado de los diferentes factores en laderas con pendientes mayores de 5%, es necesario para la conservación de suelos y agua

  6. Avances en la selección de fuentes de resistencia a las principales enfermedades del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en Costa Rica

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    Carlos M. Araya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluaron diversos genotipos de frijol en la búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum y a la mancha angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola. Se evaluó germoplasma del programa nacional de hibridaciones y de tres viveros internacionales distribuidos por el CIAT: VIFURE, VIPADOGEN y CORE COLLECTION. Los ensayos se establecieron en Puriscal (1017 msnm, Alajuela (814 msnm y Fraijanes (1650 msnm, durante los ciclos agrícolas 97-98 y 98-99. Los materiales se sembraron en parcelas de un surco de dos a seis metros de largo con una o dos repeticiones y manejo con mínimos insumos. Se evaluó la reacción a la infección natural por antracnosis y mancha angular a las seis y ocho semanas después de la siembra, con base en la escala de severidad de uno a nueve. Se seleccionaron materiales con reacción de uno hasta grado tres para antracnosis y de uno hasta grado cuatro para mancha angular. Del grupo de materiales provenientes del programa de hibridaciones se seleccionaron nueve líneas por su resistencia a ambos patógenos. Posteriormente, sólo cinco mostraron resistencia específica a antracnosis y dos a mancha angular. De los viveros distribuidos por el CIAT, el VIPADOGEN aportó dos líneas que mostraron resistencia combinada a las dos enfermedades, mientras que 25 fueron resistentes exclusivamente a antracnosis, además de mostrar tolerancia a baja fertilidad o a sequía. Del vivero CORE COLLECTION, sólo 26 líneas mostraron resistencia combinada; 82 líneas fueron resistentes a antracnosis y 12 a mancha angular. Las mejores fuentes de resistencia a antracnosis y mancha angular estarán disponibles en un vivero internacional

  7. Adaptación del frijol a suelos de baja fertilidad bajo presión de enfermedades foliares en Costa Rica

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    Rodolfo Araya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar germoplasma y líneas mejoradas de alta productividad, en suelos de baja fertilidad y bajo presión de antracnosis y mancha angular. Durante 1996 y 1997 se evaluaron fuentes de tolerancia a la baja fertilidad de diversa procedencia geográfica y con resistencia para otros factores bióticos y abióticos. Se caracterizaron 562 genotipos, 251 mejorados y 311 criollos, en dos localidades de Costa Rica: Fraijanes (1750 msnm; 15,3 °C; 3025 mm; 10º09’ Latitud norte y 84°12’ Longitud oeste y Alajuela (840 msnm, 23,1 °C; 1966 mm; 10°01’ Latitud norte y 84° 16’ Longitud oeste. La densidad de siembra fue de 15 semillas por metro lineal y el tamaño de parcela varió con base en la disponibilidad de semilla; a la siembra sólo se adicionó inoculante de Rhizobium tropici al surco de siembra (4 kg/ha. La línea A321, el testigo local UCR 55, A483, G11640; G19696, G10843 y BAC50 mostraron alto rendimiento en las dos localidades. Los genotipos de alto rendimiento en una localidad fueron: en Alajuela: Guanajuato 132, Negro INIFAP, VAX 2, MAR 3 y en Fraijanes G13860, G92, MOC112, Bayo Alteño, J 117; Negro 8025 y A 247. Se identificó germoplasma no mejorado de diferente acervo genético, procedente de México, Perú y Guatemala, con tolerancia a suelos de baja fertilidad. Esto indica la importancia de evaluar material criollo y del intercambio de germoplasma entre países. Los genotipos superiores serán utilizados en el mejoramiento del frijol común para agricultura de bajo uso de insumos

  8. Metodología para estimar el coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo, el número de repeticiones y el tamaño de parcela en investigaciones con frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Blair Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estimar el coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo (b, sin realizar ensayos de unifor- midad, se propuso una metodología en la cual se usan datos provenientes de ensayos de rendimiento, aislando el efecto de tratamiento de la variable de respuesta. Para definir aspectos metodológicos y mostrar algunos resultados obtenidos en el manejo estadístico de la información, se utilizaron los da- tos de un ensayo de rendimiento de frijol común realizado en el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT por el Programa de Mejoramiento de Frijol Andino. El coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo se estimó a partir de la ley de varianza de Smith (+958 y la ecuación propuesta por Federer (1963 encontrando valores de 0.59 y 0.66, respectivamente. Teniendo como referencia el valor de b estimado a partir de la metodología de Federer (1963 se recurrió a la metodología de Hatheway (1961 para encontrar la mejor combinación de tamaño de parcela, número de repeticiones y diferencia a de- tectar como porcentaje de la media.

  9. Características morfo-fisiológicas de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. relacionadas con la adaptación a sequía

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    José A Polanía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de raíces de 21 líneas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarrollado por el CIAT. Las características evaluadas fueron profundización visual, longitud total de raíces y distribución de raíces a través del perfil del suelo. En campo, utilizando los mismos genotipos de frijol, se evaluaron características relacionadas con la eficiencia de uso de agua mediante la técnica de discriminación de isótopo de carbono y producción de grano. Los resultados en invernadero mostraron que la profundización visual y longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm tienen una correlación significativa (r = 0.56 y 0.50 respectivamente, P < 0.001 con la biomasa aérea de la planta en condiciones de estrés por sequía. En campo, la discriminación del isótopo de carbono en grano se correlacionó (r = 0.32, P < 0.01 con la producción de grano en condiciones igualmente de estrés por sequía. Las líneas de frijol NCB 226, SER 16, SEN 56 y SEA 15 presentaron una mayor longitud de raíces bajo estrés por sequía (28, 24, 29 y 27 m/planta respectivamente en comparación con las demás líneas evaluadas, lo que les permite mayor transpiración y movilización de fotoasimilados, que favorecen una alta producción de granos. Se estima que la profundización visual, la longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm y la discriminación de isótopo de carbono en grano, son características valiosas como criterios de selección en mejoramiento por tolerancia a estrés por sequía en frijol común.

  10. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

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    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  11. A Determination of Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis

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    Guixing Ren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and α-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.4 mg·mL−1 and 4.8 mg·mL−1, respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against α-glucosidase.

  12. Effect of application of organic manure in agroproductive response of bean (Vigna unguiculata L.

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    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the training farm on Granma University campus, from October through December 2012, on a Cambisol soil. A randomized block experimental design with 3 treatments and four replications was used, with the objective of evaluating the effect of two types of organic manure in the response of yardlong beans (Vigna unguiculata, L var. Lina. The yield indicators (pod number/plants, average pod length and width, and average weight of the pod/plants and dry matter of different parts of the plants were assessed. The data were evaluated using the program Statistica version 6.0, for windows. The Tukey’s range test was used to determine the significant differences between treatments. The best treatment turns out to be the T2, where rabbit manure was applied, with a benefit of 2.56 pesos.m-2.

  13. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F V; Simões-Araújo, J L; Silva Júnior, J P; Xavier, G R; Rumjanek, N G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium.

  14. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  15. Free cyclitol, soluble carbohydrate and protein contents in Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amancio

    2011-04-27

    Seeds sprouts have been used as a good source of basic nutrients and nutraceutical compounds. The high nutritional value of seeds derives from the deposition of compounds during development. However some of these molecules are used in metabolic processes like germination, which leads to a considerable variation in their concentrations once these events are completed. In this work, we investigate the levels of inositols (myo-inositol, D-pinitol and ononitol), soluble carbohydrates and proteins in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata sprouts. Sprouting increased myo-inositol and glucose content and reduction of raffinose and ononitol was observed. The protein levels increased in P. vulgaris and decreased in V. unguiculata sprouting. The level of sucrose was maintained in both sprouts. D-Pinitol was detected only in quiescent seeds. Our results suggested that bean sprout is an important source of proteins, sucrose, glucose and myo-inositol. Additionally, bean sprouts have low levels of raffinose, an antinutritional compound.

  16. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

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    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  17. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events.

  18. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  19. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

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    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  20. Vigna radiata as a New Source for Biotransformation of Hydroquinone to Arbutin

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    Zahra Tofighi, Mohsen Amini, Mahzad Shirzadi, Hamideh Mirhabibi, Negar Ghazi Saeedi, Narguess Yassa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suspension culture of Vigna radiata was selected for biotransformation of hydroquinone to its β-D-glucoside form (arbutin as an important therapeutic and cosmetic compound. Methods: The biotransformation efficiency of a Vigna radiata cell culture in addition to different concentrations of hydroquinone (6-20 mg/100 ml was investigated after 24 hours in comparison to an Echinacea purpurea cell culture and attempts were made to increase the efficacy of the process by adding elicitors. Results: Arbutin was accumulated in cells and found in the media only in insignificant amounts. The arbutin content of the biomass extracts of V. radiata and E. purpurea was different, ranging from 0.78 to 1.89% and 2.00 to 3.55% of dry weight, respectively. V. radiata demonstrated a bioconversion efficiency of 55.82% after adding 8 mg/100 ml precursor, which was comparable with result of 69.53% for E. purpurea cells after adding 10 mg/100 ml hydroquinone (P>0.05. In both cultures, adding hydroquinone in two portions with a 24-hour interval increased the biotransformation efficiency. Different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, and 100 µM and chitosan (50 and 100 µg/ml as elicitors increased the bio-efficiency percentage of the V. radiata culture in comparison with the flask containing only hydroquinone. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biotransformation possibility of V. radiata cultures. It was observed the bioconversion capacity increased by adding hydroquinone in two portions, which was comparable to adding an elicitor.

  1. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (créole bean), and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankaew, Sompong; Isemura, Takehisa; Isobe, Sachiko; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2014-01-01

    Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  2. Detection of genome donor species of neglected tetraploid crop Vigna reflexo-pilosa (creole bean, and genetic structure of diploid species based on newly developed EST-SSR markers from azuki bean (Vigna angularis.

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    Sompong Chankaew

    Full Text Available Vigna reflexo-pilosa, which includes a neglected crop, is the only one tetraploid species in genus Vigna. The ancestral species that make up this allotetraploid species have not conclusively been identified, although previous studies suggested that a donor genome of V. reflexo-pilosa is V. trinervia. In this study, 1,429 azuki bean EST-SSR markers were developed of which 38 EST-SSR primer pairs that amplified one product in diploid species and two discrete products in tetraploid species were selected to analyze 268 accessions from eight taxa of seven Asian Vigna species including V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra, V. reflexo-pilosa var. reflexo-pilosa, V. exilis, V. hirtella, V. minima, V. radiata var. sublobata, V. tenuicaulis and V. trinervia to identify genome donor of V. reflexo-pilosa. Since both diploid and tetraploid species were analyzed and each SSR primer pair detected two loci in the tetraploid species, we separated genomes of the tetraploid species into two different diploid types, viz. A and B. In total, 445 alleles were detected by 38 EST-SSR markers. The highest gene diversity was observed in V. hirtella. By assigning the discrete PCR products of V. reflexo-pilosa into two distinguished genomes, we were able to identify the two genome donor parents of créole bean. Phylogenetic and principal coordinate analyses suggested that V. hirtella is a species complex and may be composed of at least three distinct taxa. Both analyses also clearly demonstrated that V. trinervia and one taxon of V. hirtella are the genome donors of V. reflexo-pilosa. Gene diversity indicates that the evolution rate of EST-SSRs on genome B of créole bean might be faster than that on genome A. Species relationship among the Vigna species in relation to genetic data, morphology and geographical distribution are presented.

  3. Amelioration of cholesterol induced atherosclerosis by normalizing gene expression, cholesterol profile and antioxidant enzymes by Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, have found to be the dreadful diseases worldwide and therapeutic interventions using plant sources have wide therapeutic value. Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves have been used as food and therapeutics. Hence, our study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic as well as anti-atherogenic potential of VU leaves in normalizing atherogenic gene expression, cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme system on cholesterol fed rabbit model. For the study New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and experimental period was three months; group -i - ND [normal diet (40 g feed)], group-ii- ND (normal diet) +EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)], group -iii- ND [normal diet ]+ CFD [cholesterol fed diet (cholesterol 1 % of 40 g feed and cholic acid 0.5 % of 40 g feed)] and group-iv - ND [normal diet] +CFD [cholesterol fed diet ]+EAVU [ethyl acetate fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg/kg body weight)]. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the rabbit with cholesterol (1 % of 40 g feed) and cholic acid (0.5 % of 40 g feed). Supplementation of EAVU normalized cholesterol profile, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products like thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), antioxidant system and important genes of cardiovascular diseases like interleukin-10 (IL 10), paraoxanase-1 (PON I), interleukin-6 (IL 6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox 2) to near normal level as compared with normal diet. The result obtained showed the antioxidant as well as anti-atherogenic potential of Vigna unguiculata leaves in ameliorating cholesterol induced atherosclerosis, and thus it is good task to include VU leaves in daily diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis.

  4. Row Spacing Determines Critical Period of Weed Control in Crop: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan; Joseph Aremu Adigun; Rauf Olabisi Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    To further understand the importance of row spacing as an agronomic practice, a study was conducted to evaluate how levels of row spacing determines the critical period of weed control (CPWC) in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The experiment was laid out as a split-plot design with eight periods of weed interference as the main plots and three row spacing (60, 75 90 cm) as the subplots with three replications of each treatment combination. Period of weed interference consisted of weed removal for...

  5. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  6. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata forms a highly stable dimeric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Suresh, C G

    2007-10-01

    Different protease inhibitors including Bowman-Birk type (BBI) have been reported from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata. Protease isoinhibitors of double-headed Bowman-Birk type from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata have been purified and characterized. The BBI from Vigna unguiculata (Vu-BBI) has been found to undergo self-association to form very stable dimers and more complex oligomers, by size-exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. Many BBIs have been reported to undergo self-association to form homodimers or more complex oligomers in solution. Only one dimeric crystal structure of a BBI (pea-BBI) is reported to date. We report the three-dimensional structure of a Vu-BBI determined at 2.5 A resolution. Although, the inhibitor has a monomer fold similar to that found in other known structures of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors, its quaternary structure is different from that commonly observed in this family. The structural elements responsible for the stability of monomer molecule and dimeric association are discussed. The Vu-BBI may use dimeric or higher quaternary association to maintain the physiological state and to execute its biological function.

  7. Purification, properties and alternate substrate specificities of arginase from two different sources: Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginase was purified from Vigna catjang cotyledons and buffalo liver by chromatographic separations using Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-cellulose and arginine AH Sepharose 4B affinity columns. The native molecular weight of an enzyme estimated on Bio-Gel P-300 column for Vigna catjang was 210 kDa and 120 kDa of buffalo liver, while SDS-PAGE showed a single band of molecular weight 52 kDa for cotyledon and 43 kDa for buffalo liver arginase. The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. Optimal cofactor Mn++ ion concentration was found to be 0.6 mM for cotyledon and 2 mM for liver arginase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine.

  8. Construction of a genetic linkage map and genetic analysis of domestication related traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata.

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    Takehisa Isemura

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between mungbean and its presumed wild ancestor were analyzed for domestication related traits by QTL mapping. A genetic linkage map of mungbean was constructed using 430 SSR and EST-SSR markers from mungbean and its related species, and all these markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups spanning a total of 727.6 cM. The present mungbean map is the first map where the number of linkage groups coincided with the haploid chromosome number of mungbean. In total 105 QTLs and genes for 38 domestication related traits were identified. Compared with the situation in other Vigna crops, many linkage groups have played an important role in the domestication of mungbean. In particular the QTLs with high contribution were distributed on seven out of 11 linkage groups. In addition, a large number of QTLs with small contribution were found. The accumulation of many mutations with large and/or small contribution has contributed to the differentiation between wild and cultivated mungbean. The useful QTLs for seed size, pod dehiscence and pod maturity that have not been found in other Asian Vigna species were identified in mungbean, and these QTLs may play the important role as new gene resources for other Asian Vigna species. The results provide the foundation that will be useful for improvement of mungbean and related legumes.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

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    Andrew J Alverson

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean, and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt, the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO AGRO-MORFOLÓGICO A PARTIR DE LA CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA VARIABILIDAD EN LÍNEAS DE FRIJOL COMÚN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. SEMBRADAS EN ÉPOCA TARDÍA

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    Alexis Lamz Piedra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales factores que afectan la producción de frijol se encuentra la mala distribución de variedades para las diversas condiciones ambientales en que se cultiva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento agro-morfológico, considerando la caracterización de la variabilidad de líneas de frijol común promisorias para siembras tardías. La siembra se realizó el 20 de enero de 2014 con un diseño de bloques al azar y cuatro repeticiones en la finca “El Mulato”, perteneciente a la Cooperativa de Créditos y Servicios Fortalecida (CCSF “Orlando Cuellar”, en el municipio San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque. La evaluación se realizó usando 14 variables agro-morfológicos que incluyeron parámetros fenológicos, morfológicos, rendimiento y sus componentes, y resistencia a la roya (Uromyces appendiculatus. Los resultados del análisis de parámetros estadísticos y componentes principales, permitió detectar la variabilidad genética entre las líneas evaluadas. Además, se detectó que las variables de mayor correlación con el rendimiento fueron el número de vainas por plantas y la masa de 100 granos. De forma general, seis de las líneas evaluadas combinan alto potencial de rendimiento y reacción entre intermedia y altamente resistente ante la roya, destacándose la línea SCR 15, con rendimiento potencial muy superior a los reportados en Cuba hasta la fecha. Esto sugiere evaluar estas líneas en ensayos regionales para una posterior generalización-extensión de los posibles cultivares que contribuyan a enfocar un manejo adecuado de estos genotipos y su empleo como fuentes de resistencia a la roya en los programas de mejoramiento genético del frijol.

  11. PÉRDIDAS CAUSADAS POR EL AMACHAMIENTO DEL FRIJOL (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie Y REACCIÓN DEL GERMOPLASMA COMERCIAL AL PATÓGENO

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    N\\u00E9stor Felipe Chaves-Barrantes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de pérdidas causadas por amachamiento (Aphelenchoides besseyi en campo se llevó a cabo entre 2007 y 2008, en las regiones Brunca y Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, y la prueba de reacción de variedades se realizó en 2009 en la región Brunca. Para determinar pérdidas se establecieron 83 microparcelas de 3 m a lo largo de la hilera del cultivo, en campos reproductores de semilla de la variedad Cabécar, donde se evaluó la incidencia de la enfermedad durante tres etapas fenológicas (V3 o V4, R6 y R8. Se cuantifi caron los principales indicadores de rendimiento para cada microparcela y, mediante un análisis de regresión y correlación, se estimaron las pérdidas causadas por el amachamiento. Para determinar la reacción de cultivares a la enfermedad, se expuso bajo presión de inóculo natural, diez plantas de cada variedad (Bribrí, Chánguena, Cabécar, Gibre, Chirripó, Guaymí y Brunca, y se comparó su producción de vainas con respecto a la misma cantidad de plantas sanas, por medio de una prueba de t para muestras independientes. Las pérdidas determinadas en condiciones de campo fueron del 71 al 80% en el número de vainas y del 70 al 85% en rendimiento. La reducción en el número de semillas por vaina (0-16% y en el peso de 100 semillas (0-19% fueron bajos. Ninguna de las variedades comerciales de frijol presentó resistencia al amachamiento, ya que se obtuvieron pérdidas superiores al 91% en el número de vainas en los cultivares evaluados, excepto Gibre (82%.

  12. Adaptación y rendimiento de la variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en el sureste de México

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    Ernesto L\\u00F3pez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo de 1994 a 1997 con el objetivo de evaluar la adaptación y rendimiento de la nueva variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en la región del Trópico Húmedo del sureste de México. Se condujeron diez ensayos de rendimiento, cinco en el estado de Veracruz, cuatro en Chiapas y uno en Guerrero. Los ensayos incluyeron 16 genotipos y se realizaron, de acuerdo a las facilidades disponibles en los sitios de prueba, bajo condiciones de humedad residual o de temporal. En las evaluaciones se utilizó un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con tres repeticiones. La variedad Negro Medellín resultó sobresaliente por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación, con respuesta superior en ambientes favorables y consistente (1226 kg/ha, bi >1,0, S2di = 0. Durante las evaluaciones, la variedad Negro Medellín resultó tolerante a las enfermedades: virus del mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaoisariopsis griseola y roya (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus, enfermedades de amplia distribución en la región tropical. Sin embargo, en una localidad de Veracruz Negro Medellín resultó susceptible a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Además, la variedad Negro Medellín se validó en parcelas comerciales en campos de agricultores en diez localidades del sureste de México, localidades con clima tropical. En éstas parcelas comerciales, Negro Medellín resultó superior en rendimiento a diversos testigos, variedades criollas y mejoradas, de un 10 a 25%, obteniendo un rendimiento promedio de 1300 kg/ha. La variedad Negro Medellín está en trámite para su registro como nueva variedad para las regiones productoras del sureste de México

  13. Albicampo, variedad de frijol de temporal para Valles Altos de la Mesa Central Albicampo, rainfed bean variety for the High Valleys of the Central Mexican Plateau

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    Dagoberto Garza-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Albicampo (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una variedad de grano negro opaco pequeño, tipo Jamapa, liberada en 2010 por el programa de frijol del Campo Experimental Valle de México (CEVAMEX del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP. Se obtuvo mediante una cruza simple, utilizando selección masal hasta la generación F4. En la F5 se realizó selección individual para resistencia a enfermedades, calidad de grano y características agronómicas. Esta variedad se distingue de otras del mismo tipo comercial, por su alto rendimiento, excelente calidad culinaria y alto contenido de proteína, así plasticidad fenológica que le permite adaptarse a zonas, tanto de crítico como de buen temporal de lluvia. Es resistente a antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc & Magn. Briosi & Cav., tizón común (Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli (Smith Dye y pudrición de raíz (Pythium y Rhizoctonia, y tolerante a roya (Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers. Unger. Es de ciclo intermedio (105 a 115 días a madurez, su hábito de crecimiento es tipo III (indeterminado, con guía corta y flores moradas. Albicampo expresa su máximo potencial en áreas desde 2000 hasta 2400 msnm, suelo profundo y un mínimo de 350 mm de precipitación pluvial.Albicampo (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a small opaque dry bean seed variety from the Jamapa class, was released in 2010 by the bean program of the INIFAP's Campo Experimental Valle de Mexico. It was obtained through a simple cross, using bulk selection to the F4 followed by individual selection in F5 for disease, quality and agronomic traits. It distinguishes from other varieties of the same commercial class because of its high yield (>2 t ha-1, excellent cooking quality and high protein content, as well as phenological plasticity which enables it to adapt itself from critical to good rain season. It is resistant to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc & Magn. Briosi & Cav

  14. Efecto de la sequía en la producción de biomasa y grano de frijol Drought effect in bean biomass and grain production

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    Efraín Acosta-Díaz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La sequía intermitente es el factor que más limita la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. bajo temporal en México. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la sequía sobre la acumulación de biomasa del vástago y el rendimiento de grano en variedades criollas e introducidas de frijol de temporal. Se establecieron dos experimentos, uno con 21 variedades nativas y otro con 15 variedades introducidas, de diferente hábito de crecimiento indeterminado, en la Unidad Académica La Ascensión de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México en 2009. Los experimentos se condujeron bajo dos tratamientos de humedad del suelo: riego durante todo el ciclo y sequía. En el tratamiento de riego el suelo se mantuvo por encima de 60% de humedad aprovechable durante el ciclo del cultivo, mediante la precipitación y cuatro riegos de auxilio (dos antes y otros dos después de floración, mientras que en el tratamiento de sequía el riego se suspendió a partir del inicio de la floración. En los dos experimentos, bajo la condición de sequía la acumulación de biomasa del vástago y el rendimiento de grano fue significativamente inferior (p≤ 0.01 que en el tratamiento de riego. En general, el efecto del tratamiento de sequía sobre el peso seco del vástago fue mayor en las variedades nativas, mientras que el efecto sobre el rendimiento de grano fue mayor en las variedades introducidas. En sequía, las variedades de mayor rendimiento, fueron: nativas, Pinto-2, Pinto-1, Amarillo Mantequilla, Boleado, Bayo Blanco, Canelo y Quipincillo Rojo-1 e introducidas, Peruano, Flor de Mayo Media Oreja, Pinto-5 y Ojo de Cabra. De acuerdo con el índice de susceptibilidad a la sequía y la media geométrica, las variedades más eficientes para la producción de rendimiento de grano en ambas condiciones de humedad fueron: Pinto-2, Amarillo Mantequilla, Pinto-1, Boleado, Peruano, Flor de Mayo Media Oreja, Pinto-5 y Ojo de Cabra; sin

  15. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  16. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) using an SSR-enriched library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Kyung Do Kim; Dongying Gao; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; SukHa Lee; Scott A. Jackson; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb.), a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%). Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7%of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%), and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2%were involved in cellular components, 24.2%were involved molecular functions, and 64.6%were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in

  17. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  18. Ouro Verde MG 2: nova cultivar de mungo-verde para Minas Gerais Ouro Verde MG 2: new mungbean cultivar for Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Rogério F. Vieira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre várias linhagens introduzidas do "Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center" (AVRDC, sobressaiu a linhagem VC 3984-B-2-B-4-1-B, que recebeu o nome de Ouro Verde MG 2. Suas sementes são verde-brilhantes e o peso de 1000 unidades varia de 43 a 51 g. O início da floração ocorre em torno de 33 dias após a emergência e a primeira vagem madura surge entre 23 e 33 dias. Por se tratar de espécie de maturação desuniforme, podem ser necessárias duas a quatro colheitas. As plantas podem atingir 95 cm de altura. As vagens são marrom-escuras e concentram-se na parte superior da planta. É suscetível a duas doenças que geralmente aparecem no final do ciclo de vida do mungo-verde: míldio-pulverulento (Erysiphe polygoni e mancha-foliar-de-cercospora (Cercospora canescens. A 'Ouro Verde MG 2' é resistente ao acamamento, e o seu rendimento, em três ensaios instalados em dezembro, janeiro e fevereiro, variou de 1,5 a 2,0 t/ha. Esses rendimentos foram, em média, 12% superior ao da cultivar Ouro Verde.Among many accessions introduced from Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, the VC 3984-B-2-B-4-1-B stood out and was named 'Ouro Verde MG 2'. The seeds are bright green and 1000-seed weight ranges from 43 to 51 g. Flowering starts approximately 33 days after emergence and the first pod ripens between 23 and 33 days later. As mungbean is a non-uniform maturation species, two to four harvests could be necessary. The plant can reach 95 cm high. The pods are dark brown and concentrated in the upper canopy. This cv. is susceptible to two diseases which generally appear late in the crop: powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni and cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora canescens. 'Ouro Verde MG 2' is resistant to lodging. The yield measured in three experiments carried out in December, January, and February, ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 t/ha. In average, these yields were 12% superior than the achieved by the cultivar 'Ouro Verde'.

  19. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-08

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  20. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  1. Optimization of Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of cotyledonary node explants of Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Katikala, Sweety; Yellisetty, Varalaxmi; Kannepalle, Annapurna; Narayana, Jyothi Lakshmi; Maddi, Vanaja; Mandapaka, Maheswari; Shanker, Arun Kumar; Bandi, Venkateswarlu; Bharadwaja, Kirti Pulugurtha

    2012-12-01

    A reproducible and highly efficient protocol for genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium has been established for greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Double cotyledonary node (DCN) explants were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 containing neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene as selectable marker, β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter (uidA) gene and annexin 1 bj gene. Important parameters like optical density of Agrobacterium culture, culture quantity, infection medium, infection and co-cultivation time and acetosyringone concentration were standardized to optimize the transformation frequency. Kanamycin at a concentration of 100 mg/l was used to select transformed cells. Transient and stable GUS expressions were studied in transformed explants and regenerated putative plants, respectively. Transformed shoot were produced on regeneration medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin and 250 mg/l cefotaxime and rooted on ½ MS medium. Transient and constitutive GUS expression was observed in DCN explants and different tissues of T(0) and T(1) plants. Rooted T(0) and T(1) shoots confirming Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) positive for npt II and annexin 1bj genes were taken to maturity to collect the seeds. Integration of annexin gene into the greengram genome was confirmed by Southern blotting.

  2. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

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    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  3. Simplified methods for screening cowpea cultivars for manganese leaf-tissue tolerance. [Vigna unguiculata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemeier, A.H.; Horst, W.J. (Univ. of Hannover (West Germany))

    In cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) dark brown speckles on old leaves are typical symptoms of Mn toxicity and indicate Mn sensitivity of leaf tissue. Induction and subsequent quantification of brown Mn speckles in leaf tissues were used to screen cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance using three different techniques: (i) leaf cuttings cultured for 22 days in solution culture with 20 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}, (ii) leaf rings mounted on leaves of intact plants and filled with 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4} for 5 days, and (iii) leaf disks floated for 3 days on 500 {mu}M MnSO{sub 4}. Density of brown speckles differed considerably among the six cultivars tested, and was not related to the Mn concentrations of the leaf tissues. There were close relationships between genotypic Mn-toxicity symptom expression and depression of dry matter production of the cultivars at high Mn supply in a long-term sand culture experiment. The floating leaf-disk method is particularly suited for screening large numbers of cowpea cultivars for Mn leaf-tissue tolerance because it requires only 3 days. The ranking of the cultivars for Mn tolerance was highly correlated to Mn tolerance of intact plants.

  4. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  5. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  6. Cluster analysis technique for assessing variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp accessions from Nigeria

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    Ajayi Abiola Toyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability among 10 accessions of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp was studied by the use of 13 qualitative and 13 quantitative traits. From the results on qualitative traits, dendrogram grouped the 10 accessions into two major clusters, 1 and 2.Cluster 1 had 3 accessions and cluster 2 had 2 sub-clusters (I and II, having 2 accessions in sub-cluster I and 5 accessions in sub-cluster II. The dendrogram revealed two major clusters, 1 and 2, for quantitative data, for the 10 accessions. At distance of 4 and 6, cluster 1 had two sub-clusters (I and II, with sub-cluster I having 5 accessions, sub-cluster II having 4 accessions while cluster 2 had only 1 accession. This study made the observation that identification of the right agro-morphological traits of high discriminating capacity is essential, before embarking on any genetic diversity; as it was revealed that some traits discriminated more efficiently among the accessions than others. A group of accessions, which are NGSA1, NGSA2, NGSA3, NGSA4, NGSA7, NGSA9 and NGSA10, was identified as being different from the others for number of seeds per pod, pod length, plant height, peduncle length, seed weight and number of pods per plant. These accessions may be good for cowpea improvement programs.

  7. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

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    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  8. Vigna subterranea ammonium transporter gene (VsAMT1: Some bioinformatics insights

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    Adewole T. Adetunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium transporters (AMTs play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Vigna subterranea (VsAMT1 and Solanum tuberosum (StAMT1 AMT1s were characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. AMT1-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned VsAMT1 and StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that VsAMT1 is 92% and 89% similar to Phaseolus vulgaris PvAMT1.1 and Glycine max AMT1 respectively, while StAMT1 is 92% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, and correspond to the 5th–10th trans-membrane domains. Residues VsAMT1 D23 and StAMT1 D15 are predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of VsAMT1 W1A-L and S87A and StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport. In addition to nitrogen uptake from the roots, VsAMT1 may also contribute to interactions with rhizobia.

  9. Rhizobium vignae sp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium isolated from multiple legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Da Wei; Chen, Wen Feng; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-03-01

    A group of rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of multiple legume species grown in different geographical regions of China had identical 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strains formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium huautlense and Rhizobium alkalisoli, with 99.8  % gene sequence similarity between the strains. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the representative strain CCBAU 05176(T) and R. galegae ATCC 43677(T), R. huautlense S02(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T) were 22.6  %, 8.9  % and 15.9  %, respectively. The novel strains were distinguished from recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by using a polyphasic approach, including PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS), phenotypic and physiological tests, sequence comparisons of housekeeping genes and cellular fatty acid profiles. Therefore, it is suggested that this group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Rhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCBAU 05176(T) (=HAMBI 3039(T)=LMG 25447(T)).

  10. Biochemical Changes under Chromium Stress on Germinating Seedlings of Vigna radiata

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    Bhavin SUTHAR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalant chromium is considered the most toxic form because of its high solubility in water. Cr is known to induce production of elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulted in macromolecule damage. Plants are having unique mechanisms to overcome ROS induced damage by accumulation of proline, ascorbate and glutathione and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, and ascorbate peroxidaes (APX, peroxidise (POX. In the present investigation effects of chromium on seed germination of Mung bean (Vigna radiata 'Gujarat Mung-4’ were studied. Seeds were treated with different Cr concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 4M for seven days. On 7th day root and shoot length was measured and activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD, APX, POX, CAT and GR were checked along with protein, proline and lipid peroxidation. It was observed that there is gradual decrease in shoot and root length with respect to the increase in Cr concentration. Level of lipid peroxidation significantly increased along with proline and antioxidant enzyme activity at higher Cr concentration. Lipid peroxidation is an indication of membrane damage due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. To combat oxidative damage by ROS antioxidant enzyme activity increased significantly, which indicates that antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR play a crucial role during Cr stress during germination of V. radiata.

  11. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

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    Riaz Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29% was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26% was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80% of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83% and serine (5.45% were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46% was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results.

  12. APPRAISAL OF GENE ACTION FOR INDETERMINATE GROWTH IN MUNGBEAN [VIGNA RADIATA (L. WILCZEK

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    Javed eIqbal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques implied for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made with the help of four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67% also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both the cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation in both the crosses and for seed yield per plant in one cross, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes which favour determinate plant growth and higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted.

  13. Enzymology of L-tyrosine biosynthesis in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. ) Wilczek)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.L.; Jensen, R.A.

    1979-11-01

    The enzymes of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (prephenate dehydrogenase and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase) and pretyrosine (prephenate aminotransferase and pretyrosine dehydrogenase) pathways of L-tyrosine biosynthesis were partially purified from mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings. NADP-dependent prephenate dehydrogenase and pretyrosine dehydrogenase activities coeluted from ion exchange, adsorption, and gel-filtration columns, suggesting that a single protein (52,000 daltons) catalyzes both reactions. The ratio of the activities of partially purified prephenate to pretyrosine dehydrogenase was constant during all purification steps as well as after partial inactivation caused by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or heat. The activity of prephenate dehydrogenase, but not of pretyrosine dehydrogenase, was inhibited by L-tyrosine at nonsaturating levels of substrate. The K/sub m/ values for prephenate and pretyrosine were similar, but the specific activity with prephenate was 2.9 times greater than with pretyrosne. Two peaks of aromatic aminotransferase activity utilizing L-glutamate or L-aspartate as amino donors and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate, and/or prephenate as keto acid substrates were eluted from DEAE-cellulose. Of the three keto acid substrates, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate was preferentially utilized by 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase whereas prephenate was best utilized by prephenate aminotransferase. The identity of a product of prephenate aminotransferase as pretyrosine following reaction with prephenate was established by thin layer chromatography of the dansyl-derivative.

  14. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Cople Lima, Keila dos, E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Boher e Souza, Luciana [Nuclear Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Oliveira Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de [Technological Center, Embrapa Food Agroindustry, Av. das Americas, 29501, CEP 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Costa Franca, Tanos Celmar; Santos Lima, Antonio Luis dos [Chemical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Engineering, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, CEP 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months. - Highlights: > In this study we evaluated cowpea beans subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation > Cowpea bean grains represent an important source of vegetal protein for Brazilian population. > Non-nutritive factors were reduced by irradiation and cooking. > Several genera of fungus were reduced by irradiation without affecting the nutritional content. > Irradiation helps the cooking process preserving thermosensible nutrients.

  16. Genetic relationship of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties from Senegal based on SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, F A; Gowda, B S; Cissé, N; Diouf, D; Sadio, O; Timko, M P

    2012-02-08

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 22 local cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) varieties and inbred lines collected throughout Senegal were evaluated using simple sequence repeat molecular markers. A set of 49 primer combinations were developed from cowpea genomic/expressed sequence tags and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms among the various cowpea genotypes. Forty-four primer combinations detected polymorphisms, with the remaining five primer sets failing to yield PCR amplification products. From one to 16 alleles were found among the informative primer combinations; their frequencies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 (mean = 0.79). The genetic diversity of the sample varied from 0.08 to 0.42 (mean = 0.28). The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 (mean = 0.23). The local varieties clustered in the same group, except 53-3, 58-53, and 58-57; while Ndoute yellow pods, Ndoute violet pods and Baye Ngagne were in the second group. The photosensitive varieties (Ndoute yellow pods and Ndoute violet pods) were closely clustered in the second group and so were inbred line Mouride and local cultivar 58-57, which is also one of the parents for inbred line Mouride. These molecular markers could be used for selection and identification of elite varieties for cowpea improvement and germplasm management in Senegal.

  17. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  18. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  19. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils.

  20. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  1. Characterization of seed storage proteins in high protein genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Rohtas; Malhotra, S; Boora, K S; Singal, H R

    2010-01-01

    Twenty one genotypes and two check varieties viz. CS-88 and V-240 of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ] were screened for total proteins. The total protein content ranged from 22.4 (HC-3) to 27.9 % (HC-98-64) in 21 genotypes whereas in check varieties it was 25.6 (V-240) and 26.0 % (CS-88). Seven genotypes viz. HC-6, HC-5, CP-21, LST-II-C-12, CP-16, COVU-702 and HC-98-64 having high protein content (26.7 to 27.9 %) were selected for further characterization of their seed storage proteins. Globulins were the major protein fraction ranging from 55.6 (LST-II-C-12) to 58.8 % (CP-16 and HC-6) of total protein. Glutelins was the second major fraction ranging from 14.4 to 15.6 % followed by albumins (8.2 to 11.9 %) and prolamins (2.3 to 5.0 %). Content of free amino acids also showed variations amongst genotypes with COVU-702 having maximum and LST-II-C-12 having minimum content. Essential amino acid analysis revealed that S-amino acids (cysteine and methionine) were the first limiting amino acids followed by tryptophan. From the results presented here it could be suggested that two genotypes viz. LST-II-C-12 and HC-5 be used in breeding programmes aimed at developing high protein moth bean varieties with good quality.

  2. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-04-29

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection.

  3. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit.

  5. Toxic effects of Pb{sup 2+} on growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Asher, Colin J. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kopittke, Rosemary A. [Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 80 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    A concentration as low as 1 {mu}M lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants, but previous studies have typically related plant growth to the total amount of Pb added to a solution. In the present experiment, the relative fresh mass of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) was reduced by 10% at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and at a Pb{sup 2+} activity of 0.06 {mu}M for the roots. The primary site of Pb{sup 2+} toxicity was the root, causing severe reductions in root growth, loss of apical dominance (shown by an increase in branching per unit root length), the formation of localized swellings behind the root tips (due to the initiation of lateral roots), and the bending of some root tips. In the root, Pb was found to accumulate primarily within the cell walls and intercellular spaces. - The Pb{sup 2+} ion reduced the growth of cowpea by 10% at a solution activity of 0.2 {mu}M for the shoots and 0.06 {mu}M for the roots.

  6. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  7. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-07-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI - 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis - 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs.

  8. Distribution and Prevalence of Parasitic Nematodes of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, A; Thio, B; Kiemde, S; Drabo, I; Dabire, C; Ouedraogo, J; Mullens, T R; Ehlers, J D; Roberts, P A

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production fields was carried out in the three primary agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso in West Africa. Across the three zones, a total of 109 samples were collected from the farms of 32 villages to provide a representative coverage of the cowpea production areas. Samples of rhizosphere soil and samples of roots from actively growing cowpea plants were collected during mid- to late-season. Twelve plant-parasitic nematode genera were identified, of which six appeared to have significant parasitic potential on cowpea based on their frequency and abundance. These included Helicotylenchus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Scutellonema, Telotylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus. Criconemella and Rotylenchulus also had significant levels of abundance and frequency, respectively. Of the primary genera, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, and Scutellonema contained species which are known or suspected to cause losses of cowpea yield in other parts of the world. According to the prevalence and distribution of these genera in Burkina Faso, their potential for damage to cowpea increased from the dry Sahelian semi-desert zone in the north (annual rainfall < 600 mm/year), through the north-central Soudanian zone (annual rainfall of 600-800 mm/year), to the wet Soudanian zone (annual rainfall ≥ 1000 mm) in the more humid south-western region of the country. This distribution trend was particularly apparent for the endoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne and the migratory endoparasite Pratylenchus.

  9. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  10. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  11. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility.

  12. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  14. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  15. Heavy metals in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. after tannery sludge compost amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Marçal Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Repeated soil amendment with industrial waste can affect the accumulation of chemical elements, mainly heavy metals, in plants. We therefore evaluated the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. shoots and grains in soil amended for three consecutive years with tannery sludge compost (TSC. Tannery sludge compost was applied annually starting in 2009 at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 t ha-1 and cowpea was sown. At 40 and 60 d after cowpea sowing, the accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni was evaluated in the shoots and grains, respectively. The experiment used completely randomized design with four replicates and data were subjected to ANOVA and F-test (5%. Only Cr accumulation was significant (P < 0.05 in the cowpea shoots after 3 yr of TSC amendment; accumulation increased as TSC rates were applied. However, there was no significant Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb accumulation in grains. After 3 yr of consecutive TSC soil amendments, Cr accumulated in the shoots, but it was not translocated to the grains.

  16. Curvas de absorción de nutrimentos en dos variedades, Bribri y sacapobres, de frijol común de grano rojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floria Bertsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se generó las curvas de crecimiento y las de absorción de nutrimentos total y porcentual para 2 variedades de frijol de grano rojo, Bribri y Sacapobres, con el propósito de afinar las recomendaciones convencionales de fertilización, en cuanto a cantidad y momento de aplicación, que se practican en la actualidad en la zona frijolera del sur de Costa Rica. Se muestreó 5 plantas de cada variedad cada 15 días y fueron pesadas y analizadas por tipo de tejido (raíz, parte áerea, vaina. Las plantas crecieron en un suelo de buena fertilidad, con niveles moderados de P y Zn (8 y 2,3 mg l-1 en Olsen Modificado, respectivamente. Para ambas variedades los elementos consumidos en mayores cantidades fueron K y N, seguidos por Ca y luego por P y Mg. En el caso de la variedad Bribri, para una densidad de 156000 pl ha-1 y un rendimiento en peso seco de 3,5 t de vaina ha-1 (rendimiento comercial de grano de 1,2 t ha-1, las cantidades totales extraídas, en kg ha-1, correspondieron a: 156 de N, 24 de P, 222 de K, 117 de Ca, 26 de Mg, 1 de Fe, 0,3 de Cu, 0,7 de Zn y 0,6 de Mn. De estos valores, 37%, 52%, 39%, 11% y 32% de N, P, K, Ca y Mg, respectivamente, fueron extraídos directamente por la vaina. Para Sacapobres, con una densidad de 178500 pl ha-1 y un rendimiento de 2,9 t de vaina seca ha-1 (0,97 t ha-1 de rendimiento de grano comercial, la extracción total, en kg ha-1, fue de: 191 de N, 25 de P, 189 de K, 143 de Ca, 33 de Mg, 1,3 de Fe, 0,1 de Cu, 0,4 de Zn y 0,8 de Mn. Los porcentajes correspondientes a la cosecha fueron 33%, 40%, 34%, 7% y 19% para N, P, K, Ca y Mg, respectivamente. El nutrimento que más se recicla en los rastrojos es el Ca. En general, las dosis recomendadas en la región sur de Costa Rica (entre 3-5 sacos ha-1 de 50 kg de 10-30-10 llenan las necesidades de cosecha de estas variedades cuando los niveles de P y K en el suelo son adecuados. En cuanto a las etapas de máxima absorción de nutrimentos, para ambas variedades, m

  17. Mejora de la biodisponibilidad nutricional mediante el proceso biotecnológico de germinación en Vigna unguiculata

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Benitez, Vanesa; Jiménez, Tania; Calvo, Sara; Díaz, María Felicia; Martín-Cabrejas, María A.

    2011-01-01

    Existe gran parte de la población humana y animal que se encuentran en países en vía de desarrollo y sufren malnutrición proteica. La búsqueda de alimentos e ingredientes alternativos tanto para el hombre como para el ganado resulta esencial. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la mejora de la biodisponibilidad nutricional mediante el proceso biotecnológico de germinación en Vigna unguiculata. Los resultados muestran que esta legumbre exhibe importantes niveles de proteínas (>27mg/100g) y...

  18. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF VIGNA RADIATA LINN ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED WORKING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN MICE BY USING DIFFERENT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandurge Aruna P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory is the ability of an individual to record the information and recall it whenever needed. Dementia is a mental disorder characterized by loss of intellectual ability (judgment or abstract thinking which invariably involves impairment of memory. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of neurons in distinct brain areas and cord. Stressful conditions are often associated with loss of memory and cognitive functions which may lead to threats of schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Traditionally herbal drugs have been used to enhance cognitive functions and to alleviate other functions associate with the Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Vigna radiata Linn extract on learning and memory in mice. Vigna radiata Linn extract (Aqueous 700, 900 mg/kg and Ethanol 700, 900mg/kg ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4mg/kg which induced memory defiect in mice. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance paradigm served as an exteroceptive bevarioural model. Vigna radiata Linn extract decreases transverse latencies and increases step down latencies, when it is compared with the scopolamine induced group. Vigna radiata Linn preparation could be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders like Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  20. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  1. Los cultivos de frijol y maíz de grano bajo condiciones de secano en Zacatecas, México de 1980 a 2008 The crops of bean and maize under dry land conditions in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico from 1980 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Luna Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de frijol y maíz de grano son los más importantes agrícola, social y económicamente en el estado de Zacatecas, desde hace muchos años. Los objetivos principales de este trabajo fueron: ver si la superficie sembrada, la siniestrada, la producción y el rendimiento unitario de frijol y maíz de grano cultivados bajo condiciones de secano del estado de Zacatecas han variado de 1980 a 2008; y evaluar que tanto afecta la precipitación a estas variables. Se usaron los datos que la SAGARPA pública a través de internet. Se obtuvieron las correlaciones y regresiones entre los datos de las variables de cada cultivo, para hacer un análisis más preciso. Se encontró que el volumen de precipitación registrado durante el ciclo de cultivo y su distribución, afectaron considerablemente la superficie sembrada, la siniestrada, el rendimiento unitario y el volumen de producción de grano de frijol y maíz de secano. La superficie siniestrada de frijol (15.2% fue inferior a la de maíz (18.6%; la de frijol aumentó 543 ha por cada milímetro de precipitación menos y la de maíz en 256 ha. El rendimiento medio de frijol de secano se incrementó 1.62% por año, y maíz 1.46%. La superficie sembrada de frijol disminuyó significativamente en los últimos años por efecto del programa de reconversión productiva, al aumentar principalmente las superficies de avena y maíz forrajeros.The bean and maize grain crops have been the most important, agriculturally, socially and economically in the State of Zacatecas, for many years. The main objectives of this work were to see if the surfaces planted and damaged, and if the production and the unit yields of beans and grain maize planted under dry land conditions in the State of Zacatecas, have varied from 1980 to 2008; and to evaluate how rainfall affects these variables. Data published by SAGARPA on the Internet was used. Correlations and regressions between the data for variables of each crop were

  2. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  3. Evaluation of aminoacids in irradiated beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Souza, Luciana B.; Coelho, Maysa J.; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Hernandes, Nilber K. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: keila@ime.eb.br; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    Fradinho-bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is originated from Africa and is known in Brazil as 'caupi', 'corda' or 'macassar'. It is grown in the interior of Northeast Brazil (semi-arid region) and can be found in parts of the North, being one of the most important components of people's diet in those regions. The Northeast area produces around 429,375 ton of fradinho-bean per year. Leguminous plants are very important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. This kind of bean is an excellent source of proteins (around 23- 25% of its nutritional content), being superior to regular beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The irradiation process is an alternative to avoid post-harvesting losses, without changing the nutritional value of food. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5.0 and 10.0 kGy) on aminoacid content of fradinho-bean by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the accompanying of the grains during storage time of 6 months. After irradiation, the bean grains went through a milling process in order to make flour for posterior extraction. A liquid chromatographer Waters, model Alliance 2695, with fluorescent detector Waters 2475, having a mobile phase with gradient elution of sodium acetate. acetonitrile and Milli-Q water, was employed. The flux used was 1 mL/min and the injection volume of 10 {mu}L. The column (C 18 150.0 x 3.9 mm) was kept at 36 deg C. The results show that gamma irradiation is a promise process for fradinho bean during conservation storage time of 6 months, until the dose of 10.0 kGy. Even the most radio-sensitive aminoacids like aromatics and basic lateral chains were preserved. (author)

  4. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warin Pimpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.

  6. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Chemical and Functional Properties of Protein Isolate from Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Witono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is potentially used as food ingredient since it has high protein content around 25%. This study was focused on the observation of the chemical and functional properties of cowpea protein isolate (CPI compared to the chemical and functional properties of soy protein isolate (SPI commercial with three repetitions in each parameter, then the data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that CPI has the chemical properties of the moisture content, ash content, and carbohydrate content, which value is smaller than the value of SPI respectively 7.97%, 1.75%, 1.21%. CPI has protein and fat content which is higher, compared to SPI with consecutive values 88.06% and 1.05%. CPI contains more 7S globulin fraction compared with 11S and inversely related to SPI. CPI has functional properties including maximum solubility at pH 8, smaller foam capacity and higher foam stability than the value of SPI successive 68 ml/g and 8%, lower OHC and WHC than SPI at successive 84.89% and 136.61%, lower emulsion capacity and higher emulsion stability than the value of SPI with consecutive 2.41 m2/g and 78.15 hours, lower than the gelation of SPI with a value of 4 gf. CPI has a major fraction of protein bands with molecular weight of 59.11 kDa and 54.22 kDa, while the fraction of SPI has major protein bands with molecular weight of  50.66 kDa and 57.02 kDa.

  8. Quality evaluation of beef patties formulated with bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakali, J S; Irtwange, S V; Mzer, M T

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated composite beef-bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) seed flour patties to determine the effect of bambara groundnut flour (BGF) inclusion on the quality and acceptability of the products. The effect of different levels of BGF (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) on the proximate composition and pH indicate that BGF had no significant (p0.05) effect on moisture, protein and carbohydrate of raw patties except ash and pH whereas there was significant (p0.05) effect on all the parameters for the cooked patties. BGF significantly (p0.05) reduced the shrinkage of the cooked patties from 9.13% to 6.76%, while percentage cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention increased significantly (p0.05) with increasing BGF levels from 79.1% to 87.2%, 67.51% to 78.05% and 73.51% to 88.34%, respectively. The use of BGF significantly (p0.05) increased the pH of cooked patties from 6.16 to 6.23. Beef patties extended with BGF up to 5% addition exhibited good quality attributes most acceptable to the consumers. The pH of the 0% BGF-beef patties decreased significantly during storage, up to day 14, and increased thereafter. However, the pH of the patties with BGF consistently decreased significantly up to day 21. The TBA values of both (0% and 5% BGF-beef patties) increased significantly (p0.05) from 0.054 to 0.25 and from 0.05 to 0.24mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively. All sensory attributes decreased significantly (p0.05) as storage time progressed. The physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the patties were found to be acceptable after 21days refrigerated storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variabilidade e correlações entre caracteres agronômicos em caupi (Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Ângela Celis de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp é um alimento básico das populações do Nordeste brasileiro, devendo merecer atenção com vistas a melhoria da qualidade de grãos, resistência a doenças e pragas e aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variabilidade e o potencial genético de 28 linhagens, escolhidas após uma seleção para cor, tamanho de grãos e resistência a viroses. A produtividade apresentou coeficiente de variação genético de 23,90%, e o valor agronômico, de 3,56%. O número de vagens por pedúnculo apresentou a menor estimativa do coeficiente de determinação genético (4,51%, e o peso de 100 grãos, a maior (81,74%. O coeficiente de determinação genético da produtividade foi de 34,15%. As maiores estimativas de ganho genético foram as do peso de 100 grãos (21,73% e da produtividade (19,77%. As correlações genotípicas foram superiores às fenotípicas e às de ambiente, destacando-se as correlações entre número de ramos secundários e produtividade (68,13%, e valor agronômico e produtividade (100%. Estes resultados mostram amplas possibilidades de seleção entre as linhagens com relação à maioria dos caracteres estudados.

  10. Activity of recombinant and natural defensins from Vigna unguiculata seeds against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Géssika Silva; do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; de Carvalho, Laís Pessanha; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Fernandes, Keysson Vieira; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Retamal, Claudio Andres; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Carvalho, André de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are differentiated from other antibiotic peptides, such as gramicidins and polymyxins, because they are synthesized by large enzymatic complex and bear modified amino acids including d-amino acids, are short polymers of l-amino acids synthesized by ribosomes upon which all living organisms rely to defend themselves from invaders or competitor microorganisms. AMPs have received a great deal of attention from the scientific community as potential new drugs for neglected diseases such as Leishmaniasis. In plants, they include several families of compounds, including the plant defensins. The aim of the present study was to improve the expression of recombinant defensin from Vigna unguiculata seeds (Vu-Defr) and to test its activity against Leishmania amazonensis promatigotes. Recombinant expression was performed in LB and TB media and under different conditions. The purification of Vu-Defr was achieved by immobilized metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography. The purified Vu-Defr was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD), and its biological activity was tested against L. amazonenis promastigotes. To demonstrate that the recombinant production of Vu-Defr did not interfere with its fold and biological activity, the results of all experiments were compared with the results from the natural defensin (Vu-Def). The CD spectra of both peptides presented good superimposition indicating that both peptides present very similar secondary structure and that the Vu-Defr was correctly folded. L. amazonensis treated with Vu-Defr led to the elimination of 54.3% and 46.9% of the parasites at 24 and 48h of incubation time, respectively. Vu-Def eliminated 50% and 54.8% of the parasites at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Both were used at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. These results suggested the potential for plant defensins to be used as new antiparasitic substances.

  11. Functional associations between the metabolome and manganese tolerance in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führs, Hendrik; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Horst, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic- and silicon (Si)-mediated differences in manganese (Mn) tolerance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) arise from a combination of symplastic and apoplastic traits. A detailed metabolomic inspection could help to identify functional associations between genotype- and Si-mediated Mn tolerance and metabolism. Two cowpea genotypes differing in Mn tolerance (TVu 91, Mn sensitive; TVu 1987, Mn tolerant) were subjected to differential Mn and Si treatments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling of leaf material was performed. Detailed evaluation of the response of metabolites was combined with gene expression and physiological analyses. After 2 d of 50 μM Mn supply TVu 91 expressed toxicity symptoms first in the form of brown spots on the second oldest trifoliate leaves. Silicon treatment suppressed symptom development in TVu 91. Despite higher concentrations of Mn in leaves of TVu 1987 compared with TVu 91, the tolerant genotype did not show symptoms. From sample cluster formation as identified by independent component analysis (ICA) of metabolite profiles it is concluded that genotypic differences accounted for the highest impact on variation in metabolite pools, followed by Mn and Si treatments in one of two experiments. Analysis of individual metabolites corroborated a comparable minor role for Mn and Si treatments in the modulation of individual metabolites. Mapping individual metabolites differing significantly between genotypes onto biosynthetic pathways and gene expression studies on the corresponding pathways suggest that genotypic Mn tolerance is a consequence of differences (i) in the apoplastic binding capacity; (ii) in the capability to maintain a high antioxidative state; and (iii) in the activity of shikimate and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  12. Estudo do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp minimamente processado

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    FURTUNATO Andréa A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando definir tecnologias alternativas de processamento do feijão verde (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp, estudou-se o processo de congelamento do mesmo. Este consistiu na recepção da matéria prima, seleção dos grãos de coloração e tamanho uniformes, seguida de lavagem em água corrente e branqueamento por imersão em água a 90ºC. Os grãos foram acondicionados em sacos plásticos e congelados em freezer doméstico a -18ºC, sendo armazenados a essa temperatura. Foi realizado o estudo de vida de prateleira desse produto por 180 dias, através de análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, preservando-se em boas condições para o consumo. Foi realizado também o teste de aceitação do produto comparando-se com o feijão verde fresco. Embora o nível de aceitação não tenha sido muito alto (71,1% quando comparado com o feijão fresco (96,6%, este resultado poderia ser diferente em regiões que não têm o hábito de consumir esta leguminosa no estádio de maturação verde fresco.

  13. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean(Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod; Janardan; Dhole; Kandali; Srinivasalu; Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Mungbean(Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid(PA), an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid(lpa) in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus(IP), and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen’s modified method,respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g-1and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g-1in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA(0.87 and 0.86) and seed size(0.82 and0.83) but low heritability for IP(0.61 and 0.60). A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size(r =-0.183 and-0.267). Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM(6.001 mg g-1) and JL-781(6.179 mg g-1) showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  14. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  15. Genetic variation for phytic acid content in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Janardan Dhole

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek is a short-duration legume crop cultivated for seeds that are rich in protein and carbohydrates. Mungbeans contain phytic acid (PA, an anti-nutritional factor that is the main storage form of organic phosphorus in seeds. It is a strong inhibitor against the absorption of nutrients including iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium in monogastric animals. Genotypes with low phytic acid (lpa in seed may show increased assimilation of nutrients and be useful in breeding lpa cultivars. The present study was conducted to identify lpa sources, genetic variation, heritability, and association with seed coat color, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and seed size in 102 mungbean genotypes including released varieties, land races, mutants, and wild species grown in two seasons: summer 2011 and rabi 2012. PA and IP in dry seeds were estimated by modified colorimetric method and Chen's modified method, respectively. PA, IP, and 100-seed weight differed significantly in the two seasons. PA content in 102 genotypes ranged from 5.74 to 18.98 mg g− 1 and 5.85 to 20.02 mg g− 1 in summer 2011 and rabi 2012, respectively. High heritability was found for PA (0.87 and 0.86 and seed size (0.82 and 0.83 but low heritability for IP (0.61 and 0.60. A negative correlation was found between PA and seed size (r = − 0.183 and − 0.267. Yellow and green seed coat genotypes contained significantly less PA than black seed coat genotypes. Cluster analysis revealed the distinctness of wild species, land races and cultivated varieties on the basis of PA content. The genotypes YBSM (6.001 mg g− 1 and JL-781 (6.179 mg g− 1 showed lowest PA. These lpa sources can be used to develop high-yielding mungbean cultivars with low phytic acid.

  16. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, A. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Upreti, Raj K. [Biomembrane Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)], E-mail: upretirk@rediffmail.com

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6 h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  17. Effect of mercury on seedling growth, nodulation and ultrastructural deformation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Das, Chittaranjan; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes and development of plants. Mercury stress triggers disturbances in cellular structure, and metabolismn is poorly understood. The response of seedling growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek to different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm) of mercury (Hg) salt solutions were studied. Morphological parameters like root and shoot length, dry weight, nodule number, total leaf area and biochemical constituents (chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and leghaemoglobin) of bean plants were recorded at an interval of 30 days. The successive growth deformaties in seedlings and nodules were recorded at lower concentration (0.1 ppm), but marginal (0.5 ppm) and higher (1.0 ppm) level of Hg salt solution showed significant suppression. The maximum level of Hg concentration (1.5 ppm) shows high level of tolerance index without any nodule. The control treatment shows maximum level of leghaemoglobin (0.219 mM) and all other morpho-physiological and bio-chemical properties of roots and shoots excepting tolerance index (0.00) and chlorophyll 'a' (7.52 mg g(-1) FW). Mercury accumulation pattern follows the sequences: leaf > nodule > root ≈ shoot at lower level of Hg (0.1 and 0.5 ppm). However, higher level of Hg (1.0 and 1.5 ppm) showed shoot > root > leaf > nodule. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of root also highlights the deleterious effect of Hg salt at higher concentration.

  18. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  19. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes response to multiple abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Reddy, K Raja

    2010-09-02

    The carbon dioxide concentration [CO(2)], temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) are concomitant factors projected to change in the future environment, and their possible interactions are of significant interest to agriculture. The objectives of this study were to evaluate interactive effects of atmospheric [CO(2)], temperature, and UVB radiation on growth, physiology and reproduction of cowpea genotypes and to identify genotypic tolerance to multiple stressors. Six cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) genotypes differing in their sites of origin were grown in sunlit, controlled environment chambers. The treatments consisted of two levels each of atmospheric [CO(2)] (360 and 720 micromol mol(-1)), UVB [0 and 10 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) and temperatures [30/22 and 38/30 degrees C] from 8 days after emergence to maturity. The ameliorative effects of elevated [CO(2)] on increased UVB radiation and temperature effects were observed for most of the vegetative and photosynthetic traits but not for pollen production, pollen viability and yield attributes. The combined stress response index (C-TSRI) derived from vegetative (V-TSRI) and reproductive (R-TSRI) parameters revealed that the genotypes responded negatively with varying magnitude of responses to the stressors. Additionally, in response to multiple abiotic stresses, the vegetative traits diverged from that of reproductive traits, as deduced from the positive V-TSRI and negative R-TSRI observed in most of the genotypes and poor correlation between these two processes. The UVB in combination with increased temperature caused the greatest damage to cowpea vegetative growth and reproductive potential. The damaging effects of high temperature on seed yield was not ameliorated by elevated [CO(2)]. The identified tolerant genotypes and groups of plant attributes could be used to develop genotypes with multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

  20. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  1. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of immature Vigna sinensis cotyledons via somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X B; Xu, Z H; Wei, Z M

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from immature cotyledons of Vigna sinensis and cultured in a modified MS Liquid medium containing 0. 2 mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), 1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0. 5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the dark at a density of 1 × 10(5)/ml. The protoplasts began to divide in 3-5 days. Sustained cell division resulted in formation of cell clusters and small calli, with the cell division frequency and plating efficiency of cell colonies reaching 27. 7% and 1. 7% respectively. When calli of 2 mm in size were transferred onto MSB medium (MS salts and B5 vitamins) containing 500mg/l NaCl, 500 mg/ 1 casein hydrolysate (CH), 2 mg/l 2,4-D and 0. 5 mg/l BAP for further growth, approximately 5% of the calli developed embryogenically. The embryogenic calli were selected and subcultured on the same composition of MSB medium and were able to maintain somatic embryogenesis capacity in subculture for a long time. When the calli were moved to MSB medium with 0. 1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0. 5mg/l kinetin(KT), 3-5% mannitol and 2% sucrose in the light, many somatic embryos formed from the calli. Only part of the embryoids developed further to the cotyledonary stage, and the others died at the globular, heart-shaped or torpedo stages. Finally, some cotyledonary embryoids germinated and developed into plants or shoots. The shoots were readily rooted on 1/2 strength MS medium with 0. 1-0.3 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The plants grew well in soil and were fertile.

  3. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  4. Distribution of Bio-accumulated Cd and Cr in two Vigna species and the Associated Histological Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh Chandra, P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In nutrient culture experiments, bioaccumulation and anatomical effects of cadmium (CdCl2 - 20μM and chromium (K2Cr2O7 - 600 μM on the structure of root and stem was studied by histochemical and analytical methods in Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata. Each metal exerted specific influences on the anatomy of various tissues in root and stem. Histochemical localisation of cadmium and chromium was observed in the stained sections of root and stem. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric study revealed maximum accumulation of cadmium and chromium in the root tissue as compared to shoot with significant variation among the species. Abundant occurrences of densely stained deposits of chromium were seen in the root stelar region of V. unguiculata and to a lesser extend in V. radiata. Cadmium accumulation in V. radiata was comparatively more than that of V. unguiculata. The findings also revealed that the accumulation pattern of cadmium and chromium varies between species and hence is species specific.

  5. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on Some Growth Parameters of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings growth parameters to nitrogen nutritional stress. This was with a view to determining whether nitrogen nutritional stress would retard or enhance maize and cowpea growth, partly, wholly or not at all through its effect on biomass accumulation and some morphological parameters. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The effects of optimal concentration and nitrogen stress on the growth rates (as measured by their fresh and dry weight were studied. The result of the growth analysis showed that there was increase in shoot height with supraoptimal concentrations of nitrogen treatments (X10N and X5N while there was a decrease in shoot height with minus nitrogen (-N regimes. The observed higher biomass (dry matter yield under the FN regimes in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata were attributed to optimal nutrient assimilation rate.

  6. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  7. Effect of Nitrogen Nutritional Stress on some Mineral Nutrients and Photosynthetic Apparatus of Zea mays L. and Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the responses of maize (Zea mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seedlings metabolic activities and photosynthetic apparatus to nitrogen nutritional stress. Germination of seeds was done using treated sand in sixty plastic pots and the seedlings were divided into four nutrient regimes. A group of the seedlings was nutrient stressed by administering 200 ml of complete nutrient solution minus nitrogen (-N while the other groups were fed with five times (X5N and ten times (X10N the optimal concentration of nitrogen and the last regime was fed with full nutrient solution (FN. The photosynthetic parameters studied included chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively; carotenes and xanthophyll while the mineral elements investigated include potassium, calcium and magnesium. The result of the growth analysis showed that nitrogen deficiency promotes an increase in the content of abscisic acid (ABA, causing stomatal closure and a reduction in photosynthesis. This explains the higher rate of leaf abscission in -N plants. A comparison of calcium ion and magnesium ion concentrations in both optimal and stressed conditions reveals that the two ions show antagonism in uptake. There is a correlation between nitrogen and magnesium accumulation as magnesium ion plays a vital role in chlorophyll biosynthesis, protein synthesis and photosynthesis. The pattern of accumulation of photosynthetic apparatus in both maize and cowpea follow a similar pattern. Chlorophyll a dictated the growth pattern of other photosynthetic apparatus in both Zea mays and Vigna unguiculata.

  8. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Pb(NO32 on the Yield and Chemical Composition of Mung bean (Vigna radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Najafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic effects of Pb as Pb(NO32 and silver nanoparticles on Mung bean (Vigna radiata planted on contaminated soil was assessed in terms of growth, yield, chlorophyll pigments, phenol and flavonoid content at 120 ppm concentration. Experiments were carried out with 4 treatments in 10 days. Treatments were including (T1 control, (T2 silver nanoparticles (50 ppm, (T3 Pb as Pb (NO32 (120 ppm and (T4 silver nanoparticles (50 ppm plus Pb as Pb(NO32 (120 ppm. Regarding the pigment content, silver nanoparticles-treated plants showed a remarkable increase of chlorophyll. The loss of chlorophyll content was associated with disturbance in photosynthetic capacity which ultimately results in the reduction of Vigna radiate growth. Pb caused a fall in the total content of phenols, while the content of flavonoid not significantly changed. The minimum decrease in root length, weight of root fresh and stem fresh was observed in T4 group, but this factors increased in the other treatments. Also, length of stem and seedling height decreased in control group. Increase length and fresh weight of stem in Pb-treated plants suggest that compatible solutes may contribute to osmotic adjustment at the cellular level and enzyme protection stabilizing the structure of macromolecules and organelles.

  9. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  10. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  11. Rendimiento y reacción a enfermedades de genotipos de frijol en condiciones de temporal y humedad residual Yield and reaction to diseases of bean genotypes under rainfed conditions and residual moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hugo Tosquy-Valle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En Chiapas, Veracruz y Puebla, las enfermedades son uno de los principales factores que reducen el rendimiento de frijol. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar el comportamiento productivo de genotipos de frijol negro en temporal y humedad residual y su reacción a enfermedades. En 2008 se estableció un ensayo en Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, Orizaba, Veracruz y Tecamachalco, Puebla, en temporal y en Medellín de Bravo y San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, con humedad residual. Se evaluaron 11 variedades y cinco líneas, en diseño látice 4x4 con cuatro repeticiones. En campo se cuantifico su reacción al virus del mosaico común, mancha angular, roya y antracnosis, con la escala de 1 a 9 del CIAT, así como el rendimiento de grano en kilogramos por hectárea. Se realizó análisis de varianza de cada enfermedad, las cuales se correlacionaron con el rendimiento de grano. Así como análisis combinado del rendimiento de los genotipos por condición de humedad y análisis de conjunto de todos los ambientes de prueba. Para la separación de promedios se aplicó la DMS al 0.05. Negro Papaloapan rindió 1 753 kg ha-1 en temporal y 1 333 kg ha-1 con humedad residual; ambos rendimientos promedio fueron estadísticamente superiores al del resto de los genotipos. La incidencia de antracnosis (r=-0.516* en la primera condición y de mancha angular (r=-0.5 2 8 * en la segunda, disminuyeron significativamente el rendimiento de frijol. Negro Papaloapan fue el más productivo en ambas condiciones de humedad y mostró resistencia al mosaico común y mancha angular y tolerancia a antracnosis.In Chiapas, Veracruz and Puebla, diseases are one of the main factors that reduce the yield of beans. The objectives were to determine the productive performance ofblack bean genotypes in rainfed and residual moisture and, their reaction to disease. In 2008, a trial was made in Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, Orizaba, Veracruz and Tecamachalco, Puebla, in rainfed conditions and, in

  12. Influence of double cropping on growth and yield of dry beans with colored plastic mulches Influencia del doble cultivo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol con cubierta plástica de colores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ibarra-Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the use of plastic mulches in vegetable production, but there is little documentation of their use with dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in single and double cropping. The objective of this study was to grow dry beans over two consecutive growing seasons using the same plastic mulch of different colors and examine the influence of soil temperature on growth and yield. The experiment was conducted in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, in the spring and summer of 2008. The treatments included four colored plastic mulches: white-on-black, black, silver-on-black, aluminum-on-black, and bare soil as a control. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. The percentage of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflected from the plastic tended to be highest with the white-on-black mulch and lowest with the black mulch. Mean soil temperature under the plastic mulch decreased with the increasing percentage of reflected PAR. Mean soil temperature exhibited a relationship of 98% and 99% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. Photosynthetically active radiation had a relationship of 98% and 86% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. The effect of the colored plastic mulch on yield was significant (p Existen numerosos estudios sobre el uso de cubierta plástica en la producción de hortalizas, sin embargo está muy poco documentado el cultivo simple o doble de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El objetivo de este estudio fue cultivar frijol en dos estaciones de crecimiento consecutivas usando la misma cubierta plástica de diferentes colores y examinar la influencia de la temperatura del suelo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol. El estudio fue conducido en Saltillo, Coahuila, México, en la primavera y verano de 2008. Se usaron cuatro colores de acolchado plástico: blanco-sobre-negro, negro, plata-sobre-negro, aluminio-sobre-negro, y control de

  13. Resistencia a sequía terminal en frijol negro tropical Comportamiento de variedades de maíz normal y con alta calidad de proteína para la región Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Frahm

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de identificar cultivares de frijol negro tropical con resistencia a sequía y adaptación a la región Centroamericana, se diseñó un proyecto piloto colaborativo entre los programas de frijol de Zamorano, Honduras; Veracruz, México y la Universidad Estatal de Michigan (MSU; EE.UU, en el año 2002. Se desarrollaron dos poblaciones de líneas endog ámicas recombinantes (RILs derivadas de cruces entre la lí- nea resistente a sequía B98311 de MSU con TLP 19 y VAX 5, dos líneas mejoradas del CIAT con resistencia a enfermedades y adaptadas a las condiciones de América Central y México. Ambas poblaciones se evaluaron bajo riego y sequía terminal en Zamorano, Honduras y Veracruz, México. Los rendimientos se vieron reducidos por la sequía y por Macrophomina phaseolina, hongo causal de la pudrición carbonosa. El estrés por sequía, la presión de la enfermedad y los bajos rendimientos, contribuyeron a la obtención de altos coeficientes de variación, lo que hizo difícil la identificación y selecci ón de líneas superiores. La selección se basó en la posici ón de la media geométrica del rendimiento (MG calculada para cada línea con los datos de ambos tratamientos, riego y sequía. La línea L88-63 ocupó el primer lugar en la MG del rendimiento en ambas localidades. Evaluaciones posteriores conducidas en Honduras y Michigan, confirmaron el alto potencial de rendimiento y amplia adaptación de la línea L88- 63. El mejoramiento de la resistencia a la sequía en ambientes del trópico bajo, requiere la incorporación adicional de resistencia a M. phaseolina en las nuevas líneas consideradas para liberarse como nuevas variedades en esta región.

  14. Soil compaction and gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) in the development of the cowpea beans [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp]; Compactacao do solo e radiacao gama ({sup 60}Co) no desenvolvimento do feijao caupi [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Eliane Ferreira; Colaco, Waldeciro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Radioagronomia]. E-mails: aroucha@ufpe.br; wcolaco@ufpe.br

    2005-08-15

    The objective is to investigate the effect of compaction and increased doses of gamma radiation on the development of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L) Walp] var. IPA-206 cultivated in a Neossolo fluvic soil, artificially compacted. Significant differences were observed in plant height, with the increase doses in soil density (1.30 Mg.m{sup -3} - compacted soil and 1.70 Mg.m{sup -3} - non-compacted soil), and in response to increased doses of irradiation (y-rays) [ [0, 100, 200 and 300 Gy). The diameter of the stem was significantly reduced in response to the increase in soil density, however the same did not occur in relation to the doses of irradiation (y-rays) holding capacity of the soil was reduced in response to the increase in soil density. (author)

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Metabolites in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata) Extracts using NMR Techniques%绿豆(VignaRadiata)代谢物组成的核磁共振定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴香玉; 李宁; 唐惠儒

    2014-01-01

    绿豆(Vigna radiata)是重要的经济作物之一,具有抗氧化、抗炎和抗菌作用.然而迄今为止,绿豆代谢物组成信息仍不完善.为了系统地定量研究绿豆代谢物组成,该研究利用DOSY,J-RES,COSY,TOCSY,HSQC,HMBC和1D 1H NMR谱图在鄂绿4号(Elü No.4)绿豆水相提取物中鉴定和归属了48种代谢物,确定了绿豆中棉籽糖家族寡糖的构成,并且利用全弛豫谱对其中44种代谢物进行了定量分析.%Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is an important crop that has various beneficial functions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the metabolites in mungbean have only been partially identified and quantified in previous studies. In this study, we systematically identified and assigned 48 metabolites in mungbean (Elü No.4) seeds with J-RES, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and 2D NMR spectra. In particular, the composition of raffinose family oligosaccharides in the extracts was determined using DOSY experiments. Most of the metabolites in the extracts were quantified. This study will provide useful information for mungbean metabolomic and nutritional studies.

  16. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  17. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  18. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials.

  19. Comparison of hybrid vigor based on parental distance in SSR markers and agronomic traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawit Sorajjapinun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis of seed yield in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek has created an interest among plant breeders todevelop hybrid mungbean cultivars. The objective of this study was to compare levels of heterosis among four F1 hybrids ofmungbeans with different genetic distance. The hybrids were developed by using Sukhothai (SKT as the female parent andpollinated by male parents of different genetic distance as revealed by SSR markers. They were H192 (close distance, C357(moderate distance, TC1965 (high distance and W166 (very high distance. The results revealed that the F1 from the parentswith larger genetic distance showed higher heterosis in yield per plant and number of pods per plant. Thus SSR markerscombined with yield components can be used to identify parental lines with high genetic distance for hybrid seed productionin mungbean. This approach potentially helps to reduce the amount of fieldwork required for evaluation of F1 hybrids.

  20. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Amarowicz, Ryszard; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-05

    The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from four cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp. seeds. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed the antioxidant and antiradical properties when investigated using a linoleic acid peroxidation model, FRAP, ORAC and TRAP assays, as well as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The HPLC analysis of the cowpea extracts showed the presence of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids. The results indicated that methanolic extract of the cowpea resembled in the aforementioned activities those from other leguminous seeds and pulses. Phenolic constituents contained in cowpea may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  2. Effect of PGR producing bacterial strains isolated from vermisources on germination and growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaj Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from vermisources andscreened for Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production among themonly nine strains produce IAA and they were identified asStreptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Alcaligenes spp., Erwinia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Among all other strains Bacillus sp. showed the higher IAA production hence selected for further molecular analysis and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The B. cereus was grown in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5mg/ml of tryptophan for seven days at pH 7 and at 37ºC. Crude IAA was used for in vitro phytostimulatory studies using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The plant growth parameters were analyzed at different day intervals (5, 10 and 15 days. Supplementation of 5 ml crude IAA (2mg/ml of tryptophan dynamically enhances the plant growth parameters after 15 days.

  3. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-02-02

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48(T) and B. liaoningense USDA 3622(T) and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar.

  4. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L. Based on Transcriptome Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4% into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 9,301 (23.5% were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%, AAG/CTT (8.1% and AGAA/TTCT (20.0% are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  5. Production of intraspecific F1 hybrids between wild and cultivated accessions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.) using conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelou, B; Van Damme, P

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important food legume in the tropics. It belongs to the Phaseoleae (L.) tribe (Fabaceae family), it is diploid and its chromosome number is 22. Its gene pool includes the cultivated cowpea and its wild relatives, which are connected with Vigna subgenus, Catiang section. Cowpea has a great potential in increasing food legume production. The cowpea varieties, however, are susceptible to a number of insect pests, especially the pod borer Maruca testulalis and a pod sucking-bug complex (e.g.: Clavigralla tomentosicollis, Anoplocnemis curvipes and Riptortus dentipes), which cause severe damage. The crossing programme presented here exploits the variability existing in the wild African germplasm of V. unguiculata and cultivated cowpea. To incorporate the insect pest resistance into the cultivated cowpea economically, reciprocal crosses between wild forms and cowpea varieties were performed, using the stigmatic pollination methods at anthesis. Some barriers were found in these intraspecific crosses. In the majority of reciprocal crosses, the growth of the pollen tubes was arrested in the stigmatic tissue. Only 16.01% of the ovules were fertilised. In these ovules, embryo development was normal at about 20-25 days after pollination. The failure of the intraspecific crosses in about 80.7% of the cases is thus the result of the lack of fertilisation and the unfertilised ovules. There seems to exist considerable incompatibility within the primary cowpea gene pool. The breeding programme carried out under controlled conditions has proved to be less successful in developed cowpea intraspecific F1 hybrids. Further studies should concentrate on germplasm from Africa with documented resistance to major insect pests. In addition, the application of techniques for bypassing barriers to hybridisation of parent genotypes should enable these embryos to grow to plants.

  6. Efecto de labranza, humedad y fertilización en el rendimiento de frijol y la patogenicidad de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid Effects of tillage, moisture and fertilization on the yield of the common bean and the pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal Lira-Méndez; Jaime Roel Salinas-García; Arturo Díaz-Franco; Netzahualcóyotl Mayek-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. causa la 'pudrición carbonosa' en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y otros cultivos y afecta el crecimiento y el rendimiento de grano. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de cuatro niveles de labranza (barbecho, destronque-bordeo, subsuelo-bordeo, cero), dos de humedad (temporal, riego) y dos de fertilización (química, 40-20-00 NPK; biológica con la micorriza Glomus intraradices) en el rendimiento de grano de la variedad Negro INIFAP en 20...

  7. Características agronómicas y contenido de Fe y Zn en el grano de frijol tipo Rosa de Castilla (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Agronomic traits and Fe and Zn content in the grain of common Rosa de Castilla type bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Jiménez-Hernández; Jorge Alberto Acosta-Gallegos; Bertha María Sánchez-García; Miguel Ángel Martínez Gamiño

    2012-01-01

    El frijol de tipo Rosa de Castilla (RC) es popular en áreas de Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, donde se produce bajo temporal. El objetivo fue comparar características agronómicas de 22 colectas de tipo RC con dos variedades mejoradas de tipo Flor de Mayo (FM) bajo condiciones de temporal. El experimento se estableció en 2008 en dos localidades de Guanajuato, Celaya (1 785 msnm) y Ocampo (2 200 msnm) y una de San Luis Potosí, Villa de Arriaga (2 200 msnm). Se utilizó un diseño de blo...

  8. Identificación de características morfofisiológicas asociadas a la adaptación a sequía para ser usadas como criterios de selección en mejoramiento de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L

    OpenAIRE

    Polanía Perdomo, José Arnulfo

    2011-01-01

    Para contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de zonas productoras de fríjol bajo estrés por sequía, es pertinente encontrar estrategias que permitan minimizar esta limitante, como el desarrollo de variedades adaptadas. Para aumentar la eficiencia y precisión en el programa de mejoramiento de frijol, es importante establecer buenos criterios de selección, con este objetivo se evaluaron diferentes características morfo-fisiológicas relacionadas con adaptación a sequía para identificar si algunas ...

  9. Determinación de la composición físico-química y de la digestibilidad in vitro de dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. estimación del contenido de pectina y celulosa en el residuo indigerible

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio fue determinar, mediante un estudio de digestibilidad in vitro, la porción indigerible presente en dos variedades de frijol común Phaseolus vulgaris L. consumidas en Costa Rica y cuantificar en dicha porción, dos de los principales polisacáridos no almidonosos causantes de flatulencia: pectina y celulosa. Se determinaron además, las principales características físicas (tamaño y tasa de absorción de agua) y químicas (contenido de proteínas, grasa, cenizas y carbohi...

  10. 绿豆的营养成分及药用价值%Nutritional Components and Medical Value of Vigna radiata L.Wilclzek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明海; 徐宁; 包淑英; 王桂芳; 郭中校

    2012-01-01

    介绍了绿豆的营养成分,以及其在人类、畜禽疾病上的药用价值,以促进绿豆的开发利用。%This paper introduced the nutritional components and medical value of Vigna radiata L.Wilclzek on human and livestocks′ diseases,in order to promote its exploitation and utilization.

  11. Penetapan Kadar Mineral Besi,Kalsium, Magnesium, dan Kalium pada Kacang Panjang (Vigna unguiculata (l) Walp.) Segar dan Rebus secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Simamora, Alex Leo

    2017-01-01

    Long beans (Vigna unguiculata (l). Walp) is one of the vegetables that contain minerals and vitamins is good for consumption. Parts can be consumed from this plans are fruits and young leaves. Both fruit and leaves quite a lot of nutrients that the body needs. Long beans contain vitamins and minerals, among which calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, protein, fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, calories, vitamin A, vitamin B and vitamin C. This study aims to determine the mineral content of iron, ...

  12. CGKB: an annotation knowledge base for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. methylation filtered genomic genespace sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraggins Thomas A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics because of its ability to tolerate drought and grow on poor soils. It is cultivated mostly by poor farmers in developing countries, with 80% of production taking place in the dry savannah of tropical West and Central Africa. Cowpea is largely an underexploited crop with relatively little genomic information available for use in applied plant breeding. The goal of the Cowpea Genomics Initiative (CGI, funded by the Kirkhouse Trust, a UK-based charitable organization, is to leverage modern molecular genetic tools for gene discovery and cowpea improvement. One aspect of the initiative is the sequencing of the gene-rich region of the cowpea genome (termed the genespace recovered using methylation filtration technology and providing annotation and analysis of the sequence data. Description CGKB, Cowpea Genespace/Genomics Knowledge Base, is an annotation knowledge base developed under the CGI. The database is based on information derived from 298,848 cowpea genespace sequences (GSS isolated by methylation filtering of genomic DNA. The CGKB consists of three knowledge bases: GSS annotation and comparative genomics knowledge base, GSS enzyme and metabolic pathway knowledge base, and GSS simple sequence repeats (SSRs knowledge base for molecular marker discovery. A homology-based approach was applied for annotations of the GSS, mainly using BLASTX against four public FASTA formatted protein databases (NCBI GenBank Proteins, UniProtKB-Swiss-Prot, UniprotKB-PIR (Protein Information Resource, and UniProtKB-TrEMBL. Comparative genome analysis was done by BLASTX searches of the cowpea GSS against four plant proteomes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Populus trichocarpa. The possible exons and introns on each cowpea GSS were predicted using the HMM-based Genscan gene predication program and the

  13. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  14. Crecimiento y contenido de prolina y carbohidratos de plántulas de frijol sometidas a estrés por sequía Growth and, proline and carbohydrate content of bean seedlings subjected to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Susana Herrera Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El estrés por sequía en el altiplano de México, es un factor limitante en el rendimiento del frijol. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las respuestas fisiológicas (crecimiento y bioquímicas (carbohidratos solubles y prolina en la radícula de plántulas de frijol resistente, Pinto Villa, y susceptible a la sequía Bayo Madero, ambas de la raza Durango, para identificar características rápidas de medir que sean confiables para selección por resistencia a estrés por sequía. La radícula de las plántulas se sometió a cuatro potenciales de humedad: -2.07, -0.52, -0.27 megapascales (MPa y un testigo -0.16 MPa. Para las determinaciones de carbohidratos solubles y prolina se eliminó el potencial de -0.16 MPa, ya que provocó la pudrición del hipocótilo en el punto de unión con el cotiledón, en este caso el potencial de -0.27 se consideró como testigo. La radícula de ambas variedades tuvo mayor longitud en los tratamientos de menor estrés. En el potencial más crítico, -2.07 Mpa, Pinto Villa, acumuló mayor cantidad de prolina y sacarosa que Bayo Madero, mientras que los niveles de almidón fueron similares. Se observó correlación altamente significativa entre la elongación de la radícula con la acumulación de prolina, glucosa y fructosa (r= 0.99 respectivamente. La acumulación de solutos compatibles (glucosa, fructosa, sacarosa y prolina en la radícula desarrollada en condiciones de estrés, favorece su crecimiento en etapas tempranas de desarrollo. Los solutos compatibles son apropiados como indicadores bioquímicos de selección de variedades resistentes al estrés de humedad durante los primeros tres días de la germinación.Drought stress in the highlands of México is a limiting factor in bean yields. In this work we studied the physiological responses (growth and biochemical (soluble carbohydrates and proline in the radicle of seedlings resistant beans, Pinto Villa and, susceptible to drought Bayo Madero, both of

  15. Ecofisiología de seis variedades de frijol bajo las condiciones climáticas de la Región Lagunera Ecophysiology of six bean varieties under the weather conditions of the Lagunera region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Chávez-Simental

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En la problemática existente en la Comarca Lagunera sobre la disponibilidad de agua, es importante considerar cultivos alternos que se adapten a las condiciones climáticas de la región. Algunas variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulagris L. son susceptibles a sequía lo que limita el óptimo desarrollo del cultivo provocando bajo rendimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la tasa de fotosíntesis neta, tasa de transpiración, conductancia estomatal y rendimiento de seis variedades de frijol así como su adaptabilidad a las condiciones climáticas de la Comarca Lagunera. La investigación se realizó en el campo experimental de la UAAAN Unidad Laguna durante el ciclo de otoño-invierno de 2009 utilizando riego tradicional. Se midió la tasa de fotosintética, tasa de transpiración y conductancia estomatal con el equipo de medición "photosynthesis system CI 340®". Además, se evaluó el rendimiento el cual fue correlacionado con las funciones fisiológicas antes mencionadas. La variedad que pre sentó el mayor rendimiento fue la Pinto Villa, la cual también mostró la mayor actividad fotosintética ubicándose dentro del grupo de genotipos con la conductancia estomatal más alta. Por otra parte, la variedad Pinto Mestizo obtuvo el segundo mejor rendimiento, aunque la actividad fisiológica de las variables estudiadas fueron las más bajas. Por lo tanto, las variedades Pinto Villa y Pinto Mestizo fueron las que mejor adaptabilidad presentaron a las condiciones climáticas de la Región Lagunera.In the current situation in the Comarca Lagunera regarding water availability, it is important to consider alternate crops that adapt to the area's weather conditions. Some bean varieties (Phaseolus vulagris L. are susceptible to drought, which limits the optimum crop development, causing low yields. The main objective of this study was to determine the net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and the yield of six

  16. Influencia de las malezas sobre el cultivo de frijol en función de espaciamiento y de la densidad de plantas Weeds influence in common bean as a function of spacing and plant density

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    M.C Parreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de investigación es que con la reducción de la densidad de siembra y del espaciamiento entre líneas, el período anterior a la interferencia de las malezas será reducido en el cultivo de frijol. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el período anterior a la interferencia de las malezas (PAI en función del espaciamiento entre líneas y de su densidad poblacional. Los tratamientos fueron constituidos de ocho períodos de convivencia del cultivo con las malezas: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 y 0-80 días después de la emergencia y un control libre de interferencia. Los períodos de convivencia fueron aplicados en dos experimentos, utilizando dos distancias entre líneas, de 0,45 y 0,60 m y en dos densidades de plantas por línea de siembra, de 10 y 15 plantas por metro. El delineamiento experimental utilizado fue en bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Hubo reducción de 16, 40, 36 y 58% en la productividad de granos del cultivo de frijol cuando convivió durante todo el ciclo del cultivo con las malezas, para el espaciamiento de 0,45 m en las densidades de 10 y 15 plantas m-1; y espaciamiento de 0,60 m y densidades de 10 y 15 plantas m-1, respectivamente. La productividad de granos pasó a ser afectada negativamente a partir de 28, 26, 22 y 14 días después de la emergencia, constituyéndose en los períodos anteriores a la interferencia del cultivo, respectivamente.Hypothesis is that reducing the density and the spacing between the lines, the period prior to the interference of weeds will be reduced by the bean crop. The aim of this study was to determine the period prior to weed interference (PPI with the bean crop in terms of row spacing and population density. Treatments consisted of eight periods of weed coexistence with the crop: 0-10, 0-20, 0-30, 0-40, 0-50, 0-60, 0-70 and 0-80 days after crop emergence. The periods of coexistence were applied in two experiments, using two spacings, 0

  17. Flor de Mayo Eugenia, nueva variedad de frijol para riego y temporal en el centro de México Flor de Mayo Eugenia, new bean cultivar for irrigated and rainfall conditions in Central Mexico

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    Jorge Alberto Acosta Gallegos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del frijol tipo Flor de Mayo, el subtipo 'media oreja' esta cobrando importancia en el norte-centro de México, éste es de tamaño mediano, forma alargada y color rosa atractivo. Se describe una nueva variedad de este tipo de frijol, Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME se derivó de una cruza interracial entre Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (raza Jalisco y Rayado Rojo (raza Nueva Granada. El rendimiento promedio de FME en temporal varia de 0.8 a 2.0 t ha-1 y bajo riego el máximo rendimiento ha sido de 3.8 t ha-1. El peso de 100 semillas promedio de diferentes localidades de FME es significativamente superior al de FMA en condiciones de temporal, 32 vs 26 g 100 semillas, y riego 35 vs 31 g 100 semillas. En cuanto la calidad del grano, el tiempo promedio de cocción de FME en cocedor tipo Mattson es 97 min, mientras que el de FMA es de 109 min; el contenido promedio de proteína del grano de FME es 19% en base a peso seco, similar al de FMA, mientras que el contenido de hierro de FME resultó superior al de FMA con 6.1 vs 5 mg 100 g. FME es tolerante a las razas de roya presentes en el Altiplano de México, a la raza 292 de antracnosis y tolerante a los tizones común y de halo.Within 'Flor de Mayo' bean type, the 'media oreja' subtype is becoming important in North-Central México; this last type has a mid-size elongated seed with showy pink color. A new bean cv. of 'media oreja' subtype is described: Flor de Mayo Eugenia (FME. FME was derived from an interracial cross between Flor de Mayo Anita (FMA (Jalisco breed and Rayado Rojo (Nueva Granada breed. The seed yield of FME under rainfall conditions varied from 0.8 to 2.0 t ha-1 and under irrigation the highest yield recorded was 3.8 t ha-1. The 100-seed weight of FME across different locations was significantly superior to the weight of FMA, 32 vs 26 g per 100 seeds under rainfall conditions and 35 vs 31 g per 100 seeds under irrigation conditions. In regard to seed quality, cooking time average of

  18. ANÁLISIS DE LA DIVERSIDAD FENOTÍPICA DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL (P. vulgaris L. UTILIZADAS POR LOS CAMPESINOS EN LA COMUNIDAD "LA PALMA" EN PINAR DEL RÍO

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    María E. Viñals

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la diversidad fenotípica de las variedades de frijol utilizadas por los campesinos en la comunidad de "La Palma" en Pinar del Río, para su posterior uso en el fitomejoramiento participativo, se desarrolló este experimento en las áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, San José de las Lajas. Para su ejecución se seleccionaron 57 materiales de diversos colores y tamaños de granos, que incluyó materiales procedentes de una comunidad campesina en "La Palma", Pinar del Río, del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Fundamentales de Agricultura Tropical (INIFAT y materiales donados por el Instituto de Investigaciones Hortícolas "Liliana Dimitrova", los cuales fueron sembrados en épocas temprana y tardía en el período comprendido desde octubre de 1999 hasta abril del 2000 en bloque completamente aleatorizado con cuatro surcos por parcelas de 4 m y con la utilización de mínimos insumos. Se evaluaron las variables: días a la floración, días a la cosecha, rendimiento, peso de 100 semillas, número de semillas/planta y susceptibilidad frente a bacteriosis o roya, según fecha de siembra. Las variables estudiadas se procesaron estadísticamente mediante análisis univariados y multivariados, y de acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que los campesinos pueden jugar un papel importante en el mejoramiento de las plantas, ya que las variedades que ellos han seleccionado y utilizan pueden superar a las variedades comerciales y precomerciales.

  19. Aluyori, nueva variedad de frijol blanco (alubia para Sinaloa y el Bajío, México Aluyori, a new dry bean white seeded cultivar (alubia for Sinaloa and El Bajío, Mexico

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    Rafael Atanasio Salinas Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad de frijol, 'Aluyori'. Esta es la primera variedad de tipo alubia grande desarrollada en México. Aluyori es una variedad de ciclo intermedio de hábito de crecimiento determinado tipo I, de grano grande adecuado para el mercado internacional, con más de 50 g en 100 semillas. Aluyori se adapta a condiciones de riego en los estados de Sinaloa y Sonora donde ha mostrado un potencial de rendimiento de 3 t ha-1 y resistencia a enfermedades. Bajo condiciones de riego Aluyori ha resultado superior en rendimiento a las variedades de tipo Azufrado que comandan el mercado en Sinaloa, a Azufrado Higuera en 18% y a Azufrado Regional 87 en 22%, equivalente a 363 y 430 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Las características culinarias de la variedad Aluyori son similares a las de la principal variedad de grano amarillo, Azufrado Higuera.A new white seeded dry bean cultivar is described, 'Aluyori'. This is the first white kidney type cultivar developed and released in Mexico. Aluyori is a type I growth habit intermediate cycle cultivar, large seeded, suited for the national and international market, its seed weight is above 50 g per 100 seeds. Aluyori is adapted to irrigation conditions in States of Sinaloa and Sonora, as well as El Bajío in Central Mexico where has shown high yield potential of 3 t ha-1 and disease resistance, mostly rust elicited by the fungus. Under irrigation at Sinaloa, Aluyori proved to be superior than leading cultivars in the yellow market class, Azufrado Higuera by 18% and Azufrado Regional 87 by 22%, equivalent to 363 kg ha-1 in relationship to the former and 430 kg ha-1 to the second. The culinary characteristics of Aluyori are similar to those in the leading yellow class cv. Azufrado Higuera.

  20. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  1. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean(Vigna umbellata) using an SSR-enriched library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Kyung Do Kim; Dongying Gao; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; Suk Ha Lee; Scott A. Jackson; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean(Vigna umbellata Thunb.), a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop.Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers.In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides(17.8%). Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT(14.3%), and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean.However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in rice

  2. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich.

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    Rusama Marubodee

    Full Text Available Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich. (tuber cowpea is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s source for V. unguiculata (cowpea, since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean, V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1 and susceptible (V5 accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  3. Combined Effects of Ozone and Drought on the Physiology and Membrane Lipids of Two Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura Rebouças, Deborah; Maia De Sousa, Yuri; Bagard, Matthieu; Costa, Jose Helio; Jolivet, Yves; Fernandes De Melo, Dirce; Repellin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of drought and ozone on the physiology and leaf membrane lipid content, composition and metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) were investigated in two cultivars (EPACE-1 and IT83-D) grown under controlled conditions. The drought treatment (three-week water deprivation) did not cause leaf injury but restricted growth through stomatal closure. In contrast, the short-term ozone treatment (130 ppb 12 h daily during 14 day) had a limited impact at the whole-plant level but caused leaf injury, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and galactolipid degradation. These effects were stronger in the IT83-D cultivar, which also showed specific ozone responses such as a higher digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG):monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) ratio and the coordinated up-regulation of DGDG synthase (VuDGD2) and ω-3 fatty acid desaturase 8 (VuFAD8) genes, suggesting that membrane remodeling occurred under ozone stress in the sensitive cultivar. When stresses were combined, ozone did not modify the stomatal response to drought and the observed effects on whole-plant physiology were essentially the same as when drought was applied alone. Conversely, the drought-induced stomatal closure appeared to alleviate ozone effects through the reduction of ozone uptake. PMID:28273829

  4. In-silico based identification and functional analyses of miRNAs and their targets in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

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    Zareen Gul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important leguminous plant and a good diet due to presence of carbohydrate and high protein contents. Currently, only few cowpea microRNAs (miRNAs are reported. This study is intended to identify and functionally analyze new miRNAs and their targets in cowpea. An in-silico based homology search approach was applied and a total of 46 new miRNAs belonging to 45 families were identified and functionally annotated from the cowpea expressed sequence tags (ESTs. All these potential miRNAs are reported here for the first time in cowpea. The 46 new miRNAs were also observed with stable hairpin structures with minimum free energy, ranging from −10 to −132 kcal mol−1 with an average of −40 kcal mol−1. The length of new cowpea miRNAs are ranged from 18 to 26 nt with an average of 21 nt. The cowpea miRNA-vun-mir4414, is found as pre-miRNA cluster for the first time in cowpea. Furthermore, a set of 138 protein targets were also identified for these newly identified 46 cowpea miRNAs. These targets have significant role in various biological processes, like metabolism, transcription regulation as transcription factor, cell transport, signal transduction, growth & development and structural proteins. These findings are the significant basis to utilize and manage this important leguminous plant-cowpea for better nutritional properties and tolerance for biotic and abiotic stresses.

  5. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

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    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  6. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

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    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  7. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed.

  8. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility.

  9. In vivo studies on the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of Vigna unguiculata seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Minamikawa, Takao (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1983-12-01

    ..cap alpha..-Amanitin and cordycepin at various concentrations were tested for their inhibitory effect on the fresh weight increase of Vigna unguiculata embryonic axes after the onset of imbibition and on the incorporation rate of /sup 3/H-labeled leucine into protein in axes of the 36 - 38 h stage. ..cap alpha..-Amanitin at 0.5 - 5 ..mu..g/ml clearly exerted an inhibitory effect on both the fresh weight increase and the protein synthesis. This drug at 1 ..mu..g/ml, however, showed no significant effect on the protein synthesis at an early stage of imbibition (4 h), whereas cycloheximide was a very potent inhibitor. By experiments in which 'dry' axes were allowed to imbibe /sup 3/H-labeled adenosine solution for 4 and 12 h in the presence of ..cap alpha..-amanitin, it was found that poly A+RNA was newly synthesized to some extent in axes as early as 4 h after the onset of imbibition and that the drug effectively inhibited the poly A+RNA synthesis. The results may indicate the occurrence of stored mRNA in embryonic axes of V. unguiculata seeds.

  10. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance.

  11. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  12. Effect of lead on physiological and antioxidant responses in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars differing in Pb-accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerril Fontenele, Nila Maria; Otoch, Maria de Lourdes Oliveira; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Félix; Sobreira, Alana Cecília de Menezes; Barreto, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa; de Oliveira, Francisco Dalton Barreto; Costa, José Hélio; Borges, Simone da Silveira Sá; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic pollutants, occurring widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it impairs plant growth and development. In this work, the effect of 0.5 mM EDTA-Pb was evaluated in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars (SV and SET), with the aim of detecting genotype/cultivar dependent changes in the physiological and anti-oxidant responses (CAT and APX) of a leguminous plant. The data showed that SV accumulated more Pb in roots while SET accumulated more in leaves, indicating differential regulation in Pb-translocation/accumulation. Lead affected the growth of SV less severely than SET, mainly associated with reduced inhibition in photosynthetic parameters. Furthermore, CAT and APX activities increased or were sustained at elevated levels in both cultivars in response to lead. However, gene expression analyses revealed that CAT1 was the main lead responsive gene in SET while CAT2 was more responsive in SV. APX1 was higher expressed in tissues with higher Pb-accumulation while APX2 was ubiquitously responsive to lead in both cultivars. Taken together, these results reveal differential ability of V. unguiculata cultivars in Pb-accumulation in different tissues affecting distinctly physiological and anti-oxidant responses. In addition, the existence of cultivars with predominant Pb-accumulation in aerial tissues invokes a need for studies to identify pollution-safe cultivars of leguminous plants to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  14. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors.

  15. A deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes and the development of EST-SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANGYOU LIU; BAOJIE FAN; ZHIMIN CAO; QIUZHU SU; YAN WANG; ZHIXIAO ZHANG; JING WU; JING TIAN

    2016-09-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous food crops in Asia. We employed Illumina paired-end sequencing to analyse transcriptomes of three different mungbean genotypes. A total of 38.3–39.8 million paired-end reads with 73 bp lengths were generated. The pooled reads from the three libraries were assembled into 56,471 transcripts. Following a cluster analysis, 43,293 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 739 bp and N50 length of 1176 bp. Of the unigenes, 34,903 (80.6%) had significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database (Nr), while 21,450 (58.4%) had BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database (E-value < 10⁻⁵). Further, 1245 differential expression genes were detected among three mungbean genotypes. In addition, we identified 3788 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 320 tested loci, 310 (96.5%) yielded amplification products, and 151 (47.0%) exhibited polymorphisms among six mungbean accessions. These transcriptome data and mungbean EST-SSRs could serve as a valuable resource for novel gene discovery and the marker-assisted selective breeding of this specie

  16. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morph