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  1. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  2. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas.

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development.

  3. CE: Beyond Maternity Nursing: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Cardaci, Regina

    2017-08-01

    : The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to promote breastfeeding in hospitals and birthing facilities worldwide. Since the program was launched in 1991, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity have increased globally, a trend largely attributed to changes in hospital policies and practices brought about by the BFHI. This article provides an overview of these practices and policies, the institutional benefits of achieving BFHI certification, and the process through which health care facilities can do so. All nurses-whether they work in maternity care or another nursing specialty in a hospital, ambulatory, or community setting-can play a role in promoting societal health through their support of long-term breastfeeding as recommended by the WHO and UNICEF.

  4. Role of Baby-Friendly Hospital Care in Maternal Role Competence.

    Barabach, Lynn; Ludington-Hoe, Susan M; Dowling, Donna; Lotas, Marilyn

    The objective of this pilot study was to determine women's perceptions of their levels of maternal role competence at discharge from a Baby-Friendly hospital. A convenience sample of 30 women completed two self-report questionnaires: a demographic questionnaire and the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy scale. Women report that they perceived high levels of maternal role competence with a mean total score of 69.80 (standard deviation = 6.86) out of 80. As women experience breastfeeding in Baby-Friendly hospitals, maternal role competence may develop with appropriate support. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  6. Social comparison with friends versus non-friends

    Lubbers, M.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    This paper investigates whether several aspects of social comparison it? school classes differ as a function of the type of relation between the student and his or her tat-get. Participants were 9612 students in the first grade of secondary education in the Netherlands (equivalent to Grade 7 in the

  7. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    2015-09-01

    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  8. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth...... Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. METHODS: This study was conducted......, and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-stage process of questionnaire development...

  9. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  10. The effect of friend selection on social influences in obesity.

    Trogdon, Justin G; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    We present an agent-based model of weight choice and peer selection that simulates the effect of peer selection on social multipliers for weight loss interventions. The model generates social clustering around weight through two mechanisms: a causal link from others' weight to an individual's weight and the propensity to select peers based on weight. We simulated weight loss interventions and tried to identify intervention targets that maximized the spillover of weight loss from intervention participants to nonparticipants. Social multipliers increase with the number of intervention participants' friends. For example, when friend selection was based on a variable exogenous to weight, the weight lost among non-participants increased by 23% (14.3lb vs. 11.6lb) when targeting the most popular obese. Holding constant the number of participants' friends, multipliers increase with increased weight clustering due to selection, up to a point. For example, among the most popular obese, social multipliers when matching on a characteristic correlated with weight (1.189) were higher than when matching on the exogenous characteristic (1.168) and when matching on weight (1.180). Increased weight clustering also implies more obese "friends of friends" of participants, who reduce social multipliers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. To friend or not to friend? Social networking and faculty perceptions of online professionalism.

    Chretien, Katherine C; Farnan, Jeanne M; Greysen, S Ryan; Kind, Terry

    2011-12-01

    To assess faculty perceptions of professional boundaries and trainee-posted content on social networking sites (SNS). In June 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine conducted its annual survey of U.S. and Canadian member institutions. The survey included sections on demographics and social networking. The authors used descriptive statistics and tests of association to analyze the Likert scale responses and qualitatively analyzed the free-text responses. Of 110 institutional members, 82 (75%) responded to the survey. Of the 40 respondents who reported current or past SNS use, 21 (53%) reported receiving a "friend request" from a current student and 25 (63%) from a current resident. Of these, 4 (19%) accepted the student request and 12 (48%) accepted the resident request. Sixty-three of 80 (79%) felt it was inappropriate to send a friend request to a current student, 61 (76%) to accept a current student's request, 42 (53%) to become friends with a current resident, and 61 (81%) to become friends with a current patient. Becoming friends with a former student, former resident, or colleague was perceived as more appropriate. Younger respondents were less likely to deem specific student behaviors inappropriate (odds ratio [OR] 0.18-0.79; adjusted OR 0.12-0.86, controlling for respondents' sex, rank, and SNS use), although none reached statistical significance. Some internal medicine educators are using SNSs and interacting with trainees online. Their perceptions on the appropriateness of social networking behaviors provide some consensus for professional boundaries between faculty and trainees in the digital world.

  12. Parent and Friend Social Support and Adolescent Hope.

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct two meta-analyses. The first examined social support from parents in relation to adolescent hope, and the second examined social support from friends in relation to adolescent hope. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, nine published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Using meta-analytic techniques and the mean weighted r statistic, the results indicated that social support from friends had a stronger mean effect size (ES = .31) than social support from parents (ES = .21); there was a statistically significant difference between the two ESs. Two of the four moderators for the parent social support-adolescent hope relationship were statistically significant. They were quality score and health status. Implications for school nurses and nurses in all settings are addressed, and conclusions are drawn based on the findings.

  13. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Brent, Lauren J N

    2015-05-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution.

  14. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  15. Best Friends: Alliances, Friend Ranking, and the MySpace Social Network.

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert; Koch, Elizabeth N; Liben-Nowell, David

    2011-01-01

    Like many topics of psychological research, the explanation for friendship is at once intuitive and difficult to address empirically. These difficulties worsen when one seeks, as we do, to go beyond "obvious" explanations ("humans are social creatures") to ask deeper questions, such as "What is the evolved function of human friendship?" In recent years, however, a new window into human behavior has opened as a growing fraction of people's social activity has moved online, leaving a wealth of digital traces behind. One example is a feature of the MySpace social network that allows millions of users to rank their "Top Friends." In this study, we collected over 10 million people's friendship decisions from MySpace to test predictions made by hypotheses about human friendship. We found particular support for the alliance hypothesis, which holds that human friendship is caused by cognitive systems that function to create alliances for potential disputes. Because an ally's support can be undermined by a stronger outside relationship, the alliance model predicts that people will prefer partners who rank them above other friends. Consistent with the alliance model, we found that an individual's choice of best friend in MySpace is strongly predicted by how partners rank that individual. © The Author(s) 2011.

  16. User-friendly matching protocol for online social networks

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a privacy-preserving matching protocol for OSN (online social network) users to find their potential friends. With the proposed protocol, a logged-in user can match her profile with that of an off-line stranger, while both profiles are maximally protected. Our solution

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms, employment, and social support.

    Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.

  18. Parent and Friend Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Associations with Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms

    Slough, Rachel Miller

    2017-01-01

    Both parents and close friends are central figures in adolescents' emotional and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about how close friends socialize adolescents' emotions or how friends' socialization messages compare to those from parents in adolescence. The present study will explore how parents and friends discuss negative emotions with adolescents in relation to adolescents' emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms. Participants were 30 parent-adolescent-friend tri...

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households.

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.

  20. Show me your friends and I will tell you what type of person you are: how own profile, number of friends, and type of friends influence impression formation on social network sites

    Utz, S.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of

  1. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self...

  2. Social Anxiety and Socioemotional Functioning during Early Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Best Friend Emotion Socialization

    Borowski, Sarah K.; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara

    2018-01-01

    Best friend expected emotion socialization responses were examined as a potential explanation for the link between social anxiety and youths' friendship quality and dysfunctional emotion regulation (ER). A community sample of 202 young adolescents ([X-bar][subscript age] = 12.66; 52.5% girls, 75.7% White) within 101 same-sex, reciprocated best…

  3. How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

  4. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: an international Delphi consensus process

    2014-01-01

    Background Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, ‘Health of Migrants’, the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. Methods This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. Results A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created - the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) – in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is

  6. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies: an international Delphi consensus process.

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta; Gissler, Mika; Heaman, Maureen; Jeambey, Zeinab; Korfker, Dineke; McCourt, Christine; Roth, Carolyn; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Small, Rhonda

    2014-06-10

    Through the World Health Assembly Resolution, 'Health of Migrants', the international community has identified migrant health as a priority. Recommendations for general hospital care for international migrants in receiving-countries have been put forward by the Migrant Friendly Hospital Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. This study was conducted in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC) Questionnaire, developed in Australia and revised for use in Canada to capture the maternity care experiences of migrant women, and combined to create an initial MFMC questionnaire. Second, a Delphi consensus process in three rounds with a panel of 89 experts in perinatal health and migration from 17 countries was undertaken to identify priority themes and questions as well as to clarify wording and format. Third, the draft questionnaire was translated from English to French and Spanish and back-translated and subsequently culturally validated (assessed for cultural appropriateness) by migrant women. Fourth, the questionnaire was piloted with migrant women who had recently given birth in Montreal, Canada. A 112-item questionnaire on maternity care from pregnancy, through labour and birth, to postpartum care, and including items on maternal socio-demographic, migration and obstetrical characteristics, and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview

  7. Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail. PMID:29510504

  9. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults.

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Nicklett, Emily J; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-03-03

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life ( n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail.

  10. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of social influence of parents and friends

    Luanna Alexandra Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents’ level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self‐efficacy.

  11. Maternal sensitivity and social support protect against childhood atopic dermatitis

    Letourneau, Nicole L.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Cosic, Nela; Ntanda, Henry N.; Anis, Lubna; Hart, Martha J.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many studies have identified associations between qualities of maternal?child relationships and childhood asthma, but few have examined associations with childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), a common precursor to asthma. Moreover, maternal psychological distress, including prenatal and postnatal depression, anxiety and stress, may increase risk, while social support from partners may reduce risk for childhood AD. We sought to uncover the association between maternal?infant relationshi...

  12. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review.

    Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan has a high maternal mortality rate of 400 per 100,000 live births. Although direct causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan include hemorrhage, obstructed labor, infection, high blood pressure, and unsafe abortion, the high burden of diseases responsible for maternal mortality arises in large part due to social determinants of health. The focus of this literature review is to examine the impact of various social determinants of health on maternal health in Afghanistan, filling an important gap in the existing literature. This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework of (1) defining the question, (2) searching the literature, (3) assessing the studies, (4) synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5) summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care) is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations' long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  13. Underage Use of Social Network Sites: It's About Friends.

    Barbovschi, Monica; Macháčková, Hana; Ólafsson, Kjartan

    2015-06-01

    European self-regulation to ensure children's safety on social networking sites (SNS) stipulates that children should be old enough to use their services. However, a growing number of children are not. Drawing on data from the Net Children Go Mobile (NCGM) project (2012-2014), this study focuses on children aged 9-12 years, among whom 42% have a profile on Facebook, many with the explicit permission of their parents, despite the explicit policy allowing only children aged 13 years and older. Yet, such parental influence is not the only factor contributing to an underage child having a profile. Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted in which the odds of having a profile on Facebook among children aged 9-12 years (N=1,723) were predicted. After controlling for demographic variables, Facebook use was connected to daily use of the Internet from home (bedroom and other places), looking for new friends online, and online disinhibition (e.g., being able to talk about different things on the Internet than when speaking to people face-to-face). In terms of parental mediation, restrictions lower the probabilities of an underage child having a SNS profile, while active parental mediation increases the odds. In addition to parental mediation, peer mediation increases the chances of underage Facebook use, indicating that children play a significant role in influencing each other in adoption of new technologies and applications. Finally, digital skills related to communication have a significant effect, suggesting an integrated adoption of communicative practices online. Daily use of mobile devices had no effect in the model.

  14. Social capital and maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia

    Sheabo Dessalegn, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the effect of social capital on maternal health care use in rural Ethiopia. Reports show that in Ethiopia, despite the huge investment in health infrastructure and the deployment of health professionals to provide maternal health services free of charge, utilization remains low.

  15. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  16. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  17. Family-Friendly Management, Organizational Performance and Social Legitimacy

    Woods, S. A.; de Menezes, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family-friendly practices has concentrated on the predictors of their use, particularly from the perspective of either institutional theory or the high involvement or commitment management vogue. This paper first shows how such perspectives can be used to generate hypotheses about the link between family-friendly management and organizational performance. Second, the paper reports research designed to test these, using data from a national representative sample of workplaces acros...

  18. Maternal sensitivity and social support protect against childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Letourneau, Nicole L; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Cosic, Nela; Ntanda, Henry N; Anis, Lubna; Hart, Martha J; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have identified associations between qualities of maternal-child relationships and childhood asthma, but few have examined associations with childhood atopic dermatitis (AD), a common precursor to asthma. Moreover, maternal psychological distress, including prenatal and postnatal depression, anxiety and stress, may increase risk, while social support from partners may reduce risk for childhood AD. We sought to uncover the association between maternal-infant relationship qualities (maternal sensitivity towards infant behavioral signals, controlling behavior, and unresponsiveness) and child AD after accounting for risk (i.e., prenatal and postnatal maternal depression, anxiety and stress) and protective (i.e., social support) factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected on a subsample of 242 women and their infants enrolled during pregnancy in the ongoing Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition cohort study. Inclusion criteria required mothers to be >16 years of age, English speaking and depression, anxiety and stress in the prenatal and postnatal periods and physician diagnosis of childhood AD at 18 months were gathered via maternal report. Maternal sensitivity, unresponsiveness and controlling behaviours were assessed via videotaped observations using the Child-Adult Relationship Experimental (CARE)-Index at 6 months of infant age. Higher maternal sensitivity, or the inability of the mother to appropriately understand and respond to infant needs based on behavioral signals, predicted reduced odds of AD independent of and in combination with low prenatal and postnatal anxiety and high paternal support. After adjustment, higher maternal controlling behaviours and unresponsiveness also predicted greater odds of AD. Low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for childhood AD, independently and in combination with perinatal anxiety and low social support. Thus, interventions that improve maternal-infant relationship quality, especially

  19. Social Networking for the Older and Wiser Connect with Family, and Friends Old and New

    McManus, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Social networks enable anyone with a computer and Internet connection to stay in touch with friends and family across the globe, and rediscover old acquaintances.  Social Networking for the Older and Wiser starts with the basics of social networks, before moving onto intermediate topics, all whilst highlighting ways to protect your privacy and keep your details secure. The book is packed with step-by-step instructions on how to use Facebook, Twitter, Friends Reunited, Saga Zone, and other social networks to:Create an account on your chosen social networkReconnect and stay-in-touch with old fr

  20. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  1. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  2. Can Socially Adept Friends Protect Peer-Victimized Early Adolescents against Lower Academic Competence?

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined indices of friends' social adjustment (prosocial skills and social anxiety) that may protect against or exacerbate vulnerability to lower academic competence in the context of peer victimization during middle school (N=320). Peer victimization was assessed with peer nominations, social anxiety was measured with self…

  3. Social Conformity and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Child-Friendly Take on a Classic Study

    Yafai, Abdul-Fattah; Verrier, Diarmuid; Reidy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, given the importance of conformity as a theoretical construct in social psychology and the profound implications autism has for social function, little research has been done on whether autism is associated with the propensity to conform to a social majority. This study is a modern, child-friendly implementation of the…

  4. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  5. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review

    Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada

    2017-03-01

    Methods: This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework of (1 defining the question, (2 searching the literature, (3 assessing the studies, (4 synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5 summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. Results: A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Conclusion: Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations’ long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  6. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of the social influence of parents and friends.

    Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mendonça, Gerfeson; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2), from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation modeling in IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 20.0. Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with that of their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with that of their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of the social influence of parents and friends

    Luanna Alexandra Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. METHODS: Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2, from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed usingthe structural equation modeling in IBM(r SPSS(r AmosTM 20.0. RESULTS: Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy.

  8. Are maternal social networks and perceptions of trust associated with suspected autism spectrum disorder in offspring? A population-based study in Japan.

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations of maternal social networks and perceptions of trust with the prevalence of suspected autism spectrum disorders in 18-month-old offspring in Japan.Questionnaires included measurements of maternal social networks (number of relatives or friends they could call upon for assistance, maternal perceptions of trust, mutual assistance (i.e. individual measures of "cognitive social capital", and social participation (i.e. individual measures of "structural social capital" as well as the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to detect suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD. These tools were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6061; response rate: 64%. The association between social capital or social network indicators and suspected ASD were analyzed, adjusted for covariates by logistic regression analysis.Low maternal social trust was found to be significantly positively associated with suspected ASD in toddlers compared with high maternal social trust (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 2.40; mutual aid was also significantly positively related (low vs. high: OR, 2.08, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.73 [corrected]. However, maternal community participation showed U-shape association with suspected ASD of offspring. Maternal social network showed consistent inverse associations with suspected ASD of offspring, regardless of the type of social connection (e.g., relatives, neighbors, or friends living outside of their neighborhood.Mothers' cognitive social capital and social networks, but not structural social capital, might be associated with suspected ASD in offspring.

  9. Are maternal social networks and perceptions of trust associated with suspected autism spectrum disorder in offspring? A population-based study in Japan.

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations of maternal social networks and perceptions of trust with the prevalence of suspected autism spectrum disorders in 18-month-old offspring in Japan. Questionnaires included measurements of maternal social networks (number of relatives or friends they could call upon for assistance), maternal perceptions of trust, mutual assistance (i.e. individual measures of "cognitive social capital"), and social participation (i.e. individual measures of "structural social capital") as well as the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers to detect suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These tools were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6061; response rate: 64%). The association between social capital or social network indicators and suspected ASD were analyzed, adjusted for covariates by logistic regression analysis. Low maternal social trust was found to be significantly positively associated with suspected ASD in toddlers compared with high maternal social trust (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 2.40); mutual aid was also significantly positively related (low vs. high: OR, 2.08, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.73 [corrected]). However, maternal community participation showed U-shape association with suspected ASD of offspring. Maternal social network showed consistent inverse associations with suspected ASD of offspring, regardless of the type of social connection (e.g., relatives, neighbors, or friends living outside of their neighborhood). Mothers' cognitive social capital and social networks, but not structural social capital, might be associated with suspected ASD in offspring.

  10. Blogs and tweets, texting and friending social media and online professionalism in health care

    DeJong, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    Blogs and Tweets, Texting and Friending: Social Media and Online Professionalism in Health Care summarizes the most common mistakes - and their legal and ethical ramifications -made in social media by busy health care professionals. It gives best practices for using social media while maintaining online professionalism. The book goes on to identify categories of caution, from confidentiality of patient information and maintaining the professional's privacy to general netiquette in tweeting, texting, blogging, and friending. And it guides you in setting up a faculty page (or choosing

  11. Learning from Your Network of Friends: A Trajectory Representation Learning Model Based on Online Social Ties

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Location-Based Social Networks (LBSNs) capture individuals whereabouts for a large portion of the population. To utilize this data for user (location)-similarity based tasks, one must map the raw data into a low-dimensional uniform feature space. However, due to the nature of LBSNs, many users have sparse and incomplete check-ins. In this work, we propose to overcome this issue by leveraging the network of friends, when learning the new feature space. We first analyze the impact of friends on individuals's mobility, and show that individuals trajectories are correlated with thoseof their friends and friends of friends (2-hop friends) in an online setting. Based on our observation, we propose a mixed-membership model that infers global mobility patterns from users' check-ins and their network of friends, without impairing the model's complexity. Our proposed model infers global patterns and learns new representations for both usersand locations simultaneously. We evaluate the inferred patterns and compare the quality of the new user representation against baseline methods on a social link prediction problem.

  12. Learning from Your Network of Friends: A Trajectory Representation Learning Model Based on Online Social Ties

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Location-Based Social Networks (LBSNs) capture individuals whereabouts for a large portion of the population. To utilize this data for user (location)-similarity based tasks, one must map the raw data into a low-dimensional uniform feature space. However, due to the nature of LBSNs, many users have sparse and incomplete check-ins. In this work, we propose to overcome this issue by leveraging the network of friends, when learning the new feature space. We first analyze the impact of friends on individuals\\'s mobility, and show that individuals trajectories are correlated with thoseof their friends and friends of friends (2-hop friends) in an online setting. Based on our observation, we propose a mixed-membership model that infers global mobility patterns from users\\' check-ins and their network of friends, without impairing the model\\'s complexity. Our proposed model infers global patterns and learns new representations for both usersand locations simultaneously. We evaluate the inferred patterns and compare the quality of the new user representation against baseline methods on a social link prediction problem.

  13. Pathways to age-friendly communities in diverse urban neighborhoods: Do social capital and social cohesion matter?

    Parekh, Rupal; Maleku, Arati; Fields, Noelle; Adorno, Gail; Schuman, Donna; Felderhoff, Brandi

    2018-07-01

    Using a social capital and social cohesion lens, we reposition the concept of civic engagement among older adults to examine pathways for building age-friendly communities. We analyzed data drawn from a Community-Based Participatory Research study in the Southern U.S. that explored lived experiences of older adults, age 55 and above, who participated in individual interviews (n = 15) and six focus group discussions (n = 45) to examine their perceptions of social identity, social connectedness, and civic engagement geared toward an age-friendly city. Findings indicated that several older adults had access to social networks and socially invested resources, thereby having opportunities for civic engagement and building age-friendly neighborhoods. However, social, cultural, linguistic, and structural barriers were more evident among certain diverse ethnic populations. Marginalized low-income minorities and immigrants, such as Hispanic participants, felt the lack of social cohesion among the larger society limited their ability to give back, thus decreasing their civic engagement activities. In contrast, Caucasian and African-American older adults were able to contribute to the political process through more civic participation activities. We provide implications for examining the role of social capital and social engagement to bolster civic engagement among older adults in building age-friendly communities.

  14. Maternal role development: the impact of maternal distress and social support following childbirth.

    Emmanuel, Elizabeth N; Creedy, Debra K; St John, Winsome; Brown, Claire

    2011-04-01

    to explore the relationship between maternal role development (MRD), maternal distress (MD) and social support following childbirth. prospective longitudinal survey. three public hospital maternity units in Brisbane, Australia. 630 pregnant women were invited to participate in the study, with a 77% (n=473) completion rate. to measure MRD, the Prenatal Maternal Expectation Scale was used at 36 weeks of pregnancy, and the revised What Being the Parent of a New Baby is Like (with subscales of evaluation, centrality and life change) was used at six and 12 weeks post partum. At all three data collection points, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure MD, and the Maternal Social Support Scale was used to measure social support. at 36 weeks of gestation, optimal scaling for MRD produced a parsimonious model with MD providing 39% of predictive power. At six weeks post partum, similar models predicting MRD were found (evaluation: r(2)=0.14, MD providing 64% of predictive power; centrality: r(2)=0.07, MD providing 11% of predictive power; life change: r(2)=0.26, MD providing 59% of predictive power). At 12 weeks post partum, MD was a predictor for evaluation (r(2)=0.11) and life change (r(2)=0.26, 54% of predictive power). there is a statistically significant but moderate correlation between MRD and MD. The transition to motherhood can be stressful, but may be facilitated by appropriate acknowledgement and support with an emphasis on MRD. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MyGeneFriends: A Social Network Linking Genes, Genetic Diseases, and Researchers.

    Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2017-06-16

    The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis

  16. Interactions with parents and friends among chronically ill children: examining social networks.

    Herzer, Michele; Umfress, Kris; Aljadeff, Gabriel; Ghai, Kanika; Zakowski, Sandra G

    2009-12-01

    Children with medical conditions often experience a combination of positive and negative social interactions with parents and friends. Adult research examining cross-domain buffering effects has documented that supportive social ties can make up for shortcomings in other social relationships. This study examined whether negative effects of strained relationships with loved ones can be buffered when children feel supported by individuals in different support networks (i.e., cross-domain buffering effects). Children with Type I diabetes (n = 56), chronic asthma (n = 54), and cystic fibrosis (n = 17) completed questionnaires during an outpatient hospital visit that assessed perceptions of support and strain from parents and friends, quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Parental strain was conceptualized as parental overprotection and parental rejection. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that friend support buffered the adverse effects of parental strain on child quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Interestingly, parental support did not buffer the negative effects of experiencing strained relationships with friends; only main effects on outcome were found. These findings partially support our hypotheses of cross-domain buffering. In this study, friendships were a protective factor for children who experienced strained relationships with parents. In contrast, although parent support had a direct impact on child outcome, it did not make up for feeling rejected by friends. Because close relationships are often strained during medical stressors, findings underscore the importance of promoting social connectedness in chronically ill children to maximize opportunities for experiencing positive social relationships.

  17. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children's friends and strangers in best friend dyads.

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Friend or Foe? Fake Profile Identification in Online Social Networks

    Fire, Michael; Kagan, Dima; Elyashar, Aviad; Elovici, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The amount of personal information unwillingly exposed by users on online social networks is staggering, as shown in recent research. Moreover, recent reports indicate that these networks are infested with tens of millions of fake users profiles, which may jeopardize the users' security and privacy. To identify fake users in such networks and to improve users' security and privacy, we developed the Social Privacy Protector software for Facebook. This software contains three protection layers,...

  20. Facebook friends with (health) benefits? Exploring social network site use and perceptions of social support, stress, and well-being.

    Nabi, Robin L; Prestin, Abby; So, Jiyeon

    2013-10-01

    There is clear evidence that interpersonal social support impacts stress levels and, in turn, degree of physical illness and psychological well-being. This study examines whether mediated social networks serve the same palliative function. A survey of 401 undergraduate Facebook users revealed that, as predicted, number of Facebook friends associated with stronger perceptions of social support, which in turn associated with reduced stress, and in turn less physical illness and greater well-being. This effect was minimized when interpersonal network size was taken into consideration. However, for those who have experienced many objective life stressors, the number of Facebook friends emerged as the stronger predictor of perceived social support. The "more-friends-the-better" heuristic is proposed as the most likely explanation for these findings.

  1. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Ming-Ming Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96 indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  2. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  3. How Adolescents with Diabetes Experience Social Support from Friends: Two Qualitative Studies

    Louk W. H. Peters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-management of diabetes is challenging, especially for adolescents who face multiple changes, including closer peer relationships. Few studies have explored how friends can provide constructive support in this effort. The present research investigated, in two qualitative studies, the perceptions of adolescents with diabetes and their friends with respect to the positive social support that friends can offer. In study 1, 28 adolescents aged 12–15 with type 1 diabetes participated in online focus groups. In study 2, 11 of these adolescents were interviewed in person together with their best friends. The data were analysed by means of content analysis. In study 1, the adolescents with diabetes identified various supportive behaviours of friends, particularly concerning emotional support: treating them normally, showing interest, having fun, providing a distraction, and taking their diabetes into account. They differed in their attitude towards support, and this influenced which behaviours they perceived as supportive. Study 2 showed that the adolescents with diabetes and their friends often had similar opinions on the desired degree of support. Fear of stigmatization and sense of autonomy withheld some adolescents with diabetes from soliciting more support. These insights can be useful in patient education aiming to promote social support.

  4. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; van Trijp, Hans C.M.; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Modern production systems aimed at improving animal welfare are more costly than traditional systems. Animal-friendly products are therefore typically more expensive than mainstream products, which presents one of the main barriers to consumer animal-friendly product choice. To overcome this barrier, marketing strategies that associate animal welfare with different types of value, such as taste, healthiness or good feeling, may be useful. This article presents a theoretical framework with marketing strategies using various types of value, suitable for animal-friendly products to encourage consumers to buy animal-friendly instead of mainstream products. We also explain why some consumers, such as those with a rational or an intuitive thinking style, may be more sensitive to some strategies over others, giving directions to marketing managers on how to approach different types of consumers. Because the credibility of animal welfare claims is a critical issue in marketing animal-friendly products, we address this issue as well. Specifically, we propose that, to gain consumer trust, companies selling animal-friendly products need to take into account the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of marketing strategies for individual products and that they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Abstract This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to

  5. Does Maternal Employment Influence Poor Children's Social Development?

    Fuller, Bruce; Caspary, Gretchen; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Gauthier, Christiane; Hnang, Danny Shih-Cheng; Carroll, Judith; McCarthy, Jan

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation between young children's social development and maternal employment among women who entered welfare-to-work programs. Structural equation models provided evidence that indicators of economic security, such as food security and job quality indicators, but not recent employment per se, operated through parenting…

  6. The association of maternal social factors and antenatal care with ...

    Zinc is a crucial micronutrient in early childhood survival and the development of innate and acquired immunity. The objective is to determine the relationship between of maternal social class and antenatal care to serum zinc level in newborns in a tertiary and a rural hospital. It is prospective study using questionnaires on ...

  7. Hanging Out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence.

    Siennick, Sonja E; Osgood, D Wayne

    2012-12-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out most with their most available friends and their most generally similar friends, not with their most at-risk or similarly at-risk friends. These findings vary little by gender and wave. Together, the findings suggest that the risks of hanging out stem from the nature of hanging out as an activity, not the nature of adolescents' companions, and that hanging out is a context for friends' mutual reinforcement of pre-existing characteristics.

  8. Friends and foes : The dynamics of dual social structures

    Sytch, M.; Tatarynowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolutionary dynamics of a dual social structure encompassing collaboration and conflict among corporate actors. We apply and advance structural balance theory to examine the formation of balanced and unbalanced dyadic and triadic structures, and to explore how these

  9. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies.

    van Riemsdijk, Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T M; van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-12-14

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  10. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Lenka van Riemsdijk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  11. [Social support and physical activity in adolescents from public schools: the importance of family and friends].

    Prado, Crisley Vanessa; Lima, Alex Vieira; Fermino, Rogério César; Añez, Ciro Romelio Rodriguez; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the association between different types and sources of social support and physical activity among adolescents from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. A school-based survey was conducted with a representative sample of adolescents from public schools (n = 1,469). Multiple regression models were used to test the association between weekly frequency and sources of social support from family and friends and weekly frequency of physical activity. Among boys, frequent company of family (PR: 2.88; 95%CI: 2.00-4.13) and friends (PR: 5.46; 95%CI: 2.33-12.78) and positive reinforcement from friends (PR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.18-2.77) were positively associated with physical activity. Sporadic invitation by the family was negatively associated with physical activity (PR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.46-1.14). For girls, frequent company of family (PR: 3.39; 95%CI: 1.49-7.69) and friends (PR: 4.06; 95%CI: 2.22-7.45) increased the likelihood of physical activity. Company of friends was the most important type of social support for physical activity among these adolescents.

  12. Bureaucracy friend or foe? - organizing for social capital in hospitals

    Prætorius, Thim; Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Anders Paarup

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A strong criticism of bureaucracy in hospitals has emerged during the last years. It is related to standard procedures, quality control systems, patient safety and performance management. The critique claims that professional judgement is getting jeopardized, limited resources...... how people interact and managers have the ability to change it. This knowledge is important to hospitals as social capital is associated with, for instance, organizational performance and employee wellbeing. THEORY: Organizational social capital is the collective resource that enables employees...... management and hierarchy structures. (2) Collective incentive structures. (3) Develop role structures with a focus on coordination and transparency. (4) Team organization grouped by product (e.g., care pathways) and/or shared multidisciplinary tasks (the day’s surgery). (5) Collective competences, focusing...

  13. Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem.

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being.

  14. An algorithm for identifying the best current friend in a social network

    Francisco Javier Moreno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A research field in the area of social networks (SNs is the identification of some types of users and groups. To facilitate this process, a SN is usually represented by a graph. The centrality measures, which identify the most important vertices in a graph according to some criterion, are usual tools to analyze a graph. One of these measures is the PageRank (a measure originally designed to classify web pages. Informally, in the context of a SN, the PageRank of a user i represents the probability that another user of the SN is seeing the page of i after a considerable time of navigation in the SN. In this paper, we define a new type of user in a SN: the best current friend. The idea is to identify, among the friends of a user i, who is the friend k that would generate the highest decrease in the PageRank of i if k stops being his/her friend. This may be useful to identify the users/customers whose friendship/relationship should be a priority to keep. We provide formal definitions, algorithms and some experiments for this subject. Our experiments showed that the best current friend of a user is not necessarily the one who has the highest PageRank in the SN nor the one who has more friends.

  15. Social Support from Parents and Friends for Chinese Adolescents in Singapore

    Cheung, Hoi Shan; Sim, Tick Ngee

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the situational hypothesis, by examining the perceived availability of three types of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) from parents and friends, with respect to occupational and interpersonal relationships issues. Participants were 257 Chinese Singaporean adolescents (120 males, 137 females) between…

  16. Let's stay in touch: Sharing photos for restoring social connectedness between rehabilitants, friends and family

    Biemans, Margaretha Catharina Maria; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Dadlani, Pavan; van Halteren, Aart

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the use of an existing photo sharing application in a spinal cord lesion rehabilitation centre is presented. The study focuses on enhancing social connectedness through sharing photos between rehabilitants and their families and friends. Four rehabilitants participated in this study

  17. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  18. Motives for online friending and following: The dark side of social network site connections

    Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Johnson, B.K.

    Motives for “friending,” following, or connecting with others on social network sites are often positive, but darker motives may also play an important role. A survey with a novel Following Motives Scale (FMS) demonstrates accordingly that positive, sociable motives (i.e., others providing a valued

  19. "Friending Facebook?" A Minicourse on the Use of Social Media by Health Professionals

    George, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Health professionals are working in an era of social technologies that empower users to generate content in real time. This article describes a 3-part continuing education minicourse called "Friending Facebook?" undertaken at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that aimed to model the functionality of current technologies in…

  20. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  1. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of BSCI Implementation at Best Friend Group Oy

    Qi, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the current polarized debate over CSR issues worldwide, ever increasing number of companies believe that incorporating ethical values into the business operation is an attractive option to upgrade the brand value, maintain the competitive advantage and cater for the social demand of various stakeholders. Business Social Compliance Initiative, a division of FTA, serves as a platform to assist companies in achieving the goal. The study was commissioned by Best Friend Group Oy, a medium...

  3. Motives for online friending and following: The dark side of social network site connections

    Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Johnson, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Motives for “friending,” following, or connecting with others on social network sites are often positive, but darker motives may also play an important role. A survey with a novel Following Motives Scale (FMS) demonstrates accordingly that positive, sociable motives (i.e., others providing a valued source for humor and information, others sharing a common background, as well as relationship maintenance) and inspirational motives (i.e., others providing a target for upward social comparison) c...

  4. When BOLD is thicker than water: processing social information about kin and friends at different levels of the social network.

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural processing of social information about kin and friends at different levels of closeness and social network level. Twenty-five female participants engaged in a cognitive social task involving different individuals in their social network while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to detect BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signals changes. Greater levels of activation occurred in several regions of the brain previously associated with social cognition when thinking about friends than when thinking about kin, including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Linear parametric analyses across network layers further showed that, when it came to thinking about friends, activation increased in the vMPFC, lingual gyrus, and sensorimotor cortex as individuals thought about friends at closer layers of the network. These findings suggest that maintaining friendships may be more cognitively exacting than maintaining kin relationships. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. New mothers and media use: associations between blogging, social networking, and maternal well-being.

    McDaniel, Brandon T; Coyne, Sarah M; Holmes, Erin K

    2012-10-01

    Drawing on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and prior empirical research, the current study examines the way that blogging and social networking may impact feelings of connection and social support, which in turn could impact maternal well-being (e.g., marital functioning, parenting stress, and depression). One hundred and fifty-seven new mothers reported on their media use and various well-being variables. On average, mothers were 27 years old (SD = 5.15) and infants were 7.90 months old (SD = 5.21). All mothers had access to the Internet in their home. New mothers spent approximately 3 hours on the computer each day, with most of this time spent on the Internet. Findings suggested that frequency of blogging predicted feelings of connection to extended family and friends which then predicted perceptions of social support. This in turn predicted maternal well-being, as measured by marital satisfaction, couple conflict, parenting stress, and depression. In sum, blogging may improve new mothers' well-being, as they feel more connected to the world outside their home through the Internet.

  6. Trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety over 13 years: the influence of stress, social support, and maternal temperament

    Skipstein Anni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health problems among women, with various negative impacts both for the women concerned and their families. Greater understanding of developmental trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety over the child rearing period would have significant benefits for public health, informing prevention and treatment approaches. The aim of the current study was to examine whether stressors related to child rearing and living conditions, social support, and maternal temperament, predicted mothers’ membership in groups with different trajectories of symptoms of depression and anxiety during 13 years of the child rearing phase. Methods The data were from a prospective, longitudinal study of 913 mothers in Norway followed from when their children were 18 months old (time 1 until they were 14.5 years (time 6 (the TOPP study. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether child related stressors, stressors related to the living conditions, social support and maternal temperament at time 1 predicted membership in groups based on maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety over the subsequent 13 years. Results Temperamental distress, followed by child related stressors, were the strongest predictors of membership in a group with high symptoms of depression and anxiety over time. Stressors related to living conditions, and social support from partner and friends/family were also significant predictors. No interaction effects among predictors were found. Conclusions This study indicates that factors present early in the child rearing phase may provide substantial prediction of the variance in maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety over the following 13 years. Temperamental distress and child related stressors were the strongest predictors of membership in different depression and anxiety symptom trajectory groups.

  7. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Social Network Sites, Friends, and Celebrities: The Roles of Social Comparison and Celebrity Involvement in Adolescents’ Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Shirley S. Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the social comparison theory to examine the effects of adolescents’ engagement in comparison with friends and celebrities on social network sites (SNSs on (a their body image dissatisfaction (BID and (b their drive to be thin (DT or muscular (DM. The study also examines celebrity involvement as an antecedent of the outcome variables. Data were collected through a survey of 1,059 adolescents in Singapore. Regression analyses indicate that SNSs use was related to adolescents’ BID. Specifically, social comparison with friends on SNSs was significantly associated with adolescents’ BID, DT, and DM. Gender differences were also observed—social comparison with celebrities was significantly associated with BID and DT among female adolescents. Celebrity involvement was significantly associated with male BID. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  9. Hanging Out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out most with their most available friends and their most generally similar friends, not with their most at-risk or similarly at-risk friends. These findings vary little by gender and wave. Together, the findings suggest that the risks of hanging out stem from the nature of hanging out as an activity, not the nature of adolescents’ companions, and that hanging out is a context for friends’ mutual reinforcement of pre-existing characteristics. PMID:23204811

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  11. Effectiveness of Baby‐friendly community health services on exclusive breastfeeding and maternal satisfaction: a pragmatic trial

    Langsrud, Øyvind; Løland, Beate F.; Tufte, Elisabeth; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Fretheim, Atle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The WHO/UNICEF Baby‐friendly Hospital Initiative has been shown to increase breastfeeding rates, but uncertainty remains about effective methods to improve breastfeeding in community health services. The aim of this pragmatic cluster quasi‐randomised controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of implementing the Baby‐friendly Initiative (BFI) in community health services. The primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months in healthy babies. Secondary outcomes were other breastfeeding indicators, mothers' satisfaction with the breastfeeding experience, and perceived pressure to breastfeed. A total of 54 Norwegian municipalities were allocated by alternation to the BFI in community health service intervention or routine care. All mothers with infants of five completed months were invited to participate (n = 3948), and 1051 mothers in the intervention arm and 981 in the comparison arm returned the questionnaire. Analyses were by intention to treat. Women in the intervention group were more likely to breastfeed exclusively compared with those who received routine care: 17.9% vs. 14.1% until 6 months [cluster adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.72; P = 0.03], 41.4% vs. 35.8% until 5 months [cluster adjusted OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.77; P = 0.01], and 72.1% vs. 68.2% for any breastfeeding until 6 months [cluster adjusted OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.54; P = 0.06]. The intervention had no effect on breastfeeding until 12 months. Maternal breastfeeding experience in the two groups did not differ, neither did perceived breastfeeding pressure from staff in the community health services. In conclusion, the BFI in community health services increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months. © 2015 Blackwell Publishing Ltd PMID:27062084

  12. Privacy‐Preserving Friend Matching Protocol approach for Pre‐match in Social Networks

    Ople, Shubhangi S.; Deshmukh, Aaradhana A.; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    2016-01-01

    Social services make the most use of the user profile matching to help the users to discover friends with similar social attributes (e.g. interests, location, age). However, there are many privacy concerns that prevent to enable this functionality. Privacy preserving encryption is not suitable...... for use in social networks due to its data sharing problems and information leakage. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for privacy–preserving profile matching. We implement both the client and server portion of the secure match and evaluate its performance network dataset. The results show...

  13. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of Maternal Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal on Maternal Request Strategies and Child Compliance and Noncompliance

    Grunzeweig, Naomi; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study investigated the influences of maternal histories of childhood aggression and social withdrawal on maternal request strategies and child compliance and noncompliance. Seventy-four women from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, who were rated during childhood using peer nomination measures of…

  15. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.

  16. Social competence of elementary-school children: relationships to maternal authoritativeness, supportive maternal responses and children's coping strategies.

    Chan, S M

    2011-07-01

    Although the influences of parenting on children's development of social competence have been well established, research on the underlying mechanisms of this link is relatively limited. The present study examined children's coping strategies as a mediator of the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal inductive responses on their social competence. The mothers of 183 Hong Kong Chinese children aged 6 to 8 years (89 girls and 94 boys) reported on their adoption of authoritative parenting and their responses to their children's expressions of emotion, and rated their children's adoption of constructive coping strategies. The children's teachers reported on the children's prosocial behaviour, and rated their level of peer acceptance at school. A model of maternal authoritativeness and supportive maternal responses affecting children's social competence is presented. The study results show that the effects of authoritative parenting on children's adoption of constructive coping strategies were mediated by supportive maternal responses to children's expression of emotion, and that the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal responses on children's social competence were mediated by children's coping strategies. These results suggest that school personnel should organize training programmes on emotion-coping strategies for both parents and children. The findings imply that positive parenting facilitates children's acquisition of constructive emotion-coping strategies. Programmes on emotion-coping strategies should be introduced for both parents and school children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  19. The role of family and friends in providing social support towards enhancing the wellbeing of postpartum women: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Ni, Phang Koh; Siew Lin, Serena Koh

    2011-01-01

    Maternal postpartum health is a neglected area both in research and practice. This aspect warrants more attention as the health of postpartum mothers has a considerable influence on her infant and also other family members. Social support provided by family and friends has been identified as a buffer against the many stressors faced by the women. Outcomes such as self-esteem, stress, postnatal depression, breastfeeding levels, infant care, and maternal adaptation have been studied and found to be significantly related to social support. The need to understand the role of social support provided by family and friends provide the impetus for conducting this review. The objective of this systematic review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence which discusses the impact of social support from family and friends on enhancing the wellbeing of postpartum women. This review includes women who were within their first year postpartum period, with any number of children, and had given birth to healthy infants. Mothers who had co-existing morbidities such as depression were excluded. Mothers from low socio-economic groups were excluded.This review considered any study that involved the provision of social support by family and/or friends. Interventions provided by peer counsellors were also considered.The six outcomes were stress, self esteem, breastfeeding levels, mental health in relation to postnatal depression, infant care and maternal adaptation.Quantitative This review considered any randomised controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of social support from family and friends on the well being of the postpartum women. As it was not likely to find RCTs on this topic, this review also considered observational studies (cohort, case control, quantitative descriptive studies such as surveys).Qualitative This review considered any interpretive studies that drew on the experiences of social support from family and friends in postpartum women

  20. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  1. Social Network and the Maternal Role Satisfaction of Formerly-Married Mothers.

    Bowen, Gary Lee

    1982-01-01

    Used secondary analysis of interviews conducted with 119 formerly-married mothers to test the hypothesis that the milieu provided by a women's social network predicts satisfaction with the demands of the maternal role. Strength of social network was not found to be significantly associated with maternal role satisfaction. (Author)

  2. "Friends" and "Foes" in the Social Space of the Tatar Ethnic Group

    Nataliia O. Khazieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the World Culture is a demonstration of the "war" between the two opposites: on the one hand, we see a trend towards unification of all aspects of life on a global scale, and on the other, there is a clear confrontation between different groups of mankind. Of the many causes of the disunity of the people, the authors' focus at the opposition "friend – foe" as a metaphysical principle of formation of social space wasn't chosen by accident. The fact is that any culture, in principle, is dichotomous, and the opposition "friend – foe" is the fullest incarnation of this dichotomy. As a universal principle of the formation and functioning of the cultures, it originally manifests itself in every one of them. And, as the authors of the study suggest: this opposition could either "work" in general on the cross-cultural cooperation and unity or be one of the confrontation sources. The main result of the study is that history has prepared and put forward the Tartars for carrying out a special mission, to unite peoples and cultures. But the revolutionary social upheavals that take place in the modern world pose a threat (in the circumstances of forced migration of peoples, the growth of national consciousness of the former Soviet Union space, and especially in the face of Islamic fundamentalism on fulfilling this function.

  3. "Friending Facebook?" A minicourse on the use of social media by health professionals.

    George, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals are working in an era of social technologies that empower users to generate content in real time. This article describes a 3-part continuing education minicourse called "Friending Facebook?" undertaken at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that aimed to model the functionality of current technologies in health care and encourage discussion about how health professionals might responsibly utilize social media. Fifteen health professionals participated in the course and provided written evaluation at its conclusion. The course instructor took field notes during each of the 3 classes to document emergent themes. The course received uniformly positive evaluations, and participants identified several current tools perceived as being potentially useful in their professional lives, including news aggregators, Google Alerts, and--if used responsibly--social networking sites such as Facebook. Developing innovative and appropriate programming that teaches to emerging social media technologies and ideologies will be crucial to helping the health professions adapt to a new, networked era. Medical institutions would do well to foster interprofessional-and perhaps even intergenerational-conversations to share not only the dangers and risks of social media, but also the opportunities that are emerging out of a rapidly evolving online world. Copyright © 2010 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  4. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  5. The relation between social support, anxiety and distress symptoms and maternal fetal attachment.

    Hopkins, Joyce; Miller, Jennifer L; Butler, Kristina; Gibson, Lynda; Hedrick, Laura; Boyle, Deborah Anne

    2018-05-04

    The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the relation between social support, trait anxiety, symptoms of maternal distress (including stress, depression and anxiety) and maternal-fetal attachment; and (2) to determine if social support buffers the relation between trait anxiety, symptoms of distress and maternal-fetal attachment. Ninety-four pregnant women completed five self-report questions. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of trait anxiety, symptoms of distress, and social support on two factors of maternal-fetal attachment, quality and intensity/frequency. In the first model with the dependent measure as the maternal-fetal attachment quality score, trait anxiety (β = -.24, p social support (β = .30, p social support (β = .32, p social support is high, the relation between anxiety and maternal-fetal attachment intensity/frequency is attenuated. This study demonstrates that prenatal attachment is related to trait anxiety and social support. These findings suggest that interventions to decrease anxiety and increase social support could enhance maternal-fetal attachment.

  6. Perceived Social Support and Maternal Competence in Primipara Women during Pregnancy and After Childbirth.

    Esmaelzadeh Saeieh, Sara; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Yazdkhasti, Mansooreh; Torkashvand, Shoukofeh

    2017-10-01

    Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate's growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert's scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. Psocial support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286). A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049), and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01). Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers' transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.

  7. Friends with Faces: How Social Networks Can Enhance Face Recognition and Vice Versa

    Mavridis, Nikolaos; Kazmi, Wajahat; Toulis, Panos

    The "friendship" relation, a social relation among individuals, is one of the primary relations modeled in some of the world's largest online social networking sites, such as "FaceBook." On the other hand, the "co-occurrence" relation, as a relation among faces appearing in pictures, is one that is easily detectable using modern face detection techniques. These two relations, though appearing in different realms (social vs. visual sensory), have a strong correlation: faces that co-occur in photos often belong to individuals who are friends. Using real-world data gathered from "Facebook," which were gathered as part of the "FaceBots" project, the world's first physical face-recognizing and conversing robot that can utilize and publish information on "Facebook" was established. We present here methods as well as results for utilizing this correlation in both directions. Both algorithms for utilizing knowledge of the social context for faster and better face recognition are given, as well as algorithms for estimating the friendship network of a number of individuals given photos containing their faces. The results are quite encouraging. In the primary example, doubling of the recognition accuracy as well as a sixfold improvement in speed is demonstrated. Various improvements, interesting statistics, as well as an empirical investigation leading to predictions of scalability to much bigger data sets are discussed.

  8. Social inequalities in maternal mortality among the provinces of Ecuador.

    Sanhueza, Antonio; Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Ríos-Quituizaca, Paulina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia; Espinosa, Isabel

    2017-06-08

    This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators. For the indicators that were found to be significantly associated with MMR, inequality measurements were computed. Despite a relatively low MMR for Ecuador overall, ratios differed substantially among the provinces. Five socioeconomic indicators proved to be statistically significantly associated with MMR: total fertility rate, the percentage of indigenous population, the percentage of households with children who do not attend school, gross domestic product, and the percentage of houses with electrical service. Of these five, only three had MMR inequalities that were significant: total fertility rate, gross domestic product, and the percentage of households with electricity. This study supports research arguing that national averages can be misleading, as they often hide differences among subgroups at the local level. The findings also suggest that MMR is significantly associated with some socioeconomic indicators, including ones linked with significant health outcome inequalities. In order to reduce health inequities, it is crucial that countries look beyond national averages and identify the subgroups being left behind, explore the particular social determinants that generate these health inequalities, and examine the specific barriers and other factors affecting the subgroups most vulnerable to maternal health inequalities.

  9. Social Support from Parents, Friends, Classmates, and Teachers in Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 18 Years: Who Is Perceived as Most Supportive?

    Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Sumter, Sindy R.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social support from parents and friends was similar across…

  10. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Friends, Connections, and Social Norms of Privacy. Do Social Network Sites Change Our Conception of Friendship?

    Roessler, B.

    2013-01-01

    Technological changes have always had an influence on human relationships in general, as well as more particularly on social norms of privacy - think only of Georg Simmel's observations on changing norms of privacy after the invention of the metropolitan subway and its influence on our behaviour

  12. Motives for Online Friending and Following: The Dark Side of Social Network Site Connections

    Jaap W. Ouwerkerk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Motives for “friending,” following, or connecting with others on social network sites are often positive, but darker motives may also play an important role. A survey with a novel Following Motives Scale (FMS demonstrates accordingly that positive, sociable motives (i.e., others providing a valued source for humor and information, others sharing a common background, as well as relationship maintenance and inspirational motives (i.e., others providing a target for upward social comparison can be distinguished from darker motives related to insecurity (i.e., others providing reassurance, preference for online interaction, mediated voyeurism, as well as social obligation, and even darker antisocial motives related to self-enhancement (i.e., others providing a target for downward social comparison, competition, schadenfreude, gossip, as well as “hate-following”. Results show that lower self-esteem and higher levels of need for popularity, narcissism, and dispositional schadenfreude characterize users with stronger dark side motives, whereas users with more sociable motives report more satisfaction with life, thereby providing construct validity for the novel scale. Convergent validity is demonstrated by positive relations between following motives and both time spent and following counts on different social network sites. Moreover, an embedded experiment shows that antisocial motives predicted acceptance of a Facebook friendship request from a male or female high school acquaintance who suffered a setback in the domain of appearance or status (i.e., a convenient source for self-enhancement, thereby providing additional convergent validity for the Antisocial Motives subscale.

  13. Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament.

    Yap, Marie B H; Allen, Nicholas B; Leve, Craig; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the associations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy (MEP) and maternal socialization of preadolescents' positive and negative affect. It also investigated whether adolescent temperament and gender moderated this association. MEP involves parental awareness and acceptance of their own and their child's emotions and their coaching of child emotions. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving (PSI) interactions were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and maternal behaviors were coded to provide indices of socialization responses to adolescent emotion. In addition, maternal MEP was assessed via interview, and preadolescents provided self-reports of temperament on 2 occasions. Maternal MEP that is higher in awareness and acceptance was associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization behaviors during the EPI. Moreover, preadolescents' temperamental negative emotionality (NEM) and effortful control (EC) moderated some of these MEP-socialization associations. During the positive EPI task, greater maternal awareness and acceptance is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization toward preadolescents with "easy" temperaments, that is, low NEM or high EC. However, during the conflict task, greater maternal awareness is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization among preadolescents with "difficult" temperaments. Some male-specific associations were also found. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Poverty and Maternal Responsiveness: The Role of Maternal Stress and Social Resources

    Evans, Gary W.; Boxhill, Louise; Pinkava, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the main reasons poverty is bad for children's development is because it reduces maternal responsiveness. This study addresses a heretofore unanswered question: why do low-income children experience diminished maternal responsiveness compared with their more affluent counterparts? In addition, we examine this question among a largely…

  15. Mothers of IVF twins: the mediating role of employment and social coping resources in maternal stress.

    Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda

    2012-01-01

    Twin pregnancies and births resulting from assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal health complications leading to psychologically complex parenting. In the current study the authors assess the prevalence of clinical levels of maternal stress among mothers of twins resulting from in vitro fertilization and examine the association of social coping resources with three maternal stress sub-scales. During the years 2003-2005, 88 primiparous Israeli mothers of in vitro fertilization-conceived twins provided socio-demographic data during their third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 months after birth provided data on delivery and medical condition of infants, coping resources (social support and marital quality), and a maternal stress scale. Forty-one percent of the mothers reached a clinically significant level of maternal stress. Social support and maternal employment were the most significant variables associated with experience of the stress in the early stages of adaptation to mothering in vitro fertilization twins. Primiparous mothers of in vitro fertilization twins are vulnerable to maternal stress in early stages of adaptation to the maternal role, some of whom reach clinical levels that may require professional interventions. Unemployed mothers with low social support were the most susceptible to the deleterious effects of in vitro fertilization treatment.

  16. Maternal Socialization and Child Temperament as Predictors of Emotion Regulation in Turkish Preschoolers

    Yagmurlu, Bilge; Altan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal socialization and temperament in Turkish preschool children's emotion regulation. Participants consisted of 145 preschoolers (79 boys, 69 girls; M[subscript age]= 62 months), their mothers, and daycare teachers from middle-high socioeconomic suburbs of Istanbul. Maternal child-rearing practices and…

  17. The struggle for inter-professional teamwork and collaboration in maternity care: Austrian health professionals' perspectives on the implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Wieczorek, Christina C; Marent, Benjamin; Dorner, Thomas E; Dür, Wolfgang

    2016-03-14

    The health benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well documented in the scientific literature. Research suggests that support of breastfeeding during pre- and postnatal maternity care is an important determinant of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To support and promote breastfeeding on maternity units, the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in 1991. In Austria, however, less than one fifth of hospitals with a maternity unit are currently BFHI-certified. Implementation of BFHI and adjunct changes in work practices seem to represent a major challenge to maternity units. This article builds upon previous research that has identified a number of facilitators of and barriers to BFHI implementation in Austria. A major barrier has been the lack of intra- and inter-professional collaboration. Therefore, this article investigates the ways in which different healthcare professionals struggle to work together to successfully integrate the BFHI into practice. In this study, a qualitative research approach was used. Thirty-six semi-structured interviews with 11 midwives, 11 nurses, 13 physicians, and one quality manager, working across three maternity units, were interviewed on-site. Data analysis followed thematic analysis. Midwives, nurses, and physicians had diverse approaches to childbirth and breastfeeding (medicalization vs. naturalness) and worked along different jurisdictions that became manifest in strict spatial divisions of maternity units. In their engagement within the BFHI, midwives, nurses, and physicians pursued different strategies (safeguarding vs. circumvention strategies). These differences hindered inter-professional teamwork and collaboration and, therefore, the integration of BFHI into practice. Differing approaches to childbirth and breastfeeding, deep seated professional jurisdictions, as well as spatial constraints, challenge inter-professional teamwork and collaboration on maternity units. Inter

  18. An Investigation of Maternal Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Children's Self-Perceptions, and Social Problem-Solving Skills

    Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…

  19. Perceived Social Support and Maternal Competence in Primipara Women during Pregnancy and After Childbirth

    Sara Esmaelzadeh Saeieh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing maternal competence in first time mothers has a significant impact on neonate’s growth psychosocial development and neonates growth and psychological development. Social support can be an important element for becoming a new mother. We aimed to investigate how social support and maternal competence change during pregnancy and 4 months after it and examine the relationships among social support and maternal competence. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted on 100 first time mothers attending health centers in Alborz city, Alborz Province, between February 2015 and January 2016. Data were collected through perceived social support questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions and Parenting Sense of Competence Scale consisting of 17 items scored based on Likert’s scale. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Repeated-measure test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Maternal competence significantly reduced during the study (P=0.008, while perceived social support did not show any significant reduction (P=0.286. A direct relationship was found between social support and maternal competent six weeks after childbirth (r=0.19, P=0.049, and also social support and maternal competence sixteen weeks after childbirth (r=0.23, P=0.01. Conclusion: Considering the reduction of maternal competency during the study, social support by healthcare providers may be helpful for the mothers’ transition to motherhood, and midwives must design specific interventions to promote the sense of maternal competence and perceived social support in first time mothers.

  20. Friends and Family: A Literature Review on How High School Social Groups Influence Advanced Math and Science Coursetaking

    Gottfried, Michael; Owens, Ann; Williams, Darryl; Kim, Hui Yon; Musto, Michela

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized the literature on how informal contexts, namely friends and family social groups, shape high school students' likelihood of pursuing advanced math and science coursework. Extending scholarly understandings of STEM education, we turned to the body of literature with three guiding questions: (1) What influence do…

  1. Online Social Network Users’ Attitudes toward Personality Traits Predict Behaviour of their Friends

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research considers attitudes toward personality traits in online social network (OSN Vkontakte users’ behaviour. Users’ friends’ activity on a given user’s profile was supposed to be affected by attitudes toward traits of the latter. Within a broader context, the role of metacognitive type of characteristic adaptations as a key element of the five-factor theory of personality is studied. Accordingly, along with attitudes toward traits, other metacognitive characteristic adaptations are examined (e.g. dispositional efficiency, reflected trait, and reflected attitude toward a trait. 1030 undergraduates participated in the study. The research results confirm that extraversion is the most important predictor of OSN behavior among other personality traits. The information presented in this research is obtained using behavioural data instead of more convenient self-reports. Moreover, these behavioural data characterise other users’ (friends’ behaviour while addressing a certain user’s profile. Positive attitudes toward each Big Five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience separately affected the number of “Likes” of the avatars representing users’ photographs. Furthermore, revealed correlations between traits and “Likes” were subsequently eliminated by the attitudes toward respective traits. Positive attitudes toward conscientiousness predicted the increase of friends’ number unlike trait conscientiousness. Positive attitude toward agreeableness predicted the increase of the number of posts written by friends on user’s wall unlike trait agreeableness. Attitudes toward traits are argued to affect social environment governed by an individual: one may select those social relationships and partners that fit better one’s attitudes toward traits. This, in turn, may affect actions of other people towards the given individual including those of online behaviour.

  2. [Maternal deaths related to social vulnerabilities. Results from the French confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, 2010-2012].

    Tessier, V; Leroux, S; Guseva-Canu, I

    2017-12-01

    The theme of deprivation is new for the ENCMM. In view of the perceived increase in the number of maternal deaths that may be related to a deprivation situation, we sought to understand the main dimensions that could contribute to maternal death in this context, in order to propose a definition. The selection of cases made a posteriori is mainly based on a qualitative judgment. Between 2010 and 2012, among the deaths evaluated by the CNEMM, one or more elements related to social vulnerability were identified in 8.6% of the cases (18 deaths). The direct criteria used were the concepts of "deprivation" or "social difficulties", difficulties of housing, language barriers and isolation. The absence of prenatal care was retained as an indirect marker. We excluded cases where psychiatric pathology and/or addiction were predominant. Of the 18 cases identified with deprivation factors, death was considered "unavoidable" in 2 cases (11%), "certainly avoidable" or "possibly avoidable" in 13 cases (72%). In 3 cases (17%), avoidability could not be determined. Avoidability was related to the content and adequacy of care in 11 cases out of 13 (85%) and the patient's interaction with the health care system in 10 of 18 cases (56%). The analysis of maternal deaths among women in precarious situations points out that the link between socio-economic deprivation and poor maternal health outcomes potentially includes a specific risk of maternal death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age…

  4. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  5. “Everyone Needs a Friend Sometimes” – Social Predictors of Long-term Remission In first Episode psychosis

    Jone Bjornestad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPredictors of long-term symptomatic remission are crucial to the successful tailoring of treatment in first episode psychosis. There is lack of studies distinguishing the predictive effects of different social factors. This prevents a valid evaluating of their independent effects.ObjectivesTo test specific social baseline predictors of long-term remission. We hypothesized that first, satisfaction with social relations predicts remission; second, that frequency of social interaction predicts remission; and third, that the effect of friend relationship satisfaction and frequency will be greater than that of family relations satisfaction and frequency.Material and MethodsA sample of first episode psychosis (n=186 completed baseline measures of social functioning, as well as clinical assessments. We compared groups of remitted and non-remitted individuals using generalized estimating equations analyses.ResultsFrequency of social interaction with friends was a significant positive predictor of remission over a two-year period. Neither global perceived social satisfaction nor frequency of family interaction showed significant effects. ConclusionsThe study findings are of particular clinical importance since frequency of friendship interaction is a possibly malleable factor. Frequency of interaction could be affected through behavioral modification and therapy already from an early stage in the course, and thus increase remission rates.KeywordsFirst-Episode Psychosis, Schizophrenia, Social factors, Baseline predictors, Long-term remission.

  6. The social genome of friends and schoolmates in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health

    Boardman, Jason D.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2018-01-01

    Humans tend to form social relationships with others who resemble them. Whether this sorting of like with like arises from historical patterns of migration, meso-level social structures in modern society, or individual-level selection of similar peers remains unsettled. Recent research has evaluated the possibility that unobserved genotypes may play an important role in the creation of homophilous relationships. We extend this work by using data from 5,500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine genetic similarities among pairs of friends. Although there is some evidence that friends have correlated genotypes, both at the whole-genome level as well as at trait-associated loci (via polygenic scores), further analysis suggests that meso-level forces, such as school assignment, are a principal source of genetic similarity between friends. We also observe apparent social–genetic effects in which polygenic scores of an individual’s friends and schoolmates predict the individual’s own educational attainment. In contrast, an individual’s height is unassociated with the height genetics of peers. PMID:29317533

  7. Friends' cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity among Mexican-origin adolescent girls.

    Kim, Peter Seung Yoo; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Jian, Ni; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2017-04-01

    Research has indicated that ethnic identity protects ethnic minority youth on various indicators of adjustment, but there is a dearth of research pertaining to contextual influences on ethnic identity. Our study investigated how familial ethnic socialization and best friend's orientation toward Mexican culture influenced ethnic identity among Mexican-origin girls. Using a 3-wave longitudinal sample of 175 Mexican-origin adolescent girls (Mage = 13.75), the current study examined best friend's Mexican cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were conducted to examine potential age and generational status differences within the model. Analyses revealed that familial ethnic socialization promoted ethnic identity exploration and resolution 3.5 years later and that this effect was mediated by best friend's Mexican cultural orientation. No significant differences were found across age or generational status groups. Our study highlights the contribution of peer context to ethnic identity and its role in the process by which familial ethnic socialization influences ethnic identity during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Obtaining confirmation through social relationships: Norwegian first-time mothers' experiences while on maternity leave.

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-03-01

    The social relationships of employed women on maternity leave undergo significant changes. The aim of the study was to illuminate first-time mothers' experiences of social relationships while on maternity leave. Nine mothers were interviewed at both 3-5 months and 11-14 months post-partum and the data were analyzed by means of interpretative analysis. The main theme of obtaining confirmation through social relationships was based on two themes (being confirmed by other mothers and balancing between being a mother and an employee) and on four subthemes (seeking company, sharing experiences, feeling ineffective and in a state of stagnation, and trying to handle contact with the workplace). In order to strengthen the social relationships of mothers, the mother-child health service should offer all mothers the opportunity to join a peer support group, while employers could keep in regular contact with staff members on maternity leave.

  9. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  10. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends

    Ozimek, Phillip; Baer, Fiona; Förster, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys (N1 = 242, N2 = 289) assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confir...

  11. Maternal Love, Social and Political Activism as Vehicles of Self ...

    This paper investigates the place of maternal love in the formation of the African American self and how that self has evolved from the subservient racial hegemonic American society. It is an interrogation of the role of the African American woman in Afro futuristic dream of equality and the assertion of a distinct African ...

  12. Risk of Social Isolation among Older Patients: What Factors Affect the Availability of Family, Friends, and Neighbors upon Hospitalization?

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hougham, Gavin W; Meltzer, David O

    2018-03-02

    To examine the prevalence of social isolation among older patients admitted to a hospital, and the effects of sociodemographic and health-related factors on the availability of their family, friends, and neighbor networks. Analyses are based on interviews with a sample of 2,449 older patients admitted to an urban academic medical center in the United States. A nine-item version of Lubben's Social Network Scale was developed and used to assess the availability of different social networks. About 47% of the sample was at risk of social isolation. The oldest old and non-White older adults showed greater risk. The availability of family networks was associated with age, sex, marital status, and prior hospitalization; friend networks with age, race, education, prior hospitalization, and functional limitations; neighbor networks with race, education, marital status, and functional limitations. The risk of social isolation and the availability of social support for hospitalized older adults varies by both patient and network characteristics. Health professionals should attend to this risk and the factors associated with such risk. By assessing the availability of various types and frequency of support among older patients, health professionals can better identify those who may need additional support after discharge. Such information should be used in discharge planning to help prevent unnecessary complications and potential readmission.

  13. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality among Low-income, Urban, Minority Youth

    Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting Baltimore, MD. Participants 296 youth ages 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Main Outcome Measure(s) Primary dependent variable: Diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Independent variables: Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Analysis Adjusted multiple linear regressions. Alpha, pFriend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β=−1.65; SE=0.52; 95% CI: −2.66 to −0.63). Conclusions and Implications These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. PMID:26865358

  14. Mutual friends' social support and self-disclosure in face-to-face and instant messenger communication.

    Trepte, Sabine; Masur, Philipp K; Scharkow, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa. We found that self-disclosure predicted social support and vice versa in IM communication, but not in face-to-face communication. In light of these results, the impact of IM communication on how individuals maneuver friendships through the interplay between self-disclosure and social support are discussed.

  15. Can Social Comparison Feedback Affect Indicators of Eco-Friendly Travel Choices? Insights from Two Online Experiments

    Rouven Doran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two online experiments explored the effects of social comparison feedback on indicators of eco-friendly travel choices. It was tested whether the chosen indicators are sensitive to the information conveyed, and if this varies as a function of in-group identification. Study 1 (N = 134 focused on unfavourable feedback (i.e., being told that one has a larger ecological footprint than the average member of a reference group. People who received unfavourable feedback reported stronger intentions to choose eco-friendly travel options than those who received nondiscrepant feedback, when in-group identification was high (not moderate or low. Perceived self- and collective efficacy were not associated with the feedback. Study 2 (N = 323 extended the focus on favourable feedback (i.e., being told that one has a smaller ecological footprint than the average member of a reference group. Neither unfavourable nor favourable feedback was associated with behavioural intentions, self- or collective efficacy. This means that Study 2 failed to replicate the finding of Study 1 that behavioural intentions were associated with unfavourable feedback, given that in-group identification is high. The findings are discussed in light of the existing literature. Suggestions are made for future studies investigating social comparison feedback as a means to motivate people to make eco-friendly travel choices.

  16. Neurobiology of Maternal Stress: Role of Social Rank and Central Oxytocin in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis Modulation

    Jeremy D Coplan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic stress may conceivably require plasticity of maternal physiology and behavior to cope with the conflicting primary demands of infant rearing and foraging for food. In addition, social rank may play a pivotal role in mandating divergent homeostatic adaptations in cohesive social groups. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oxytocin (OT levels and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis regulation in the context of maternal social stress and assessed the contribution of social rank to dyadic-distance as reflective of distraction from normative maternal-infant interaction. Methods: Twelve socially-housed mother-infant bonnet macaque dyads were studied after variable foraging demand (VFD exposure compared to 11 unstressed dyads. Dyadic-distance was determined by behavioral observation. Social ranking was performed blindly by two observers. Post-VFD maternal plasma cortisol and CSF OT were compared to corresponding measures in non-VFD exposed mothers. Results: High social rank was associated with increased dyadic-distance only in VFD-exposed dyads and not in control dyads. In mothers unexposed to VFD, social rank was not related to maternal cortisol levels whereas VFD-exposed dominant versus subordinate mothers exhibited increased plasma cortisol. Maternal CSF OT directly predicted maternal cortisol only in VFD-exposed mothers. CSF OT was higher in dominant versus subordinate mothers. VFD-exposed mothers with high cortisol specifically exhibited CSF OT elevations in comparison to control groups. Conclusions: Pairing of maternal social rank to dyadic-distance in VFD presumably reduces maternal contingent responsivity, with ensuing long-term sequelae. VFD-exposure dichotomizes maternal HPA axis response as a function of social rank with relatively reduced cortisol in subordinates. OT may serve as a homeostatic buffer during maternal stress exposure.

  17. [Maternal bonding and infant attachment in women with and without social phobia].

    Kraft, Ariane; Knappe, Susanne; Petrowski, Katja; Petzoldt, Johanna; Martini, Julia

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association of maternal social phobia with maternal bonding and infant attachment in a prospective-longitudinal study (MARI study, N = 306). A subsample of 46 women with and without lifetime social phobia (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women, CIDI-V) and their infants was investigated. Mothers reported antenatal and postnatal bonding (MAAS, MPAS). Infants’ attachment classifications/behavior were observed in the strange situation test at 16 months after delivery. The rate of insecure attachment was higher in infants of mothers with social phobia (45.4 % vs. 33.3 %), and infants needed significantly more time to reconnect with their mothers during reunion in the strange situation (U = 160.0, p = .019). There were no group differences with regard to maternal bonding during pregnancy (t = -.151, p = .881) and after delivery (t = .408, p = .685) and resistant (U = 262.5, p = .969), avoidant (U = 311.5, p = .258) as well as contact-keeping behaviors (U = 224.0, p = .373) of the infant in the strange situation. Mothers with social phobia may transmit their inhibited behavioral disposition to their infants or fail to encourage their infants to interact with other people. Mothers with social phobia should be informed about the possible link of maternal avoidance behavior with adverse infant development and should be provided with information on treatment options.

  18. Attachment affects social information processing: Specific electrophysiological effects of maternal stimuli.

    Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is critical to each individual. It affects the cognitive-affective processing of social information. The present study examines how attachment affects the processing of social information, specifically maternal information. We assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to maternal information (compared to non-specific others) in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) with 22 participants. The results illustrated that attachment affected maternal information processing during three sequential stages of information processing. First, attachment affected visual perception, reflected by enhanced P100 and N170 elicited by maternal information as compared to others information. Second, compared to others, mother obtained more attentional resources, reflected by faster behavioral response to maternal information and larger P200 and P300. Finally, mother was evaluated positively, reflected by shorter P300 latency in a mother + good condition as compared to a mother + bad condition. These findings indicated that the processing of attachment-relevant information is neurologically differentiated from other types of social information from an early stage of perceptual processing to late high-level processing.

  19. Maternal mental health and social support: effect on childhood atopic and non-atopic asthma symptoms.

    Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2012-11-01

    Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in the Social Change Allergy and Asthma in Latin America project. Psychosocial data were collected through a household survey utilising Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale. Socioeconomic and wheezing information was obtained through the questionnaire of the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, and level of allergen-specific IgE was measured to identify atopy. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal mental health, social support and atopic and non-atopic wheezing. Effect modification was evaluated through stratified polytomous regression according to social support level. Maternal mental disorder had the same impact on atopic and non-atopic wheezing, even after adjusting for confounding variables. Affective, material and informational supports had protective effects on non-atopic asthma, and there is some evidence that social supports may act as a buffer for the impact of maternal mental disorder on non-atopic wheezing. Poor maternal mental health is positively associated with wheezing, independent of whether asthma is atopic or non-atopic, but perception of high levels of social support appears to buffer this relationship in non-atopic wheezers only.

  20. Maternal effects in the highly communal sociable weaver may exacerbate brood reduction and prepare offspring for a competitive social environment

    van Dijk, Rene E.; Eising, Corine M.; Merrill, Richard M.; Karadas, Filiz; Hatchwell, Ben; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    Maternal effects can influence offspring phenotype with short- and long-term consequences. Yet, how the social environment may influence egg composition is not well understood. Here, we investigate how laying order and social environment predict maternal effects in the sociable weaver, Philetairus

  1. Crossing Social Contexts: Relational Aggression between Siblings and Friends during Early and Middle Childhood

    Stauffacher, Kirstin; DeHart, Ganie B.

    2006-01-01

    Children often learn and apply behaviors in sibling interactions before they routinely use such behaviors in peer interactions. As part of a longitudinal study of relational aggression, 46 children were videotaped at home in semi-structured free play situations with siblings and with friends at age 4 and again at age 8. Observations revealed that…

  2. How adolescents with diabetes experience social support from friends: two qualitative studies

    Peters, Louk W. H.; Nawijn, Laura; van Kesteren, Nicole M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is challenging, especially for adolescents who face multiple changes, including closer peer relationships. Few studies have explored how friends can provide constructive support in this effort. The present research investigated, in two qualitative studies, the perceptions

  3. My friends have a word for it: Event-related potentials evidence of how social risk inhibits purchase intention.

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Jin, Jia

    2017-03-16

    Social risk refers to the potential disapproval from significant others (especially family or friends), and it is crucial in dissuading consumers from making decisions to purchase. The current study explored the neural process underlying how social risk influenced people's purchase intention. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate the electrophysiological process when subjects evaluated their purchase intention for products with social risk factors. The behavioral data showed that the social risk condition inhibited people's purchase intention compared to the control condition. Neurophysiologically, larger anterior N2 amplitude was induced by the social risk condition in contrast with the control condition. We suggest that this anterior N2 may reflect the cognitive control or conflict monitoring. It may be that the participant has to regulate the conflict between an internal desire to purchase the item and the discordant information obtained from the social risk sentence, which would pressure the participant to not purchase the item in accord with social norms. These findings will be helpful in understanding the neural basis of social risk perception during purchase decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers in children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years: who is perceived as most supportive?

    Bokhorst, C.L.; Sumter, S.R.; Westenberg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Age and gender differences in perceived social support from parents, friends, classmates, and teachers were investigated in 304 boys and 351 girls aged 9-18 years. The social support scale for children and adolescents was used for this purpose. Analyses showed that the level of perceived social

  5. How can a gender lens enhance maternal and child health social ...

    How can a gender lens enhance maternal and child health social enterprises in Africa? (IMCHA). Research shows that high gender inequity translates into poor health for mothers, pregnant women, and children. At the community and individual level, gender inequities and disparities can underlie dimensions of poverty ...

  6. Maternal Caregiving Moderates the Relation between Temperamental Fear and Social Behavior with Peers

    Penela, Elizabeth C.; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie A.; Ghera, Melissa M.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Temperament works in combination with a child's environment to influence early socioemotional development. We examined whether maternal caregiving behavior at infant age 9 months moderated the relation between infant temperamental fear (9 months) and observations of children's social behavior with an unfamiliar peer at age 2 in a typically…

  7. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  8. Does neighborhood social capital buffer the effects of maternal depression on adolescent behavior problems?

    Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives.

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Emotion Regulation Skills

    Bayindir, Dilan; Güven, Gülçin; Sezer, Türker; Aksin-Yavuz, Ezgi; Yilmaz, Elif

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between maternal acceptance-rejection levels and preschool children's social competence and emotion regulation skills. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, consisted of 303 voluntary mother-child dyad. The participant children were attending a preschool…

  10. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  11. Maternal Parenting and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment of Migrant Children in Urban China

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…

  12. Interactive Effects between Maternal Parenting and Negative Emotionality on Social Functioning among Very Young Chinese Children

    Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…

  13. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  14. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India.

    Haemmerli, M; Santos, A; Penn-Kekana, L; Lange, I; Matovu, F; Benova, L; Wong, KLM; Goodman, C

    2018-01-01

    Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/o...

  15. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms.

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  17. Transgenerational effects of social environment on variations in maternal care and behavioral response to novelty.

    Champagne, Frances A; Meaney, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    Cross-fostering studies in the rat have illustrated the importance of the postnatal environment in mediating the transmission of maternal licking/grooming (LG) from mother to offspring. The authors addressed the question of how postweaning social conditions can alter the patterns of maternal behavior. Juvenile female offspring of high LG and low LG mothers were placed in either standard, enriched, or impoverished postweaning environments for 50 consecutive days and then mated and observed with their own litters. Analysis of LG behavior indicated that the effect of postweaning environment was dependent on the level of postnatal mother-infant interaction. Postweaning isolation reduced exploratory behavior, maternal LG, and oxytocin receptor binding in the offspring of high LG mothers, whereas social enrichment enhanced exploration, LG behavior, and oxytocin receptor binding of low LG offspring. These effects were also transmitted to the next generation of offspring. Thus, maternal LG and the neural mechanisms that regulate this behavior exhibited a high degree of plasticity in response to changes in environment both within and beyond the postnatal period, with implications for the transmission of behavioral response to novelty and maternal care across generations.

  18. Frequency of Maternal Touch Predicts Resting Activity and Connectivity of the Developing Social Brain.

    Brauer, Jens; Xiao, Yaqiong; Poulain, Tanja; Friederici, Angela D; Schirmer, Annett

    2016-08-01

    Previous behavioral research points to a positive relationship between maternal touch and early social development. Here, we explored the brain correlates of this relationship. The frequency of maternal touch was recorded for 43 five-year-old children during a 10 min standardized play session. Additionally, all children completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Investigating the default mode network revealed a positive relation between the frequency of maternal touch and activity in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) extending into the temporo-parietal junction. Using this effect as a seed in a functional connectivity analysis identified a network including extended bilateral regions along the temporal lobe, bilateral frontal cortex, and left insula. Compared with children with low maternal touch, children with high maternal touch showed additional connectivity with the right dorso-medial prefrontal cortex. Together these results support the notion that childhood tactile experiences shape the developing "social brain" with a particular emphasis on a network involved in mentalizing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: overlap in adolescents' online and offline social networks.

    Reich, Stephanie M; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. How Many "Friends" Do You Need? Teaching Students How to Network Using Social Media

    Sacks, Michael Alan; Graves, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Student reliance on social media is undeniable. However, while we largely regard social media as a new phenomena, the concepts underlying it come directly from social network theory in sociology and organizational behavior. In this article, the authors examine how the social network concepts of size, quality, complexity, diffusion, and distance…

  1. Defending one's friends, not one's enemies: A social network analysis of children's defending, friendship, and dislike relationships using XPNet.

    Oldenburg, Beau; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Veenstra, René

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating to what extent students in elementary schools defend their victimized classmates typically treated defending as an individual characteristic. Defending should, however, be seen as a directed dyadic relationship between a victim and a defender, who are embedded multiple positive and negative relationships with each other and their classmates. Accordingly, in the present study defending was investigated using social network analysis. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent defending relationships co-occurred with friendship and dislike relationships involving not only the victim and the defender but also other classmates. Bivariate Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) were used to analyze the defending-friendship and defending-dislike relationships in seven grade-three classrooms. As hypothesized, the results indicated that victimized students were likely to be defended by students who they perceive as friends or who perceive them as friends. Moreover, defending was likely to occur when the victim and (potential) defender had the same friends. Victimized students were unlikely to be defended by classmates whom they disliked or who had indicated to dislike them. Finally, defending was likely to occur between students who disliked the same classmates.

  2. Maternal social support, quality of birth experience, and post-partum depression in primiparous women.

    Tani, Franca; Castagna, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Social relationships provide individuals with a general sense of self-worth, psychological wellbeing, as well as allowing them access to resources during stressful periods and transitions in life. Pregnancy is a time of significant life change for every woman. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy on the quality of their birth experience and post-partum depression. A longitudinal study at three different times was carried out on 179 nulliparous pregnant women. Women completed a Maternal Social Support Questionnaire during the third trimester of their pregnancy. Then, on the first day after childbirth, clinical birth indices were collected. Finally, a month after childbirth, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was administered. Post-partum depression was influenced negatively by maternal perceived social support and positively by negative clinical birth indices. In addition to these direct effects, analyses revealed a significant effect of maternal perceived social support on post-partum depression, mediated by the clinical indices considered. Social support perceived by mothers during pregnancy plays a significant role as a protection factor against post-partum depression, both directly and indirectly, reducing the negative clinical aspects of the birth experience.

  3. New City = New Friends?The Restructuring of Social Resources after Relocation

    Natascha Nisic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of spatially proximate social contacts, there is little evidence about the effects of residential mobility on the social capital available to an individual. Based on theoretical considerations of the accumulation process of social capital after relocation, we derive hypotheses about the consequences of residential mobility on social capital. Firstly, we expect a partial devaluation of social capital in the origin region after the move and compensatory investments in social capital at the new location. Secondly, we assume that social capital increases with the length of residence and distinguish accumulation and consolidation phases. Multivariate analysis based on survey data yields the expected consequences of mobility. Movers and native residents possess an equal amount of social capital; however, the composition of social capital differs between the two groups. Additionally, we decompose the length of residence into several time intervals to provide evidence for both the constituting and consolidating phases in the creation of social capital.

  4. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Criminal Attitudes of Ex-Prisoners: the Role of Personality, Anti-Social Friends and Recidivism

    Boduszek, Daniel; McLaughlin, Chris; Hyland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that those who enter prison with a low level of criminal attitudes, tend to acquire more deviant attitudes during their sentence due to persistent contact with criminal others, and moreover, presence of criminal personality may be sufficient to develop criminal attitudes.\\ud Aim: To determine which of the independent variables: age, education level, marital status, number of children, location, recidivism, association with criminal friends, and personali...

  6. Maternity Capital as an Economic Factor, Forming Social Expectation of Women with Two or More Children

    Tatyana G. Svetlichnaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of sociological study devoted to the evaluation of the social expectations of women associated with the realization of their right to maternity capital. Different social attitudes and intentions of 308 women who have two and more children with respect to realization of the program of the maternity capital were investigated. Characteristics of cognitive, emotional and behavioral readiness to participate in the governmental program of increasing fertility were assessed. The results confirm the adequacy and objectivity of the social expectations of women. They made the decision about the birth of a second child without taking into account the expected payment of the maternity capital (for 33.8% respondents maternity capital had “no meaning”; for 36.4% respondents it was just a “pleasant additional payment”. The reproductive behavior of women was based on family traditions (91.9% respondents were born in big families with two or more children and awareness of their personal responsibility for bearing and raising children (45.8% respondents were ready “for any difficulties for their children”, 23.1% respondents consider their children as “happiness and meaning of their lives”. However, 22.0% of women made their decision about the birth of the second child with expectations for the maternity capital. They were the women from the low-income families (29.6%. Promotion the childbirth in low-income families may lead to the increasing number of dysfunctional families and children who find themselves in difficult life situations. All this facts may lead to different social problems in the future.

  7. Friends and foes from an ant brain's point of view--neuronal correlates of colony odors in a social insect.

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Successful cooperation depends on reliable identification of friends and foes. Social insects discriminate colony members (nestmates/friends) from foreign workers (non-nestmates/foes) by colony-specific, multi-component colony odors. Traditionally, complex processing in the brain has been regarded as crucial for colony recognition. Odor information is represented as spatial patterns of activity and processed in the primary olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobe (AL) of insects, which is analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Correlative evidence indicates that the spatial activity patterns reflect odor-quality, i.e., how an odor is perceived. For colony odors, alternatively, a sensory filter in the peripheral nervous system was suggested, causing specific anosmia to nestmate colony odors. Here, we investigate neuronal correlates of colony odors in the brain of a social insect to directly test whether they are anosmic to nestmate colony odors and whether spatial activity patterns in the AL can predict how odor qualities like "friend" and "foe" are attributed to colony odors. Using ant dummies that mimic natural conditions, we presented colony odors and investigated their neuronal representation in the ant Camponotus floridanus. Nestmate and non-nestmate colony odors elicited neuronal activity: In the periphery, we recorded sensory responses of olfactory receptor neurons (electroantennography), and in the brain, we measured colony odor specific spatial activity patterns in the AL (calcium imaging). Surprisingly, upon repeated stimulation with the same colony odor, spatial activity patterns were variable, and as variable as activity patterns elicited by different colony odors. Ants are not anosmic to nestmate colony odors. However, spatial activity patterns in the AL alone do not provide sufficient information for colony odor discrimination and this finding challenges the current notion of how odor quality is coded. Our result illustrates the enormous challenge

  8. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  9. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends.

    Ozimek, Phillip; Baer, Fiona; Förster, Jens

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys ( N 1 = 242, N 2 = 289) assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confirm the predicted mediation model. Our findings suggest that Facebook can be used as a means to an end in a way of self-regulatory processes, like satisfying of materialistic goals. The findings are the first evidence for our Social Online Self-regulation Theory (SOS-T), which contains numerous predictions that can be tested in the future.

  10. Materialists on Facebook: the self-regulatory role of social comparisons and the objectification of Facebook friends

    Phillip Ozimek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine chronic materialism as a possible motive for Facebook usage. We test an explanatory mediation model predicting that materialists use Facebook more frequently, because they compare themselves to others, they objectify and instrumentalize others, and they accumulate friends. For this, we conducted two online surveys (N1 = 242, N2 = 289 assessing demographic variables, Facebook use, social comparison, materialism, objectification and instrumentalization. Results confirm the predicted mediation model. Our findings suggest that Facebook can be used as a means to an end in a way of self-regulatory processes, like satisfying of materialistic goals. The findings are the first evidence for our Social Online Self-regulation Theory (SOS-T, which contains numerous predictions that can be tested in the future. Keywords: Psychology, Information science

  11. Energetic consequences of human sociality: walking speed choices among friendly dyads.

    Janelle Wagnild

    Full Text Available Research has shown that individuals have an optimal walking speed-a speed which minimizes energy expenditure for a given distance. Because the optimal walking speed varies with mass and lower limb length, it also varies with sex, with males in any given population tending to have faster optimal walking speeds. This potentially creates an energetic dilemma for mixed-sex walking groups. Here we examine speed choices made by individuals of varying stature, mass, and sex walking together. Individuals (N = 22 walked around a track alone, with a significant other (with and without holding hands, and with friends of the same and opposite sex while their speeds were recorded every 100 m. Our findings show that males walk at a significantly slower pace to match the females' paces (p = 0.009, when the female is their romantic partner. The paces of friends of either same or mixed sex walking together did not significantly change (p>0.05. Thus significant pace adjustment appears to be limited to romantic partners. These findings have implications for both mobility and reproductive strategies of groups. Because the male carries the energetic burden by adjusting his pace (slowing down 7%, the female is spared the potentially increased caloric cost required to walk together. In energetically demanding environments, we will expect to find gender segregation in group composition, particularly when travelling longer distances.

  12. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views.

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B

    2017-11-01

    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MINORS MATERNITY (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Галина Альбертовна Новикова

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of recent data of Russian and foreign researches for social aspects of teenage pregnancy is presented, including factors that contribute to the problem - acceleration of the growth and development of adolescents, compared to previous generations, changes in the rules governing the relationship between adolescents, changes in the system of medical and educational measures to educate teenagers right attitude to gender issues, etc. The basic scenario, the first sexual encounter: violence, passive behavior, voluntary consent, innovative behavior, beer alcoholization. And their outcomes: abortion, juvenile motherhood, early marriage, child abandonment. The necessity of government activities in the field of regulation and social support for young mothers, and teen pregnancy prevention organizations in educational institutions are justified.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-37

  14. Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day

    Kolt Gregory S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists for the influence of encouragement on physical activity participation, the diversity of support sources and the type of physical activity examined previously is limited. This study examined the importance of perceived encouragement from parents, siblings/cousins, friends, and schools on participation levels across three time-specific activity opportunities that are available during a school day (after-school physical activities, lunchtime activity, and active transportation to and from school. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471 were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11 or Senior (Years 12 & 13 students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s, friend(s, sibling(s/cousin(s, and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60 and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69 were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57 was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92. Irrespective

  15. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support.

    Racine, Nicole; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, Andre; Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Tough, Suzanne

    2018-03-28

    The aims of the current study were to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and antepartum health risks, and to investigate whether social support moderated this association. It was hypothesized that ACEs would be associated with antepartum health risks; however, social support in the prenatal period would buffer mothers from the deleterious consequences of ACEs. Data from 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants were collected from a longitudinal cohort recruited in health care offices in Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women completed questionnaires related to ACEs prior to the age of 18 and prenatal social support, and a health care professional assessed the mother's antepartum health risk. ACEs included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, exposure to domestic violence, as well as exposure to household dysfunction such as parental substance use, mental illness, or incarceration. Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association between ACEs and antepartum health risks. However, a significant interaction between maternal ACEs and social support was also observed. Specifically, women exposed to high ACEs and low social support in pregnancy had high antepartum health risks. However, among mothers who had high ACEs but also high levels of social support, there was no association between ACEs and antepartum health risk. A history of ACEs can place mothers at risk of antepartum health complications. However, a resiliency effect was observed: women with a history of ACEs were buffered from experiencing antepartum health risks if they reported high levels of social support in pregnancy.

  17. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants.

    Elshibly, Eltahir M; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2008-07-18

    In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (birth weight. In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p birth weight. A maternal height of birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for 12 years of education. Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  18. Friends and Foes in the Occupational Career. The Influence of Sweet and Sour Social Capital on the Labour Market. Friends and Foes in the Occupa-tional Career.

    Moerbeek, Hester Hagar Susan

    2001-01-01

    Will people with friends experience profit and will people with foes experience harm on the labour market? The words ‘friends’ and ‘foes’ mean something else than in every day life, that is people who have helped or hindered someone in the past and/or are willing to do so in the future. From this

  19. The Relationship between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress

    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…

  20. Maternal Depression and Parenting in Early Childhood: Contextual Influence of Marital Quality and Social Support in Two Samples

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2017-01-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18--36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced…

  1. Tweeting Napoleon and Friending Clausewitz: Social Media and the Military Strategist

    2015-06-01

    http://www.army.mil/article/121428/. 47 Ryan Broderick and Emanuella Grinberg, “10 People Who Learned Social Media Can Get You Fired,” CNN.com, June...30, 2015. https://medium.com/the-bridge. Broderick , Ryan, and Emanuella Grinberg. “10 People Who Learned Social Media Can Get You Fired.” CNN.com

  2. All My Rowdy "Friends": The Use of Social Media in Higher Education

    Lenartz, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of social media in higher education is escalating at a rapid rate, with previous records for numbers of users being continuously broken. Institutions of higher education have responded by increasingly using social media to connect with students. At the same time, media horror stories about cyberbullying, suicides, and professional…

  3. The Social Meanings of the C-Card Scheme: The Importance of Friends and Peers

    Cheetham, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from an analysis of interviews with young people aged 14-18 years, to explore the peer influences in young people's informal social networks which can affect their access to sexual health services. The research focuses on the social meanings of a C-Card condom distribution scheme in North East England. Such schemes are…

  4. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  5. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  6. Maternal depression: effects on social cognition and behavior in parent-child interactions.

    Lovejoy, M C

    1991-12-01

    The social interactions of depressed and nondepressed mothers and their preschool-age children were observed and mothers' perceptions of child behavior assessed. Depressed mothers, as a group, exhibited more negative behavior than controls; however, no differences were found for maternal positive behavior or contingent responding. There was a high degree of reciprocity between child and mother behavior in both groups and there was a trend for children of the depressed mothers to be more negative than the control children. The results with cognitive measures were consistent with depressive realism in perception of social interactions: Depressed mothers recalled more negative child behavior than nondepressed mothers; however, these perceptions paralleled the observed interactions. Overall, the results suggest that maternal depression is associated with negative parent-child interactions and more negative, albeit fairly accurate, perceptions of child behavior.

  7. Friends or foes: social anxiety, peer affiliation, and drinking in middle school.

    Anderson, Kristen G; Tomlinson, Kristin; Robinson, Joanna M; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-01-01

    The relation between social anxiety and alcohol consumption suggests aspects of both risk and protection, but most research has focused on late adolescents and emerging adults. We investigated the synergistic impact of social anxiety, a need for affiliation with others, and perceived peer alcohol use on drinking in a sample of more than 1,500 early adolescents from southern California (48% girls). Via school-wide surveys, middle school students completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, a modified version of the Interpersonal Orientation Scale, as well as measures of perceived peer drinking and self-reported lifetime and current drinking. For socially anxious youths, high levels of perceived peer use in conjunction with high levels of affiliation need was associated with greater alcohol use on average and more frequent episodic drinking. Specific to heavy episodic drinking, the interaction of social anxiety and perceived peer drinking seemed to affect girls and boys differentially. Sex differences emerged for the moderation of social anxiety's influence on drinking initiation by perceived peer influence. These findings suggest that alcohol-related risks associated with social anxiety might be gender specific and more important in earlier stages of alcohol use than previously believed.

  8. Social Aspects of Maternal Mortality: A Case Study of the State of Mexico

    Martha Campuzano González

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We now have evidence that maternal deaths result from a set of social, economic, biological and logistical problems in health services. However, the approach used to address these problems is still essentially medical. In this study we examined some of the social determinants of maternal deaths between 2004 and 2006 in the State of Mexico. To do this we reviewed clinical files and used verbal autopsies. The medical causes of maternal death were similar to those reported in previous studies. 80% were a result of direct causes: the low socio-economic level of the deceased women was the fundamental determinant of mortality, in that it limits access to education, income, adequate nutrition, and medical care. This situation negatively affects a woman's ability to make health related decisions. It is important to consider that when a young woman becomes pregnant, it is the beginning of a long term social and economic responsibility for which they lack appropriate resources. In conjunction with limited work opportunities, this situation perpetuates a vicious circle of poverty.

  9. The protective role of maternal racial socialization for African American adolescents exposed to community violence.

    Henry, Jessica S; Lambert, Sharon F; Smith Bynum, Mia

    2015-08-01

    Urban African American youth's disproportionate exposure to community violence and increased risk for its adverse consequences have heightened interest in identifying protective factors that mitigate the effects of community violence exposure for these youth. Thus, the present study examined whether maternal racial socialization messages protect African American adolescents against the adverse effects of community violence exposure. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.41 years) and their female guardians. For community-violence-exposed youth, maternal racial socialization messages protected against aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms, such that maternal messages about cultural pride attenuated the association between community violence exposure and parent-reported aggressive behaviors, and cultural appreciation of legacy messages attenuated the association between community violence exposure and adolescent-reported depressive symptoms. Findings highlight the need to integrate race-relevant factors into preventive interventions targeting African American youth at risk for or exposed to community violence, and suggest that family interventions promoting parents' efficacy to implement racial socialization practices are useful for youth exposed to violence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Application of eco-friendly tools and eco-bio- social strategies to ...

    social strategies to control dengue vectors in urban and ... 3Go Green Company Limited, Science Building 2, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University at Salaya, Nakhon. Pathom ... Materials and methods. Study site and .... Statistical analysis.

  11. Will You Accept the Government's Friend Request? Social Networks and Privacy Concerns

    Siegel, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to con...

  12. Musical friends and foes: The social cognition of affiliation and control in improvised interactions.

    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Canonne, Clément

    2017-04-01

    A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention. We created a novel experimental situation in which we asked expert music improvisers to communicate 5 types of non-musical social intentions, such as being domineering, disdainful or conciliatory, to one another solely using musical interaction. Using a combination of decoding studies, computational and psychoacoustical analyses, we show that both musically-trained and non musically-trained listeners can recognize relational intentions encoded in music, and that this social cognitive ability relies, to a sizeable extent, on the information processing of acoustic cues of temporal and harmonic coordination that are not present in any one of the musicians' channels, but emerge from the dynamics of their interaction. By manipulating these cues in two-channel audio recordings and testing their impact on the social judgements of non-musician observers, we finally establish a causal relationship between the affiliation dimension of social behaviour and musical harmonic coordination on the one hand, and between the control dimension and musical temporal coordination on the other hand. These results provide novel mechanistic insights not only into the social cognition of musical interactions, but also into that of non-verbal interactions as a whole. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. "Friending" teens: systematic review of social media in adolescent and young adult health care.

    Yonker, Lael M; Zan, Shiyi; Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal; Kinane, T Bernard

    2015-01-05

    Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further exploration and development of these strategies into

  14. Social autopsy: a potential health-promotion tool for preventing maternal mortality in low-income countries.

    Mahato, Preeti K; Waithaka, Elizabeth; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Pant, Puspa Raj; Biswas, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Despite significant global improvements, maternal mortality in low-income countries remains unacceptably high. Increasing attention in recent years has focused on how social factors, such as family and peer influences, the community context, health services, legal and policy environments, and cultural and social values, can shape and influence maternal outcomes. Whereas verbal autopsy is used to attribute a clinical cause to a maternal death, the aim of social autopsy is to determine the non-clinical contributing factors. A social autopsy of a maternal death is a group interaction with the family of the deceased woman and her wider local community, where facilitators explore the social causes of the death and identify improvements needed. Although still relatively new, the process has proved useful to capture data for policy-makers on the social determinants of maternal deaths. This article highlights a second aspect of social autopsy - its potential role in health promotion. A social autopsy facilitates "community self-diagnosis" and identification of modifiable social and cultural factors that are attributable to the death. Social autopsy therefore has the potential not only for increasing awareness among community members, but also for promoting behavioural change at the individual and community level. There has been little formal assessment of social autopsy as a tool for health promotion. Rigorous research is now needed to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of social autopsy as a preventive community-based intervention, especially with respect to effects on social determinants. There is also a need to document how communities can take ownership of such activities and achieve a sustainable impact on preventable maternal deaths.

  15. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  16. Will you accept the government's friend request? Social networks and privacy concerns.

    David A Siegel

    Full Text Available Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to consider security concerns affect their views on government actions that jeopardize privacy? Second, does the use of social network websites alter the effect of prompted security concerns? I posit that prompting individuals to consider security concerns does lead to an increased willingness to accept government actions that jeopardize privacy, but that frequent users of websites like Facebook are less likely to be swayed by prompted security concerns. An embedded survey experiment provides support for both parts of my claim.

  17. A Net of Friends: Investigating Friendship by Integrating Attachment Theory and Social Network Analysis.

    Gillath, Omri; Karantzas, Gery C; Selcuk, Emre

    2017-11-01

    The current article focuses on attachment style-an individual difference widely studied in the field of close relationships-and its application to the study of social networks. Specifically, we investigated whether attachment style predicts perception and management of social networks. In Study 1, we examined the associations of attachment style with perceptions of network tie strength and multiplexity. In Studies 2a and 2b, we investigated the association between attachment style and network management skills (initiating, maintaining, and dissolving ties) and whether network management skills mediated the associations of attachment style with network tie strength and multiplexity. In Study 3, experimentally enhancing attachment security made people more likely to initiate and less likely to dissolve social ties (for the latter, especially among those high on avoidance or anxiety). As for maintenance, security priming also increased maintenance; however, mainly among people high on attachment anxiety or low on attachment avoidance.

  18. Will you accept the government's friend request? Social networks and privacy concerns.

    Siegel, David A

    2013-01-01

    Participating in social network websites entails voluntarily sharing private information, and the explosive growth of social network websites over the last decade suggests shifting views on privacy. Concurrently, new anti-terrorism laws, such as the USA Patriot Act, ask citizens to surrender substantial claim to privacy in the name of greater security. I address two important questions regarding individuals' views on privacy raised by these trends. First, how does prompting individuals to consider security concerns affect their views on government actions that jeopardize privacy? Second, does the use of social network websites alter the effect of prompted security concerns? I posit that prompting individuals to consider security concerns does lead to an increased willingness to accept government actions that jeopardize privacy, but that frequent users of websites like Facebook are less likely to be swayed by prompted security concerns. An embedded survey experiment provides support for both parts of my claim.

  19. Association between suicidal ideation and exposure to suicide in social relationships among family, friend, and acquaintance survivors in South Korea.

    Song, In Han; Kwon, Se Won; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to suicide in social relationships may be associated with suicidal ideation among survivors. In South Korea, which is known for having the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, exposure to suicide in social relationships can have serious consequences as social relationships are greatly emphasized in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between survivors' suicidal ideation and their exposure to suicide in close relationships. Data collected through a telephone survey of a total of 1,000 men and women selected from across the nation using a stratified sampling method were analyzed. The results show that individuals who lost a family member, friend, or acquaintance in their lifetime are 4.5 times, 3.7 times, 2.2 times, respectively, more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year compared to those without such experience. These findings suggest that special intervention for suicide survivors should be considered for those who experience suicide in close relationships. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Reconstructing social networks : The Importance of friends and family in the acculturation of unaccompanied minors

    Spaun, Hege

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore how social network variables and social skills influence acculturation in a group of immigrants who came to Norway as unaccompanied minor asylum seekers. Acculturation, as measured by ethnic and host culture competence, is seen as a resource for the individual, and a necessity in order to be successful and have a sense of belonging in a given culture. Sixty-two youth who came to Norway as unaccompanied minor asylum seekers (UMAs) between the years 20...

  1. How to make friends: A logical approach to social group creation

    Smets, S.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.; Baltag, A.; Seligman, J.; Yamada, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the logical features of social group creation. We focus on the mechanisms which indicate when agents can form a team based on the correspondence in their set of features (behavior, opinions, etc.). Our basic approach uses a semi-metric on the set of agents, which is used to

  2. Hanging out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out…

  3. A friend in need : Time-dependent effects of stress on social discounting in men

    Margittai, Z.; Strombach, T.; van Wingerden, M.; Joëls, M.; Schwabe, L.; Kalenscher, T.

    2015-01-01

    Stress is often associated with a tend-and-befriend response, a putative coping mechanism where people behave generously towards others in order to invest in social relationships to seek comfort and mutual protection. However, this increase in generosity is expected to be directed only towards a

  4. Friend me: which factors influence top global brands participation in social network sites

    Araujo, T.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This study focuses on how brands participate in social network sites (SNSs) and investigates both the different strategies they adopt and the factors that influence these strategies. Design/methodology/approach - The activities of top brands in SNSs were investigated through a content

  5. So now what?: effects of retirement on social activities and relationships with friends and family

    van den Bogaard, L.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retirement is an event in life that often brings about great changes in a person’s personal and social life, but there is surprisingly little research into this matter. Theoretically, work can be viewed as an important role, providing identity and filling time. After retirement, this role is lost,

  6. The Role of Maternal Behavior in the Relation between Shyness and Social Reticence in Early Childhood and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    Hane, Amie Ashley; Cheah, Charissa; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal behavior in the relations between social reticence and shyness in preschool and subsequent social withdrawal was investigated. Eighty children (47 females) were judged for degree of social reticence during play with unfamiliar peers at the age of four and mothers completed the Colorado child temperament inventory…

  7. Association between maternal social capital and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Ethiopia.

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Jane; Seo, Eunkyo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i.e., community group membership, having emotional/economic support from individuals, and citizenship activities) and cognitive social capital (i.e., trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging) in the past 12 months. Infant's dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-7), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum meal frequency (MMF) were assessed using a 24-hr dietary recall. Multivariable ordinal/binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Having support from two or more individuals was associated with higher DDS (OR = 1.84) and meeting a minimum level of dietary diversity (MDD: OR = 5.20) but not with MMF, compared to those having no support. Having two or more group memberships was associated with higher DDS (OR = 2.2) but not with MDD or MMF, compared to those without group membership. Citizenship activities showed mixed associations with MMF and no association with DDS or MDD. Cognitive social capital showed no association with DDS or MDD and lower odds of meeting MMF (OR = 0.56). These mixed results call for further studies to examine other potential pathways (e.g., hygiene and caring behaviours) in which social capital could improve child nutritional status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  9. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  10. Comparison of two rodent models of maternal separation on juvenile social behavior

    Betty eZimmerberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood deprivation is associated with an increased risk of attachment disorders and psychopathology. The neural consequences of exposure to stress early in life have used two major rodent models to provide important tools for translational research. Although both models have been termed Maternal Separation, the paradigms differ in ways that clearly shift the focus of stress between maternal and offspring units. The first model, here called Early Deprivation (ED, isolates pups individually while the dam is left not alone, but with a subset of littermates in the home nest (Stay-at-homes. The other model, here called Maternal Separation (MS, isolates the dam in a novel cage while the pups are separated together. In this study, these two early stress models were directly compared for their effects on social behaviors in male and female juvenile offspring. Although both models altered play behavior compared to controls, patterns of prosocial behaviors versus submissive behaviors differed by model and sex. Additionally, there were main effects of sex, with female ED subjects exhibited masculinizing effects of early stress during play sessions. Maternal behavior upon reunion with the isolated subjects was significantly increased in the MS condition compared to both ED and control conditions, which also differed but by a lesser magnitude. Stay-at-homes were tested since some laboratories use them for controls rather than undisturbed litters; they displayed significantly different sex-dependent play compared to undisturbed subjects. These results indicate that early stress effects vary by paradigm of separation. We suggest that MS produces greater stress on the dam and thus greater maternal mediation, while ED causes greater stress on the neonates, resulting in different behavioral sequela that warrant attention when using these models for translational research.

  11. Exploring social media and admissions decision-making - friends or foes?

    Law, Marcus; Mylopoulos, Maria; Veinot, Paula; Miller, Daniel; Hanson, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    Despite the ever-increasing use of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) little is known about its use in medical school admissions. This qualitative study explores whether and how social media (SM) is used in undergraduate admissions in Canada, and the attitudes of admissions personnel towards such use. Phone interviews were conducted with admissions deans and nominated admissions personnel. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed using iterative coding and comparing, and grouping data into themes. Personnel from 15 of 17 Canadian medical schools participated. A sizeable proportion had, at some point, examined social media (SM) profiles to acquire information on applicants. Participants did not report using it explicitly to screen all applicants (primary use); however, several did admit to looking at SM to follow up on preliminary indications of misbehaviour (secondary use). Participants articulated concerns, such as validity and equity, about using SM in admissions. Despite no schools having existing policy, participants expressed openness to future use. While some of the 15 schools had used SM to acquire information on applicants, criteria for formulating judgments were obscure, and participants expressed significant apprehension, based on concerns for fairness and validity. Findings suggest participant ambivalence and ongoing risks associated with "hidden" selection practices.

  12. How people make friends in social networking sites—A microscopic perspective

    Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2012-02-01

    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential acceptance, creation, and attachment. Based on the linearly preferential linking, we put forward an analyzable network model which can reproduce the degree distribution of the network. The research framework presented in the paper could provide a potential insight into how the micro-motives of users lead to the global structure of online social networks.

  13. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  14. Nuancing the role of social skills- a longitudinal study of early maternal psychological distress and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill Bølstad; Kaasbøll, Jannike; Kjeldsen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    Social skills might play an important role for the relationship between maternal psychological distress and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. The majority perspective is that social skills is adaptive and protective, but there is a need to also highlight the potential maladaptive effect of social skills in some settings or for some sub groups. The current study examined the longitudinal interplay between maternal-reported psychological distress in early childhood (age 1.5), and offspring reports on social skills and depressive symptoms in early (age 12.5) and middle adolescence (age 14.5). We used data from the Tracking Opportunities and Problems Study (TOPP), a community-based longitudinal study following Norwegian families to examine direct links and interactions between early maternal distress (measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist) and early adolescent offspring social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and middle adolescent depressive symptoms (measured with the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire) in 370 families (in total 740 mothers and adolescents). Exposure to childhood maternal distress predicted offspring depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. Higher social skills in early adolescence predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms for girls, but not for boys, in middle adolescence. An interaction effect was found in which adolescents exposed to early maternal distress who reported high social skills in early adolescence had the highest level of depressive symptoms in middle adolescence. The findings highlight the nuances in the role of social skills for adolescent depressive symptoms - having the potential to be both adaptive as well as maladaptive for some subgroups (those experiencing maternal psychological distress). This has important implications for social skill programs.

  15. Friends with Social Benefits: Host-Microbe Interactions as a Driver of Brain Evolution and Development?

    Roman M Stilling

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behaviour. Here in this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development. In particular, we explore the integration of human brain development with evolution, symbiosis, and RNA biology, which together represent a ‘social triangle’ that drives human social behaviour and cognition. We argue that, in order to understand how inter-kingdom communication can affect brain adaptation and plasticity, it is inevitable to consider epigenetic mechanisms as important mediators of genome-microbiome interactions on an individual as well as a transgenerational time scale. Finally, we unite these interpretations with the hologenome theory of evolution. Taken together, we propose a tighter integration of neuroscience fields with host-associated microbiology by taking an evolutionary perspective.

  16. The Pursuit of Romantic Alternatives Online: Social Media Friends as Potential Alternatives.

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G

    2018-01-02

    What causes some marriages to stand the test of time while others fail? Marital commitment is the key force underlying the stability, quality, and longevity of the romantic relationship. Commitment is strengthened in the presence of marital satisfaction, the absence of alternative attractions, and steady investments made in the relationship. Commitment is also a consequence of increasing dependence. When partners are emotionally engaged with their virtual connections, their dependence on the significant other decreases. On the contrary, dependence on the partner increases when people feel satisfied with their relationship, think unfavorably about the quality of available alternatives, and feel that they have made great investments in their relationship. Technological advancements of the present era have spawned a wide array of social networking sites (SNSs) that display boastfully curated profiles of virtual connections. These overly glossed profiles may lead social media users to feel deficient in their lives. Previous research has shown that Facebook use can reduce relationship satisfaction by providing potential romantic alternatives and deflecting time and emotional investments away from the committed relationship. This article examines the commitment literature and discusses how commitment is undermined in the contemporary era. Finally, marital therapy is addressed with suggestions for future areas of exploration.

  17. Teachers' Social Capital as a Resource for Curriculum Development: Lessons Learnt in the Implementation of a Child-Friendly Schools Programme

    Modipane, Mpho; Themane, Mahlapahlapana

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on lessons learnt in the use of teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development, in the implementation of the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) programme in South Africa. The researchers in this study were amongst the trainers. The study followed a qualitative research approach, where a descriptive research design…

  18. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How are curious people viewed and how do they behave in social situations? From the perspectives of self, friends, parents, and unacquainted observers.

    Kashdan, Todd B; Sherman, Ryne A; Yarbro, Jessica; Funder, David C

    2013-04-01

    People who are open and curious orient their lives around an appreciation of novelty and a strong urge to explore, discover, and grow. Researchers have recently shown that being an open, curious person is linked to healthy social outcomes. To better understand the benefits (and liabilities) of being a curious person, we used a multimethod design of social behavior to assess the perspectives of multiple informants (including self, friends, and parents) and behavior coded from direct observations in unstructured social interactions. We found an impressive degree of convergence among self, friend, and parent reports of curiosity, and observer-rated behavioral correlates of curiosity. A curious personality was linked to a wide range of adaptive behaviors, including tolerance of anxiety and uncertainty, positive emotional expressiveness, initiation of humor and playfulness, unconventional thinking, and a nondefensive, noncritical attitude. This characterization of curious people provides insights into mechanisms underlying associated healthy social outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Suicidal Disclosures among Friends: Using Social Network Data to Understand Suicide Contagion*

    Mueller, Anna S.; Abrutyn, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A robust literature suggests that suicide is socially contagious; however, we know little about how and why suicide spreads. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the effects of alter’s (1) disclosed and (2) undisclosed suicide attempts, (3) suicide ideation and (4) emotional distress on ego’s mental health one year later to gain insights into the emotional and cultural mechanisms that underlie suicide contagion. We find that when egos know about alter’s suicide attempt, they report significantly higher levels of emotional distress and are more likely to report suicidality, net of extensive controls; however, alter’s undisclosed suicide attempts and ideation have no significant effect on ego’s mental health. Finally, we find evidence that emotional distress is contagious in adolescence, though it does not seem to promote suicidality. We discuss the implications of our findings for suicide contagion specifically and sociology more generally. PMID:25722129

  1. Maternal environment alters social interactive traits but not open-field behavior in Fischer 344 rats.

    Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2008-10-01

    Although it is recognized that the genetic background governs behavioral phenotypes, environmental factors also play a critical role in the development of various behavioral processes. The maternal environment has a major impact on pups, and the cross-fostering procedure is used to determine the influence of early life experiences. The present study examined the influence of maternal environment on behavioral traits in inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. F344/DuCrlCrlj and Wistar (Crlj:WI) pups were fostered from postnatal day 1 as follows: Wistar pups raised by Wistar dams, F344 raised by Wistar, Wistar raised by F344, and F344 raised by F344. At 10 weeks of age, rats were randomly assigned to an open-field test and social interaction test. In the open-field test, irrespective of the rearing conditions, the activity during the first 1 min was significantly lower in F344 rats than in Wistar rats. Latency to the onset of movement showed no difference between groups. In the social interaction test, the recognition performance during the first 1 min in F344 raised by F344 was significantly shorter than that in the other groups. The onset of recognition to a novel social partner in F344 raised by F344 was significantly delayed, and the delay disappeared upon cross-fostering by Wistar dams. These results raise the possibility that the behavioral phenotype of F344 rats results from the interplay of genetic factors and maternal environment during early life, and that F344 rats are a strain with high susceptibility to rearing conditions for the formation of their emotionality.

  2. Friends and Foes from an Ant Brain's Point of View – Neuronal Correlates of Colony Odors in a Social Insect

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful cooperation depends on reliable identification of friends and foes. Social insects discriminate colony members (nestmates/friends) from foreign workers (non-nestmates/foes) by colony-specific, multi-component colony odors. Traditionally, complex processing in the brain has been regarded as crucial for colony recognition. Odor information is represented as spatial patterns of activity and processed in the primary olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobe (AL) of insects, which is analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Correlative evidence indicates that the spatial activity patterns reflect odor-quality, i.e., how an odor is perceived. For colony odors, alternatively, a sensory filter in the peripheral nervous system was suggested, causing specific anosmia to nestmate colony odors. Here, we investigate neuronal correlates of colony odors in the brain of a social insect to directly test whether they are anosmic to nestmate colony odors and whether spatial activity patterns in the AL can predict how odor qualities like “friend” and “foe” are attributed to colony odors. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ant dummies that mimic natural conditions, we presented colony odors and investigated their neuronal representation in the ant Camponotus floridanus. Nestmate and non-nestmate colony odors elicited neuronal activity: In the periphery, we recorded sensory responses of olfactory receptor neurons (electroantennography), and in the brain, we measured colony odor specific spatial activity patterns in the AL (calcium imaging). Surprisingly, upon repeated stimulation with the same colony odor, spatial activity patterns were variable, and as variable as activity patterns elicited by different colony odors. Conclusions Ants are not anosmic to nestmate colony odors. However, spatial activity patterns in the AL alone do not provide sufficient information for colony odor discrimination and this finding challenges the current notion of how odor

  3. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK OF MADHYA PRADESH

    K P Joshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background- India is among those countries which have very high Maternal Mortality Rate (301/100,000 live birth .In Madhya Pradesh MMR is much higher (379/100,000/live birth. About 78,000 women die each year due to pregnancy related causes. Social factors play important role in maternal morbidity and mortality. Research Question –What is the magnitude of Maternal Mortality and its social determinants in a Community Development Block of District Satna (MP.. Objective– To assess the magnitude of Maternal Mortality and its social determinants. Study Design-Retrospective epidemiological study. Setting and Participants - The subjects included were female deaths of reproductive age group (15-45 years of a Community Development Block Satna (MP.. Methodology- The data were collected from available health records, by house to house survey and verbal autopsy in study area. Results - A total of 27 maternal deaths were gathered from deferent sources during one year study period, thus giving, MMR of 550/100,000 live birth. Maximum 24 maternal deaths (88.8% occurred in the age group of 18-30years.Around 55% maternal deaths took place in low socio economic group. Around 44.44% mothers did not take any antenatal care during their pregnancies. Around twelve maternal deaths (44% were due to direct obstetrical causes and remaining 15 maternal deaths (54% were due to indirect causes. The reason in 62.96% mothers for non- availing hospital treatment were financial constraints, ignorance, illiteracy, late decision, male dominance in family matters.

  4. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women.

    Castelli, Rochele D; Quevedo, Luciana de Á; Coelho, Fábio M; Lopez, Mariane A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Böhm, Denise M; Souza, Luciano D; de Matos, Mariana B; Pinheiro, Karen A; Pinheiro, Ricardo T

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0), and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7) when compared with those who received optimal care. Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  5. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women

    Rochele D. Castelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. Methods: A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0, and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7 when compared with those who received optimal care. Conclusion: Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  6. nstitutional Capacities and Social Policy Implementation: Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes in Argentina and Chile (1930-2000

    Alma Idiart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares maternal child health and nutrition programmes in Argentina and Chile, focusing on long-term institutional features and the central neo-liberal trends organizing social reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Objective: To carry out a comparative study of the ransformations of Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes, taking into account three intertwined issues: social policies, institutional capacity, and policy implementation. Methodology: The documentary analysis done in this article is framed in the structural force model of Carmelo Mesa-Lago and the polity-centred structure model of Theda Skocpol. Conclusions: Despite relatively similar policy lines implemented in both countries, the contrasting long-term institutional features (Chilean programmes addressed maternal and child health more efficiently than the Argentines account for most of the variation in the overall process of reform implementation and the performance of maternal and child health policies.

  7. Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment.

    Wooddell, Lauren J; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Murphy, Ashley M; Suomi, Stephen J; Dettmer, Amanda M

    2017-11-01

    Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer-only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications. Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to practices

  9. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Mat Lowe

    Full Text Available The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health.Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications.Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to

  10. Improving Maternal Health in Pakistan: Toward a Deeper Understanding of the Social Determinants of Poor Women’s Access to Maternal Health Services

    Salway, Sarah; Bhatti, Afshan; Shanner, Laura; Zaman, Shakila; Laing, Lory; Ellison, George T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests national- and community-level interventions are not reaching women living at the economic and social margins of society in Pakistan. We conducted a 10-month qualitative study (May 2010–February 2011) in a village in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected using 94 in-depth interviews, 11 focus group discussions, 134 observational sessions, and 5 maternal death case studies. Despite awareness of birth complications and treatment options, poverty and dependence on richer, higher-caste people for cash transfers or loans prevented women from accessing required care. There is a need to end the invisibility of low-caste groups in Pakistani health care policy. Technical improvements in maternal health care services should be supported to counter social and economic marginalization so progress can be made toward Millennium Development Goal 5 in Pakistan. PMID:24354817

  11. Improving maternal health in Pakistan: toward a deeper understanding of the social determinants of poor women's access to maternal health services.

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah; Bhatti, Afshan; Shanner, Laura; Zaman, Shakila; Laing, Lory; Ellison, George T H

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests national- and community-level interventions are not reaching women living at the economic and social margins of society in Pakistan. We conducted a 10-month qualitative study (May 2010-February 2011) in a village in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected using 94 in-depth interviews, 11 focus group discussions, 134 observational sessions, and 5 maternal death case studies. Despite awareness of birth complications and treatment options, poverty and dependence on richer, higher-caste people for cash transfers or loans prevented women from accessing required care. There is a need to end the invisibility of low-caste groups in Pakistani health care policy. Technical improvements in maternal health care services should be supported to counter social and economic marginalization so progress can be made toward Millennium Development Goal 5 in Pakistan.

  12. Persistent social isolation reflects identity and social context but not maternal effects or early environment.

    Brent, L J N; Ruiz-Lambides, A; Platt, M L

    2017-12-19

    Individuals who are well integrated into society have greater access to resources and tend to live longer. Why some individuals are socially isolated and others are not is therefore puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Answering this question requires establishing the mix of intrinsic and contextual factors that contribute to social isolation. Using social network data spanning up to half of the median adult lifespan in a gregarious primate, we found that some measures of social isolation were modestly repeatable within individuals, consistent with a trait. By contrast, social isolation was not explained by the identity of an animal's mother or the group into which it was born. Nevertheless, age, sex and social status each played a role, as did kin dynamics and familiarity. Females with fewer close relatives were more isolated, and the more time males spent in a new group the less isolated they became, independent of their social status. These results show that social isolation results from a combination of intrinsic and environmental factors. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that social isolation could be adaptive in some contexts and partly maintained by selection.

  13. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    Cinar, N.; Kose, D.; Altinkaynak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  14. Social determinants and maternal exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients with severe maternal morbidity in the intensive care unit: a systematic review protocol.

    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Taft, Angela; McDonald, Susan; Pollock, Wendy; Roque Henriquez, Joel Christian

    2016-11-28

    Maternal mortality is a potentially preventable public health issue. Maternal morbidity is increasingly of interest to aid the reduction of maternal mortality. Obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are an important part of the global burden of maternal morbidity. Social determinants influence health outcomes of pregnant women. Additionally, intimate partner violence has a great negative impact on women's health and pregnancy outcome. However, little is known about the contextual and social aspects of obstetric patients treated in the ICU. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the social determinants and exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric patients admitted to an ICU. A systematic search will be conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, LILACS and SciELO from 2000 to 2016. Studies published in English and Spanish will be identified in relation to data reporting on social determinants of health and/or exposure to intimate partner violence of obstetric women, treated in the ICU during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy. Two reviewers will independently screen for study eligibility and data extraction. Risk of bias and assessment of the quality of the included studies will be performed by using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Data will be analysed and summarised using a narrative description of the available evidence across studies. This systematic review protocol will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Since this systematic review will be based on published studies, ethical approval is not required. Findings will be presented at La Trobe University, in Conferences and Congresses, and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42016037492. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Social comparison of academic performance in the classroom : who compares with friends and who doesn't?

    Lubbers, M. J.; Kuyper, H.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicated that students in secondary education compare their grades predominantly with those of friends in the classroom and that students who choose non-friends as targets tend to compare themselves more strategically. Furthermore, students' academic progress was found to benefit from

  16. Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: factor structure of the modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (DSSQ-Friends)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the underlying factor structure of friends' enacted support behaviours for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, confirm it in a second sample, delineate distinctive aspects of friends' support and test the reliability of resulting scale. Methods The study included a total of 434

  17. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  18. Maternal depression and parenting in early childhood: Contextual influence of marital quality and social support in two samples.

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David

    2017-03-01

    Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Associations of social support and stress with postpartum maternal mental health symptoms: Main effects, moderation, and mediation.

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato

    2017-07-01

    Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.

  20. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  1. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  2. Associations of Social Support, Friends Only Known Through the Internet, and Health-Related Quality of Life with Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kammerl, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). In the present study, the relationship among social support, friends only known through the Internet, health-related quality of life, and IGD in adolescence was explored for the first time. For this purpose, 1,095 adolescents aged from 12 to 14 years were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire concerning IGD, self-perceived social support, proportion of friends only known through the Internet, and health-related quality of life. The authors conducted unpaired t-tests, a chi-square test, as well as correlation and logistic regression analyses. According to the statistical analyses, adolescents with IGD reported lower self-perceived social support, more friends only known through the Internet, and a lower health-related quality of life compared with the group without IGD. Both in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models, statistically significant associations between IGD and male gender, a higher proportion of friends only known through the Internet, and a lower health-related quality of life (multivariate model: Nagelkerke's R 2  = 0.37) were revealed. Lower self-perceived social support was related to IGD in the bivariate model only. In summary, quality of life and social aspects seem to be important factors for IGD in adolescence and therefore should be incorporated in further (longitudinal) studies. The findings of the present survey may provide starting points for the development of prevention and intervention programs for adolescents affected by IGD.

  3. Material consumption and social well-being within the periphery of the world economy: an ecological analysis of maternal mortality.

    Rice, James

    2008-12-01

    The degree to which social well-being is predicated upon levels of material consumption remains under-examined from a large-N, quantitative perspective. The present study analyzes the factors influencing levels of maternal mortality in 2005 among 92 peripheral countries. We incorporate into regression analysis the ecological footprint, a comprehensive measure of natural resource consumption, and alternative explanatory variables drawn from previous research. Results illustrate ecological footprint consumption has a moderately strong direct influence shaping lower levels of maternal mortality. Path analysis reveals export commodity concentration has a negative effect on level of ecological footprint demand net the strong positive influence of income per capita. This illustrates cross-national trade dependency relations directly influence natural resource consumption opportunities and thereby indirectly contribute to higher maternal mortality levels within the periphery of the world economy. The results confirm material consumption is an important dimension of improvement in maternal mortality.

  4. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India.

    Haemmerli, Manon; Santos, Andreia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Lange, Isabelle; Matovu, Fred; Benova, Lenka; Wong, Kerry L M; Goodman, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/or delivery services at franchise clinics (in Uttar Pradesh only ANC services were offered). Women were allocated to national (Uganda) or state (India) SES quintiles. Franchise users were concentrated in the higher SES quintiles in all settings. The percent in the top two quintiles was highest in Uganda (over 98% for both ANC and delivery), followed by Rajasthan (62.8% for ANC, 72.1% for delivery) and Uttar Pradesh (48.5% for ANC). The percent of clients in the lowest two quintiles was zero in Uganda, 7.1 and 3.1% for ANC and delivery, respectively, in Rajasthan and 16.3% in Uttar Pradesh. Differences in SES distribution across the programmes may reflect variation in user fees, the average SES of the national/state populations and the range of services covered. We found little variation in content of care by SES. Key factors limiting the ability of such maternal health social franchises to reach poorer groups may include the lack of suitable facilities in the poorest areas, the inability of the poorest women to afford any private sector fees and competition with free or even incentivized public sector services. Moreover, there are tensions between targeting poorer groups, and franchise objectives of improving quality and business performance and enhancing financial sustainability, meaning that middle income and poorer groups are unlikely to be reached in large numbers in the absence of additional subsidies.

  5. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India

    Haemmerli, Manon; Santos, Andreia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Lange, Isabelle; Matovu, Fred; Benova, Lenka; Wong, Kerry LM

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/or delivery services at franchise clinics (in Uttar Pradesh only ANC services were offered). Women were allocated to national (Uganda) or state (India) SES quintiles. Franchise users were concentrated in the higher SES quintiles in all settings. The percent in the top two quintiles was highest in Uganda (over 98% for both ANC and delivery), followed by Rajasthan (62.8% for ANC, 72.1% for delivery) and Uttar Pradesh (48.5% for ANC). The percent of clients in the lowest two quintiles was zero in Uganda, 7.1 and 3.1% for ANC and delivery, respectively, in Rajasthan and 16.3% in Uttar Pradesh. Differences in SES distribution across the programmes may reflect variation in user fees, the average SES of the national/state populations and the range of services covered. We found little variation in content of care by SES. Key factors limiting the ability of such maternal health social franchises to reach poorer groups may include the lack of suitable facilities in the poorest areas, the inability of the poorest women to afford any private sector fees and competition with free or even incentivized public sector services. Moreover, there are tensions between targeting poorer groups, and franchise objectives of improving quality and business performance and enhancing financial sustainability, meaning that middle income and poorer groups are unlikely to be reached in large numbers in the absence of additional subsidies. PMID:29373681

  6. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics.

    Potocka, Adrianna; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2017-07-14

    It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother's socio-demographic (age and relationship status) and socio-economic features (education and professional status) differentiate the child's nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child's nutritional status, body mass index (BMI) z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR), the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC), fat (%ET) and proteins (%EP). Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. The results showed that mother's education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child's nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child's social background (e.g., maternal factors). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):811-821. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Differences in nutritional status of preschool children in the context of the maternal social characteristics

    Adrianna Potocka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is generally accepted that maternal factors are important in maintaining the adequate nutritional status of young children. This study was aimed at verifying whether mother’s socio-demographic (age and relationship status and socio-economic features (education and professional status differentiate the child’s nutritional status. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2013. Five hundred thirty mothers of preschool children from 5 different regions of Poland were interviewed. Mothers were interviewed on their socio-demographic and socio-economic status. To assess the child’s nutritional status, body mass index (BMI z-score and the diet indicators were calculated, such as the percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy (%EAR, the percentage of energy coming from carbohydrates (%EC, fat (%ET and proteins (%EP. Percentage of the estimated average requirement for energy, %EC, %ET and %EP was obtained from 24-h dietary recalls conducted with the mothers. Results: The results showed that mother’s education and professional status did not differentiate any of the indices of the child’s nutritional status. However, maternal age and her relationship status occurred significant (ANOVA; p < 0.05. Children of younger mothers had higher BMI z-score and higher %EC as compared to children of older mothers. Moreover, %EAR was higher among children of single mothers and it was closer to the recommended nutrition standards as compared to children of mothers with a partner. Conclusions: When a child is diagnosed with any type of malnutrition, it is worth assessing various factors that might influence the nutritional status, such as child’s social background (e.g., maternal factors. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:811–821

  9. Socially disadvantaged women's views of barriers to feeling safe to engage in decision-making in maternity care.

    Ebert, Lyn; Bellchambers, Helen; Ferguson, Alison; Browne, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Although midwifery literature suggests that woman-centred care can improve the birthing experiences of women and birth outcomes for women and babies, recent research has identified challenges in supporting socially disadvantaged women to engage in decision-making regarding care options in order to attain a sense of control within their maternity care encounters. The objective of this paper is to provide an understanding of the issues that affect the socially disadvantaged woman's ability to actively engage in decision-making processes relevant to her care. The qualitative approach known as Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to gain an understanding of maternity care encounters as experienced by each of the following cohorts: socially disadvantaged women, registered midwives and student midwives. This paper focuses specifically on data from participating socially disadvantaged women that relate to the elements of woman-centred care-choice and control and their understandings of capacity to engage in their maternity care encounters. Socially disadvantaged women participants did not feel safe to engage in discussions regarding choice or to seek control within their maternity care encounters. Situations such as inadequate contextualised information, perceived risks in not conforming to routine procedures, and the actions and reactions of midwives when these women did seek choice or control resulted in a silent compliance. This response was interpreted as a consequence of women's decisions to accept responsibility for their baby's wellbeing by delegating health care decision-making to the health care professional. This research found that socially disadvantaged women want to engage in their care. However without adequate information and facilitation of choice by midwives, they believe they are outsiders to the maternity care culture and decision-making processes. Consequently, they delegate responsibility for maternity care choices to those who do belong

  10. Social buffering of stress responses in nonhuman primates: Maternal regulation of the development of emotional regulatory brain circuits.

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai M; Howell, Brittany R

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses, exists in different animal species and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship, in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms that underlie it as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here, we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted, maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving, we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior, and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of the neural circuits underlying these functions.

  11. Social Buffering of Stress Responses in Nonhuman Primates: Maternal Regulation of the Development of Emotional Regulatory Brain Circuits

    McCormack, Kai M.; Howell, Brittany R.

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses exists in different animal species, and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms, which underlie it, as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of neural circuits underlying these functions. PMID:26324227

  12. Social support, posttraumatic cognitions, and PTSD: The influence of family, friends, and a close other in an interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma group.

    Woodward, Matthew J; Eddinger, Jasmine; Henschel, Aisling V; Dodson, Thomas S; Tran, Han N; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-10-01

    Research has suggested that social support can shape posttraumatic cognitions and PTSD. However, research has yet to compare the influence of separate domains of support on posttraumatic cognitions. Multiple-group path analysis was used to examine a model in a sample of 170 victims of intimate partner violence and 208 motor vehicle accident victims in which support from friends, family, and a close other were each predicted to influence posttraumatic cognitions, which were in turn predicted to influence PTSD. Analyses revealed that support from family and friends were each negatively correlated with posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn were positively associated with PTSD. Social support from a close other was not associated with posttraumatic cognitions. No significant differences in the model were found between trauma groups. Findings identify which relationships are likely to influence posttraumatic cognitions and are discussed with regard to interpersonal processes in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...

  14. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  15. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  16. Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth.

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Baltimore, MD. 296 youth aged 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Primary dependent variable: diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Adjusted multiple linear regressions (α, P Friend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high-fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β = -1.65; SE = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, -2.66 to -0.63). These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Social Coaching Quality Interrupts the Development of Relational Aggression During Early Childhood.

    Werner, Nicole E; Eaton, Ashley D; Lyle, Kelsey; Tseng, Heidi; Holst, Brooke

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that parents of socially competent young children provide them with elaborative, explicit, appropriate and emotion-laden advice about peer interactions. The current study analyzed mothers' conversations with preschoolers (N=175; 52% female; M age = 52 months, SD = 7 months) about peer conflicts involving relational aggression. Conversations were coded for maternal elaboration, emotion references, and discussion of norm violations. Information about relational and physical aggression was collected from teachers at two assessments approximately 12 months apart for a subsample of 136 children. Regression analyses, controlling for physical aggression, showed that average and high levels of effective coaching operated as a protective factor against stable high levels of relational aggression. Theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of the early development of relational aggression are discussed.

  18. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  19. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  20. Postpartum maternal separation anxiety, overprotective parenting, and children's social-emotional well-being: longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-08-01

    Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  1. The trade-offs of emotional reactivity for youths’ social information processing in the context of maternal depression

    Megan eFlynn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although research demonstrates that emotional experiences can influence cognitive processing, little is known about individual differences in this association, particularly in youth. The present study examined how the emotional backdrop of the caregiving environment, as reflected in exposure to maternal depression and anxiety, was linked to biases in youths’ cognitive processing of mother-referent information. Further, we investigated whether this association differed according to variation in youths’ emotional reactivity to stress. Youth (50 boys, 46 girls; M age = 12.36, SD = 1.05 completed a behavioral task assessing cognitive bias. Semi-structured interviews were administered to assess (a youths’ emotional reactivity to naturally occurring stressors, and (b maternal depression and anxiety. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that emotional reactivity to interpersonal stressors moderated the linkage between maternal depression and cognitive bias such that maternal depression predicted a greater negative bias in youth exhibiting high and average, but not low, levels of emotional reactivity. At low levels of maternal depression, youth with heightened interpersonal emotional reactivity showed a greater positive cognitive bias. This pattern of effects was specific to interpersonal (but not noninterpersonal emotional reactivity and to maternal depression (but not anxiety. These findings illuminate one personal characteristic of youth that moderates emotion-cognition linkages, and reveal that emotional reactivity both enhances and impairs youths’ cognitive processing as a function of socialization context.

  2. A comparison of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as unique predictors of infant social-emotional and cognitive development.

    Page, Melissa; Wilhelm, Mari S; Gamble, Wendy C; Card, Noel A

    2010-02-01

    Although maternal sensitivity has been shown to influence social-emotional development, the role of verbal stimulation on infant developmental outcomes has received less exploration. Recent research has focused on intentional behaviors within the context of a mother-infant interaction as a critical influence and as distinct from sensitivity. In this investigation 6377 mother-infant dyads participated in a teaching task as part of the sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analyses focused in deciphering the role of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as contributors to the infant's social-emotional (S-E) and cognitive (Cog) development. We further hypothesized that inclusion of infant age as a moderator of maternal behaviors would illuminate any differences between younger and older infants. For the infant's S-E development, our hypothesis that maternal sensitivity would be a stronger predictor than verbal stimulation was not supported; nor did we find support for our hypothesis that the association would be moderated by age. For Cog development, only verbal stimulation had a direct positive effect on the infant's cognitive ability; our findings for moderation showed that mothers spoke more to older infants than younger infants. Identification of specific maternal behaviors associated with infant outcomes informs the child development field, and also provides strategies for early intervention to assist mothers with developing or maintaining a consistent relationship that includes sensitivity and verbal stimulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of chronic social stress and maternal intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on offspring interferon γ and behavior

    Chris Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioural programming effects of intranasal (IN vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OXT treatment of chronic social stress (CSS exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior, and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon γ (IFNγ. Control and CSS exposed F1 dams were administered IN saline, AVP, or OXT during lactation and the F2 juvenile female offspring were assessed for basal plasma IFNγ and perseverative, anxiety, and social behavior. CSS F2 female juvenile offspring had elevated IFNγ levels and exhibited increased repetitive/perseverative and anxiety behaviours and deficits in social behavior. These effects were modulated by AVP and OXT in a context and behavior dependent manner, with OXT exhibiting preventative effects on repetitive and anxiety behaviours and AVP possessing preventative effects on social behavior deficits and anxiety. Basal IFNγ levels were elevated in the F2 offspring of OXT treated F1 dams, but IFNγ was not correlated with the behavioural effects. These results support the hypothesis that maternal AVP and OXT treatment have context and behavior specific effects on peripheral IFNγ levels and perseverative, anxiety, and social behaviours in the female offspring of early life social stress exposed dams. Both maternal AVP and OXT are effective at preventing social stress induced increases in self-directed measures of anxiety, and AVP is particularly effective at preventing impairments in overall social contact. Oxytocin is specifically effective at preventing repetitive

  4. A cross-sectional study of associations between casual partner, friend discrimination, social support and anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women.

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Show me your friends, and I shall show you who you are: the way attachment and social comparisons influence body dissatisfaction.

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar; Zohar, Ada H

    2014-11-01

    Women with attachment insecurity have greater eating disorder symptoms and poorer prognosis. Socio-cultural agents, such as peers and family, are predictive of the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID). The present study examines the association of insecure attachment styles and direct and indirect social comparisons of body image to women's BID and drive to thinness. Two hundred and eighty three women aged 18-42 years completed online self-reports concerning attachment styles, body mass index (BMI), drive for thinness, body image satisfaction, the Figure Rating Scale (FRS), as well as a modified FRS comparing self to mother, to sister closest in age and to best friend. Hierarchical Linear Models reveal that anxious-ambivalent, but not avoidant attachment style, along with indirect and direct comparisons to best friend and to sister influence drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, even after controlling for BMI and age. Of all social comparisons, feeling one's best friend is thinner than yourself is the most detrimental to body ideal. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Social preference and maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in virgin female rats: sex differences in involvement of brain oxytocin and vasopressin.

    Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-08-30

    Research concerning non-reproductive sociability in rodents is mainly restricted to assessing the effects of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in male rats and mice. Comparable studies on natural social preference and social avoidance in females are substantially lacking. Here, we adapted a behavioral paradigm for monitoring social preference of female rats consisting of two consecutive exposures to either non-social or social stimuli. Further, to induce stimulus-specific social avoidance, female rats were exposed to a single 10-min maternal defeat by a lactating dam. Social preference towards same-sex conspecifics in female rats was shown to be independent of the estrous cycle and even more pronounced than in male rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) application of OXT, AVP, or their selective receptor antagonists or agonists, did not alter naturally-occurring social preference in female rats. Stimulus-specific social avoidance could be induced by prior exposure to a lactating rat: an effect that could not be reversed/overcome by icv OXT. The female social preference paradigm for rats established in this study detected subtle sex differences in social preference behavior of rats. Further, stimulus-specific social deficits could be induced in female rats using an acute exposure to social defeat - as previously observed in male rodents. Female rats show strong social preference behavior, which can be prevented by social defeat, but does not seem to be regulated by the OXT or AVP systems. Accordingly, icv application of synthetic OXT does not reverse maternal defeat-induced social avoidance in female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal correlates of 2-year-old American Indian children's social-emotional development in a Northern Plains tribe.

    Sarche, Michelle C; Croy, Calvin D; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The developmental experiences of very young American Indian children today are not well documented in the current literature. The present study sought to explore the social-emotional development of American Indian toddlers living on a Northern Plains reservation, as a function of maternal variables. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires about their experiences and their children's development. Observer ratings of children's development also were conducted. Maternal stress, substance use/abuse, perceptions of stress in the mother-child relationship, social support, and American Indian cultural identity were significantly related to children's social-emotional development. This study is the first to explore these relationships in a Northern Plains American Indian sample of young children and their mothers. Results suggest possible points of intervention for improving the developmental outcomes of very young American Indian children. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Differences between Roma and non-Roma in how social support from family and friends helps to overcome health care accessibility problems.

    Bobakova, Daniela; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Babinska, Ingrid; Klein, Daniel; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Cislakova, Lydia

    2015-04-14

    Roma are the most deprived ethnic minority in Slovakia, suffering from discrimination, poverty and social exclusion. Problematic access to good quality health care as result of institutional and interpersonal discrimination affects their health; therefore, factors which affect health care accessibility of Roma are of high importance for public health and policy makers. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health care accessibility problems and ethnicity and how different levels of social support from family and friends affect this association. We used data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in 2011 in Slovakia. The final sample comprised 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) non-Roma respondents. Roma in comparison with non-Roma have a more than 3-times higher chance of reporting health care accessibility problems. Social support from family and friends significantly decreases the likelihood of reporting health care accessibility problems in both Roma and non-Roma, while the family seems to be the more important factor. The worse access to health care of Roma living in so-called settlements seems to be partially mediated by social support. Interventions should focus on Roma health mediators and community workers who can identify influential individuals who are able to change a community's fear and distrust and persuade and teach Roma to seek and appropriately use health care services.

  9. Peer and teacher ratings of third- and fourth-grade children's social behavior as a function of early maternal employment.

    Youngblade, Lise M

    2003-05-01

    One of the more controversial issues related to maternal employment in the United States concerns the timing of entry into the workforce and its effect on children, particularly during the first year of the child's life. Some studies show deleterious effects on children, such as increases in aggression and noncompliance, while others document few negative and even positive effects of early employment. This study examined the long-term effects of maternal employment during the child's first year of life on the social behavior of 171 third- and fourth-grade children in two-parent families. The moderating effects of child gender and social class were investigated. The extent to which stability in alternative care arrangements statistically explained links between early maternal employment and child outcomes was tested. After controlling for child gender, and maternal ethnicity, social class, and current employment status, third- and fourth-grade children whose mothers were employed during their first year of life evinced more acting out and less frustration tolerance and were nominated more often by peers for 'hitting' and 'being mean' than children whose mothers were not employed. There was some evidence that these associations were moderated by child gender and social class: boys, but not girls, whose mothers were employed during the first year were subsequently rated by teachers as acting out more than other children, and were also more likely to be nominated by peers for hitting. Higher nominations for hitting were only found in the working class. Finally, there was partial evidence that the number of alternative child-care arrangements during the first year accounted for the links between early maternal employment and subsequent child outcomes. These results are congruent with extant research that posits a risk of early employment on socioemotional development, but show that this risk is partially attributable to child-care instability.

  10. [Patterns of alcohol consumption in France and their medical and social consequences as seen through the family circle and friends and general practitioners].

    Hoertel, N; Crochard, A; Rouillon, F; Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    Data on the frequency of high-risk alcohol consumption and its medical and social consequences in the French general population remain fragmented. Therefore, our aim was two-fold: (i) to assess the prevalence of different patterns of alcohol consumption using the AUDIT-C scale, according to two different perspectives, i.e., that of family circle members or friends, and that of the general practitioners (GPs), and (ii) to examine the prevalence of medical and social consequences associated with alcohol consumption profiles. Data were drawn from two national surveys conducted in 2013. Investigators were respectively GPs and family circle members or friends. These surveys were respectively representative of GPs (n=1308) and of the general adult population (n=1018). The 12-month prevalence rates of harmful or at risk alcohol consumption rose respectively to 11.1% in the GPs adult patients and to 11.9% in the general adult population. The majority of participants with "at risk" alcohol consumption presented with significant social and medical consequences. Thus, more than seven out of ten participants with chronic at risk consumption endorsed significant negative social event potentially associated with alcohol like withdrawal of driving licence, getting divorced or separated, and losing friends. Over 10% of these participants had liver disease and diabetes mellitus, more than 30% increased blood pressure and nearly 50% anxiety disorder or major depression. Following adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol treatment, prevalences of numerous social and medical consequences significantly differed between alcohol-dependent participants, chronic at risk consumers and episodic at risk consumers. Our results suggest that more than one adult out of ten in France showed during the past year harmful or "at risk" alcohol consumption, which appears insufficiently detected and treated. In addition, the majority of at risk alcohol consumers already presents with

  11. Social exchange as a framework for client-nurse interaction during public health nursing maternal-child home visits.

    Byrd, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to develop a nursing-focused use of social exchange theory within the context of maternal-child home visiting. The nature of social exchange theory, its application to client-nurse interaction, and its fit with an existing data set from a field research investigation were examined. Resources exchanged between the nurse and clients were categorized and compared across the patterns of home visiting, nursing strategies based on exchange notions were identified, and variations in exchange were linked with client outcomes. The nurse provided resources within the categories of information, status, service, and goods. Clients provided time, access to the home, space within the home to conduct the visit, opportunities to observe maternal-child interaction, access to the infant, and information. The ease and breadth of resource exchange varied across the patterns of home visiting. The social exchange perspective was useful in categorizing resources, specifying and uncovering new resource categories, understanding nursing strategies to initiate and maintain the client-nurse relationship, and linking client-nurse interactive phenomena with client outcomes. Social exchange theory is potentially useful for understanding client-nurse interaction in the context of maternal-child home visits.

  12. Postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity: an exploration of possible social media-based measures.

    Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Callinan, Laura S; Mayes, Linda C; Smith, Megan V

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, directly observed maternal sensitivity, and the content and themes of pictures posted on a mobile application. Data on 20 participants were analyzed. Results suggested that mothers' scoring as more intrusive on the maternal sensitivity scale tended to post a higher proportion of photos of themselves interacting with their babies. An association between higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms and a lower proportion of posts of baby smiling photos was also suggested.

  13. The Peer Group as a Context: Moderating Effects on Relations between Maternal Parenting and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…

  14. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    Constantinos A. Loucaides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.

  15. Application of eco-friendly tools and eco-bio-social strategies to control dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban settings in Thailand.

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Thongyuan, Suporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Aumchareoun, Worawit; Koyadun, Surachart; Kittayapong, Rungrith; Butraporn, Piyarat

    2012-12-01

    Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Thailand. Its incidence is increasing despite routine implementation of national dengue control programmes. This study, conducted during 2010, aimed to demonstrate an application of integrated, community-based, eco-bio-social strategies in combination with locally-produced eco-friendly vector control tools in the dengue control programme, emphasizing urban and peri-urban settings in eastern Thailand. Three different community settings were selected and were randomly assigned to intervention and control clusters. Key community leaders and relevant governmental authorities were approached to participate in this intervention programme. Ecohealth volunteers were identified and trained in each study community. They were selected among active community health volunteers and were trained by public health experts to conduct vector control activities in their own communities using environmental management in combination with eco-friendly vector control tools. These trained ecohealth volunteers carried out outreach health education and vector control during household visits. Management of public spaces and public properties, especially solid waste management, was efficiently carried out by local municipalities. Significant reduction in the pupae per person index in the intervention clusters when compared to the control ones was used as a proxy to determine the impact of this programme. Our community-based dengue vector control programme demonstrated a significant reduction in the pupae per person index during entomological surveys which were conducted at two-month intervals from May 2010 for the total of six months in the intervention and control clusters. The programme also raised awareness in applying eco-friendly vector control approaches and increased intersectoral and household participation in dengue control activities. An eco-friendly dengue vector control programme was successfully implemented in

  16. Application of eco-friendly tools and eco-bio-social strategies to control dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban settings in Thailand

    Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Thongyuan, Suporn; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Aumchareoun, Worawit; Koyadun, Surachart; Kittayapong, Rungrith; Butraporn, Piyarat

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Thailand. Its incidence is increasing despite routine implementation of national dengue control programmes. This study, conducted during 2010, aimed to demonstrate an application of integrated, community-based, eco-bio-social strategies in combination with locally-produced eco-friendly vector control tools in the dengue control programme, emphasizing urban and peri-urban settings in eastern Thailand. Methodology Three different community settings were selected and were randomly assigned to intervention and control clusters. Key community leaders and relevant governmental authorities were approached to participate in this intervention programme. Ecohealth volunteers were identified and trained in each study community. They were selected among active community health volunteers and were trained by public health experts to conduct vector control activities in their own communities using environmental management in combination with eco-friendly vector control tools. These trained ecohealth volunteers carried out outreach health education and vector control during household visits. Management of public spaces and public properties, especially solid waste management, was efficiently carried out by local municipalities. Significant reduction in the pupae per person index in the intervention clusters when compared to the control ones was used as a proxy to determine the impact of this programme. Results Our community-based dengue vector control programme demonstrated a significant reduction in the pupae per person index during entomological surveys which were conducted at two-month intervals from May 2010 for the total of six months in the intervention and control clusters. The programme also raised awareness in applying eco-friendly vector control approaches and increased intersectoral and household participation in dengue control activities. Conclusion An eco-friendly dengue vector control

  17. The Relationship Between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress.

    Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related to stress involving the child's hyperactivity and impulsivity. These findings highlight specific areas of stress experienced by mothers of children with ASD that are related to the child's symptoms, providing information for caregiver support and intervention.

  18. Predicting Social Wariness in Middle Childhood: The Moderating Roles of Childcare History, Maternal Personality and Maternal Behavior

    Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    Children with behavioral inhibition, a temperamental style characterized by infant distress to novelty and childhood social reticence, exhibit both continuity and discontinuity of this behavioral trait over the course of development. However, few researchers have identified factors that might be responsible for these different patterns. In the…

  19. More Colleges Are Adding Family-Friendly Benefits

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Results of a new survey of family-friendly benefits by the Center for the Education of Women at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor show that stopping the tenure clock has become the most common family-friendly benefit in higher education, following paid maternity leave. Other family-friendly policies that top the list in academe allow…

  20. Friends and foes in the occupational career : the influence of sweet and sour social capital on the labour market

    Moerbeek, Hester Hagar Susan

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary studies on the influence of social capital on the labour market have mainly focused on the positive side of social relationships - how people can help each other in their careers. This study adopts a different approach by also including the negative side of social relationships - how

  1. Psychological Distress and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Satisfaction, Parenting Stress, and Social Support Among Mothers and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Pinto, Ricardo J; Correia-Santos, Patrícia; Levendosky, Alytia; Jongenelen, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers' and children's mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women's psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children's emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children ( n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children's emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.

  2. The social transmission of risk: Maternal stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and well-being mediate the effects of war exposure on child psychopathology.

    Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  4. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. "You've got a friend in me": can social networks mediate the relationship between mood and MCI?

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T

    2017-07-13

    Social networks can change with age, for reasons that are adaptive or unwanted. Social engagement is beneficial to both mental health and cognition, and represents a potentially modifiable factor. Consequently this study explored this association and assessed whether the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mood problems was mediated by social networks. This study includes an analysis of data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS Wales). CFAS Wales Phase 1 data were collected from 2010 to 2013 by conducting structured interviews with older people aged over 65 years of age living in urban and rural areas of Wales, and included questions that assessed cognitive functioning, mood, and social networks. Regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between individual variables and the mediating role of social networks. Having richer social networks was beneficial to both mood and cognition. Participants in the MCI category had weaker social networks than participants without cognitive impairment, whereas stronger social networks were associated with a decrease in the odds of experiencing mood problems, suggesting that they may offer a protective effect against anxiety and depression. Regression analyses revealed that social networks are a significant mediator of the relationship between MCI and mood problems. These findings are important, as mood problems are a risk factor for progression from MCI to dementia, so interventions that increase and strengthen social networks may have beneficial effects on slowing the progression of cognitive decline.

  6. Emotion Socialization Strategies of Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation and Interactions With Infant Temperament.

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Viana, Andres G; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-01

    Although the interpersonal difficulties associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are well established, their manifestations within the context of parent-child relationships remain understudied. The current study investigated the relation of maternal BPD symptoms to nonsupportive emotion socialization (i.e., the extent to which mothers punish or minimize their young children's displays of negative emotions), as well as the mediating role of maternal emotion regulation difficulties in this relation. The authors also investigated the moderating role of maternal BPD symptoms in the relation between infant temperamental anger and fear and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. Using a sample of 99 mother-infant dyads, the authors found that maternal BPD symptoms were significantly related to punitive/minimizing emotion socialization and that maternal emotion regulation difficulties mediated this relation. Moreover, maternal BPD symptoms strengthened the association between mother-reported infant anger and punitive/minimizing emotion socialization. These results extend the growing literature on the impact of maternal BPD on child development.

  7. "You've got a friend in me": can social networks mediate the relationship between mood and MCI?

    Yates, Jennifer A.; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Social networks can change with age, for reasons that are adaptive or unwanted. Social engagement is beneficial to both mental health and cognition, and represents a potentially modifiable factor. Consequently this study explored this association and assessed whether the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mood problems was mediated by social networks. Methods This study includes an analysis of data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS Wales...

  8. ?Not all my friends need to know?: a qualitative study of teenage patients, privacy, and social media

    van der Velden, Maja; El Emam, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature describes teenagers as active users of social media, who seem to care about privacy, but who also reveal a considerable amount of personal information. There have been no studies of how they manage personal health information on social media. Objective To understand how chronically ill teenage patients manage their privacy on social media sites. Design A qualitative study based on a content analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 hospital patients (12?18?years)...

  9. [The role of pediatric polyclinics in social and legal work concerning maternal and child health].

    Grebesheva, I I; Chicherin, L P; Esikov, M S

    1990-01-01

    Approaches to protection of mother and child health in the USSR are outlined with special emphasis on the role of children's polyclinics. The law on childhood protection is based on 10 principles of Declaration on Children Rights adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1959. Current legislation provides for an increase in the duration of paid leave to care for the sick child up to 14 years of age, an increase in the monthly stipends to the children of military personnel, and free drug prescriptions for children up to 3 years of age treated as outpatients. From September 1, 1990, the duration of paid maternity leave for working women is 70 days. In light of a general legal reform currently conducted in the USSR, children's polyclinics as the primary link in the health care system are charged with protection of legal rights of mothers and children. Presently, 1.4% of all marriages in the USSR end up in divorce, so that every year 700,000 children younger the 18 years old are brought up in a single-parent family. Almost 85% of children in orphanages have live parents. Almost 200,000 children have criminal record, and 14,000 children are diagnosed to have sexually transmitted diseases annually. The legal work of children's polyclinics should be based on the evaluation of social risk factors. Following risk factors are identified: families with single mothers; families with 3 children; low-income families; families of the military personnel; families living in poor conditions; families with a history of death of a child 1 year old; disabled mothers; children of migrants or refugees; families in which one or both parent avoid the parental responsibilities or abuse their children.

  10. Social regulation of maternal traits in nest-founding bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) queens.

    Woodard, S Hollis; Bloch, Guy; Band, Mark R; Robinson, Gene E

    2013-09-15

    During the nest-founding phase of the bumble bee colony cycle, queens undergo striking changes in maternal care behavior. Early in the founding phase, prior to the emergence of workers in the nest, queens are reproductive and also provision and feed their offspring. However, later in the founding phase, queens reduce their feeding of larvae and become specialized on reproduction. This transition is synchronized with the emergence of workers in the colony, who assume the task of feeding their siblings. Using a social manipulation experiment with the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we tested the hypothesis that workers regulate the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in nest-founding bumble bee queens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that early-stage nest-founding queens with workers prematurely added to their nests reduce their brood-feeding behavior and increase egg laying, and likewise, late-stage nest-founding queens increase their brood-feeding behavior and decrease egg-laying when workers are removed from their nests. Further, brood-feeding and egg-laying behaviors were negatively correlated. We used Agilent microarrays designed from B. terrestris brain expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) to explore a second hypothesis, that workers alter brain gene expression in nest-founding queens. We found evidence that brain gene expression in nest-founding queens is altered by the presence of workers, with the effect being much stronger in late-stage founding queens. This study provides new insights into how the transition from feeding brood to specialization on reproduction in queen bumble bees is regulated during the nest initiation phase of the colony cycle.

  11. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure deregulates blood pressure, adiposity, cholesterol metabolism and social interaction in mouse offspring.

    Lee, Kuan-I; Chiang, Chin-Wei; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Li, Cheng-Ta; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-05-01

    Long-term exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is highly associated with carcinogenicity, fetotoxicity, psychological disorders and metabolic diseases, but the detrimental effects and mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of exposing mouse mothers to DEHP, and the underlying mechanism, on blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol metabolism as well as psychological and learning behaviors in offspring. Tail-cuff plethysmography was used for blood pressure measurement; Western blot used was for phosphorylation and expression of protein; hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl staining and Golgi staining were used for histological examination. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were measured by blood biochemical analysis. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were assessed by colorimetric assay kits. Offspring behaviors were evaluated by open-field activity, elevated plus maze, social preference test and Morris water maze. Maternal DEHP exposure deregulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and upregulated angiotensin type 1 receptor in offspring, which led to increased blood pressure. It led to obesity in offspring by increasing the size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue and number of adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. It increased the serum level of cholesterol in offspring by decreasing the hepatic capacity for cholesterol clearance. The impaired social interaction ability induced by maternal DEHP exposure might be due to abnormal neuronal development. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that maternal exposure to DEHP has a lasting effect on the physiological functions of the vascular system, adipose tissue and nerve system in offspring.

  12. Exploring the Life Course Perspective in Maternal and Child Health through Community-Based Participatory Focus Groups: Social Risks Assessment.

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; King, Lindsey M; Salihu, Hamisu M; Berry, Estrellita; Austin, Deborah; Nash, Susan; Scarborough, Kenneth; Best, Evangeline; Cox, Lillian; King, Georgette; Hepburn, Carrie; Burpee, Conchita; Richardson, Eugene; Ducket, Marlo; Briscoe, Richard; Baldwin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of risk factors experienced by communities of color and how diverse community contexts shape the health trajectory of women from the early childhood period to the time of their pregnancies. Thus, we conducted a focus group study to identify social risks over the life course that contribute to maternal and child health from the perspective of community members residing in low income urban areas. Ten community-based participatory focus groups were conducted with residents from selected communities in Tampa, Florida, from September to November 2013. We used the life course perspective to illuminate and explain the experiences reported by the interviewees. A total of 78 residents participated in the focus groups. Children and adolescents' health risks were childhood obesity, lack of physical activity, and low self-esteem. Women's health risks were low self-esteem, low educational level, low health literacy, inadequate parenting skills, and financial problems. Risks during pregnancy included stress, low self-esteem, inadequate eating patterns, lack of physical activity, healthcare issues, lack of social support, and lack of father involvement during pregnancy. Multiple risk factors contribute to maternal and child health in low income communities in Tampa Bay. The intersection of risk factors in different life periods suggest possible pathways, cumulative, and latent effects, which must be considered in future longitudinal studies and when developing effective maternal and child health programs and policies.

  13. "Not all my friends need to know": a qualitative study of teenage patients, privacy, and social media.

    van der Velden, Maja; El Emam, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    The literature describes teenagers as active users of social media, who seem to care about privacy, but who also reveal a considerable amount of personal information. There have been no studies of how they manage personal health information on social media. To understand how chronically ill teenage patients manage their privacy on social media sites. A qualitative study based on a content analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 hospital patients (12-18 years). Most teenage patients do not disclose their personal health information on social media, even though the study found a pervasive use of Facebook. Facebook is a place to be a "regular", rather than a sick teenager. It is a place where teenage patients stay up-to-date about their social life-it is not seen as a place to discuss their diagnosis and treatment. The majority of teenage patients don't use social media to come into contact with others with similar conditions and they don't use the internet to find health information about their diagnosis. Social media play an important role in the social life of teenage patients. They enable young patients to be "regular" teenagers. Teenage patients' online privacy behavior is an expression of their need for self-definition and self-protection.

  14. “Not all my friends need to know”: a qualitative study of teenage patients, privacy, and social media

    El Emam, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature describes teenagers as active users of social media, who seem to care about privacy, but who also reveal a considerable amount of personal information. There have been no studies of how they manage personal health information on social media. Objective To understand how chronically ill teenage patients manage their privacy on social media sites. Design A qualitative study based on a content analysis of semistructured interviews with 20 hospital patients (12–18 years). Results Most teenage patients do not disclose their personal health information on social media, even though the study found a pervasive use of Facebook. Facebook is a place to be a “regular”, rather than a sick teenager. It is a place where teenage patients stay up-to-date about their social life—it is not seen as a place to discuss their diagnosis and treatment. The majority of teenage patients don't use social media to come into contact with others with similar conditions and they don't use the internet to find health information about their diagnosis. Conclusions Social media play an important role in the social life of teenage patients. They enable young patients to be “regular” teenagers. Teenage patients' online privacy behavior is an expression of their need for self-definition and self-protection. PMID:22771531

  15. Social autopsy for maternal and child deaths: a comprehensive literature review to examine the concept and the development of the method

    Koffi Alain K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Social autopsy" refers to an interview process aimed at identifying social, behavioral, and health systems contributors to maternal and child deaths. It is often combined with a verbal autopsy interview to establish the biological cause of death. Two complementary purposes of social autopsy include providing population-level data to health care programmers and policymakers to utilize in developing more effective strategies for delivering maternal and child health care technologies, and increasing awareness of maternal and child death as preventable problems in order to empower communities to participate and engage health programs to increase their responsiveness and accountability. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the concept and development of social autopsy, focusing on the contributions of the Pathway Analysis format for child deaths and the Maternal and Perinatal Death Inquiry and Response program in India to social autopsy's success in meeting key objectives. The Pathway Analysis social autopsy format, based on the Pathway to Survival model designed to support the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach, was developed from 1995 to 2001 and has been utilized in studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Adoption of the Pathway model has enriched the data gathered on care seeking for child illnesses and supported the development of demand- and supply-side interventions. The instrument has recently been updated to improve the assessment of neonatal deaths and is soon to be utilized in large-scale population-representative verbal/social autopsy studies in several African countries. Maternal death audit, starting with confidential inquiries into maternal deaths in Britain more than 50 years ago, is a long-accepted strategy for reducing maternal mortality. More recently, maternal social autopsy studies that supported health programming have been conducted in several developing countries

  16. Social skills and behavior problems of urban, African American preschoolers: role of parenting practices, family conflict, and maternal depression.

    Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  17. A Few Close Friends: The Pediatrician's Role in the Management of Social Skills Deficits in Adolescent Children.

    Braddock, Barbara A; Twyman, Kimberly A; Garrity, Matthew R; Wang, Tracy; Neary, Meaghan K; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Heithaus, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Pediatricians must recognize and respond to adolescents with social skills deficits because they are at heightened risk for mental health disorders, peer victimization, and social isolation. The aim of this project was to describe a group of adolescent children at the time of enrollment into social skills treatment. Ninety participants with neurodevelopmental weaknesses or disorders, to include high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, participated. Results showed that adolescents referred for social skills deficits had communication weaknesses and concerns in everyday social reciprocal behavior. They rarely hosted get-togethers with same-aged peers and were not often invited by same-aged peers to get-togethers. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported that they were victims of bullying, and more than half of participants reported clinically significant ostracism experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the pediatrician's role in the prevention, identification, and treatment of social skills deficits in light of recent research showing brain neuroplasticity extending into adolescence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Maternal Devices”, Social Media and the Self-Management of Pregnancy, Mothering and Child Health

    Sophia Alice Johnson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the smartphone has revolutionised lay people’s management of health and illness, particularly in regards to pregnancy and parenting. This article analyses smartphone applications, or apps, and social media platforms as mediating technologies which act as performative devices. These devices encourage particular enactments of subjectivity and technologies of the self which combine the expert patient ideal with ideologies of mothering. Some apps and social media can be disciplinary and invoke biological responsibility in various ways including the monitoring of specific behaviours via “push responsibilisation”. Apps claim to allow for greater convenience, connectivity, flexibility, efficiency, and what will be characterised in this article as the “tidbitisation” of information. This article suggests the ways in which health-conscious pregnant or maternal subjects are likely to view apps and social media sites as a means to improve and monitor their pregnancies, health, and their children’s development and health.

  19. The relationship of maternal-fetal attachment and depression with social support in pregnant women referring to health centers of Tabriz-Iran, 2016.

    Delavari, Mina; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh

    2018-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of maternal-fetal attachment and depression during pregnancy with social support. This cross-sectional study was done on 287 primipara women. The data collection tools used included a demographic characteristics questionnaire, Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Social Support Scale. Pearson's correlation test and general linear model were used for data analysis. The mean maternal-fetal attachment score was 90.0 (SD: 10.3). The highest score was obtained in the "role taking" domain and the lowest in the "interaction with the fetus" domain. The mean depression score was 8.5 (SD: 4.0). The score of perceived social support was 135.5 (SD: 15.6). Pearson's correlation test showed a significant positive correlation between social support and maternal-fetal attachment (r = 0.36, p social support and depression (r= -0.14, p = .018). The present study found a significant relationship between maternal-fetal attachment, depression and social support. It is recommended to devise plans for increasing the support given to women and to improve the society's and families' awareness about these issues in the attempt to have healthy mothers and thereby healthy families and communities.

  20. A cohort study on full breastfeeding and child neuropsychological development: the role of maternal social, psychological, and nutritional factors.

    Julvez, Jordi; Guxens, Monica; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Forns, Joan; Mendez, Michelle; Turner, Michelle C; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated whether duration of full breastfeeding is associated with child neuropsychological development and whether this association is explained by social, psychological, and nutritional factors within families. Participants in this study were a population-based birth cohort in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain). Females were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy between July 2004 and July 2006. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained through questionnaires. Full breastfeeding was categorized as never, short term (≤4mo), long term (4-6mo), or very long term (>6mo). A trained psychologist assessed the neuropsychological development of children at 4 years of age (n=434) using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Full breastfeeding showed an independent association with child general MSCA scores after adjusting for a range of social, psychological, and nutritional factors (>6mo, coefficient=7.4 [95% confidence interval=2.8-12.0], p=0.011). Maternal social class, education level, and IQ were also associated with child neuropsychological scores, but did not explain breastfeeding associations. Omega-3 (n3) fatty acid levels were not associated with child neuropsychological scores. Very long-term full breastfeeding was independently associated with neuropsychological functions of children at 4 years of age. Maternal indicators of intelligence, psychopathology, and colostrum n3 fatty acids did not explain this association. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. When Sharing Is a Bad Idea: The Effects of Online Social Network Engagement and Sharing Passwords with Friends on Cyberbullying Involvement.

    Meter, Diana J; Bauman, Sheri

    2015-08-01

    Every day, children and adolescents communicate online via social networking sites (SNSs). They also report sharing passwords with peers and friends, a potentially risky behavior in regard to cyber safety. This longitudinal study tested the hypotheses that social network engagement in multiple settings would predict more cyberbullying involvement over time, and that youth who reported sharing passwords would also experience an increase in cyberbullying involvement. Data were collected at two time points one year apart from 1,272 third through eighth grade students. In line with the first study hypothesis, participating in more online SNSs was associated with increased cyberbullying involvement over time, as well as sharing passwords over time. Cyberbullying involvement at T1 predicted decreases in sharing passwords over time, suggesting that youth become aware of the dangers of sharing passwords as a result of their experience. Sharing passwords at T1 was unrelated to cyberbullying involvement at T2. Although it seems that youth may be learning from their previous mistakes, due to the widespread use of social media and normality of sharing passwords among young people, it is important to continue to educate youth about cyber safety and risky online behavior.

  2. Understanding Title V of the Social Security Act: A Guide to the Provisions of the Federal Maternal and Child Health Block Grant.

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC. Maternal and Child Health Bureau.

    The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Services Block Grant (Title V of the Social Security Act) has operated as a federal-state partnership since the Social Security Act was passed in 1935. Through Title V, the federal government pledged its support of state efforts to extend health and welfare services for mothers and children. Title V has been…

  3. Social media - a political journalist’s friend or foe? - Political journalists’ opinions on how social media influence their job and possibilities to communicate with politicians

    Rosenback, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Developing technologies and social media platforms offer new ways of producing and receiving political content. The political elites need to follow, and update social media on a regular basis, and political messages are being blended into the world of entertainment and show business. At the same time, journalists have incorporated social media in their daily job and use social media platforms as working tools. This affects the interconnections between journalists and politicians, making their...

  4. “Is it me or should my friends take the credit?” The role of social networks and social identity in recovery from addiction

    Bathish, Ramez; Best, David; Savic, Michael; Beckwith, Melinda; Mackenzie, Jock; Lubman, Dan I.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role of social network and social identity factors in recovery from addiction. The sample consisted of 537 individuals who completed a survey about their experiences of recovery. Results indicated that the transition from addiction to recovery was characterized by an increase in social connectedness and changes in social network composition coupled with the emergence of a “recovery” identity. These factors accounted for 14% of the variance in quality of life when contr...

  5. Have You Ever Googled a Patient or Been Friended by a Patient? Social Media Intersects the Practice of Genetic Counseling.

    Omaggio, NinaMarie F; Baker, Maria J; Conway, Laura J

    2018-04-01

    Patients and healthcare providers are becoming increasingly connected via social media, bringing new opportunities and challenges. Direct connection can occur between patients and providers using online tools such as Facebook and LinkedIn. In addition, providers can gather information about patients using a search engine such as Google, referred to as patient-targeted Googling (PTG). An online 54-item survey was used to gain information on (1) how and to what extent genetic counseling students and genetic counselors connect directly with patients via social media sites, and (2) gather information on providers using PTG. Four hundred genetic counseling students and genetic counselors participated in the survey. The majority of respondents (88.9%; n = 344/387) find it is never or rarely acceptable to interact with current patients via social media sites; however, 27.7% (n = 110/397) have visited a patient's social media site. Gathering information for patient care was the most commonly reported reason (76.8%; n = 43/56). Thirty-three percent (n = 130/394) have considered searching online or actually searched online for information about a patient. Curiosity was the most common reason (92.7%; n = 114/123); although, respondents also used PTG to obtain contact information and to prepare for patient sessions. Our study supports the need for development and dissemination of professional guidelines to serve as a valuable resource for practicing genetic counselors and genetic counseling training programs.

  6. Understanding the Selection Bias : Social Network Processes and the Effect of Prejudice on the Avoidance of Outgroup Friends

    Stark, Tobias H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/335996701

    2015-01-01

    Research has found that prejudiced people avoid friendships with members of ethnic outgroups. Results of this study suggest that this effect is mediated by a social network process. Longitudinal network analysis of a three-wave panel study of 12- to 13-year-olds (N = 453) found that more prejudiced

  7. Strengthening the Social Information-Processing Skills of Children: A Controlled Test of the "Let's Be Friends" Program in China

    Wu, Fan; Fraser, Mark W.; Guo, Shenyang; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study had two objectives (a) to adapt for Chinese children an intervention designed to strengthen the social information--processing (SIP) skills of children in the United States, and (b) to pilot test the adapted intervention in China. Methods: Adaptation of the "Making Choices" program involved reviewing Chinese…

  8. Does maternal environmental tobacco smoke interact with social-demographics and environmental factors on congenital heart defects?

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jimei; Guo, Xiaoling; Ou, Yanqiu; Chen, Guanchun; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gong, Wei; Wu, Yong; Gao, Xiangmin; Qu, Yanji; Bell, Erin M; Lin, Shao; Zhuang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014). The CHDs were evaluated by obstetrician, pediatrician, or cardiologist, and confirmed by cardia tomography/catheterization. Controls were randomly chosen from singleton newborns without any malformation, born in the same hospital as the cases and 1:1 matched by infant sex, time of conception, and parental residence (same city and town to ensure sufficient geographical distribution for analyses). Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on demographics, behavior patterns, maternal disease/medication, and environmental exposures. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ETS exposure on CHDs while controlling for all risk factors. Interactive effects were evaluated using a multivariate delta method for maternal demographics, behavior, and environmental exposures on the ETS-CHD relationship. Mothers exposed to ETS during the first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to have infants with CHD than mothers who did not (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.25-1.66). We also observed a significant dose-response relationship when mothers were exposed to ETS and an increasing number of risk factors and CHDs. There were greater than additive interactions for maternal ETS and migrant status, low household income and paternal alcohol consumption on CHDs. Maternal low education also modified the ETS

  9. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Are Facebook "Friends" Helpful? Development of a Facebook-Based Measure of Social Support and Examination of Relationships Among Depression, Quality of Life, and Social Support.

    McCloskey, Wilfred; Iwanicki, Sierra; Lauterbach, Dean; Giammittorio, David M; Maxwell, Kendal

    2015-09-01

    Greater social support is predictive of lower depression and higher quality of life (QOL). However, the way in which social support is provided has changed greatly with the expanding role of social networking sites (e.g., Facebook). While there are numerous anecdotal accounts of the benefits of Facebook-based social support, little empirical evidence exists to support these assertions, and there are no empirically validated measures designed to assess social support provided via this unique social networking medium. This study sought to develop an empirically sound measure of Facebook-based social support (Facebook Measure of Social Support [FMSS]) and to assess how this new measure relates to previously established measures of support and two outcome variables: depression and QOL. Following exploratory factor analysis, the FMSS was determined to assess four factors of social support on Facebook (Perceived, Emotional, Negative, Received/Instrumental). The Negative Support factor on the FMSS was most strongly related to both depression and QOL with magnitudes (and direction of relationships) comparable to a traditional measure of perceived social support. However, two FMSS factors (Received/Instrumental and Perceived) were unrelated to both mental health outcomes. Contrary to expectations, elevations in one FMSS factor (Emotional) was associated with worse symptoms of depression and poorer psychological QOL. When taken together, only the absence of negative social support on Facebook is significantly predictive of mental health functioning. Consequently, those hoping to use Facebook as a medium for reducing depression or improving QOL are unlikely to realize significant therapeutic benefits.

  12. The social gradient in birthweight at term: quantification of the mediating role of maternal smoking and body mass index

    Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term.......Maternal education is associated with the birthweight of offspring. We sought to quantify the role of maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking as intermediary variables between maternal education and birthweight at term....

  13. The effects of maternal alcohol use disorders on childhood relationships and mental health.

    Wolfe, Joseph D

    2016-10-01

    Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.

  14. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Hernádi, Anna; Kis, Anna; Turcsán, Borbála; Topál, József

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo) and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing) and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  15. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Anna Hernádi

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  16. Social accountability for maternal health services in Muanda and Bolenge Health Zones, Democratic Republic of Congo: a situation analysis.

    Mafuta, Eric M; Dieleman, Marjolein A; Hogema, Lisanne M; Khomba, Paul N; Zioko, François M; Kayembe, Patrick K; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Mambu, Thérèse N M

    2015-11-23

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest maternal mortality ratio estimated at 846 deaths per 100,000 live births. Innovative strategies such as social accountability are needed to improve both health service delivery and utilization. Indeed, social accountability is a form of citizen engagement defined as the 'extent and capability of citizens to hold politicians, policy makers and providers accountable and make them responsive to their needs.' This study explores existing social accountability mechanisms through which women's concerns are expressed and responded to by health providers in local settings. An exploratory study was conducted in two health zones with purposively sampled respondents including twenty-five women, five men, five health providers, two health zone officers and eleven community stakeholders. Data on women's voice and oversight and health providers' responsiveness were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. In the two health zones, women rarely voiced their concerns and expectations about health services. This reluctance was due to: the absence of procedures to express them, to the lack of knowledge thereof, fear of reprisals, of being misunderstood as well as factors such as age-related power, ethnicity backgrounds, and women's status. The means most often mentioned by women for expressing their concerns were as individuals rather than as a collective. They did not use them instead; instead they looked to intermediaries, mostly, trusted health providers, community health workers and local leaders. Their perceptions of health providers' responsiveness varied. For women, there were no mechanisms for oversight in place. Individual discontent with malpractice was not shown to health providers. In contrast, health providers mentioned community health workers, health committee, and community based organizations as formal oversight mechanisms. All

  17. Capturing how age-friendly communities foster positive health, social participation and health equity: a study protocol of key components and processes that promote population health in aging Canadians.

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Généreux, Mélissa; Menec, Verena; Raina, Parminder; Roy, Mathieu; Gabaude, Catherine; Couturier, Yves; St-Pierre, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    To address the challenges of the global aging population, the World Health Organization promoted age-friendly communities as a way to foster the development of active aging community initiatives. Accordingly, key components (i.e., policies, services and structures related to the communities' physical and social environments) should be designed to be age-friendly and help all aging adults to live safely, enjoy good health and stay involved in their communities. Although age-friendly communities are believed to be a promising way to help aging Canadians lead healthy and active lives, little is known about which key components best foster positive health, social participation and health equity, and their underlying mechanisms. This study aims to better understand which and how key components of age-friendly communities best foster positive health, social participation and health equity in aging Canadians. Specifically, the research objectives are to: 1) Describe and compare age-friendly key components of communities across Canada 2) Identify key components best associated with positive health, social participation and health equity of aging adults 3) Explore how these key components foster positive health, social participation and health equity METHODS: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design will be used. The quantitative part will involve a survey of Canadian communities and secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The survey will include an age-friendly questionnaire targeting key components in seven domains: physical environment, housing options, social environment, opportunities for participation, community supports and healthcare services, transportation options, communication and information. The CLSA is a large, national prospective study representative of the Canadian aging population designed to examine health transitions and trajectories of adults as they age. In the qualitative part, a multiple

  18. Building social networks for maternal and newborn health in poor urban settlements: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh.

    Adams, Alayne M; Nababan, Herfina Y; Hanifi, S M Manzoor Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial influence of social networks on health and wellbeing is well-established. In poor urban settlements in Bangladesh, BRAC's Manoshi programme trains community health workers (CHWs) to support women through pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods. This paper test the hypothesis that the introduction of CHWs as weak ties into the social networks of Manoshi members mediates improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) best practices by providing support, facilitating ideational change, connecting mother to resources, and strengthening or countering the influence of strong ties. 1000 women who had given birth in the last three months were identified and interviewed as part of ongoing monitoring of 5 poor urban settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A social networks questionnaire was administered which elicited women's perceived networks around pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods. Mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that penetration of Manoshi CHWs into women's perceived networks has a beneficial effect on MNH best practises. The presence and influence of Manoshi CHWs in women's networks significantly mediated the effect of Manoshi membership on MNH best practices. Respondents who were Manoshi members and who listed Manoshi CHWs as part of their support networks were significantly more likely to deliver with a trained birth attendant (OR 3.61; 95%CI 2.36-5.51), to use postnatal care (OR 3.09; 95%CI 1.83-5.22), and to give colostrum to their newborn (OR 7.51; 95%CI 3.51-16.05). Manoshi has succeeded in penetrating the perceived pregnancy, delivery and post-partum networks of poor urban women through the introduction of trained CHWs. Study findings demonstrate the benefits of moving beyond urban health care delivery models that concentrate on the provision of clinical services by medical providers, to an approach that nurtures the power of social networks as a means to support the poorest and most marginalized in changing

  19. Building social networks for maternal and newborn health in poor urban settlements: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh.

    Alayne M Adams

    Full Text Available The beneficial influence of social networks on health and wellbeing is well-established. In poor urban settlements in Bangladesh, BRAC's Manoshi programme trains community health workers (CHWs to support women through pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods. This paper test the hypothesis that the introduction of CHWs as weak ties into the social networks of Manoshi members mediates improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH best practices by providing support, facilitating ideational change, connecting mother to resources, and strengthening or countering the influence of strong ties.1000 women who had given birth in the last three months were identified and interviewed as part of ongoing monitoring of 5 poor urban settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A social networks questionnaire was administered which elicited women's perceived networks around pregnancy, delivery and post-partum periods. Mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that penetration of Manoshi CHWs into women's perceived networks has a beneficial effect on MNH best practises.The presence and influence of Manoshi CHWs in women's networks significantly mediated the effect of Manoshi membership on MNH best practices. Respondents who were Manoshi members and who listed Manoshi CHWs as part of their support networks were significantly more likely to deliver with a trained birth attendant (OR 3.61; 95%CI 2.36-5.51, to use postnatal care (OR 3.09; 95%CI 1.83-5.22, and to give colostrum to their newborn (OR 7.51; 95%CI 3.51-16.05.Manoshi has succeeded in penetrating the perceived pregnancy, delivery and post-partum networks of poor urban women through the introduction of trained CHWs. Study findings demonstrate the benefits of moving beyond urban health care delivery models that concentrate on the provision of clinical services by medical providers, to an approach that nurtures the power of social networks as a means to support the poorest and most marginalized in

  20. A multisite audit to assess how women with complex social factors access and engage with maternity services.

    Rayment-Jones, Hannah; Butler, Eleanor; Miller, Chelsie; Nay, Christine; O'Dowd, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    to audit women with socially complex lives' documented access to and engagement with antenatal care provided by three inner city, UK maternity services in relation to birth and neonatal outcomes, and referral processes. women living socially complex lives, including young mothers, recently arrived immigrants, non-English speaking, and those experiencing domestic violence, poor mental health, drug and alcohol abuse, and poverty experience high rates of morbidity, mortality and poor birth outcomes. This is associated with late access to and poor engagement with antenatal care. data was collected from three separate NHS trusts data management systems for a total of 182 women living socially complex lives, between January and December 2015. Data was presented by individual trust and compared to standards derived from NICE guidelines, local trust policy and national statistic using Excel and SPSS Version 22. Tests of correlation were carried out to minimise risks of confounding factors in characteristic differences. non-English speaking women were much less likely to have accessed care within the recommended timeframes, with over 70% of the sample not booked for maternity care by 12 weeks gestation. On average 89% primiparous women across all samples had less than the recommended number of antenatal appointments. No sample met the audit criteria in terms of number of antenatal appointments attended. Data held on the perinatal data management systems for a number of outcomes and processes was largely incomplete and appeared unreliable. this data forms a baseline against which to assess the impact of future service developments aimed at improving access and engagement with services for women living with complex social factors. The audit identified issues with the completeness and reliability of data on the perinatal data management system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    Lubjuhn, S.; Pratt, N.

    2009-11-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  2. Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education

    Lubjuhn, S; Pratt, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

  3. Postnatal depression, maternal-infant bonding and social support: a cross-cultural comparison of Nigerian and British mothers.

    Afolabi, Oladayo; Bunce, Louise; Lusher, Joanne; Banbury, Samantha

    2017-07-04

    The high prevalence of Post-Natal Depression (PND) in low and lower-middle income countries of Africa raises questions about the functionality of the abundant informal support accessed in the enmeshed family structure. This study examined the interaction between social support, parity and culture in the development of PND and maternal-infant bonding (MIB) among Nigerian, British and Nigerian Immigrant mothers in the UK. Participants (N = 124) were recruited from the UK and Nigeria via local support groups for mothers, websites offering motherhood-related content and social media. Questionnaires including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and Norbeck's Social Support Questionnaire were uploaded onto SurveyMonkey®. Findings revealed significant cultural differences in PND and social support. Multiple regression analyses revealed that PND, social support and culture could predict MIB, with PND being the only significant independent predictor. Our findings highlight the importance that cultural factors play in the development of PND and the establishment of MIB in the context of culturally attuned healthcare services.

  4. The Effects of Profile Pictures and Friends' Comments on Social Network Site Users' Body Image and Adherence to the Norm.

    Flynn, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to explore the effects of exposure to Facebook body ideal profile pictures and norm conforming comments on users' body image. In addition, the social identity and self-categorization theoretical frameworks were used to explore users' endorsement of a body ideal norm. A mock Facebook page was used to conduct a pretest posttest 2 × 2 between-group web-based experiment that featured body ideal profile pictures (body ideal vs. no body) and body ideal comments (conforming vs. nonconforming). Five hundred and one participants completed the experiment and passed all manipulation checks. Participants viewed pictures and comments on the status page and were able to leave their own comment before exiting. Results demonstrated no significant main effects. However, predispositional body satisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between body ideal pictures and body satisfaction. Most comments supported the body ideal norm. However, in support of self-categorization theory, participants exposed to nonconforming comments made nonconforming comments themselves significantly more than those exposed to conforming comments. The findings demonstrated the importance of continued body image research in social network sites, as well as the potential for self-categorization theory to guide such research.

  5. Effects of Social Support and Self-Efficacy on Maternal Prenatal Cares Among the First-Time Pregnant Women, Iranshahr, Iran

    Hossien Izadirad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social support and perceived self-efficacy affect health-related behaviors and play an important role on mothers' adaptability with pregnancy. This paper aims to study the impact of educational interventions based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal care.Materials and methods: The present study is a before after experimental study in which 90 first-time pregnant women were randomly selected and divided into two 45- participants experimental and control groups. Data were collected from 21 January to 20 May 2016. Determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we used the panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha. The data collected from the two groups were compared before and 3 months after intervention and were analyzed by SPSS 18.Results: Unlike the control subjects, there was a significant difference in maternal prenatal cares before and after an educational intervention between the scores of social support and perceived self-efficacy in the experimental group (p < 0.05. Before intervention, the average score of the experimental group was 12.62 ± 2.63 that rose to 17.71 ± 1.56, three months after the educational intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.05. There was a direct and positive relation between self-efficacy and maternal prenatal cares (p = 0.000, r = 0.538. Social support and self-efficacy predicted the variance of maternal cares by 69.2%.Conclusion: Developing an educational program based on social support and perceived self-efficacy on maternal prenatal cares is helpful and efficient. The health system, family and society are in charge of making facilities and opportunities to improve social support and perceived self-efficacy in pregnant women, resulting in improved maternal prenatal cares. 

  6. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.

  7. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  8. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  9. Protocol for the evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Pereira, Shreya K; Kumar, Paresh; Dutt, Varun; Haldar, Kaveri; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Santos, Andreia; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2015-05-26

    Social franchising is the fastest growing market-based approach to organising and improving the quality of care in the private sector of low- and middle-income countries, but there is limited evidence on its impact and cost-effectiveness. The "Sky" social franchise model was introduced in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in late 2013. Difference-in-difference methods will be used to estimate the impact of the social franchise programme on the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal and newborn health. Comparison clusters will be selected to be as similar as possible to intervention clusters using nearest neighbour matching methods. Two rounds of data will be collected from a household survey of 3600 women with a birth in the last 2 years and a survey of 450 health providers in the same localities. To capture the full range of effects, 59 study outcomes have been specified and then grouped into conceptually similar domains. Methods to account for multiple inferences will be used based on the pre-specified grouping of outcomes. A process evaluation will seek to understand the scale of the social franchise network, the extent to which various components of the programme are implemented and how impacts are achieved. An economic evaluation will measure the costs of setting up, maintaining and running the social franchise as well as the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of the programme. There is a dearth of evidence demonstrating whether market-based approaches such as social franchising can improve care in the private sector. This evaluation will provide rigorous evidence on whether an innovative model of social franchising can contribute to better population health in a low-income setting.

  10. My Friends Right Next to Me: A Laboratory Investigation on Predictors and Consequences of Experiencing Social Closeness on Social Networking Sites.

    Neubaum, German; Krämer, Nicole C

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, research has provided a series of insights into how and why the use of social networking sites (SNSs) can be socially and psychologically beneficial for individuals. The present research extends this evidence by focusing on the concept of social closeness as a feeling experienced when using SNSs. In a laboratory setting, participants (N=60) spent 10 minutes on Facebook, and then reported their experiences during this session. Analyses of participants' usage behavior and their experiences revealed that the more time users spent interacting with other users (e.g., commenting on updates), the closer they felt to other people. Interacting with others also predicted users' positive emotional states after Facebook use; this effect may be explained by the perception of social closeness. This study is one of the first to employ momentary measures, offering a further theoretical link between active SNS use and well-being.

  11. Informal social accountability in maternal health service delivery: A study in Northern Malawi

    Lodenstein, Elsbet; Ingemann, Christine; Molenaar, Joyce M.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the expansion of literature on social accountability in low-and middle-income countries, little is known about how health providers experience daily social pressure and citizen feedback. This study used a narrative inquiry approach to explore the function of daily social accountability

  12. When Do Adolescents Accept or Defy to Maternal Prohibitions? The Role of Social Domain and Communication Style.

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Baudat, Sophie; Audenaert, Elien

    2017-05-01

    Drawing upon both Social-Cognitive Domain Theory and Self-Determination Theory, the goal of the present multi-informant study was to test whether the correlates of maternal prohibitions depend on what is prohibited (i.e., the content of the social domain involved), thereby contrasting moral with friendship prohibitions, as well on how the prohibition is communicated, thereby contrasting an autonomy-supportive with a controlling communication style. In a sample of adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 13.9 years; 63 % female) and their mothers (N = 185; mean age = 44 years), we first examined mean-level differences between the two domains in terms of mothers' degree and style of prohibition, as well as on a number of developmental outcomes (i.e., adolescents' legitimacy perceptions, internalization, and oppositional defiance). Both adolescents and mothers reported more maternal involvement in the moral domain (e.g., higher scores for degree of prohibition and controlling communication style). In addition, adolescents reported greater perceived legitimacy and less oppositional defiance in the moral domain (as compared to the friendships domain). Second, we tested whether associations between degree and style of prohibition and the developmental outcomes were moderated by social domain. Whereas associations between degree of prohibition and developmental outcomes either were non-significant or moderated by domain, the associations with communication style were more domain-invariant, with an autonomy-supportive style generally yielding an adaptive pattern of correlates and with a controlling style relating to maladaptive outcomes. The discussion focuses on similarities and differences in the characteristics and correlates of both types of prohibitions.

  13. Optimism, Social Support, and Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between multiple sources of social support (e.g., partner, family, and friends), optimism, and well-being among mothers of children with ASD. Social support was examined as a mediator and moderator of the optimism-maternal well-being relationship. Moreover, the role of…

  14. "Love me, parents!": impact evaluation of a national social and behavioral change communication campaign on maternal health outcomes in Tanzania.

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Orkis, Jennifer; Ainslie, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility. An evaluation to determine the impact of the national Wazazi Nipendeni campaign was conducted in five purposively selected regions of Tanzania using exit interviews with pregnant and post-natal women attending ANC clinics. A total of 1708 women were interviewed regarding campaign exposure, ANC attendance, and individual birth planning. Over one third of interviewed women (35.1%) reported exposure to the campaign in the last month. The more sources from which women reported hearing the Wazazi Nipendeni message, the more they planned for the birth of their child (β = 0.08, p = .001). Greater numbers of types of exposure to the Wazazi Nipendeni message was associated with an increase in ANC visits (β = 0.05, p = .004). Intervention exposure did not significantly predict the timing of the first ANC visit or HIV testing in the adjusted model, however, findings showed that exposure did predict whether women delivered at a health care facility (or not) and whether they tested for HIV with a partner in the unadjusted models. The Wazazi Nipendeni campaign shows promise that such a behavior change communication intervention could lead to better pregnancy and childbirth outcomes for women in low resource settings. For outcomes such as HIV testing, message exposure showed some promising effects, but demographic variables such as age and socioeconomic status

  15. Food insecurity and maternal mental health in León, Nicaragua: Potential limitations on the moderating role of social support.

    Piperata, Barbara A; Schmeer, Kammi K; Rodrigues, Andres Herrera; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano

    2016-12-01

    Poor mental health among those living in poverty is a serious global public health concern. Food insecurity (FI) is recognized as an important, yet critically understudied social determinant of mental health. The relationship between FI and mothers' mental health in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is especially important to understand considering the high rates of poverty and associated FI in these settings. For these mothers, social support may serve as a buffer in ameliorating the impact of FI on mental distress. However, data required to understand these relationships in LMIC remain sparse. To address this gap we used quantitative and qualitative data and convergence parallel analysis to assess: the association between FI and maternal mental distress; and, whether three forms of social support - mother's general social network support and family support (spouse/partner living in the home, parents/in-laws living in the home) - moderated the association. A survey that included data on FI (ELCSA) and mental distress (SRQ-20) was administered to a population-based sample of mothers in León, Nicaragua (n = 434) in 2012. The survey was complemented by data from 6 focus groups. Regression models identified a strong positive relationship between household-level FI and maternal distress. Evidence of social support moderation was mixed: while maternal social network and spousal/partner support did not moderate this relationship, parental support did. Our ethnographic data revealed three themes that help explain these findings: FI is embarrassing/shameful, close family is the most appropriate source of social support and, fear of gossip and ridicule limit the buffering capacity of the social support network. Our findings contribute to a growing literature demonstrating that FI is an important social determinant of maternal mental distress in LMIC; and that some forms of social support may reduce (but not eliminate) the impact of FI on mental distress. Copyright

  16. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between perceived social support and induced abortion: A study in maternal health centers in Lima, Peru.

    Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18-25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%-49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%- 21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81-3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14-3.30) after controlling for confounders. There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.

  18. A global social contract to reduce maternal mortality: the human rights arguments and the case of Uganda.

    Ooms, Gorik; Mulumba, Moses; Hammonds, Rachel; Latif Laila, Abdul; Waris, Attiya; Forman, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5a, reducing maternal deaths by 75% between 1990 and 2015, has been substantial; however, it has been too slow to hope for its achievement by 2015, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. This suggests that both the Government of Uganda and the international community are failing to comply with their right-to-health-related obligations towards the people of Uganda. This country case study explores some of the key issues raised when assessing national and international right-to-health-related obligations. We argue that to comply with their shared obligations, national and international actors will have to take steps to move forward together. The Government of Uganda should not expect additional international assistance if it does not live up to its own obligations; at the same time, the international community must provide assistance that is more reliable in the long run to create the 'fiscal space' that the Government of Uganda needs to increase recurrent expenditure for health - which is crucial to addressing maternal mortality. We propose that the 'Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa', adopted by the African Union in July 2012, should be seen as an invitation to the international community to conclude a global social contract for health. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Skills and Perceived Maternal Acceptance-Rejection in Relation to Depression in Infertile Women

    Fariba Yazdkhasti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines the relationship between infertile women’s social skills andtheir perception of their own mothers’ acceptance or rejection, and the role this relationship playsin predicting self-reported depression.Materials and Methods: This was a correlational study. 60 infertile women aged 25 to 35 yearsparticipated in a self-evaluation. A Social Skills Inventory, Parental Acceptance and RejectionQuestionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were used to measure social skills, acceptancerejection and depression. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, using independent two-sample ttest, logistic regression, and ANOVA.Results: Findings showed that there are significant differences between depressed and not depressedinfertile women in their perceptions of acceptance and rejection by their mothers. Further, women'sperceptions of rejection are a more significant predictor of depression among less socially skilledinfertile women than among those who are more socially skilled. Less socially skilled women didnot show symptoms of depression when they experienced their mothers as accepting. In generalthe results of this study revealed that poorer social skills were more predictive of depression whilegood social skills moderate the effect of infertile women’s perceptions of their mothers' rejection.At the same time, the findings showed that infertile women's perceptions of acceptance moderatedthe effects of poorer social skills in predicting depression.Conclusion: Results suggest that the perception of mothers’ rejection and poor social skills are thekey factors that make infertile women prone to depression.

  20. Free markets and dead mothers: the social ecology of maternal mortality in post-socialist Mongolia.

    Janes, Craig R; Chuluundorj, Oyuntsetseg

    2004-06-01

    Beginning in 1990, Mongolia, a former client state of what was then the Soviet Union, undertook liberal economic reforms. These came as a great shock to Mongolia and Mongolians, and resulted in food shortages, reports of famine, widespread unemployment, and a collapse of public health and health care. Although economic conditions have stabilized in recent years, unemployment and poverty are still at disturbingly high levels. One important consequence of the transition has been the transformation of the rural, primarily pastoral, economy. With de-collectivization, herding households have been thrown into a highly insecure subsistence mode of production, and, as a consequence, have become vulnerable to local fluctuations in rainfall and availability and quality of forage, and many now lack access to traded staples and essential commodities. Household food insecurity, malnutrition, and migration of impoverished households to provincial centers and the capital of Ulaanbaatar are one result. Reductions to investments in the health sector have also eroded the quality of services in rural areas, and restricted access to those services still functioning. Evidence suggests that women are particularly vulnerable to these political-ecological changes, and that this vulnerability is manifested in increasing rates of poor reproductive health and maternal mortality. Drawing on case-study ethnographic and epidemiological data, this article explores the links between neoliberal economic reform and maternal mortality in Mongolia.

  1. Perinatal fluoxetine effects on social play, the HPA system, and hippocampal plasticity in pre-adolescent male and female rats: Interactions with pre-gestational maternal stress.

    Gemmel, Mary; Hazlett, Mariah; Bögi, Eszter; De Lacalle, Sonsoles; Hill, Lesley A; Kokras, Nikolaos; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Dalla, Christina; Charlier, Thierry D; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2017-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress. We also investigated synaptic proteins in the CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as well as number of immature neurons in the granule cell layer, as both measures of plasticity in the hippocampus have been linked to social behaviors. In pre-adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring, main findings show that perinatal fluoxetine prevents the negative effect of maternal stress on sibling play behavior. However, perinatal fluoxetine increased social aggressive play with a novel conspecific in both sexes and decreased time grooming a novel conspecific in males only. Perinatal fluoxetine also increased serum corticosteroid binding globulin levels, 5-HT levels in the hippocampus, and pre-synaptic density assessed via synaptophysin in the dentate gyrus. Social interaction was significantly correlated with changes in plasticity in the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Pre-gestational maternal stress exposure resulted in significantly decreased rates of hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptophysin density in the dentate gyrus of pre-adolescent males, but not females. Together, these results further characterize the role of perinatal SSRIs, maternal stress prior to conception, and sex/gender on developing social behaviors and related plasticity in the

  2. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  3. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  4. United we stand divided we fall : maternal social participation and children's nutritional status in Peru

    Favara,Marta

    2012-01-01

    In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...

  5. The Indirect Effects of Maternal Emotion Socialization on Friendship Quality in Middle Childhood

    Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

    2014-01-01

    Emotion development processes have long been linked to social competence in early childhood but rarely have these associations been examined in middle childhood or with relational outcomes. Guided by theories of interpersonal relationships and emotion socialization, the current study was designed to fill these gaps by examining a longitudinal…

  6. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  7. Maternal Management of Social Relationships as a Correlate of Children's School-Based Experiences

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Eanes, Angella Y.; Troutman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We tested a model considering the manner in which mothers' use of their own social relationships and efforts to facilitate their children's school-based social relationships were associated with two distinct types of school-based competence: academic achievement and levels of stress experienced within the school environment. Fourth grade children…

  8. Friends, Sisters, and Wives: Social Support and Social Risks in Peer Relationships Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in India.

    Tomori, Cecilia; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Ridgeway, Kathleen; Solomon, Sunil S; Mehta, Shruti H; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Many HIV-prevention efforts rely on community outreach and mobilization to engage MSM. This study examines peer relationships and their potential role in HIV prevention through 31 focus group discussions (FGDS) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 363 MSM across 15 sites in India. Results indicate that MSM receive social support in friendships, sex-worker collaborations, constructed kin relationships, and romantic partnerships. Access to these relationships, however, is uneven across MSM, and can carry risks of disclosure of same-sex behavior and exclusion based on HIV- positive status. Positive peer relationships can serve as the basis of community empowerment, education, and couple-based interventions for MSM, and peer counselors can also provide a buffer against the social risks of peer relationships and facilitate linkage to care and continued engagement in treatment. These insights can improve HIV interventions for MSM in India and elsewhere.

  9. "My friend who bought it for me, she has had an abortion before." The influence of Ghanaian women's social networks in determining the pathway to induced abortion.

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R; Morhe, Emmanuel Sk

    2017-07-01

    Even given the liberal abortion law in Ghana, abortion complications are a large contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. This study sought to understand why young women seeking an abortion in a legally enabling environment chose to do this outside the formal healthcare system. Women being treated for complications arising from a self-induced abortion as well as for elective abortions at three hospitals in Ghana were interviewed. Community-based focus groups were held with women as well as men, separately. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted until saturation was reached. A total of 18 women seeking care for complications from a self-induced abortion and 11 seeking care for an elective abortion interviewed. The women ranged in age from 13 to 35 years. There were eight focus groups; two with men and six with women. The reasons women self-induce are: (1) abortion is illegal; (2) attitudes of the healthcare workers; (3) keeping the pregnancy a secret; and (4) social network influence. The meta-theme of normalisation of self-inducing' an abortion was identified. When women are faced with an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy, they consult individuals in their social network whom they know have dealt with a similar situation. Misoprostol is widely available in Ghanaian cities and is successful at inducing an abortion for many women. In this way, self-inducing abortions using medication procured from pharmacists and chemical sellers has become normalised for women in Kumasi, Ghana. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  11. Maternal Relationship, Social Skills and Parental Behavior Through Neuroimaging Techniques and Behavioral Studies

    Serra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Mother child relationship is the first and the most important social relationship as it has implications on psychological and neural development of the individual. Here we investigated mother child relationship focusing on different aspects and using a combination of behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. In the first study we addressed the association between brain connectivity and interpersonal competences which are at the basis of every social interaction including the ones involved in m...

  12. [Social problems encountered during prenatal care in a Paris maternity ward].

    Ozguler, A; Alfaro, C; Bonniaus, G; Renders, P; Blot, P; Brodin, M; Lombrail, P

    1998-06-01

    In 1993, about 2,600 children are born in Robert Debré Hospital (RDH), a hospital specialized in pediatrics and obstetrics located in Paris. One hundred and seventy nine of the mothers contacted the hospital social service during pregnancy. The main goal of this study was to describe the social problems encountered by these women and the solutions proposed by the social service of RDH. The second aim was to describe the socio-demographic profile and medical problems of this population. At first contact, 45% of the women had no social coverage, and only 18% had a steady job. Most social problems were related to administrative procedures. Financial and housing problems were more difficult to solve in this context. These figures reflect the growing problem of precarity, with its consequences. A hospital social service is not the right place to solve these very complex problems. The most worrisome point is that the living conditions of newborn children are often unknown after delivery.

  13. Father Absence, Social Networks, and Maternal Ratings of Child Health: Evidence from the 2013 Social Networks and Health Information Survey in Mexico.

    Edelblute, Heather B; Altman, Claire E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To bridge the literature on the effect of father absence, international migration, and social networks on child health, we assess the association between father absence and maternal ratings of child poor health (MCPH). Next we test whether social networks of immediate and extended kin mediate the relationship between fathers' absence and MCPH. Methods Nested logistic regression models predicting MCPH are estimated using the 2013 Social Networks and Health Information Survey, collected in a migrant-sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico. These unique data distinguish among father absence due to migration versus other reasons and between immediate and extended kin ties. Results Descriptive results indicate that 25% of children with migrant fathers are assessed as having poor health, more often than children with present (15.5%) or otherwise absent fathers (17.5%). In the multivariate models, fathers' absence is not predictive of MCPH. However, the presence of extended kin ties for the mother was associated with approximately a 50% reduction in the odds of MCPH. Additionally, mother's poor self-assessed health was associated with increased odds of MCPH while the presence of a co-resident adult lowered the odds of MCPH. In sensitivity analysis among children with migrant fathers, the receipt of paternal remittances lowered the odds of MCPH. Conclusions for Practice Social networks have a direct and positive association with MCPH rather than mediating the father absence-MCPH relationship. The presence of extended kin ties in the local community is salient for more favorable child health and should be considered in public health interventions aimed at improving child health.

  14. Maternal Socialization and Kindergarten Children's Behaviors from Jordanian Mothers' and Teachers' Perspectives

    Abu Al Rub, Majedah Fawzy; Rababaeh, Ebtesam Qasim; Mustafa, Intisar Ghazy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether Jordanian mothers' self-reported parenting practices were associated with their kindergarten children's prosocial or anti-social behavior based on three parental patterns: nurturance, respect, and power assertion. The participants were 95 mothers with children in the kindergarten level in Jordan. Additionally, 13…

  15. Commands, Competence, and "Carino": Maternal Socialization Practices in Mexican American Families

    Livas-Dlott, Alejandra; Fuller, Bruce; Stein, Gabriela L.; Bridges, Margaret; Mangual Figueroa, Ariana; Mireles, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Early research on the socialization of Latino children has posited that mothers exercise authoritarian practices, compared with lateral reasoning (authoritative) strategies emphasized by Anglo mothers. This work aimed to categorize fixed types of parenting practices tied to the mother's personality rather than to culturally bounded contexts; it…

  16. The Differential Contribution of Maternal and Paternal Values to Social Competence of Preschoolers

    Bigras, Marc; Crepaldi, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were conducted to clarify the nature of the influences of parental values on social behaviours of kindergarteners in the context of socio-demographic variables and sex of participants. This study included 217 mothers and 172 fathers from the same families, who completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and a new Q-sort that…

  17. Mothers of Children with Severe Mental Retardation: Maternal Pessimism, Locus of Control and Perceived Social Support.

    Rimmerman, Arie

    1991-01-01

    This study, involving 24 Israeli mothers of children (average age 3.3) with severe mental retardation, found that the mothers' locus of control and perception of social support (belonging, appraisal, tangible support, and self-esteem) serve as buffers against parental pessimism concerning their severely handicapped children. (JDD)

  18. Time is on whose side? Time trends in the association between maternal social disadvantage and offspring fetal growth. A study of 1,409,339 births in Denmark 1981-2004

    Mortensen, Laust H; Diderichsen, Finn; Davey-Smith, George

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fetal growth is highly socially patterned and is related to health across the life course, but how the social patterns of fetal growth change over time remains understudied. We examined the time trends in maternal social disadvantage in relation to fetal growth in the context of a univ......OBJECTIVE: Fetal growth is highly socially patterned and is related to health across the life course, but how the social patterns of fetal growth change over time remains understudied. We examined the time trends in maternal social disadvantage in relation to fetal growth in the context...... of a universal welfare state under changing macroeconomic conditions over a 24-year period. Design and settings: All births in Denmark 1981-2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The association between maternal social disadvantage in relation to birth weight for gestational age z-scores over time were analysed using...... linear regression. RESULTS: All measures of social disadvantage were associated with decreased fetal growth (p

  19. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  20. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  1. Infant Massage and Quality of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Are There Associations with Maternal Psychological Wellbeing, Marital Quality, and Social Support?

    Porreca, Alessio; Parolin, Micol; Bozza, Giusy; Freato, Susanna; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Infant massage programs have proved to be effective in enhancing post-natal development of highly risk infants, such as preterm newborns and drug or HIV exposed children. Less studies have focused on the role of infant massage in supporting the co-construction of early adult-child relationships. In line with this lack of literature, the present paper reports on a pilot study aimed at investigating longitudinally the quality of mother-child interactions, with specific reference to emotional availability (EA), in a group of mother-child pairs involved in infant massage classes. Moreover, associations between mother-child EA, maternal wellbeing, marital adjustment, and social support were also investigated, with the hypothesis to find a link between low maternal distress, high couple satisfaction and high perceived support and interactions of better quality in the dyads. The study involved 20 mothers and their children, aged between 2 and 7 months, who participated to infant massage classes. The assessment took place at three stages: at the beginning of massage course, at the end of it and at 1-month follow-up. At the first stage of assessment self-report questionnaires were administered to examine the presence of maternal psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90-R), perceived social support (MSPSS), and marital adjustment (Dyadic Adjustment Scale); dyadic interactions were observed and rated with the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008) at each stage of data collection. The results showed a significant improvement in the quality of mother-child interactions, between the first and the last evaluation, parallel to the unfolding of the massage program, highlighting a general increase in maternal and child's EA. The presence of maternal psychological distress resulted associated with less optimal mother-child emotional exchanges, while the hypothesis regarding couple satisfaction and social support influence were not confirmed. These preliminary results, if replicated

  2. Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Ma, Cary; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Kibendelwa, Zacharie Tsongo; Brooks, Hannah; Zheng, Xiaonan; Hawkes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness. We examined the associations between variables using multivariable logistic regression analysis, chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation, as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three out of the 647 (19%) children in the study tested positive for malaria. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with a lower risk of malaria in their children. The prevalence of malaria in children of mothers with no education, primary school, and beyond primary was 41/138 (30%), 41/241 (17%), and 39/262 (15%), respectively (p = 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the effect of a child's age and study site, the following remained significant predictors of malaria antigenemia: maternal education, number of children under five per household, and HIV serostatus. Higher maternal education, through several putative causal pathways, was associated with lower malaria prevalence among children in the DRC. Our findings suggest that maternal education might be an effective 'social vaccine' against malaria in the DRC and globally.

  3. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  4. Understanding maternal dietary choices during pregnancy: The role of social norms and mindful eating.

    Hutchinson, A D; Charters, M; Prichard, I; Fletcher, C; Wilson, C

    2017-05-01

    Serious health complications associated with excessive weight have been documented for pregnant women and their babies during pregnancy, birth and beyond. Whilst research has focused on identifying particular foods that can be either detrimental or essential for the developing baby, pregnant women's food choices are likely determined by broader considerations. This study examined social influences as represented in reports of descriptive and injunctive social norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy, and individual differences in mindfulness while eating, as important potential correlates of pregnant women's self-reported diet. Pregnant women (N = 139) completed a questionnaire that measured self-reported consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, descriptive and injunctive norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to assess the extent to which norms and mindful eating accounted for variance in consumption of both foods. No significant associations were observed between perceived social norms related to diet during pregnancy and self-reported dietary behaviour. Mindful eating was found to play a role in pregnant women's eating behaviour, with the awareness subscale of the MEQ significantly associated with healthy eating and the emotional subscale associated with unhealthy eating. Age was also associated with consumption of unhealthy foods; younger pregnant women reported consuming more unhealthy snacks and fast food meals. The associations between mindful eating and dietary behaviour suggests that improving mindfulness related to food consumption before and during pregnancy may provide a strategy to address excessive gestational weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital disruption? Maternal mobile device use is related to infant social-emotional functioning.

    Myruski, Sarah; Gulyayeva, Olga; Birk, Samantha; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Buss, Kristin A; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A

    2017-09-24

    Mobile device use has become increasingly prevalent, yet its impact on infant development remains largely unknown. When parents use mobile devices in front of infants, the parent is physically present but most likely distracted and unresponsive. Research using the classic Still Face Paradigm (SFP) suggests that parental withdrawal and unresponsiveness may have negative consequences for children's social-emotional development. In the present study, 50 infants aged 7.20 to 23.60 months (M = 15.40, SD = 4.74) and their mothers completed a modified SFP. The SFP consisted of three phases: free play (FP; parent and infant play and interact), still face (SF; parent withdraws attention and becomes unresponsive), and reunion (RU; parent resumes normal interaction). The modified SFP incorporated mobile device use in the SF phase. Parents reported on their typical mobile device use and infant temperament. Consistent with the standard SFP, infants showed more negative affect and less positive affect during SF versus FP. Infants also showed more toy engagement and more engagement with mother during FP versus SF and RU. Infants showed the most social bids during SF and more room exploration in SF than RU. More frequent reported mobile device use was associated with less room exploration and positive affect during SF, and less recovery (i.e., engagement with mother, room exploration positive affect) during RU, even when controlling for individual differences in temperament. Findings suggest that the SFP represents a promising theoretical framework for understanding the impact of parent's mobile device use on infant social-emotional functioning and parent-infant interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. French adolescents' environmental friendly behaviour

    Schleyer-Lindenmann, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Environmental friendly behavior and attitudes have been studied in social sciences since the 1970 with the awakening of an « ecological consciousness ». Psychology has been actively taking part in these studies since then (Maloney & Ward, 1973, Oskamp, 2000, Schmuck & Schultz, 2002). Bronfenbrenner (1979) in his nested system approach, sees the person as seen as a developing entity, in constant interaction with different developing environments. We therefore propose to...

  8. We Are All Friends Nowadays: But What Is the Outcome of Online Friendship for Young People in Terms of Individual Social Capital?

    Rice, Anne

    2013-01-01

    For contemporary young people friendship has changed considerably from previous generations and nowadays weak ties represent the bulk of youth online friendships. These acquaintances do not provide quality relationships as young people do not seek to gain anything from such friends nor do they expect to help them out. Nevertheless weak ties have…

  9. Commands, competence, and cariño: maternal socialization practices in Mexican American families.

    Livas-Dlott, Alejandra; Fuller, Bruce; Stein, Gabriela L; Bridges, Margaret; Mangual Figueroa, Ariana; Mireles, Laurie

    2010-05-01

    Early research on the socialization of Latino children has posited that mothers exercise authoritarian practices, compared with lateral reasoning (authoritative) strategies emphasized by Anglo mothers. This work aimed to categorize fixed types of parenting practices tied to the mother's personality rather than to culturally bounded contexts; it often ignored the emotional warmth or harshness present in compliance attempts and relied on interview questions rather than naturalistic observation. We built from ecocultural theory to observe daily home activities in which Mexican American mothers attempted to correct their young child's behavior or encourage completion of a task (compliance attempt). We observed 24 first- or second-generation mothers and their 4-year-old children and analyzed the activity contexts and multiple forms of 1,477 compliance attempts. Mothers typically led with direct verbal commands in their attempt to achieve compliance. Many blended commands with other compliance strategies, rather than repeating simple behaviors. Drawing on Crockenberg and Litman's (1990) differentiation of variable compliance strategies, we find that most mothers relied on low power-assertive methods, including verbal commands, rather than inductive strategies that involved reasoning. Few compliance episodes prompted high power-assertive or harsh strategies. The degree of reliance on verbal commands and the complexity of mothers' repertoires appear to be related to their education and acculturation levels. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Effect of maternal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation on social coping strategies and gene expression of oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of rat offspring in adulthood.

    Senko, Tomáš; Svitok, Pavel; Kršková, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    The intrauterine condition in which the mammalian foetus develops has an important role in prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which activation of the maternal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) could influence social behaviour strategies in offspring via changes in social neurotransmitters in the brain. Pregnant female Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps which continually released angiotensin II for 14 days at concentration of 2 μg/kg/h. The adult offspring (angiotensin and control groups) underwent a social interaction test. The mRNA expression of vasopressin, oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor in selected brain areas was measured by in situ hybridisation. Prenatal exposure to higher levels of angiotensin II resulted in a strong trend toward decreased total social interaction time and significantly decreased time spent in close proximity and frequency of mutual sniffing. The angiotensin group showed no changes in oxytocin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular or supraoptic nuclei, but this group had reduced vasopressin mRNA expression in the same areas. We concluded that maternal activation of RAAS (via higher levels of angiotensin II) caused inhibition of some socio-cohesive indicators and decreased vasopressinergic activity of offspring. Taken together, these results suggest a reactive rather than proactive social coping strategy.

  11. OA20 The positioning of family, friends, community, and service providers in support networks for caring at end-of-life: a social network analysis.

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Rosenberg, John; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-04-01

    Although there is ample evidence of the risk to carers from the burden of caring, there is also evidence that a caring network can relieve the burden on the principal carer, strengthen community relationships, and increase 'Death Literacy' in the community. There is often an assumption that, in caring networks, family and service providers are central and friends and community are marginal. We examined whether this is the case in practice using SNA. To identify the relative positioning of family, friends, community, and service providers in caring networks. In interviews with carers (N = 23) and focus groups with caring networks (N = 13) participants were asked to list the people in the caring network and rate the strength of their relationships to them (0 no relationship to 3 strong relationship). SNA in UCInet was used to map the networks, examine density (number and strength of relationships) across time (when caring began to the present) and across relationship types (family, friends, community, and service providers) supplemented by qualitative data. The analysis revealed significant increases in the density of the networks over time. The density of relationships with friends was similar to that other family. Community and service providers had significantly lower density. Qualitative analysis revealed that often service providers were not seen as part of the networks. To avoid carer burnout, it is important not to make assumptions about where carers obtain support but work with each carer to mobilise any support that is available. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  13. Friend Finder (Game)

    ... for a spot on the Friend Finder All-Star List. Earn your spot by showing you're savvy when it comes to making friends online . Downloads Please download and share our ... Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the ...

  14. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  15. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  16. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Emma Popo

    Full Text Available The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year.A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW, and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed.486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03.The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  17. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Popo, Emma; Kenyon, Sara; Dann, Sophie-Anna; MacArthur, Christine; Blissett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk) RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year. A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW), and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition) and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed. 486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03). The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  19. Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC is a key focus of health policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women (and children by inference in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected social determinants of health (SDH, termed ‘barriers’. Methods: Our study uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49 years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383 was studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous two years: 1 antenatal care, 2 skilled birth attendants, and 3 child death in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1 low education (incomplete secondary education, 2 lack of access to one of four basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were used to report regression results. Results: In Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14

  20. With a little help from my friends?: racial and gender differences in the role of social support in later-life depression medication adherence.

    Gerlach, Lauren B; Kavanagh, Janet; Watkins, Daphne; Chiang, Claire; Kim, Hyungjin M; Kales, Helen C

    2017-09-01

    Social support has been shown to be an important factor in improving depression symptom outcomes, yet less is known regarding its impact on antidepressant medication adherence. This study sought to evaluate the role of perceived social support on adherence to new antidepressant medication prescriptions in later-life depression. Data from two prospective observational studies of participants ≥60 years old, diagnosed with depression, and recently prescribed a new antidepressant (N = 452). Perceived social support was measured using a subscale of the Duke Social Support Index and medication adherence was assessed using a validated self-report measure. At four-month follow up, 68% of patients reported that they were adherent to antidepressant medication. Examining the overall sample, logistic regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between perceived social support and medication adherence. However, when stratifying the sample by social support, race, and gender, adherence significantly differed by race and gender in those with inadequate social support: Among those with low social support, African-American females were significantly less likely to adhere to depression treatment than white females (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.14-20.28, p = 0.032) and white males (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.03-11.92, p = 0.045). There is a significant difference in antidepressant medication adherence by race and gender in those with inadequate social support. Tailored treatment interventions for low social support should be sensitive to racial and gender differences.

  1. A social autopsy of neonatal mortality suggests needed improvements in maternal and neonatal interventions in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi

    Alain K. Koffi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Every Newborn Action Plan calls for reducing the neonatal mortality rates to fewer than 10 deaths per 1000 live births in all countries by 2035. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the social and modifiable factors that can be addressed or reinforced to improve and accelerate the decline in neonatal mortality in Malawi. Methods The data come from the 2013 Verbal and Social Autopsy (VASA study that collected data in order to describe the biological causes and the social determinants of deaths of children under 5 years of age in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi. This paper analyses the social autopsy data of the neonatal deaths and presents results of a review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and the description of breakdowns in the care provided for neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival framework. Results A total of 320 neonatal deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. While one antenatal care (ANC visit was high at 94%, the recommended four ANC visits was much lower at 41% and just 17% of the mothers had their urines tested during the pregnancy. 173 (54% mothers of the deceased newborns had at least one labor/delivery complication that began at home. The caregivers of 65% (n = 75 of the 180 newborns that were born at home or born and left a health facility alive perceived them to be severely ill at the onset of their illness, yet only 44% (n = 80 attempted and 36% (n = 65could reach the first health provider after an average of 91 minutes travel time. Distance, lack of transport and cost emerged as the most important constraints to formal care–seeking during delivery and during the newborn fatal illness. Conclusions This study suggests that maternal and neonatal health organizations and the local government of Malawi should increase the demand for key maternal and child health interventions, including the recommended 4

  2. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  3. Cognitive and language performance in children is associated with maternal social anxiety disorder: A study of young mothers in southern Brazil.

    Castelli, Rochele Dias; Quevedo, Luciana de Ávila; Coelho, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; Lopez, Mariane Acosta; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Böhm, Denise Müller; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; de Matos, Mariana Bonati; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that maternal mental health is associated with poorer skills development in the offspring. However, the evidence evaluating the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and cognitive or language development, is scarce. To evaluate the association between maternal SAD and performance in cognitive and language tests in 30-month old children. This was a cohort study involving young women evaluated since pregnancy. We evaluated 520 mother-child dyads who received prenatal medical assistance through the National Public Health System in a southern Brazilian city, from October 2009 to March 2011. We used the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI Plus) to assess SAD among young mothers. Cognitive and language performance in their offspring was analyzed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition. We found an association between maternal SAD and performance in cognitive and language tests. Children of mothers with SAD had in average 4.5 less points in the Bayley scale, when compared to those with mothers without SAD: in the cognitive (β=-4.53 [95% CI -7.8; -1.1] p=0.008) and language subscales (β=-4.54 [95% CI -9.0; -0.5] p=0.047). Our findings suggest that children with mothers suffering from SAD have poorer cognitive abilities and language skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: friend versus non-friend comparisons.

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-07-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments included: mothers' and teachers' reports about friends' and friendship characteristics and observed individual and dyadic behaviors throughout interactions with friends versus non-friends during construction, drawing, and free-play situations. Findings revealed group differences in peer interaction favoring the typical development group, thus supporting the neuropsychological profile of HFASD. However, both groups' interactions with friends surpassed interactions with acquaintances on several key socio-communicative and intersubjective capabilities, thus suggesting that friendship may contribute to enhancement and practice of social interaction in HFASD.

  5. Does social support from family and friends work as a buffer against reactions to stressful life events such as terminal cancer?

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Jordhøy, Marit S; Kaasa, Stein

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between social support and emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our hypothesis is that patients who reported a high degree of social support will experience better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions than patients with a low degree of social support. The sample was comprised of 434 patients at the Palliative Medicine Unit (PMU), University Hospital of Trondheim in Norway. The patients completed a questionnaire monthly including questions about social support from the MacAdam's Scale, subjective stress measured by the Impact of Event Scale (IES), and emotional functioning measured by the subscale in the EORTC QLQ-30. Although our hypothesis was not supported at the baseline assessment, it was supported at the second assessment, 2 months later. Patients with high social support reported better emotional functioning and less serious stress reactions, in terms of lower scores on the IES avoidance subscale, than patients with a low degree of social support. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS: The mixed findings may indicate that social support has only small effects on emotional functioning and stress reactions. Our results on the second assessment indicate, however, that social support might work as a buffer against reactions toward external stressful events such as terminal cancer.

  6. "Facebook," Social Integration and Informal Learning at University: "It Is More for Socialising and Talking to Friends about Work than for Actually Doing Work"

    Madge, Clare; Meek, Julia; Wellens, Jane; Hooley, Tristram

    2009-01-01

    Whilst recent studies suggest that over 95% of British undergraduate students are regularly using social networking sites, we still know very little about how this phenomenon impacts on the student experience and, in particular, how it influences students' social integration into university life. This paper explores how pre-registration engagement…

  7. Between Mexico and New York City: Mexican Maternal Migration's Influences on Separated Siblings' Social and Educational Lives

    Oliveira, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    There are negative consequences for children and youth when a primary caregiver leaves to migrate. However there are unforeseen experiences related to schooling. I compare how Mexican maternal migration has influenced the education experiences of the children left behind in Mexico and their siblings living in the United States. These microcontexts…

  8. A Typological Approach to the Study of Parenting: Associations between Maternal Parenting Patterns and Child Behaviour and Social Reception

    McNamara, Kelly A.; Selig, James P.; Hawley, Patricia H.

    2010-01-01

    The present work addresses the associations between self-reported maternal parenting behaviours and aggression, personality and peer regard of children (n = 119) in early childhood (ages three-six years). A k-means cluster analysis derived types of mothers based on their relative use of autonomy support and restrictive control. Outcomes included…

  9. Use of social network analysis in maternity care to identify the profession most suited for case manager role

    Groenen, C.J.M.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Faber, M.J.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve Dutch maternity care, professionals start working in interdisciplinary patient-centred networks, which includes the patients as a member. The introduction of the case manager is expected to work positively on both the individual and the network level. However, case management

  10. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  11. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  12. Friends With Health Benefits: The Long-Term Benefits of Early Peer Social Integration for Blood Pressure and Obesity in Midlife.

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-05-01

    In adults, greater social integration is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Social integration earlier in life may be similarly associated with cardiovascular risk. Using a longitudinal sample of 267 Black and White men, we examined whether greater social integration with peers during childhood and adolescence, assessed by parent report, prospectively predicts lower blood pressure and body mass index two decades later in adulthood and whether these effects differ by race, given well-documented racial disparities in hypertension. Boys who were reported by their parents to be more socially integrated with peers evidenced lower blood pressure and body mass index in adulthood, and this effect was not accounted for by body mass index in childhood, childhood socioeconomic status, childhood hostility, childhood physical health, extraversion measured in adolescence, or concurrent adult self-reports of social integration. Results did not differ by race, but analyses were not powered to detect interactions of small effect size.

  13. Perceived Social Support from Family and Friends and Early Maladaptive Schemas among Female and Male Delinquent and Non-delinquent Adolescents

    Anahita khodabakhshi koolaee1

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adolescence, period of transition from childhood to adulthood, is time with changes in social, psychological, behavioral, and physical situations. These changes combined with the cultural, social and family backgrounds’ adolescents, can lead to social problems such as social deviations (delinquency.This study aims to compare the components of perceived social support and early maladaptive schemas in adolescents (male and female delinquent and non-delinquent.Materials and Methods: This research was based on comparative and causal method. In this research, 100 delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using convenience sampling method and 100 non-delinquent adolescents (80 male and 20 female using Cluster sampling method were selected. They completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS questionnaires and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF. Data analysis was performed via descriptive statistics (Mean and SD. and analytic methods such as independent T-test.Results: Delinquent adolescents had higher mean of early maladaptive schemas and instead had lower level of social support. In addition, delinquent boys had higher early maladaptive schemas mean compared to non-delinquent boys and they had different levels of social support. There was a significant difference in perceived social support between delinquent and non-delinquent girls. Also, there was a significant difference between early maladaptive schemas of delinquent and non-delinquent girls.              Conclusion: The findings showed the importance of providing background for strengthening of social support. Identification of early maladaptive schemas as patterns of emotional and cognitive damage in adolescence can be useful to provide appropriate psychological services to improve the quality of life and increased health-related behaviors of delinquent individual.

  14. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  15. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  16. Transforming maternal and newborn health social norms and practices to increase utilization of health services in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative review.

    Taleb, Fahmida; Perkins, Janet; Ali, Nabeel Ashraf; Capello, Cecilia; Ali, Muzahid; Santarelli, Carlo; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul

    2015-03-29

    Since 2008, Participatory Action for Rural Development Innovation (PARI) Development Trust, with the support of Enfants du Monde, has been implementing a maternal and newborn health (MNH) program based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) framework for Working with Individuals, Families and Communities (IFC) to improve MNH in Netrokona district, Bangladesh. This program aims to empower women and families and increase utilization of quality health services, thereby helping women realize their rights related to maternal health. Birth preparedness and complication readiness and working with traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to exercise a new role in MNH and have formed key interventions of this program. The purpose of this study was to explore how the program has contributed to changing social norms and practices surrounding MNH at midpoint. This study relied primarily on qualitative data collection. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with women who were pregnant or had recently given birth and one FGD with each of the following groups: husbands, family members, TBAs, and health workers. In-depth interviews were conducted with women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, family members of these women, health care providers, TBAs and community health workers in selected intervention areas. Since implementation of interventions informants report an increase in planning for birth and complications and a shift in preference toward skilled care at birth. However, women still prefer to receive services at home. TBAs report encouraging women to access skilled care for both routine and emergency services. While community members' understanding of rights related to maternal health remains limited, they report increased women's participation in household decision- making processes, an important indicator of the realization of rights. Results suggest that community-level interventions aiming to affect change in social norms and practices surrounding

  17. Finding friends after resettlement: A study of the social integration of immigrants and refugees, their personal networks and self-work in everyday life

    Valenta, Marko

    2008-01-01

    The social integration of first generation immigrants in Norway is the main topic of this study. Although most immigrants in Norway receive generous resettlement and welfare assistance from the state, experiences of non-belonging, cultural distance and lack of recognition from the mainstream are still a common fact of daily social life for many of them. In this study, I relate these experiences to relationships that immigrants have established with other people. My interest is primarily on im...

  18. Political discussions with family and friends

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  19. Association Between Parental Social Interaction and Behavior Problems in Offspring: a Population-Based Study in Japan.

    Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Research in parental social support has chiefly examined received social support. Studies have suggested that provided social support may also be protective for child mental health problems. We aim to investigate the association between parental social interaction (both received and provided social support) and offspring behavior problems. We analyzed the data of 982 households, including 1538 children aged 4 to 16 years, from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) survey conducted over 2010-2011. We used a 5-point Likert scale to assess social interaction including parental emotional and instrumental support received from and provided to the spouse, other co-residing family members, non-co-residing family members or relatives, neighbors, and friends. Behavior problems in offspring were assessed using parental responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations between parental social interaction and behavior problems were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. We found that higher maternal social interaction is significantly associated with lower odds of both difficult and prosocial behavior problems, while the same associations were not found for paternal social interaction. Further, maternal provided social support showed an independent negative association with prosocial behavior problems in offspring, even when adjusted for received maternal social support and paternal social interaction. This study showed that maternal social interaction, but not paternal social interaction, might have a protective effect on offspring behavior problems. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the intervention to increase social participation among mothers whose children have behavior problems.

  20. The effect of social behavior change communication package on maternal knowledge in obstetric danger signs among mothers in East Mamprusi District of Ghana.

    Saaka, Mahama; Aryee, Paul; Kuganab-Lem, Robert; Ali, Mohammed; Masahudu, Abdul Razak

    2017-03-21

    An understanding of maternal knowledge of the danger signs of obstetric and newborn complications is fundamental to attaining universal health coverage. In Northern Ghana, where maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality is high, little is known about the current knowledge level and associated determinants of these danger signs. This study assessed the effect of social behavior change communication (SBCC) package on knowledge of obstetric and newborn danger signs among mothers with children under 24 months of age. This study used a non-randomized controlled community-based intervention design with pre and post-intervention household surveys in the intervention and comparison communities of the East Mamprusi District in Ghana. The study population were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Only 521 (51.1%), 300 (29.4%) and 353 (34.6%) of the study participants knew at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period respectively. The intervention had a positive effect on maternal knowledge of danger signs. Compared to their counterparts in the comparison communities, women in the intervention communities were about 2.6 times (AOR  =  2. 58 [CI: 1.87, 3.57]), 3.4 times (AOR  =  3.39 [CI: 2.31, 4.96]) and 2.2 times (AOR  =  2.19 [CI: 1.68, 2.84]) more likely to have higher knowledge of danger signs of childbirth, postpartum and neonate, respectively. Having sought postnatal services at least once was significantly associated with the mentioning of at least three danger signs of postpartum (AOR  =  3.90 [CI: 2.01, 7.58]) and childbirth (AOR  =  1.75 [CI: 1.06, 2.85]). There was a significant contribution of social and behavioral change communication as an intervention to maternal knowledge in obstetric danger signs after adjusting for confounding factors such as antenatal and post-natal care attendance. Therefore, provision of information, education and communication targeting

  1. User friendly packaging

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  2. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  3. Social differentiation and embodied dispositions: a qualitative study of maternal care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity in Bolivia

    Liljestrand Jerker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia.

  4. "Friending" Professors, Parents and Bosses: A Facebook Connection Conundrum

    Karl, Katherine A.; Peluchette, Joy V.

    2011-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Facebook has led some educators to ponder what role social networking might have in education. The authors examined student reactions to friend requests from people outside their regular network of friends including professors, parents, and employers. We found students have the most positive reactions to friend…

  5. Patients as friends -awkward or advantageous? | Moosa | South ...

    Rural General Practitioners often find themselves in a small community having patients as friends. This can lead to difficulty in the relationship. This is a reflection on family friends where I missed the youngest child's diagnosis of myoclonic epilepsy in the social context and which led to a crisis in the relationship. This led me ...

  6. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: the quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

    Einar B. Thorsteinsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n = 63 and mothers of children without diabetes (n = 114. The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life. Results Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain. Conclusion In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.

  7. Good Child is a Calm Child: Mothers' Social Status, Maternal Conceptions of Proper Demeanor, and Stranger Anxiety in One-Year Old Cameroonian Nso Children

    Hiltrud Otto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our article questions the assumption that stranger anxiety develops universally in children; thereby our study is rooted in a long tradition in psychological anthropology of testing the universality of theories formulated in Western society. We argue that the infant's behavior towards strangers is the product of socialization processes that represent adaptations to cultural contexts. Our study investigates the ethnotheory of childrearing and the development of stranger anxiety in a Cameroonian community of traditional Nso farmers. The participants of the study were 29 Cameroonian Nso mothers with one-year old children. Using a multi-method approach, we demonstrate that Nso mothers value inexpressive infants that adjust easily to others. Accordingly, a considerably large number of one-year old Nso infants showed no stranger anxiety when encountered by a stranger. Maternal social status and her social support system proved crucial to successful implementation of the socialization goal of a calm child. Our data support the view that child behavior is a product of culturally constructed experiences of daily life. The acknowledgement of the cultural construction of stranger anxiety carries implications for developmental theories, especially for attachment theory, which relies on the universality of stranger anxiety in their most acclaimed paradigm, the Strange Situation.

  8. "I Wouldn't Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish": A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media.

    Purves, Richard I; Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas

    2018-02-16

    The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands are used by young people to develop their desired identities and how these acts of consumption extend to young people's profiles on social media. It also deepens understanding of how alcohol brands are connected to young peoples' concerns about image and peer group dynamics. This involved qualitative focus groups with young people aged 14-17 in Central Scotland. Certain alcohol brands were approved and viewed as socially acceptable by young people, while others were rejected. Children as young as 14 were selecting products to portray a drinking identity that was appropriately aligned to their gender and sexuality. Participants displayed a desire to associate themselves with the mature drinking culture personified by some brands, whilst simultaneously distancing themselves from immature drinking practices associated with others. Publicly associating with alcohol brands on social media carried with it potential risks to peer group acceptance. Understanding how young people perceive alcohol brands, the importance of social media in communicating that identity to their peers and the role that alcohol brands play in adolescent identity formation is an important first step to reforming alcohol marketing regulations.

  9. “I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands are used by young people to develop their desired identities and how these acts of consumption extend to young people’s profiles on social media. It also deepens understanding of how alcohol brands are connected to young peoples’ concerns about image and peer group dynamics. This involved qualitative focus groups with young people aged 14–17 in Central Scotland. Certain alcohol brands were approved and viewed as socially acceptable by young people, while others were rejected. Children as young as 14 were selecting products to portray a drinking identity that was appropriately aligned to their gender and sexuality. Participants displayed a desire to associate themselves with the mature drinking culture personified by some brands, whilst simultaneously distancing themselves from immature drinking practices associated with others. Publicly associating with alcohol brands on social media carried with it potential risks to peer group acceptance. Understanding how young people perceive alcohol brands, the importance of social media in communicating that identity to their peers and the role that alcohol brands play in adolescent identity formation is an important first step to reforming alcohol marketing regulations. PMID:29462899

  10. “Don't pretend to be my friend!” When an informal brand communication style backfires on social media

    Gretry, A.; Horvath, C.; Belei, N.V.T.; Riel, A.C.R. van

    2017-01-01

    Social media are now essential platforms for marketing communications, and the volume of consumer-brand interactions on these platforms is exploding. Even so, it remains unclear how brands should communicate with consumers to foster relationships and, in particular, to gain their trust. A

  11. The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey.

    Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Tamim, Hala

    2014-05-07

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10-20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15-19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD.

  12. The friends that game together: A folkloric expansion of textual poaching to genre farming for socialization in tabletop role-playing games

    Michael Robert Underwood

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabletop role-playing games (RPGs are a folkloric form for creating and reaffirming community bonds and performing identity. Gaming is used to communicate and perform cultural capital and identity through fictional narratives, functioning as a form of community building and/or personal expression. With quotations from ethnographic research over the course of 2 years, including interviews with several groups of gamers and participant observation, I examine the ways that players create and affirm social bonds. I return to Michel De Certeau's idea of textual poaching, as adapted by Henry Jenkins, to contrast with it a new concept of genre farming. As both platform for and object of genre farming, RPGs allow players to display cultural competence, create and reaffirm social ties, and seek entertainment in a collaborative fashion.

  13. Making Friends in Dark Shadows: An Examination of the Use of Social Computing Strategy Within the United States Intelligence Community Since 9/11

    Andrew Chomik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tragic events of 9/11/2001 in the United States highlighted failures in communication and cooperation in the U.S. intelligence community. Agencies within the community failed to “connect the dots” by not collaborating in intelligence gathering efforts, which resulted in severe gaps in data sharing that eventually contributed to the terrorist attack on American soil. Since then, and under the recommendation made by the 9/11 Commission Report, the United States intelligence community has made organizational and operational changes to intelligence gathering and sharing, primarily with the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI. The ODNI has since introduced a series of web-based social computing tools to be used by all members of the intelligence community, primarily with its closed-access wiki entitled “Intellipedia” and their social networking service called “A-Space”. This paper argues that, while the introduction of these and other social computing tools have been adopted successfully into the intelligence workplace, they have reached a plateau in their use and serve only as complementary tools to otherwise pre-existing information sharing processes. Agencies continue to ‘stove-pipe’ their respective data, a chronic challenge that plagues the community due to bureaucratic policy, technology use and workplace culture. This paper identifies and analyzes these challenges, and recommends improvements in the use of these tools, both in the business processes behind them and the technology itself. These recommendations aim to provide possible solutions for using these social computing tools as part of a more trusted, collaborative information sharing process.

  14. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  15. A dominating imaginary friend, cruelty to animals, social withdrawal, and growth deficiency in a 7-year-old girl with parents with schizophrenia.

    Shapiro, Henry L; Prince, Jefferson B; Ireland, Rachel; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Tessa is a 7-year-old girl with odd behaviors, worsening over the preceding year. She spends a significant amount of time alone in her room, talking to "Richard." Her father observed that Tessa is "in her own world." In school, she often glares at the teacher and refuses to work. She is alone at recess without any real friends. Her father reports that she eats little and only after he tastes the food. She is increasingly cruel to both real and toy animals. She tied a string around her cat's neck and swung it around, saying she wanted to punish it. She was heard to say to her stuffed cat, "Die, b ... .; die." Richard told her to do this and other "bad" things. Tessa has not had chronic health problems or developmental concerns. During the first 18 months of life, her height was between the 5th and 10th percentiles; it declined to below the 3rd percentile over the past 2 years. Weight has been consistently between the 3rd and 5th percentiles. Tessa's parents both have been diagnosed with schizophrenia. There are at least 7 first- and second-degree relatives with the same diagnosis. Both parents cared for Tessa for 4 years with a lot of support. Then, her father left the home, but he was in contact with her while managing his own illness. When the mother's illness and compliance worsened, Tessa was removed for neglect at 5 (1/2) years old. Two foster homes preceded Dad's award of sole custody 13 months ago. Mother's weekly visitations are quite upsetting to Tessa. Tessa is a verbal, solemn, small, well-dressed girl with no physical abnormalities. She talks with advanced vocabulary and syntax, with normal prosody and good conversational skills. She says Richard is a bad boy who gets her into trouble at school. She equivocates when asked if he is real or imagined or if others can see him. She says that she misses her mother.

  16. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. The Importance of Friends in Autobiographical Memory

    Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    often rehearsed, family memories that were old and rarely rehearsed, and school memories that were in between on both variables. This supports theories of friendship as the primary social context for adolescent development. Moreover, content analysis found friend memories to mention others more often......Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less...... explored. Thus, we asked adolescent school-goers who still lived with their parents for a meaningful memory from each of the settings family, school, and friendship. In both samples analyzed so far (Norwegians, N=22, and Slovaks, N=40) participants chose friend memories that were recent and reportedly...

  18. How can web-based training facilitate a more carer friendly practice in community-based health and social care services in Norway? Staff experiences and implementation challenges.

    Hanssen, Helene; Norheim, Anne; Hanson, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    It is a central feature of current Norwegian health and social care policy to see informal carers as active partners. However, research has revealed that carers often experience a lack of recognition by professionals. In 2010, the Norwegian Directorate of Health initiated a web-based competence-building programme (CBP) for health and social care practitioners aimed at facilitating collaboration with carers. The programme comprised case presentations, e-lectures, exercises and topics for discussion, and was introduced in 2012. It was flexible and free of charge. This article is based on a study (2012-2013) that followed the piloting of this CBP in four settings. The study aimed to explore factors that influenced the implementation of the programme and whether or not using it affected health and social care practitioners' attitudes and perceived capacity for collaboration with carers. The study employed a mixed-methods design. A questionnaire was distributed to all staff before and 5 months after the CBP was introduced, followed by focus group interviews with a sample of staff members and individual interviews with the leadership in the involved settings and those who introduced the programme. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, which subsequently formed the basis for the focus group interviews. The qualitative data were analysed by means of content analysis. The programme's introduction was similar across all research settings. Nevertheless, whether or not it was adopted depended to a large extent on leadership commitment and engagement. In settings where the programme's use was monitored, supported by management and formed part of on-the-job training, there seemed to be a positive impact on staff attitudes concerning collaboration with carers. Participant staff reported that their awareness of, motivation for and confidence in collaboration with carers were all strengthened. In contrast, the programme was of minimal benefit in

  19. Sustainability of recurrent expenditure on public social welfare programmes: expenditure analysis of the free maternal care programme of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Ankrah Odame, Emmanuel; Akweongo, Patricia; Yankah, Ben; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Agyepong, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability of public social welfare programmes has long been of concern in development circles. An important aspect of sustainability is the ability to sustain the recurrent financial costs of programmes. A free maternal care programme (FMCP) was launched under the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008 with a start-up grant from the British Government. This article examines claims expenditure under the programme and the implications for the financial sustainability of the programme, and the lessons for donor and public financing of social welfare programmes. Records of reimbursement claims for services and medicines by women benefitting from the policy in participating facilities in one sub-metropolis in Ghana were analysed to gain an understanding of the expenditure on this programme at facility level. National level financial inflow and outflow (expenditure) data of the NHIS, related to implementation of this policy for 2008 and 2009, were reviewed to put the facility-based data in the national perspective. A total of US$936 450.94 was spent in 2009 by the scheme on FMCP in the sub-metropolis. The NHIS expenditure on the programme for the entire country in 2009 was US$49.25 million, exceeding the British grant of US$10.00 million given for that year. Subsequently, the programme has been entirely financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. The rapidly increasing, recurrent demands on this fund from the maternal delivery exemption programme-without a commensurate growth on the amounts generated annually-is an increasing threat to the sustainability of the fund. Provision of donor start-up funding for programmes with high recurrent expenditures, under the expectation that government will take over and sustain the programme, must be accompanied by clear long-term analysis and planning as to how government will sustain the programme.

  20. Sickness absence, social relations, and self-esteem: a qualitative study of the importance of relationships with family, workmates, and friends among persons initially long-term sickness absent due to back diagnoses.

    Svensson, Tommy; Müssener, Ulrika; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and analyze accounts of social interactions and relationships with family, workmates, and friends supplied by persons with experience of sickness absence due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnoses. The focus was on experiences that seemed to involve positive and negative self-evaluative aspects, and therefore may be important to the self-conception and self-esteem of the absentee, and possibly to return to work. The interviewees were women and men between 25 to 34 years of age who had been sickness certified due to back, neck, or shoulder diagnosis. A descriptive and explorative method was used to analyze data from five focus-group interviews. The importance of being supported and encouraged by family members, and the importance of feeling needed at work as well as being part of a social context were aspects stressed by the respondents. Our results indicate that these interactions and relations are important to the absentees' self-esteem, and that this should be taken into account when discussing rehabilitation efforts.

  1. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: the role of paternal and maternal fear of negative child evaluation and parenting behaviour

    de Vente, W.; Majdandžić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; Bögels, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents' fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE) by others has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety. Parents' FNCE may result in child social anxiety through various learning processes, including those associated with parenting. To test these

  3. The Association of Maternal Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence with Adult Offsprings' Sympathy/Caring

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood…

  4. Effect of a multifaceted social franchising model on quality and coverage of maternal, newborn, and reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: a quasi-experimental study

    Sarah Tougher, MSc; Varun Dutt, PGDip; Shreya Pereira, MSc; Kaveri Haldar, MPP; Vasudha Shukla, PhD; Kultar Singh, PGDip; Paresh Kumar, PGDip; Prof Catherine Goodman, PhD; Timothy Powell-Jackson, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Background: How to harness the private sector to improve population health in low-income and middle-income countries is heavily debated and one prominent strategy is social franchising. We aimed to evaluate whether the Matrika social franchising model—a multifaceted intervention that established a network of private providers and strengthened the skills of both public and private sector clinicians—could improve the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for matern...

  5. Lipedema: friend and foe.

    Torre, Yanira Sanchez-De la; Wadeea, Rita; Rosas, Victoria; Herbst, Karen L

    2018-03-09

    Background Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema. Results Lipedema is a foe because lifestyle change does not reduce lipedema fat, the fat is painful, can become obese, causes gait and joint abnormalities, fatigue, lymphedema and psychosocial distress. Hypermobility associated with lipedema can exacerbate joint disease and aortic disease. In contrast, lipedema fat can be a friend as it is associated with relative reductions in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. In new data collected, lipedema was associated with a low risk of diabetes (2%), dyslipidemia (11.7%) and hypertension (13%) despite an obese average body mass index (BMI) of 35.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2. Conclusion Lipedema is a painful psychologically distressing fat disorder, more foe than friend especially due to associated obesity and lymphedema. More controlled studies are needed to study the mechanisms and treatments for lipedema.

  6. Speech Acts During Friends' and Non-friends' Spontaneous Conversations in Preschool Dyads with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development.

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Golan-Itshaky, Adi; Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we videotaped two 10-min. free-play interactions and coded speech acts (SAs) in peer talk of 51 preschoolers (21 ASD, 30 typical), interacting with friend versus non-friend partners. Groups were matched for maternal education, IQ (verbal/nonverbal), and CA. We compared SAs by group (ASD/typical), by partner's friendship status (friend/non-friend), and by partner's disability status. Main results yielded a higher amount and diversity of SAs in the typical than the ASD group (mainly in assertive acts, organizational devices, object-dubbing, and pretend-play); yet, those categories, among others, showed better performance with friends versus non-friends. Overall, a more nuanced perception of the pragmatic deficit in ASD should be adopted, highlighting friendship as an important context for children's development of SAs.

  7. Protocol for the evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Pereira, Shreya K.; Kumar, Paresh; Dutt, Varun; Haldar, Kaveri; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Santos, Andreia; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Social franchising is the fastest growing market-based approach to organising and improving the quality of care in the private sector of low- and middle-income countries, but there is limited evidence on its impact and cost-effectiveness. The ?Sky? social franchise model was introduced in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in late 2013. Methods/design Difference-in-difference methods will be used to estimate the impact of the social franchise programme on the quality and coverage of...

  8. [Psychoanalytic study of social withdrawal: grandiose narcissism and passive aggression due to insufficient maternal containing in childhood].

    Ogawa, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    Two different types of pathology can cause social withdrawal: the narcissistic--schizoid personality organization (NSPO) type and the mild Asperger's syndrome (mild developmental disorders) type. Only the former type can be treated by psychoanalytic psychotherapy. In the childhood of both types, one may find traumatic family environments which will result in social withdrawal (Hikikomori). In the infancy of the NSPO type, the mother fails to function as a sufficient container of the child's emotion, which encourages formation of a schizoid personality organization i.e. the psychic withdrawal (or "psychic retreat" by Steiner, J.). With only a little failure in life events, this may turn into a physical withdrawal for a long time. And in this type of pathology their aggression takes a passive form that hardens their social withdrawal situation. Moreover, the social withdrawal itself serves to reinforce the pathological narcissism.

  9. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  10. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  11. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  13. Social support and maternal mental health at 4 months and 1 year postpartum: analysis from the All Our Families cohort.

    Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Williamson, Tyler; Patten, Scott B; Tough, Suzanne C

    2018-06-19

    Low social support is consistently associated with postpartum depression. Previous studies do not always control for previous mental health and do not consider what type of support (tangible, emotional, informational or positive social interaction) is most important. The objectives are: to examine if low social support contributes to subsequent risk of depressive or anxiety symptoms and to determine which type of support is most important. Data from the All Our Families longitudinal pregnancy cohort were used (n=3057). Outcomes were depressive or anxiety symptoms at 4 months and 1 year postpartum. Exposures were social support during pregnancy and at 4 months postpartum. Log binomial models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) and absolute risk differences, controlling for past mental health. Low total social support during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.82) and anxiety symptoms (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.93) at 4 months postpartum. Low total social support at 4 months was associated with an increased risk of anxiety symptoms (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.09) at 1 year. Absolute risk differences were largest among women with previous mental health challenges resulting in a number needed to treat of 5 for some outcomes. Emotional/informational support was the most important type of support for postpartum anxiety. Group prenatal care, prenatal education and peer support programmes have the potential to improve social support. Prenatal interventions studies are needed to confirm these findings in higher risk groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Finding Friends Online: Online Activities by Deaf Students and Their Well-Being

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Generally, deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children have fewer friends than hearing peers and their friendships are of a lower quality. The research hypothesis was that using the computer to communicate with new online friends through social network sites or playing games with offline friends is

  15. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  16. Effects of maternal chlorpyrifos diet on social investigation and brain neuroendocrine markers in the offspring - a mouse study.

    Venerosi, Aldina; Tait, Sabrina; Stecca, Laura; Chiarotti, Flavia; De Felice, Alessia; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Volpe, Maria Teresa; Calamandrei, Gemma; Ricceri, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphate pesticides worldwide. Epidemiological studies on pregnant women and their children suggest a link between in utero CPF exposure and delay in psychomotor and cognitive maturation. A large number of studies in animal models have shown adverse effects of CPF on developing brain and more recently on endocrine targets. Our aim was to determine if developmental exposure to CPF affects social responsiveness and associated molecular neuroendocrine markers at adulthood. Pregnant CD1 outbred mice were fed from gestational day 15 to lactation day 14 with either a CPF-added (equivalent to 6 mg/kg/bw/day during pregnancy) or a standard diet. We then assessed in the offspring the long-term effects of CPF exposure on locomotion, social recognition performances and gene expression levels of selected neurondocrine markers in amygdala and hypothalamus. No sign of CPF systemic toxicity was detected. CPF induced behavioral alterations in adult offspring of both sexes: CPF-exposed males displayed enhanced investigative response to unfamiliar social stimuli, whereas CPF-exposed females showed a delayed onset of social investigation and lack of reaction to social novelty. In parallel, molecular effects of CPF were sex dimorphic: in males CPF increased expression of estrogen receptor beta in hypothalamus and decreased oxytocin expression in amygdala; CPF increased vasopressin 1a receptor expression in amygdala in both sexes. These data indicate that developmental CPF affects mouse social behavior and interferes with development of sex-dimorphic neuroendocrine pathways with potential disruptive effects on neuroendocrine axes homeostasis. The route of exposure selected in our study corresponds to relevant human exposure scenarios, our data thus supports the view that neuroendocrine effects, especially in susceptible time windows, should deserve more attention in risk assessment of OP insecticides.

  17. The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Qatar, 2016

    Mohamad A. Chehab, MBBCh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding instills countless benefits that extend beyond the infant and child to the entire nation. One of the global targets set by the WHO to improve maternal, infant, and young child nutrition is to increase the rate of exclusive breast-feeding “in the first 6 months” up to at least 50% by 2025.3 Thus, as a global endeavor to promote and sustain breastfeeding, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI 1 year after the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. Regarding the State of Qatar, there was a 34% rate of early initiation of breastfeeding “within the first hour of birth” and a 29% rate of exclusive breastfeeding between 2010 and 2015. In Qatar during 2016, many obstacles in achieving the aforementioned global target remained. In addition, there are still no hospitals with a BFHI accreditation. Keywords: Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, Breastfeeding, Maternal health, Qatar

  18. Family-friendly policies: general nurses' preferences and experiences.

    Robinson, Sarah; Davey, Barbara; Murrells, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    While European Union policy emphasises that one of the aims of family-friendly working arrangements is to increasing gender equality, in the UK the focus has been primarily on workforce retention. Drawing on a study of Registered General Nurses who returned to work after breaks for maternity leave, this paper considers their preferences and experiences in light of current UK family-friendly policies and the implications of the findings for increasing gender equality. Questionnaires were completed by respondents in three regional health authorities and focused on the four to eight year period after qualification. The following topics were investigated: views about length of maternity break and reasons for returning to work sooner than preferred; hours sought after a return and hours obtained; the availability of preferred patterns of work and of flexible hours; retention of grade on return; the availability and use of workplace crèches, and childcare arrangements when children were unwell.

  19. Three friendly walkers

    Jensen, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    More than 15 years ago Guttmann and Vöge (2002 J. Stat. Plan. Inference 101 107), introduced a model of friendly walkers. Since then it has remained unsolved. In this paper we provide the exact solution to a closely allied model which essentially only differs in the boundary conditions. The exact solution is expressed in terms of the reciprocal of the generating function for vicious walkers which is a D-finite function. However, ratios of D-finite functions are inherently not D-finite and in this case we prove that the friendly walkers generating function is the solution to a non-linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients, it is in other words D-algebraic. We find using numerically exact calculations a conjectured expression for the generating function of the original model as a ratio of a D-finite function and the generating function for vicious walkers. We obtain an expression for this D-finite function in terms of a {{}2}{{F}1} hypergeometric function with a rational pullback and its first and second derivatives. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  20. Network-Friendly Gossiping

    Serbu, Sabina; Rivière, Étienne; Felber, Pascal

    The emergence of large-scale distributed applications based on many-to-many communication models, e.g., broadcast and decentralized group communication, has an important impact on the underlying layers, notably the Internet routing infrastructure. To make an effective use of network resources, protocols should both limit the stress (amount of messages) on each infrastructure entity like routers and links, and balance as much as possible the load in the network. Most protocols use application-level metrics such as delays to improve efficiency of content dissemination or routing, but the extend to which such application-centric optimizations help reduce and balance the load imposed to the infrastructure is unclear. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of such network-friendly protocols and associated metrics. More specifically, we investigate random-based gossip dissemination. We propose and evaluate different ways of making this representative protocol network-friendly while keeping its desirable properties (robustness and low delays). Simulations of the proposed methods using synthetic and real network topologies convey and compare their abilities to reduce and balance the load while keeping good performance.

  1. The Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign: A Community-Based Model for Breastfeeding Promotion, Protection, and Support.

    Al Ghazal, Hessa; Rashid, Shehnaz; Ruf, Evelyne

    2015-11-01

    Breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to advance maternal and child health. The World Health Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and numerous health organizations have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, which is a key indicator of breastfeeding promotion programs worldwide. Despite the recommendations and various initiatives to promote breastfeeding, most women do not reach the exclusive breastfeeding target in both developed and developing countries. Such has been the case in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, based on the decree for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support by the ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE, H.H. Sheikh Doctor Sultan Al Qasimi, a multisectorial, multidirectional breastfeeding campaign--the Sharjah Baby-Friendly Campaign--was launched in March 2012 by H.E. Sheikha Bodour Al Qasimi, under her patronage. It consisted of four initiatives-namely, Baby-Friendly Health Facility, Mother-Friendly Workplace, Breastfeeding-Friendly Nursery, and Mother-Baby Friendly Public Place. Once an organization met the criteria for any of these initiatives, it was awarded the designation or accreditation of that initiative. The campaign initiatives worked through capacity building of healthcare workers, provided professional support and facilitation for the accreditation process, developed breastfeeding education content and resources, and organized and conducted breastfeeding promotion seminars in health facilities and community, as well as community outreach through social media and an innovative mobile mother' room. The positive impact of the campaign on breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support is evident by the increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months and decreased bottle feeding rates at both 4 and 6 months.

  2. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  3. Maternal Depression and Anxiety across the Postpartum Year and Infant Social Engagement, Fear Regulation, and Stress Reactivity

    Feldman, Ruth; Granat, Adi; Pariente, Clara; Kanety, Hannah; Kuint, Jacob; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Data from an extreme-case design involving 971 women who reported symptoms of anxiety and depression after childbirth reveal that the infants of depressed mothers had the lowest social engagement, less mature regulatory behaviors and were more negative emotionally at 9 months.

  4. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  5. Maternal Knowing and Social Networks: Understanding First-Time Mothers' Search for Information and Support Through Online and Offline Social Networks.

    Price, Sheri Lynn; Aston, Megan; Monaghan, Joelle; Sim, Meaghan; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Etowa, Josephine; Pickles, Michelle; Hunter, Andrea; Little, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    The postpartum period is an exciting yet stressful time for first-time mothers, and although the experience may vary, all mothers need support during this crucial period. In Canada, there has been a shift for universal postpartum services to be offered predominantly online. However, due to a paucity of literature, it is difficult to determine the degree to which mothers' needs are being effectively addressed. The aim of this study was to examine and understand how first-time mothers accessed support and information (online and offline) during the first 6 months of their postpartum period. Using feminist poststructuralism methodology, data were collected from focus groups and e-interviews, and analyzed using discourse analysis. Findings indicate that peer support is greatly valued, and mothers often use social media to make in-person social connections. Findings highlight how accessing support and information is socially and institutionally constructed and provide direction for health professionals to provide accessible postpartum care.

  6. Rural maternity care.

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  7. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  8. My Nepalese Friends

    1996-01-01

    NEPAL and China are good neighbors. In the 1980s many Chinese technicians went to Nepal to help build roads and other projects. As an interpreter with a Chinese construction cooperative, I worked there from 1993 to 1994. During my stay in Nepal, I met many different Nepalese women who impressed me deeply. My landlady Sumiyala, was the first Nepalese woman to come into my life. She was over 40 years old, a healthy and good-humored housewife. Whenever Ⅰ had time, I liked to chat with her and gradually we became friends. I remember my landlady was busy in and out of her house all day long— cleaning, cooking and taking care of her grandchildren and her parents-in-laws.

  9. Thinking with friends

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    cognitive phenomenon, and bringing together observations and concepts from interdisciplinary studies of interpersonal relationships allows for a notion of relational attention to be developed. At least for some forms of friendships, the agents not merely attend to common interests; their perception...... is shared, mediated by the very relationship as an embodied activity of distributed cognition. An important example of this is collaboration in science and art, as when friends or colleagues work close together to solve problems or develop new forms of creative expression.......Can research in situated and embodied cognition inform the study of interpersonal relations like friendship? And conversely, can friendship studies from disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives inspire research in cognitive science? These are the guiding questions for this chapter. Compared...

  10. Supporting Members and Friends

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  11. Environmentally friendly road construction

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  12. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity, their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05 and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03 whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001 whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002 and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009 respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower

  13. Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey.

    Bauman, M D; Iosif, A-M; Ashwood, P; Braunschweig, D; Lee, A; Schumann, C M; Van de Water, J; Amaral, D G

    2013-07-09

    Antibodies directed against fetal brain proteins of 37 and 73 kDa molecular weight are found in approximately 12% of mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but not in mothers of typically developing children. This finding has raised the possibility that these immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies cross the placenta during pregnancy and impact brain development, leading to one form of ASD. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of these antibodies by using a nonhuman primate model. IgG was isolated from mothers of children with ASD (IgG-ASD) and of typically developing children (IgG-CON). The purified IgG was administered to two groups of female rhesus monkeys (IgG-ASD; n=8 and IgG-CON; n=8) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Another control group of pregnant monkeys (n=8) was untreated. Brain and behavioral development of the offspring were assessed for 2 years. Behavioral differences were first detected when the macaque mothers responded to their IgG-ASD offspring with heightened protectiveness during early development. As they matured, IgG-ASD offspring consistently deviated from species-typical social norms by more frequently approaching familiar peers. The increased approach was not reciprocated and did not lead to sustained social interactions. Even more striking, IgG-ASD offspring displayed inappropriate approach behavior to unfamiliar peers, clearly deviating from normal macaque social behavior. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that male IgG-ASD offspring had enlarged brain volume compared with controls. White matter volume increases appeared to be driving the brain differences in the IgG-ASD offspring and these differences were most pronounced in the frontal lobes.

  14. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  15. Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of ...

    Understanding Maternal Mortality in Colombia : the Influence of Health Insurance ... a mandatory social insurance program based on contributions from employees ... of maternal mortality such as socioeconomic status, physical access to care, ...

  16. A Friend in Need

    Maldonado, Edgar; Van Gorp, Annemijn; Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    The popularity and ubiquity of social media (SM) have permeated private and public institutions. These last ones, and in particular those governmental agencies that deal with emergencies, have begun using social media in their operations. The impact of SM as a tool within emergency relief...... organizations and their external activities is still under research. Using qualitative and quantitative data this study aims to identify the various ways in which emergency responders use social media. The study also analyzes for which purposes emergency responders use SM and the impact this has...... on the organization....

  17. The influence of the social and cultural environment on maternal mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 demographic and health survey.

    Oluwatosin Ariyo

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality remains a priority for global health. One in five maternal deaths, globally, are from Nigeria.This study aimed to assess the sociocultural correlates of maternal mortality in Nigeria.We conducted a retrospective analysis of nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The analysis was based on responses from the core women's questionnaire. Maternal mortality was categorized as 'yes' for any death while pregnant, during delivery or two months after delivery (as reported by the sibling, and 'no' for deaths of other or unknown causes. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for association between maternal mortality and predictor variables of sociocultural status (educational attainment, community women's education, region, type of residence, religion, and women's empowerment.Region, Religion, and the level of community women's education were independently associated with maternal mortality. Women in the North West were more than twice as likely to report maternal mortality (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.42-3.23 compared to those in the North Central region. Muslim women were 52% more likely to report maternal deaths (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.10-2.11 compared to Christian women. Respondents living in communities where a significant proportion of women have at least secondary schooling were 33% less likely to report that their sisters died of pregnancy-related causes (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48-0.95.Efforts to reduce maternal mortality should implement tailored programs that address barriers to health-seeking behavior influenced by cultural beliefs and attitudes, and low educational attainment. Strategies to improve women's agency should be at the core of these programs; they are essential for reducing maternal mortality and achieving sustainable development goals towards gender equality. Future studies should develop empirically evaluated measures which assess, and further

  18. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  19. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  20. Marketing animal-friendly products

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  1. Changes in maternal self-efficacy, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period: A longitudinal study.

    Zheng, Xujuan; Morrell, Jane; Watts, Kim

    2018-07-01

    There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are that most studies were conducted with a homogeneous sample and there were few studies with Chinese women. Secondly, the trajectory of change in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support for Chinese primiparous women was not clear during the initial postpartum period in earlier studies. This study aimed to describe changes in MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women in the first three months postnatally. A quantitative longitudinal study using questionnaires was conducted. Obstetric wards at three hospitals in Xiamen City, South-East China. In total, 420 Chinese primiparous women were recruited. Initial baseline questionnaires to measure socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at three days postnatally were distributed to participants face-to-face by the researcher on the postnatal ward. Follow-up questionnaires at six and 12 weeks postnatally were sent via e-mail by the researcher to participants, including the Self-efficacy in Infant Care Scale (SICS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Postpartum Social Support Scale (PSSS) to measure MSE, postnatal depression symptoms and social support, respectively. These were returned by participants via e-mail. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. The mean MSE score at six weeks postnatally was 74.92 (SD = 11.05), and increased to 77.78 (SD = 11.13) at 12 weeks postnatally. The mean social support scores at six and 12 weeks postnatally were 40.99 (SD = 9.31) and 43.00 (SD = 9.55). The mean EPDS scores decreased from 9.09 (SD = 4.33) at six weeks postnatally to 8.63 (SD = 4.40) at 12 weeks postnatally; the proportion of women with an

  2. Advanced Environment Friendly Nanotechnologies

    Figovsky, O.; Beilin, D.; Blank, N.

    The economic, security, military and environmental implications of molecular manufacturing are extreme. Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand those differences and to develop sensible, effective policy for each. The risks of today's nanoscale technologies cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration — each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require far different solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality. Molecular manufacturing, by contrast, will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems. The advanced environment friendly nanotechnologies elaborated by Israel Company Polymate Ltd. — International Research Center are illustrated.

  3. Good Friends, Bad News

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    . In this paper we explore the apparent paradox in a quantitative analysis of information diffusion on Twitter. Twitter is interesting in this context as it has been shown to present both the characteristics social and news media. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the probability of retweet. Twitter...... is different from email in that retweeting does not depend on pre-existing social relations, but often occur among strangers, thus in this respect Twitter may be more similar to traditional news media. We therefore hypothesize that negative news content is more likely to be retweeted, while for non-news tweets...

  4. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  5. Analisa Eco-friendly Attitudes Dan Eco-friendly Behavior Terhadap Eco-friendly Intention Green Hotel Di Indonesia

    Silvia, Lanny; Rudijanto, Diana Gabriela; Kristanti, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Kesadaran masyarakat akan lingkungan yang semakin meningkat membuat masyarakat gencar mencari hotel yang ramah lingkungan dibandingkan dengan hotel konvensional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan eco-friendly attitude, eco- friendly behavior, dan eco-friendly intention konsumen generasi x dan generasi y terhadap green hotel di Indonesia dan apakah eco-friendly attitudes dan eco-friendly behavior berpengaruh signifikan terhadap eco-friendly intention. Total responden dalam pe...

  6. Friending the Virgin

    Larry Friedlander

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at how previous practice of portraiture prepared the way for self-presentation on social networking sites. A portrait is not simply an exercise in the skillful or “realistic” depiction of a subject. Rather, it is a rhetorical exercise in visual description and persuasion and a site of intricate communicative processes. A long evolution of visual culture, intimately intertwined with evolving notions of identity and society, was necessary to create the conditions for the particular forms of self-representation we encounter on Facebook. Many of these premodern strategies prefigure ones we encounter on Facebook. By delineating the ways current practices reflect earlier ones, we can set a baseline from which we can isolate the precise novelty of current practice in social networking sites.

  7. Social Cognition, Child Neglect, and Child Injury Risk: The Contribution of Maternal Social Information Processing to Maladaptive Injury Prevention Beliefs Within a High-Risk Sample.

    Azar, Sandra T; Miller, Elizabeth A; Stevenson, Michael T; Johnson, David R

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate supervision has been linked to children's injuries. Parental injury prevention beliefs may play a role in supervision, yet little theory has examined the origins of such beliefs. This study examined whether mothers who perpetrated child neglect, who as a group provide inadequate supervision, have more maladaptive beliefs. Then, it tested a social information processing (SIP) model for explaining these beliefs. SIP and injury prevention beliefs were assessed in disadvantaged mothers of preschoolers (N  =  145), half with child neglect histories. The neglect group exhibited significantly more maladaptive injury prevention beliefs than comparisons. As predicted, SIP was linked to beliefs that may increase injury risk, even after accounting for relevant sociodemographic variables. Findings support the link of beliefs to injury risk and suggest that specific cognitive problems may underlie these beliefs. Future work should further validate this model, which may inform enhancements to prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. The Socialization of Children’s Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children’s Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children’s autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were 3, 5, and 6 years of age, and the results reveal concurrent and longitudinal linkages between maternal conversational style in a mother-child reminiscing task and children’s autobiographical memory performance. Maternal conversational style while reminiscing was also significantly related to children’s strategic behaviors and recall in two deliberate memory tasks, both concurrently and longitudinally. Results from this examination replicate and extend what is known about the linkages between maternal conversational style, children’s abilities to talk about previous experiences, and children’s deliberate memory skills as they transition from the preschool to early elementary school years. PMID:29270083

  9. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  10. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  11. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  12. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  13. Maternal burn-out: an exploratory study.

    Séjourné, N; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R; Leboullenger, A; Callahan, S

    2018-02-21

    Maternal burn-out is a psychological, emotional and physiological condition resulting from the accumulation of various stressors characterised by a moderate but also a chronic and repetitive dimension. Little research has focused on this syndrome. The current study aims to assess maternal burn-out rate and to identify factors associated with this state of exhaustion. 263 French mothers aged between 20 and 49 years answered five scales quantifying maternal burn-out, perceived social support, parental stress, depression and anxiety symptoms and history of postnatal depression. About 20% of mothers were affected by maternal burn-out. The main factors related to maternal burn-out were having a child perceived as difficult, history of postnatal depression, anxiety, satisfaction of a balance between professional and personal life and parental stress. This research shows the need for further work on maternal burn-out to better understand and prevent this syndrome.

  14. Maternal role rewards, opportunity costs and fertility.

    Oppong C

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a literature survey of interrelations between women's social role, maternity and fertility - discusses the social theory background, opportunity cost of children, economic, political, psychic and social status, role rewards, conflicts, etc. Bibliography pp. 35 to 47 and references.

  15. Maternal obesity in Europe

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  16. Maternal immunocompetence

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  17. Pediatric resident perceptions of family-friendly benefits.

    Berkowitz, Carol D; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the importance of family-friendly features in residency program selection, benefits offered to and used by residents, and importance of benefits in future job selection. A survey of a random, national sample of 1000 graduating pediatric residents in 2008 was mailed and e-mailed. Survey response rate for graduating resident respondents was 59%. Among the respondents, 76% were women. Thirty-seven percent of men and 32% of women were parents. Residents with children were more likely than residents without children to rate family-friendly characteristics as very important in their residency selection (P maternity leave (88%), paternity leave (59%), individual flexibility with schedule (63%), and lactation rooms (55%), but fewer reported on-site child care (24%), care for ill children (19%), and part-time residency positions (12%). Among residents reporting availability, 77% of women with children used maternity leave and lactation rooms. Few held part-time residency positions (2%), but many expressed interest (23% of women with children). The majority of residents with and without children reported that flexibility with schedule was important in their future job selection. Most women with children (71%) and many women without children (52%) considered part-time work to be very important in their job selection. Family-friendly benefits are important to residents, particularly those with children. The data provides a benchmark for the availability and use of family-friendly features at pediatric training programs. The data also shows that many residents are unaware if benefits are offered, which suggests a need to make available benefits more transparent to residents. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: a cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Swanson, Vivien; Power, Kevin G; Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Wrieden, Wendy; Slane, Peter W

    2011-06-23

    Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  19. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  20. Critical friends and collaborative partnership

    Katarina Jandér

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical friends: a method for peer feedback The Critical Friend-method has been used in various educational settings to facilitate the process of continuous improvement in teaching. The aim of this study was to implement Critical Friends, and to find out if this method could be used for feedback on teaching as part of a librarians' professional development. The project was carried out within the Library Unit of the Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Sweden, in collaboration with the faculty's Centre for Teaching and Learning. Seven librarians and an educational consultant from the Centre for Teaching and Learning participated; the educational consultant played an essential role in supervising and structuring the project and the evaluation process, preparing readings as well as being an active participant. The participants worked in pairs; the performance of one teacher and the associated classroom activities were observed by the critical friend, and then evaluated and discussed. Evaluation and results After two preparatory group meetings, a final meeting was held where all pairs reported what they had done and how they perceived the critical friend process. The experiences of the participating librarians were explored using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was analyzed using content analysis by one librarian and the educational consultant independently. The results suggested that use of the critical friend method could have a positive impact by achieving the following: strengthening shared values concerning teaching issues; promoting self-reflection on teaching; facilitating communication with colleagues; and reducing the sense of 'loneliness‘ in teaching. The difficulties in the implementation were lack of time and competing duties. It was perceived as an advantage to work in close partnership with the faculty's educational consultants, who were familiar with the organization.

  1. Newborn follow-up after discharge from the maternity unit: Compliance with national guidelines.

    Roisné, J; Delattre, M; Rousseau, S; Bourlet, A; Charkaluk, M-L

    2018-02-01

    In the context of shorter hospital stays in maternity units, in 2014 the French health authorities issued guidelines for newborn follow-up after discharge from maternity units. A medical visit is recommended between the 6th and 10th day of life, as are home visits from midwives. This study was designed to evaluate compliance with these guidelines. The study was observational, prospective, multicenter, and was conducted in March and April 2015 in three maternity units in northern France that participate in the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). Follow-up practices (medical visit between the 6th and 10th day, home visits from a midwife) and demographic, social, and medical data were recorded during the stay in the maternity unit, and through a phone interview 1 month later, in singleton term-born infants. The study population included 108 mother-infant pairs. The recommended medical visit was effectively performed by a physician between the 6th and 10th day of life for 20 newborns (19%) (95% CI: [11; 26]). During the 1st month, at least one home visit from a midwife was recorded for 96 mother-infant pairs (89%). The only factor positively correlated with a medical visit between the 6th and 10th day was the mother's choice, made early during the hospital stay and independently of the real length of stay, for early discharge from the maternity unit. Compliance with national guidelines was poor for the recommended medical visit between the 6th and 10th day of life. Information needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of the maternal social determinants influencing under-5 mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey.

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the second largest contributor to child (under-5) mortality in the world, with an average of 128 child deaths per 1000 live births, and is not on track to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing childhood mortality rates to 64 per 1000. Data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report were analysed to explore the relationship between structural and intermediary maternal characteristics and likelihood of childhood mortality. Binary logistic regressions for the first three reported births were conducted with childhood mortality (e.g. death before 59 months of age) as a dependent variable. Maternal characteristics investigated included age, education, region, antenatal care, and breastfeeding. Significant factors for birth 1 included region of residence, breastfeeding, literacy, wealth, number of children, and antenatal care. For second birth, not breastfeeding and attending antenatal care with a nurse were negatively associated with survival. For third birth, wealth and number of children were positively associated with survival. The results point to some maternal characteristics that may be influential in childhood mortality. However, community and systems level factors should be accounted for in interventions, as maternal characteristics do not offer a full explanation for why children are dying so young in Nigeria.

  3. The Nature of Interactions between Students with Severe Disabilities and Their Friends and Acquaintances without Disabilities.

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita

    1994-01-01

    This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…

  4. Exercising with an iPod, Friend, or Neither: Which Is Better for Psychological Benefits?

    Plante, Thomas G.; Gustafson, Carissa; Brecht, Carrie; Imberi, Jenny; Sanchez, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of music and social contact on exercise benefits. Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine (n229) students were randomly assigned to one of 6 conditions: biking alone with iPod or friend in a laboratory, walking alone with iPod or friend outdoors, or biking or walking alone in control conditions. All participants completed…

  5. The ‘Forgotten' Social Responsibility of Social partners when Marketing Denmark

    Larsen, Trine Pernille

    to combine work with care-giving - achieved partly through relatively extensive workplace policies. Indeed, social partners have through collective agreements taken on social responsibility in terms of enhancing employees' work/life balance by granting employees access to flexible working, rights to various...... short- and long-term leave entitlements, setting limits for the number of weekly working hours, introducing a maternity redistribution fund, accrued pensions rights and guidelines for good practice on family friendly policies. This article examines the various Danish work/life balance policies regulated...... partners' work/life balance policies can be perceived as such social responsibilities, since they ensure Danish employees reasonable working conditions through relatively extensive rights in the workplace. However, the relatively well-developed work/life balance policies often favour specific groups...

  6. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  7. Effect of a multifaceted social franchising model on quality and coverage of maternal, newborn, and reproductive health-care services in Uttar Pradesh, India: a quasi-experimental study.

    Tougher, Sarah; Dutt, Varun; Pereira, Shreya; Haldar, Kaveri; Shukla, Vasudha; Singh, Kultar; Kumar, Paresh; Goodman, Catherine; Powell-Jackson, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    How to harness the private sector to improve population health in low-income and middle-income countries is heavily debated and one prominent strategy is social franchising. We aimed to evaluate whether the Matrika social franchising model-a multifaceted intervention that established a network of private providers and strengthened the skills of both public and private sector clinicians-could improve the quality and coverage of health services along the continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and reproductive health. We did a quasi-experimental study, which combined matching with difference-in-differences methods. We matched 60 intervention clusters (wards or villages) with a social franchisee to 120 comparison clusters in six districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The intervention was implemented by two not-for-profit organisations from September, 2013, to May, 2016. We did two rounds (January, 2015, and May, 2016) of a household survey for women who had given birth up to 2 years previously. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who gave birth in a health-care facility. An additional 56 prespecified outcomes measured maternal health-care use, content of care, patient experience, and other dimensions of care. We organised conceptually similar outcomes into 14 families to create summary indices. We used multivariate difference-in-differences methods for the analyses and accounted for multiple inference. The introduction of Matrika was not significantly associated with the change in facility births (4 percentage points, 95% CI -1 to 9; p=0·100). Effects for any of the other individual outcomes or for any of the 14 summary indices were not significant. Evidence was weak for an increase of 0·13 SD (95% CI 0·00 to 0·27; p=0·053) in recommended delivery care practices. The Matrika social franchise model was not effective in improving the quality and coverage of maternal health services at the population level. Several key reasons identified for the absence of

  8. The impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages, and children

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    -friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression......The Nordic countries at the same time exhibit a remarkably high participation rate of mothers and a more moderate decline in fertility rates compared to other Western countries. This has been attributed to the fact that the welfare state model and, especially, the family friendly policies chosen...... in the Nordic countries are unique. In this paper we evaluate the impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages and children's well-being. We demonstrate that, although the `Nordic model' has been successful in boosting female employment, it is a costly solution. Furthermore, family...

  9. The Access to Antenatal and Postpartum Care Services of Migrant Workers in the Greater Mekong Subregion: The Role of Acculturative Stress and Social Support

    Charamporn Holumyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine whether social support and acculturative stress were related to obtaining antenatal and postpartum care for pregnant female migrants, as well as access to health care for migrant children. The study utilized data of 987 migrant workers in Thailand who originated from hill tribes and mountain communities in Myanmar and Cambodia. Regression analysis showed that the language barrier, a crucial factor behind acculturative stress, adversely influenced access to maternal care. Social support reduced the impact of acculturative stress. Migrants with support are more likely to access health care. Based on the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, more sources of support either from friends, family members, or other supporters who are significant could increase health care access. Besides friends and family, the support from the Migrant Health Worker Program and Migrant Health Volunteer Program allowed the formal health sector to utilize the informal social networks to improve care for migrants.

  10. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Moral intensity and climate-friendly food choices.

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka

    2013-07-01

    By changing individual food consumption patterns, it might be possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with climate change. The aim of the current study was to examine how perceptions of the moral intensity of climate change are related to climate friendly-food choices. The participants were 350 Finnish university students in the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The results indicated that moral perceptions mainly affected the moral evaluation and intentions to make climate-friendly food choices. We suggest that the results can be used to promote climate-friendly food choices, for example, by increasing the recognition of climate change as a moral imperative and by combining environmental motives with other relevant food choice motives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. El programa Friends en escenario de vulnerabilidad social. un análisis de su impacto en niños y niñas del caribe colombiano

    Ortiz González, Andrea Liliana

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Por más de 15 años, el programa ¨AMISTAD para siempre¨ (Friends for life) reconocido por la OMS, construido, aplicado y desarrollado por la profesora Paula Barret, ha sido aplicado a niños menores desde los 4 años hasta su adolescencia a fin de tratar en los menores, de manera preventiva, futuros problemas de ansiedad y depresión. De igual manera, el programa ha mostrado resultados ante los problemas de ansiedad y depresión que se presenten en niños que han sido hospitalizados por difere...

  13. Social Disparities in Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: Comparison of Two Birth Cohorts (1996-2002 and 2003-2012) Based on Data from the German KiGGS Study.

    Kuntz, B; Lampert, T

    2016-03-01

    Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy represents a significant developmental risk for the unborn child. This study investigated social differences in maternal smoking behavior during pregnancy in mothers living in Germany. The study focused on maternal age at delivery, social status and migration background. Method: The evaluation of data was based on two surveys carried out as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) carried out in 2003-2006 and in 2009-2012. The study compared the information given by parents of children aged between 0 and 6 years who were born either in the period from 1996 to  2002 (KiGGS baseline study, n = 4818) or in the period from 2003 to 2012 (KiGGS Wave 1, n = 4434). Determination of social status was based on parental educational levels, occupational position and income. Children classified as having a two-sided migration background either had parents, both of whom had immigrated to Germany, or were born abroad and had one parent who had immigrated to Germany; children classified as having a one-sided migration background had been born in Germany but had one parent who had immigrated to Germany. Results: The percentage of children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy was 19.9 % for the older birth cohort and 12.1 % for the younger birth cohort. In both birth cohorts, the probability of being exposed to tobacco smoke was twice as high for children whose mothers were aged migration background was associated with a lower risk of exposure to smoking. Conclusions: The KiGGS results are in accordance with the results of other national and international studies which have shown that the percentage of mothers who smoke during pregnancy is declining. Because of a change in the method how data are collected for the KiGGS survey (written questionnaire vs. telephone interview) the trend results must be interpreted with caution. Measures aimed at preventing smoking and

  14. Maternal dietary intake and pregnancy outcome.

    Ferland, Suzanne; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2003-02-01

    To study the relationship between maternal diet and infant anthropometric measurements in 56 women, aged 28 +/- 5.1 years, with singleton pregnancies. The overall quality of the diet (three 24-hour recalls), including supplementation, was evaluated at 34 +/- 1.3 weeks using a total mean adequacy ratio (TMAR) of 12 nutrients. Specific interviewing techniques were used to minimize social desirability bias. Anthropometric measurements of both parents and maternal lifestyle practices were also obtained. Infant weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured 14.6 +/- 4.4 days after birth. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal diet quality (TMAR) was significantly related to infant weight (r = .039, P = .036) and crown-heel length (r = .071, P = .007). Other significant predictors included gestational age, maternal height, sex, smoking and physical activity. Maternal diet was positively associated with infant weight and crown-heel length.

  15. Developing age-friendly cities: case studies from Brussels and Manchester and implications for policy and practice.

    Buffel, Tine; McGarry, Paul; Phillipson, Chris; De Donder, Liesbeth; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Smetcoren, An-Sofie; Verté, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Developing environments responsive to the aspirations of older people has become a major concern for social and public policy. Policies and programs directed at achieving "age-friendly" communities are considered to require a wide range of interventions, including actions at the level of the social and physical environment. This article compares the age-friendly approaches of two European cities, Brussels and Manchester, with a particular focus on policies and initiatives that promote active aging in an urban context. The article examines, first, the demographic, social, and multicultural contexts of Brussels and Manchester; second, the way in which both cities became members of the World Health Organization Global Network of Age-Friendly Cities and Communities; third, similarities and differences in the age-friendly approaches and actions adopted by both cities; and fourth, opportunities and barriers to the implementation of age-friendly policies. The article concludes by discussing the key elements and resources needed to develop age-friendly cities.

  16. Illiquidity and All Its Friends

    Tirole, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The recent crisis was characterized by massive illiquidity. This paper reviews what we know and don't know about illiquidity and all its friends: market freezes, fire sales, contagion, and ultimately insolvencies and bailouts. It first explains why liquidity cannot easily be apprehended through a single statistic, and asks whether liquidity should be regulated given that a capital adequacy requirement is already in place. The paper then analyzes market breakdowns due to either adverse selecti...

  17. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  18. 75 FR 63851 - Draft Friends Organizations Policy

    2010-10-18

    ...] Draft Friends Organizations Policy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION... Service's mission through partnerships with Friends organizations (volunteer/advocate). Today, Friends organizations play a vital role in helping to fulfill the Service's mission of ``working with others, to...

  19. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Welcome

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Fermilab Friends for Science Education photo Fermilab Friends for Science Education supports innovative science education programs at Fermilab. Its mission is to: Enhance the quality of precollege science education in

  20. A fast algorithm for identifying friends-of-friends halos

    Feng, Y.; Modi, C.

    2017-07-01

    We describe a simple and fast algorithm for identifying friends-of-friends features and prove its correctness. The algorithm avoids unnecessary expensive neighbor queries, uses minimal memory overhead, and rejects slowdown in high over-density regions. We define our algorithm formally based on pair enumeration, a problem that has been heavily studied in fast 2-point correlation codes and our reference implementation employs a dual KD-tree correlation function code. We construct features in a hierarchical tree structure, and use a splay operation to reduce the average cost of identifying the root of a feature from O [ log L ] to O [ 1 ] (L is the size of a feature) without additional memory costs. This reduces the overall time complexity of merging trees from O [ L log L ] to O [ L ] , reducing the number of operations per splay by orders of magnitude. We next introduce a pruning operation that skips merge operations between two fully self-connected KD-tree nodes. This improves the robustness of the algorithm, reducing the number of merge operations in high density peaks from O [δ2 ] to O [ δ ] . We show that for cosmological data set the algorithm eliminates more than half of merge operations for typically used linking lengths b ∼ 0 . 2 (relative to mean separation). Furthermore, our algorithm is extremely simple and easy to implement on top of an existing pair enumeration code, reusing the optimization effort that has been invested in fast correlation function codes.