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Sample records for friend spleen focus-forming

  1. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Careful examination of the left upper quadrant of the pediatric patient will usually disclose the presence or absence of an enlarged spleen. Although the spleen has a wide variation in weight and mobility, the normal spleen rarely extends below the left costal margin. While the presence of a palpable spleen is usually of pathological significance, the wide variation in splenic weight and position may make the detection of splenomegaly difficult on routine physical examination. When present, it may be difficult to differentiate the enlarged spleen from other palpable masses in the left upper quadrant. For these reasons, radionuclide imaging of the spleen has become a simple and valuable method for precisely locating and establishing the accurate size of functioning splenic tissue. The size and weight of the spleen can be approximated by direct measurement from the scan; normal values have been established based on the splenic length and the age and weight of the child. The diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide s []anning of the spleen in lymphoma, leukemia, other malignancies, anemia and other blood dyscrasias, infectious diseases, granuloma, and cysts is discussed. (CH)

  2. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1505-1509. Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  3. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  4. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  5. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  6. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  7. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge References Poulose BK, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  8. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  9. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

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    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  10. Value of selective spleen scintigraphy when liver/spleen image shows equivocal spleen defects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Corley, J.H.; Kyle, R.W.; Stotler, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine the utility of selective spleen scintigraphy (SSS) in the evaluation of equivocal defects on liver/splen (LS) image. Six of seven questionable features on LS image were classified on SSS to be definite defects in three, and normal in three. Three of seven patients had defects on SSS that were not seen on LS image. The inability of the LS image to exclude or delineate an abnormality in the spleen was attributed to an overlying left lobe of the liver in five, and to technique in one. The SSS is a valuable diagnostic tool in the further evaluation of equivocal spleen defects on LS image, and SSS may demonstrate abnormalities not demonstrated on LS image

  11. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  12. Web-based interventions for the management of stress in the workplace: Focus, form, and efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cathal; Bergin, Michael; Chalder, Trudie; Wells, John SG

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This review sought to determine what is currently known about the focus, form, and efficacy of web-based interventions that aim to support the well-being of workers and enable them to manage their work-related stress. Method: A scoping review of the literature as this relates to web-based interventions for the management of work-related stress and supporting the psychological well-being of workers was conducted. Results: Forty-eight web-based interventions were identified and reviewed, the majority of which (n = 37) were "individual" -focused and utilized cognitive-behavioral techniques, relaxation exercises, mindfulness, or cognitive behavior therapy. Most interventions identified were provided via a website (n = 34) and were atheoretical in nature. Conclusions: There is some low-to-moderate quality evidence that "individual" -focused interventions are effective for supporting employee well-being and managing their work-related stress. There are few web-based interventions that target "organizational" or "individual/organization" interface factors, and there is limited support for their efficacy. A clear gap appears to exist between work-stress theory and its application in the design and development of web-based interventions for the management of work-related stress. PMID:28320977

  13. Web-based interventions for the management of stress in the workplace: Focus, form, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cathal; Bergin, Michael; Chalder, Trudie; Wells, John Sg

    2017-05-25

    This review sought to determine what is currently known about the focus, form, and efficacy of web-based interventions that aim to support the well-being of workers and enable them to manage their work-related stress. A scoping review of the literature as this relates to web-based interventions for the management of work-related stress and supporting the psychological well-being of workers was conducted. Forty-eight web-based interventions were identified and reviewed, the majority of which (n = 37) were "individual" -focused and utilized cognitive-behavioral techniques, relaxation exercises, mindfulness, or cognitive behavior therapy. Most interventions identified were provided via a website (n = 34) and were atheoretical in nature. There is some low-to-moderate quality evidence that "individual" -focused interventions are effective for supporting employee well-being and managing their work-related stress. There are few web-based interventions that target "organizational" or "individual/organization" interface factors, and there is limited support for their efficacy. A clear gap appears to exist between work-stress theory and its application in the design and development of web-based interventions for the management of work-related stress.

  14. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Colorimetric focus-forming assay with automated focus counting by image analysis for quantification of infectious hepatitis C virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Kang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in Western countries. Studies of HCV infection using cell culture-produced HCV (HCVcc in vitro systems require quantification of infectious HCV virions, which has conventionally been performed by immunofluorescence-based focus-forming assay with manual foci counting; however, this is a laborious and time-consuming procedure with potentially biased results. In the present study, we established and optimized a method for convenient and objective quantification of HCV virions by colorimetric focus-forming assay with automated focus counting by image analysis. In testing different enzymes and chromogenic substrates, we obtained superior foci development using alkaline phosphatase-conjugated secondary antibody with BCIP/NBT chromogenic substrate. We additionally found that type I collagen coating minimized cell detachment during vigorous washing of the assay plate. After the colorimetric focus-forming assay, the foci number was determined using an ELISpot reader and image analysis software. The foci number and the calculated viral titer determined by this method strongly correlated with those determined by immunofluorescence-based focus-forming assay and manual foci counting. These results indicate that colorimetric focus-forming assay with automated focus counting by image analysis is applicable as a more-efficient and objective method for quantification of infectious HCV virions.

  16. Radiologic findings of intrapancreatic accessory spleen

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    Berat Acu

    2015-06-01

    Accessory spleen is a congenital abnormality consisting of normal splenic tissue in ectopic sites. They are found most commonly near the splenic hilum. One in every six accessory spleens is located in the tail of the pancreas. The diagnosis of an IPAS should be considered when a pancreatic mass has the CT densities and/or MRI signal intensities similar to those of the spleen, with and without contrast medium. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(2.000: 140-143

  17. Preservative spleen surgery and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Cintra, Luiz Cálice; Santos, Maria Carmem Silva; Rodrigues, Hildegardo; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azevedo, Tiago Caetano V de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2007-01-01

    To assess functional and morphological aspects of spleen auto-implants and of the splenic inferior pole of rats, post-operatively treated or not with hyperbaric oxygen, as well as the survival of these animals, were studied. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats, weighing between 192 and 283 g ( 238,3 +/- 9,6g), were randomly distributed into three groups: Group 1--(n=20), spleen manipulation; group 2--(n=36), spleen auto-implantation; group 3--(n= 22), subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior pole. Each group was subdivided as follows: subgroup a, not submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 1a(n=10), 2a(n=21), 3a(n= 13); subgroup b, submitted to the therapy: 1b(n=10), 2b(n=15), 3b(n=9). Blood was collected pre-operatively and 11 days after surgery, for the estimation of lipids and immunoglobulins and the counting of platelets and Howell-Jolly corpuscles. The spleen and remains were taken for histological study. The number of surviving animals was significantly higher in groups 1(p 2. The macro and microscopic appearance in subgroup 2b were more viable than in subgroup 2a, and that of group 3 more viable than in group 2. The survival of the animals carrying their whole spleen or its inferior pole was more frequent than that of the auto-implanted animals. Functionality and viability of the whole spleen or of its inferior pole, were better than in the auto-implanted animals. Hyperbaric oxygen-therapy contributed to increased survival frequency of auto-implanted animals, and to improve the functionality and viability of the auto-implants and the function of the inferior splenic pole, and did not interfere in animals carrying their whole spleen.

  18. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  19. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

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    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  20. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, N; Maubec, E; Boccara, O; Marinho, E; Valeyrie-Allanore, L; Lecaille, C; Sebban, V; Hersent, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Descamps, V; Crickx, B

    2009-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen. A 68-year-old man presenting pyoderma gangrenosum with pustules and stage I multiple myeloma was admitted for asthenia and abdominal pain. There were no skin lesions. Laboratory tests showed inflammatory syndrome with polynuclear leucocytes of 25,000/mm(3). CAT scans and abdominal ultrasound revealed a splenic abscess. A spleen biopsy was performed and histological examination showed polynuclear leukocyte infiltration, while cultures were negatives. Diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with splenic involvement was made. Increased systemic corticosteroid therapy produced a successful outcome. Haematological findings remained unchanged. Spleen involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare and can mimic an infectious process. In such cases, routine screening is essential for associated diseases, particularly haematological malignancies.

  1. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  2. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  3. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  4. Sonographic assessment and grading of spleen index in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani N

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a useful procedure in evaluation of spleen size in different clinical conditions. In this study, we used it to evaluate spleen size in patients with various heptologic, hematologic and autoimmune diseases. To express spleen size, a spleen index (SI, the product of the transverse diameter and its perpendiculr diameter measured on the maximum-sectional image of the spleen, was used. Splenomegaly was present in high percentages of patients with liver, blood, collagen or autoimmune diseases, even though a majority of these spleens were not large enough to palpate. By grading the SI, characteristic distributions of SI were obtained for patients with different types of diseases. Obtaining and grading the SI by the use of ultrasound appears to be a significant supplemental aid for evaluating spleen size, especially in patients whose spleen are not palpable.

  5. Wandering spleen with a ten-time twisted vascular pedicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Peretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen in children, usually diagnosed with color-Doppler ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography. We report a pediatric case of torsion of wandering spleen.

  6. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  7. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... rhinitis (hay fever), getting hands dirty in the garden has consequences. Sneezing, itchy eyes, congestion and other ...

  8. Wandering Spleen with Splenic Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wandering spleen is a rare clinical occurrence with fewer than 500 cases reported and an incidence of less than 0.2%1, 2. The spleen is an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is involved in immunological defence and can serve as a storage site for red blood cells3. The spleen is normally ...

  9. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  10. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  11. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  12. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  13. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  15. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of spleen and left kidney lengths were reliable within and between sonographers. The spleen and left kidney lengths were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05).

  16. Wandering spleen: Case report | Mwango | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the ...

  17. Evolution of the CT imaging findings of accessory spleen infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendi, Resham; Abramson, Lisa P.; Pillai, Srikumar B.; Rigsby, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 12-year-old girl presenting with multiple episodes of left upper-quadrant pain caused by torsion of an accessory spleen. We present the CT findings of progression of accessory spleen infarction over the course of 7 days. (orig.)

  18. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... Misawa T, Yoshida K, Shiba H, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion. Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):504-5. This article on PubMed. 7. Fiquet-Francois C, Belouadah M, Ludot H, Defauw B. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr Surg. 2010.

  19. The wandering spleen: CT findings and possible pitfalls in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ely, A.; Zissin, R.; Copel, L.; Vasserman, M.; Hertz, M.; Gottlieb, P.; Gayer, G

    2006-11-15

    Aim: To report the CT features of wandering spleen, a rare condition which can be incidentally detected as an abdominal or pelvic mass or can present with torsion, causing an acute abdomen. Materials and methods: The CT studies of seven patients, two children and five adults, with wandering spleen were reviewed. CT was performed urgently in three patients for acute abdomen, and electively in four. Results: CT findings of wandering spleen included absence of the spleen in its normal position and a mass located elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis, i.e. an ectopic spleen, enhancing homogeneously in four cases and failing partially or completely to enhance in the other three, indicating infarction. A 'whirl' appearance representing the twisted splenic pedicle was seen in the three cases with torsion. Urgent splenectomy confirmed infarction secondary to torsion. Conclusion: The possible diagnosis of wandering spleen should be kept in mind when CT shows the spleen to be absent from its usual position and a mass is found elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. When, in addition, a 'whirl' or partial or no enhancement of this mass are seen in a case presenting with acute abdomen, torsion of a wandering spleen is a likely diagnosis.

  20. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  1. Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friend, just as I would teach him about bike safety or stranger danger or any other important ... home, such as positive language, respect for others, sharing, and fair play. It could be as simple ...

  2. The small spleen: sonographic patterns of functional hyposplenia or asplenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Christian; Eichkorn, Miriam; Zugmaier, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Functional hyposplenia or asplenia (FAS) can be associated with potential fatal infections. The diagnosis of FAS is traditionally made on liver-spleen scintigraphy and finding Howell-Jolly bodies within erythrocytes. In this retrospective study, our goal was to identify any characteristic sonographic findings of the spleen in patients with FAS in an attempt to determine whether the diagnosis of FAS can be made sonographically. In a review of all medical and sonographic records from the period of January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2001, we identified 24 patients (11 men, 13 women) in whom FAS had been diagnosed by liver-spleen scintigraphy (n = 13) or the finding of Howell-Jolly bodies (n = 11). The following sonographic parameters were determined: size of spleen (small, normal, or large), echotexture of the spleen (homogeneous versus inhomogeneous), echogenicity (isoechoic versus hyperechoic), presence of focal splenic lesions, and patterns of splenic vascularization as determined by color Doppler sonography (absent flow, hilar flow, or parenchymal flow). The spleen was small in 20 patients (83%) and normal in the other 4 (17%). Echotexture was homogeneous in 13 patients (54%) and inhomogeneous in 11 (46%). The spleen was isoechoic in 18 cases (75%) and hyperechoic in 6 (25%). Six patients (25%) had focal lesions. Color Doppler sonography showed absent flow in 4 patients (17%), hilar flow in 17 (71%), and hilar and parenchymal vascularization in 3 (12%). Sonographic findings in the spleen of patients with FAS are characterized predominantly by a small spleen with absence of parenchymal vascularization on color Doppler sonography in most cases. Future prospective studies will be necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether FAS can be diagnosed reliably with sonography. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 31:152-155, 2003

  3. Shear mechanical properties of the spleen: experiment and analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Noguer, L; Palierne, J-F

    2012-05-01

    This paper aims at providing the first shear mechanical properties of spleen tissue. Rheometric tests on porcine splenic tissues were performed in the linear and nonlinear regime, revealing a weak frequency dependence of the dynamic moduli in linear regime and a distinct strain-hardening effect in nonlinear regime. These behaviours are typical of soft tissues such as kidney and liver, with however a less pronounced strain-hardening for the spleen. An analytical model based on power laws is then proposed to describe the general shear viscoelastic behaviour of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Objective assessment of trauma severity in patients with spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V S; Ivanov, V A; Alekseev, S V; Vaniukov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of condition severity of 139 casualties with isolated and combined spleen injuries on admission to a surgical hospital. The assessment of condition severity was made using the traditional gradation and score scale VPH-SP. The degree of the severity of combined trauma of the spleen was determined by the scales ISS. The investigation showed that the scale ISS and VPH-SP allowed objective measurement of the condition severity of patients with spleen trauma. The score assessment facilitated early detection of the severe category of the patients, determined the diagnostic algorithm and the well-timed medical aid.

  5. Accessory spleen compromising response to splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriz, P.; Munoz, R.; Quintanar, E.; Sigler, L.; Aviles, A.; Pizzuto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accessory spleens were sought in 28 patients who had undergone splenectomy for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), using a variety of techniques. Abdominal scintigraphy with autologous erythrocytes labeled with Tc-99m and opsonized with anit-D IgG (radioimmune method) proved to be most useful, clearly demonstrating one or more accessory spleens in 12 cases (43%). Computed tomography (CT) was also helpful. Four out of five patients demonstrated an increased platelet count following surgery, the effectiveness of which was illustrated by the radioimmune scan. Patients who have had splenectomy for chronic ITP should be scanned using radioimmune techniques and CT to determine whether an accessory spleen is present

  6. Deconstructing Female Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela MATEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of Fay Weldon’s early novels, Female Friends (1975, published at the peak of her feminist ’phase’, deconstructs female and feminine stereotypes in order to present the writer’s own views on feminism. It speaks for a generation of women, who struggle to find their place in a male-dominated world, through three protagonists, who are neither happy, nor perfect. Narrated by the character Chloe, the novel revolves around her and her friends, Grace and Marjorie, with an aim at depicting the falsehood and hypocrisy that surround female friendship. It is precisely where Weldon’s specificity as a feminist writer lies: in her rendering the imperfections of women’s characters and relationships. This paper attempts to trace such elements of ‘fayminism’ in Female Friends by resorting to the tools of the feminist critic.

  7. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?......Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  8. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  9. Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in adult: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen is a rare diagnosis in adult ages. So far, only two cases have been reported in the literature. 82 year old male patients admitted to emergency department with complaint of nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination and computerize tomography detected a big solid mass with regular contour which is full filling abdominal left lower quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a wandering spleen in sizes of 13x13x15 cm in the mentioned region. The spleen which had two masses on was partially ischemic. The stomach had rotated through cardiopyloric axis due to long pedicle of the spleen and adhesions neighborhood to corpoantral junction. Thus gastric passage was partialy obstructed. Splenectomy and anterior gastropexy were applied. The patient was discharged in health at 6th day postoperatively.

  10. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  11. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  12. Torsion of a wandering spleen | Carapinha | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare and difficult diagnosis in the paediatric population, with death a possible outcome. In this paper we present our experience of a single case and discuss the embryology and management thereof.

  13. Investigation of the human spleen by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopani, M.; Jakubovsky, J.; Polak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative topographic analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy was performed in tissue samples of rat and human spleens. The presence of silico-aluminium and silico-calcareous particles of various sizes could be seen. The presence of the inorganic substances mentioned in the human red pulp cords is assumed to be a consequence of the purifying function of the spleen. (Authors)

  14. [Torsion of wandering spleen in a teenager: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dème, Hamidou; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Fall, Seynabou; Badji, Nfally; Ka, Ibrahima; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Wandering or migrating spleen is a rare anomaly which is usually described in children. Complications, which include pedicle torsion, are common and can be life-threatening. We report the case of a 17 year-old patient with a long past medical history of epigastric pain suffering from wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle. The clinical picture was marked by spontaneously painful epigastric mass, evolved over the past 48 hours. Abdominal ultrasound objectified heterogeneous hypertrophied ectopic spleen in epigastric position and a subcapsular hematoma. Doppler showed a torsion of splenic pedicle which was untwisted 2 turns and a small blood stream on the splenic artery. Abdominal CT scan with contrast injection showed a lack of parenchymal enhancement of large epigastric ectopic spleen and a subcapsular hematoma. The diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle complicated by necrosis and subcapsular hematoma was confirmed. The patient underwent splenectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. We here discuss the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of wandering spleen with chronic torsion of the pedicle.

  15. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-09-01

    Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. The proximal part of the splenorenal ligament is left undivided in the size of one LigaSure cut length to use as a stalk while placing the spleen into the surgical bag. The bag is advanced from the inferior pole of the spleen toward the superior pole. Only keeping the bag open is sufficient to place the spleen into the bag. Recently, me started to put the spleen into the bag easily before cutting upper attachment of the spleen laparoscopically. So far we applied this procedure in more than eleven cases without complication. Splenectomy is now the gold standard in the treatment of hematologic diseases that are resistant to medical treatment or that are not amenable to medical treatment because of its complications. Through our experience, the method that we describe here easily overcomes one of the most unpleasant parts of laparoscopic splenectomy.

  16. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  17. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Reconceptualising dementia friendly communities

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, T.

    2014-01-01

    This Knowledgeshare piece takes a critical look at the concept of dementia-friendly communities by examining how that concept, which aims to build a better place for people with dementia to live, works to conceal and overlook the social, cultural, political, and economic realities of many marginalised people’s lived experiences. Drawing on knowledge from feminist social cultural theories I want to highlight some of the undisclosed subjectivities that are hidden in representations of people li...

  19. Lipedema: friend and foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Yanira Sanchez-De la; Wadeea, Rita; Rosas, Victoria; Herbst, Karen L

    2018-03-09

    Background Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema. Results Lipedema is a foe because lifestyle change does not reduce lipedema fat, the fat is painful, can become obese, causes gait and joint abnormalities, fatigue, lymphedema and psychosocial distress. Hypermobility associated with lipedema can exacerbate joint disease and aortic disease. In contrast, lipedema fat can be a friend as it is associated with relative reductions in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. In new data collected, lipedema was associated with a low risk of diabetes (2%), dyslipidemia (11.7%) and hypertension (13%) despite an obese average body mass index (BMI) of 35.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2. Conclusion Lipedema is a painful psychologically distressing fat disorder, more foe than friend especially due to associated obesity and lymphedema. More controlled studies are needed to study the mechanisms and treatments for lipedema.

  20. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  1. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99 mTc-sulfur colloid and 67 Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99 mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67 Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  2. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  3. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  4. CT findings in children with blunt trauma in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Ohmura, Makoto; Kawai, Naoki; Tauchi, Hayato; Hayakawa, Masao; Nishio, Yoshinori (Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Watanabe, Shinsuke

    1991-09-01

    We evaluated CT findings in 19 children with blunt injuries in the spleen. CT demonstrated laceration of the spleen in 7 children, rupture of the spleen in 7, and splenic hematoma in 5. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in 3 children, of whom 1 was treated by arterial embolization. Laparotomy was performed in 3 children (15.8%) other than the 3 showing contrast medium leakage; hemostasis by compression was performed in 1 with laceration, and splenectomy in 2 with rupture. Late splenic rupture or abscess did not occur in any child. One child (5.3%) died of complicating injuries. Many of children with blunt splenic injuries can be successfully treated with conservative treatment, and CT scanning is useful for evaluating the degree of splenic injuries and complicating injuries. (author).

  5. Cancer of the colon spleen angle. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Sanchez, Yariana; De la Rosa Perez, Nereida; Barcelo Casanova, Renato E

    2010-01-01

    The colon cancer is currently an important public health problem in developed countries. It is the fourth most common cancer in the world. We report the case of a 65-years-old, black, female patient, assisting our consultation with dyspeptic disturbances as the unique symptom, without known risk factors. We indicated a colon by enema and a distal narrowing was observed at the colon spleen angle, at the same zone of the physiologic narrowing at that level. A colonoscopy was carried out diagnosing a left colon tumor near the spleen angle. It was operated with segmental resection of the spleen angle and a biopsy was made. Pathologic anatomy informed a well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma

  6. The forgotten organ: Contrast enhanced sonography of the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerg, Christian [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg/Lahn (Germany)], E-mail: goergc@med.uni-marburg.de

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Ultrasound contrast agents in conjunction with contrast specific imaging techniques, are increasingly accepted in clinical use for diagnostic imaging in several organs. Contrast enhanced sonography (CES) of second-generation contrast media have shown a spleen-specific uptake of the microbubble contrast agent. The aim of this review is to illustrate indications for the use of CES in patients with suspected (peri-)splenic pathology. Methods: This review based on the experience of transcutaneous CES in 200 patients with (peri-)splenic pathology diagnosed by B-mode sonography at an internal medicine center. CES studies were performed with a contrast-devoted unit (Acuson, Sequoia, Siemens medical solution) that had contrast-specific, continuous-mode software. A low mechanical index was used. A sulfur hexafluoride-based microbubble contrast medium (Sonovue, Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy) was injected. Results: On our experience, there are several clinical conditions which may show an diagnostic advantage of CES in comparison to B-mode US. CES should be performed to investigate: (1) the perisplenic tumor to diagnose or exclude accessory spleen, (2) the small-sized spleen to diagnose functional asplenia/hyposplenia, (3) the inhomogenous spleen of unknown cause to diagnose focal lesions within the spleen, (4) the incidentally found hypoechoic splenic tumor to diagnose high vascular splenic hemangioma, (5) focal lesions suspect for splenic abscess, hematoma, infarction to confirme diagnosis, and (6) patients with abdominal trauma to diagnose or exclude splenic injuriy. Conclusion: CES is of diagnostic value in several clinical circumstances to diagnose accessory spleen, functional asplenia, small-sized splenic involvement, high vascular splenic hemangioma, and vascular splenic pathology like splenic infarction, splenic abscess, and splenic laceration.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on cell death in frog spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.Yu.; Vojtovich, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the number of dead cells in frog spleen by means of coloration with trypan blue which allowed to estimate last stage of apoptosis dead of cells.The investigated frogs (Rana arvalis) were caught in september 1997 at radionuclide contamination territory (the Gomel Region, the Khojniki District). Control animals were caught in village Ratamka of the Minsk District. The percent of dead cells was less in control group in 1,5 times. Under additional irradiation (2 Gy) the number of dead cells in spleen also differs significantly in the investigated and control groups

  8. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen: US-CT-MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzi, M.; Spinelli, A.; Pierleoni, M.; Andreoli, G.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A case of a surgically confirmed cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is presented. Preoperative imaging consisted of US, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, all showing a multiloculated lesion with small cystic cavities divided by thin septa, corresponding to dilated lymphatic spaces. Preoperative studies correlated well with the pathologic findings. Cystic lymphangioma of the spleen is a very rare condition and is usually solitary and asymptomatic. Large lymphangiomas may be an indication for splenectomy, since the risk of rupture is high even from minor abdominal trauma. Preoperative diagnosis may be achieved with correlated noninvasive imaging. (orig.)

  10. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among children population they studied. Thus the normal limits and percentile curves of the spleen among school age children were defined according to body weight in a Turkish population10. These differences with present study may be due to variations in race or different ethnic origins. There is no consensus on which.

  11. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H. II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets

  12. Histopathological study and audit of the spleen in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    underreporting both the gross and microscopic changes in the organ by pathologists. This paper therefore is a study on spleen specimens with a view to auditing the gross and microscopic description and analysing the pathological findings in splenectomy specimens with respect to gender and age. Materials and Methods.

  13. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits of the spleen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... Tables 2 and 3 show a direct relationship of the spleen length with both age and body size indices. Table 3 shows a. Pearson correlation matrix of the splenic length with other variables. The splenic length correlated best with BSA, followed by WT. The splenic length was established to be longer in males.

  14. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  15. Morphology and some biomechanical properties of human liver and spleen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, J.; Bača, V.; Čech, V.; Kovanda, J.; Kovandová, H.; Mandys, Václav; Rejmontová, J.; Sosna, B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 285-289 ISSN 0930-1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Human liver and spleen Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2002

  16. Spleen Weight, Liver Weight And Levels Of Circulating Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of mice viz: well fed mice, vitamin deficient mice and vitamin deficient Plasmodium berghei infected mice were studied. In these groups of mice, the weights of the liver and spleen were determined using a weighing balance and the levels of circulating immune complexes (CICS) measured ...

  17. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulstad, Mikkel Bak; Thomsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rupture of the spleen (NRS) is a rare but serious complication to infectious mononucleosis (IM) and it is important to have in mind, when patients have IM. Although splenectomy has been advocated as the appropriate treatment for this problem, the trend goes towards conservative...

  18. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...

  19. Sonographic Dimensions of the Spleen in Healthy School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spleen is the largest recticuloendothelial organ in the body which increases in size with several pathologies. Its average length and other dimensions have been documented in adults but none in children in our environment. This study is aimed at investigating with Ultrasonography the normal splenic dimensions in ...

  20. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  1. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  2. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  3. Rare Case of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Treated by Robot-Assisted Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, Willemijn P M; Groot, Vincent P; Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIPAS) is exceedingly rare with only 57 cases reported since the first publication in 1980. Comprehensive clinical and diagnostic features remain to be clarified. We present a case of ECIPAS in a 21-year-old Philippine woman who was admitted

  4. The function of the spleen in adults after ligation of the splenic artery of the traumatized spleen in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Dimitrios C; Soutis, Michael

    2003-05-01

    Ligation of the splenic artery (LSA) has been successfully used as a spleen-saving procedure in rare cases of splenic trauma in children in which management with splenorrhaphy or partial splenectomy alone was not possible. There are no data regarding the long-term effects of the procedure on the functional status of the spleen. The purpose of this study is to present and discuss our clinical and laboratory findings in adults who underwent LSA in childhood. Our first 2 patients in whom LSA was done at ages 4 and 2 years in 1977 underwent the following examinations in the year 2000: 1, imaging of the spleen; 2, immunologic studies; and 3, peripheral blood tests. Their ages at reexamination were 27 and 25 years, respectively. Results were as follows: triplex ultrasound revealed normal size and echomorphology; Doppler techniques revealed normal vasculature; 99mTc-Tin colloid scanning revealed normal uptake. Immunoglobulins (IgG1 to IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE), complement fraction (C3, C4), antibodies response to vaccinations, and peripheral blood tests all had normal results. No Howell-Jolly bodies were found. Laboratory investigations in adults with LSA during childhood disclosed undisturbed function of the spleen. LSA can be used as an adjunct to splenorrhaphy in children with rare splenic injuries involving major hilar vessels.

  5. Friends with Benefits: Women Want "Friends", Men Want "Benefits"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Kristen; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2007-01-01

    One-hundred-and-seventy undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 23 item questionnaire designed to assess the prevalence, attitudes, and sex differences of involvement in a "friends with benefits" (FWB) relationship (non romantic friends who also have a sexual relationship). Almost sixty percent of both…

  6. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  7. Designing environment friendly casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemant, T. [TN International (France)

    2009-06-15

    Environmental protection has become an integral part of the entire cask life cycle: - Design and Fabrication; - Transportation; - Loading, Unloading and Operation; - Maintenance, End of Life Cycle and Dismantling. Three new environmentally-friendly cask concepts were developed: the MX6, the TN112 and the multipurpose Shell. Eco design approach was used to reduce their environmental impacts and address environmental issues such as waste generation and management, greenhouse gases linked to transportation, and scarcity of raw materials, all while improving operating performance. The result is greater responsiveness to the customer and a more comprehensive approach to potential regulatory changes. The cask design optimizes all of the impacting factors, such as raw materials quantity, radiological protection capacity, and the use of more environmentally-friendly materials and fabrication processes. To illustrate, the new MX6 concept may be compared to the standard FS65 concept. In the area of Design and Fabrication, the MX6 requires fewer raw materials and can lower the cask weight/transported assembly weight ratio. An adjustable basket concept was developed. - The new cask is also more effective in terms of radiation protection as a result of improved materials performance. - In the area of fabrication, all waste is transferred to suitable processing systems that promote recycling. In the area of Transportation, shipments are reduced by 33%, thus reducing diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, in the area of Operations, the amount of waste generated per assembly shipped is minimized, as are the number of operations and the time spent on them by the operators. In the area of Maintenance and Dismantling, extensive, time-consuming maintenance operations are minimized, as is the waste generated by them. The TN112 cask reduces exposure by 15%, uses fewer raw materials, and has a faster turnaround time due to optimized tooling. For waste subject to

  8. Primary Angiosarcoma of the Spleen: An Oncological Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoteri Despoina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely unusual neoplasm originating from sinusoidal vascular endothelium. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of treatment of this highly malignant disease. Case Presentation. An 82-year-old woman was admitted with left pleural effusion and a palpable left upper quadrant abdominal mass, secondary to splenomegaly by two large splenic tumors. Classic open splenectomy was performed and angiosarcoma of the spleen was the final histopathological diagnosis, which was primary since no other disease site was revealed. Discussion. The incidence of the disease is 0.14–0.23 cases per million, with slight male predominance. Etiology is not established and clinical presentation may confuse even experienced physicians. Imaging modalities cannot differentiate the lesion from other vascular splenic neoplasms and the correct diagnosis is mainly set after histopathological examination of the resected spleen. As with other sarcomas, surgery is the only curative approach, while chemo- and radiotherapy have poor results. Prognosis remains dismal.

  9. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  10. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Fogh, J; Graem, N

    1984-01-01

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional...... of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas....

  11. Spleen necrosis virus, an avian retrovirus, can infect primate cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, H M; Brown, A M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1991-01-01

    Spleen necrosis virus (SNV) is an avian retrovirus that can infect some mammalian cells such as dog cells as well as all avian cells tested to date. We were interested in testing whether SNV could also infect primate cells. For these experiments, we used HeLa and COS-7 cells. Initially, we determined whether the SNV long terminal repeat promoter was functional in HeLa and COS-7 cells. In transient transfection assays, the SNV promoter efficiently directed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gen...

  12. An easy way to put the spleen into the bag

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kartal, Adil; Tuncer, Fatma Betul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Splenectomy is a therapeutic and diagnostic procedure used in a wide range of situations. Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the gold standard in some hematological diseases. The laparoscopically removed spleen is placed into a surgical bag, a step which is sometimes the most time-consuming part of the operation. Aim To present the method that we employed in laparoscopic splenectomy to place the specimen into the bag and extract it in an easier and simpler way. Material and meth...

  13. Pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, C.W.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of 2 patients with dissecting pancreatitis-associated fluid collections involving the spleen are described. A typical appearance of left upper quadrant fluid collection lateral to the splenic pulp was observed by ultrasonography (US) or computed body tomography (CBT). Although these findings are nonspecific, a left upper quadrant fluid collection may be characterized definitively by US/CBT-guided needle aspiration. (orig.)

  14. ALTERED HISTOLOGY OF THE THYMUS AND SPLEEN IN CONTAMINANT-EXPOSED JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological difference in spleen and thymus are closely related to functional immune differences. Hormonal regulation of the immune system has been demonstrated in reptilian splenic and thymic tissue. Spleens and thymus were obtained from juvenile alligators at two reference si...

  15. Comparative study on glucocerebrosidase in spleens from patients with Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Brul, S.; van Weely, S.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Gaucher disease (glucosylceramide lipidosis), deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes pathological storage of glucosylceramide, particularly in the spleen. A comparative biochemical and immunological analysis has therefore been made of glucocerebrosidase in spleens from normal subjects (n = 4)

  16. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  17. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  18. Welfare Maximization with Friends-of-Friends Network Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sayan; Dvorák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika; Starnberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks allow the collection of large amounts of data about the influence between users connected by a friendship-like relationship. When distributing items among agents forming a social network, this information allows us to exploit network externalities that each agent receives from his neighbors that get the same item. In this paper we consider Friends-of-Friends (2-hop) network externalities, i.e., externalities that not only depend on the neighbors that get the same item b...

  19. Analisa Eco-friendly Attitudes Dan Eco-friendly Behavior Terhadap Eco-friendly Intention Green Hotel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia, Lanny; Rudijanto, Diana Gabriela; Kristanti, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Kesadaran masyarakat akan lingkungan yang semakin meningkat membuat masyarakat gencar mencari hotel yang ramah lingkungan dibandingkan dengan hotel konvensional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan eco-friendly attitude, eco- friendly behavior, dan eco-friendly intention konsumen generasi x dan generasi y terhadap green hotel di Indonesia dan apakah eco-friendly attitudes dan eco-friendly behavior berpengaruh signifikan terhadap eco-friendly intention. Total responden dalam pe...

  20. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  1. Conceptualizing age-friendly communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menec, Verena H; Means, Robin; Keating, Norah; Parkhurst, Graham; Eales, Jacquie

    2011-09-01

    On the political and policy front, interest has increased in making communities more "age-friendly", an ongoing trend since the World Health Organization launched its global Age-Friendly Cities project. We conceptualize age-friendly communities by building on the WHO framework and applying an ecological perspective. We thereby aim to make explicit key assumptions of the interplay between the person and the environment to advance research or policy decisions in this area. Ecological premises (e.g., there must be a fit between the older adult and environmental conditions) suggest the need for a holistic and interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach is needed because age-friendly domains (the physical environment, housing, the social environment, opportunities for participation, informal and formal community supports and health services, transportation, communication, and information) cannot be treated in isolation from intrapersonal factors, such as age, gender, income, and functional status, and other levels of influence, including the policy environment.

  2. Segmentation of liver and spleen based on computational anatomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhua; Chen, Yen-Wei; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Lin, Lanfen; Han, Xian-Hua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Wu, Xing; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Huiyan

    2015-12-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs is a key step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Probabilistic atlas based on human anatomical structure, used as a priori information in a Bayes framework, has been widely used for organ segmentation. How to register the probabilistic atlas to the patient volume is the main challenge. Additionally, there is the disadvantage that the conventional probabilistic atlas may cause a bias toward the specific patient study because of the single reference. Taking these into consideration, a template matching framework based on an iterative probabilistic atlas for liver and spleen segmentation is presented in this paper. First, a bounding box based on human anatomical localization, which refers to the statistical geometric location of the organ, is detected for the candidate organ. Then, the probabilistic atlas is used as a template to find the organ in this bounding box by using template matching technology. We applied our method to 60 datasets including normal and pathological cases. For the liver, the Dice/Tanimoto volume overlaps were 0.930/0.870, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 2.906mm. For the spleen, quantification led to 0.922 Dice/0.857 Tanimoto overlaps, 1.992mm RMSE. The algorithm is robust in segmenting normal and abnormal spleens and livers, such as the presence of tumors and large morphological changes. Comparing our method with conventional and recently developed atlas-based methods, our results show an improvement in the segmentation accuracy for multi-organs (p<0.00001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Pavements: final report

    OpenAIRE

    Aksnes, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    This final report presents the main results, advice and recommendations from the research and development program Environmentally Friendly Pavements run by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) in the period 2004-2009. The main focus of the project has been to optimise the environmental properties of road surfaces with respect to low road tyre noise and road dust emissions. The project has shown that: The tested environmentally friendly pavements give an initial noise r...

  4. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  5. Anatomical description of arterial segments of the spleen of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Ferraz de Melo, A; de Souza, W Machado; Rodrigues, R Felipe; Alves, F Ribeiro; Rici, R Eli Graci; Guerra, R Romão; Favaron, P Oliveira; Miglino, M Angélica; Di Dio, L John Aphonso

    2011-08-01

    With 2 figures The anatomosurgical segmentation of the arteries of the spleen was studied in 31 deer of the species Mazama gouazoubira and Blastocerus dichotomus by means of vascular injection with latex and vinyl acetate and radiographic examination. The arteria lienalis penetrated through the hilus lienis in 87% of the cases, whereas an extrahilar artery was present in the other cases. An extraparenchymal division of the lineal artery into two, three or four segmental arteries was observed in 74% of the cases. Anastomoses between intraparenchymal arterial branches were rare and of a reduced calibre. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevitt, P.C.; Das Narla, L. [Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States); Hingsbergen, E.A. [Children' s Radiologic Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon and frequently fatal fungal infection. It characteristically affects patients with diabetes mellitus or patients with severe immunosuppression. The hallmark of mucormycosis infection is tissue infarction and vascular invasion. We present clinical data and imaging studies of a 16 year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia complicated by disseminated mucormycosis resulting in a pseudoaneurysm of the spleen. This was successfully managed by a combination of systemic antifungal therapy (Amphotericin B) and surgery (splenectomy). This entity has not been described in the literature. (orig.)

  7. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  8. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  9. Scintigraphy of liver and spleen in vinyl chloride workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; San Luis, T. Jr.; Lange, C.E.; Thelen, M.; Veltman, G.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1977-01-01

    In 152 VC-exposed workers of whom 124 were employed in the PVC-production and 28 in VC-processing plants liver and spleen imaging was performed using sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and 197 Hg-BMHP. In 101 (= 81%) of the 124 workers of the PVC-production plant and in 18 (= 64%) workers of PVC-processing factories pathological liver and spleen scintigrams were found. The most frequent pathological change in the scintigraphic image was an increase in splenic colloid accumulation, when compared with the liver uptake. Three angiosarcomas of the liver were detected through circumscribed defects of colloid accumulation. Sequential liver scintigraphy was done in 15 cases. In 7 patients with esophageal varices considerable decrease in portal venous blood flow was demonstrated. - As a result of our investigations it can be stated that scintigraphically detectable changes are sensitive indicators of VC-induced lesions of the liver including liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and angiosarcoma. (orig.) [de

  10. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  11. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  12. Judge of surgical indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen by CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Takao; Yokoyama, Toshimitsu; Suga, Hiroyasu; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Muraoka, Ryusuke [Fukui Medical School (Japan); Ishikawa, Masatake; Suzuki, Tadashi

    1997-10-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that the findings of injuries of parenchimatous organs such as liver and spleen by computed tomography (CT) are consistent with those by surgical operation. But it is still unclear whether CT findings can determine operative indication for blunt injuries of liver and spleen. We performed a retrospective study on 35 lesions of blunt injuries of liver and spleen in 33 cases for blunt injuries of liver and spleen at our hospitals to examine whether CT findings can determine the severity of damage and surgical indication for the injuries, and the following results were obtained. Based on CT findings, the presence of injury was confirmed in all cases except for one lesion. Comparison of CT findings and operative or laparoscopic findings in 12 cases undergoing operation or laparoscopy for liver/spleen injury revealed that the findings of each method were almost the same with few exceptions. When liver/spleen injuries were classified according to the Japanese Association for the Surgery of Trauma (JAST) Classification of injury of liver and spleen, cases with emergency operation had severe injury of Type IIIb for the liver and Type IIIb or higher for the spleen, while conservative treatment was possible for injury cases of Type IIIa or lower of the liver and spleen. From these results, the JAST Classification of these injuries based upon CT imaging was found to be a suitable method for selecting an appropriate treatment for blund injury of liver and spleen. (author)

  13. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  14. Critical friends and collaborative partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jandér

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical friends: a method for peer feedback The Critical Friend-method has been used in various educational settings to facilitate the process of continuous improvement in teaching. The aim of this study was to implement Critical Friends, and to find out if this method could be used for feedback on teaching as part of a librarians' professional development. The project was carried out within the Library Unit of the Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Sweden, in collaboration with the faculty's Centre for Teaching and Learning. Seven librarians and an educational consultant from the Centre for Teaching and Learning participated; the educational consultant played an essential role in supervising and structuring the project and the evaluation process, preparing readings as well as being an active participant. The participants worked in pairs; the performance of one teacher and the associated classroom activities were observed by the critical friend, and then evaluated and discussed. Evaluation and results After two preparatory group meetings, a final meeting was held where all pairs reported what they had done and how they perceived the critical friend process. The experiences of the participating librarians were explored using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was analyzed using content analysis by one librarian and the educational consultant independently. The results suggested that use of the critical friend method could have a positive impact by achieving the following: strengthening shared values concerning teaching issues; promoting self-reflection on teaching; facilitating communication with colleagues; and reducing the sense of 'loneliness‘ in teaching. The difficulties in the implementation were lack of time and competing duties. It was perceived as an advantage to work in close partnership with the faculty's educational consultants, who were familiar with the organization.

  15. Pathomorphology of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in large dose 60Co γ-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the authors was to investigate the pathomorphology changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. At different times after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and the pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte were observed by light and transmission electron microscopies. Results: Spleen lymphocyte decreased evidently and the peak of apoptosis in spleen lymphocyte was dependent on radiation dose and the time after irradiation. Conclusion: After γ-irradiation with large doses, pathological changes of spleen lymphocyte apoptosis in mice can be divided into obviously different stages. The main causes of death of spleen lymphocytes are different in different dose groups

  16. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Amico, Andrea; Cofalik, Anna; Przeorek, Cesary; Gawlik, Tomasz; Olczyk, Tomasz; Kalemba, Michał; Modorowska, Alicja; Turska-d’Amico, Maria; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Jarzab, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  17. Relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, dramatic advances have taken place in our knowledge of the organization and functions of the thymus and lymphoid system. Some of our understanding has come form the application of radiation therapy to diseases derived from lymphoid organs. Human investigations using radiotherapy have shed light on the radiosensitivities of the system as well as on its important functional activities. Likewise, studies of cellular traffic in the lymphoid organs, i.e., the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, showed that extensive cellular exchange occurs between the bone marrow compartment with its hemopoietic and progenitor cells and the various central and peripheral lymphoid organs. Because this is so, the term lymphohemopoietic (LH) system is appropriate. This very selective review will recapitulate some of the ongoing research in radiotherapy and radiobiology in these closely related fields. The clinical therapeutic advances have taken place in four important settings closely related to clinical therapy of tumor derived from the LH system

  18. Cat scratch disease with lymphadenitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, and spleen abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolain, J M; Chanet, V; Laurichesse, H; Lepidi, H; Beytout, J; Raoult, D

    2003-06-01

    In this report we describe a 30-year old male patient with vertebral osteomyelitis and spleen abscesses with cat scratch disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of molecular detection of Bartonella henselae either on lymph node biopsies or on bone biopsy, histology of the lymph node, serology using either our in-house microimmunofluorescence assay or a commercial kit (Focus Technologies). Immunofluorescent detection was also performed directly on slide appositions using a monoclonal antibody. Treatment consisted of administration of antibiotics with rapid clinical improvement and a stabilization of skeletal lesions on the magnetic resonance imaging performed three months later. Twenty two other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with cat scratch disease have been reported in the literature and are reviewed here. Our case represents the second case of osteomyelitis associated with cat scratch disease in which B. henselae has been specifically identified as the etiological agent using several direct and indirect methods.

  19. Primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen with angioscintigraphic demonstration of metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.G.; Fogh, J.; Graem, N.; Hansen, O.P.; Hippe, E.

    1984-04-15

    A case of primary hemangiosarcoma of the spleen in a 48-year-old woman is presented. Twenty-eight months after splenectomy the patient developed a severe anemia of the microangiopathic type, thrombocytopenia, and a leukoerythroblastic peripheral blood picture. In contrast to x-ray and conventional /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy, which showed only a few minor focal changes in the spine and ribs, angioscintigraphy with in vitro labeled /sup 99m/Tc-erythrocytes revealed extensive pathologic accumulations throughout the spine, femurs, and the liver, indicating the presence of extremely vascular metastases. Autopsy 15 months later confirmed the scintigraphic findings. Angiography with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes seems to be useful for monitoring metastases from hemangiosarcomas.

  20. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  1. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Splenic Autotransplantation for an Enlarged Wandering Spleen with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The t...

  2. Torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction : CT features in a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jung Kyung; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Lee, Il Gi; Lee, Jong Gil; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ik Su [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Torsion of the accessory spleen is a rare entity that can have variable clinical presentations. We report case involving an 11-year-old boy with severe abdominal pain and a mass that was found to be due to infarction of the accessory spleen, which was twisted on its pedicle. CT revealed a low-attenuating mass with peripheral inflammatory changes in the left upper abdomen. The mass was pathologically confirmed as torsion of the accessory spleen with infarction. (author)

  3. Laparoscopic versus open splenectomy: the impact of spleen size on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Ali; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Although laparoscopic splenectomy (Lap-Spleen) has become the standard surgical approach for normal-sized spleens, open splenectomy (Open-Spleen) is still recommended by many in the setting of splenomegaly. We set out to compare the impact of spleen size on Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen outcomes using a national database. We reviewed the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify patients who had undergone non-emergency splenectomy during 2005-2010. To evaluate the impact of spleen size on outcomes, we considered patients with diagnoses of splenomegaly and hypersplenism as those having large spleens (Large-Sp group) and those with diagnoses of primary thrombocytopenia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura as having normal spleens (Normal-Sp group). Patients were also categorized based on surgical approach into Lap-Spleen and Open-Spleen groups. We identified 639 patients in the Large-Sp group and 879 patients in the Normal-Sp group. During 2005-2010 laparoscopy was used in 84.2% of cases in the Normal-Sp group (annual range, 77.8%-90.8%). However, the rate of laparoscopy in the Large-Sp group remained consistently below 50% with an average of 41.8% (annual range, 20%-47%). In the Lap-Spleen group, those with Large-Sp had longer operative time and length of stay and higher blood transfusion and morbidity compared with the Normal-Sp group. However, when looking specifically at the Large-Sp group, patients with Open-Spleen had more transfusion requirements, longer length of stay, and higher morbidity, compared with those with Lap-Spleen. Lap-Spleen leads to significant improvement in outcomes. These advantages were believed to be limited to normal-sized spleens, but this study demonstrates that laparoscopy can still be advantageous in patients with splenomegaly. We hope such data encourages wider utilization of laparoscopy in the setting of splenomegaly, especially among surgeons who are experienced with the technique.

  4. Effects of aluminum trichloride on the trace elements and cytokines in the spleen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Li, Xinwei; Chen, Chongxiao; Wang, Fan; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Miao, Liguang

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation and immunotoxicity of aluminum (Al) have been previously documented. Al accumulates in the organs of the organism, including spleen. Spleen is a peripheral organ of the immune system. The accumulated Al may alter the immune function. Here, we investigated the bioaccumulation of Al in spleen and its alterations in the immune system. Forty male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) weighed 110-120 g were orally exposed to aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) (0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water for 120 days. The concentrations of spleen's Al, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth index were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of Al and Cu in the spleen were increased in an AlCl(3)-dose dependent manner, and the concentrations of spleen's growth index, Fe, Zn, IL-2 and TNF-α were reduced in AlCl(3)-treated rats. The results suggest that AlCl(3) can suppress the growth of spleen, disorder the balance of trace elements and inhibit the immune regulation of cytokines in the spleen. It indicates that AlCl(3) suppresses the immune function of spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  6. Interactions between Biliverdin, Oxidative Damage, and Spleen Morphology after Simulated Aggressive Encounters in Veiled Chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Butler

    Full Text Available Stressors frequently increase oxidative damage--unless organisms simultaneously mount effective antioxidant responses. One putative mitigative mechanism is the use of biliverdin, an antioxidant produced in the spleen during erythrocyte degradation. We hypothesized that both wild and captive-bred male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus, which are highly aggressive to conspecifics, would respond to agonistic displays with increased levels of oxidative damage, but that increased levels of biliverdin would limit this increase. We found that even just visual exposure to a potential combatant resulted in decreased body mass during the subsequent 48-hour period, but that hematocrit, biliverdin concentration in the bile, relative spleen size, and oxidative damage in plasma, liver, and spleen were unaffected. Contrary to our predictions, we found that individuals with smaller spleens exhibited greater decreases in hematocrit and higher bile biliverdin concentrations, suggesting a revision to the idea of spleen-dependent erythrocyte processing. Interestingly, individuals with larger spleens had reduced oxidative damage in both the liver and spleen, demonstrating the spleen's importance in modulating oxidative damage. We also uncovered differences in spleen size and oxidative damage between wild and captive-bred chameleons, highlighting environmentally dependent differences in oxidative physiology. Lastly, we found no relationship between oxidative damage and biliverdin concentration, calling into question biliverdin's antioxidant role in this species.

  7. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  8. IC3, PDR, and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    IC3, PDR, and Friends ? Arie Gurfinkel ariecmu.edu Abstract. We describe the IC3/PDR algorithms and their various gen- eralizations. Our goal is to...projection, GPDR is incomplete for LRA. That is, it might get stuck alternating between Decide and Conflict rules, never making progress. This version of

  9. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen: A rare complication in a patient with lupus nephritis on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadri Quaid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen is a life threatening condition. We report a 40-year-old fe-male patient, a known case of lupus nephritis receiving hemodialysis, who developed spontaneous rupture of the spleen during the course of her illness. The patient was managed conservatively with gradual regression of hematoma without further complications.

  11. Epithelial cyst of the spleen with squamous metaplasia: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, Vissa; Reddy, Vengala Chidananda; Rao, Nandam Mohan; Grandhi, Bhavana; Kona, Suneetha

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial splenic cysts are uncommon lesions which occur the spleen. The aetiopathogenesis of these cysts is not clear. We are reporting a case of an epithelial cyst which occurred in the spleen in a 40-year-old female, which was multi loculated and which had flattened lining epithelium. Some foci showed squamous metaplasia.

  12. An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen simulating tumors of the tail of pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen, a rare condition may present as pseudocyst of pancreas and other cystic tumors of the pancreas. This case report along with the review of literature attributes some clinical features and investigative pattern to differentiate between epidermoid cyst of accessory spleen and other cystic tumor of pancreas.

  13. Two different mechanisms of immune-complex trapping in the mouse spleen during immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of immune-complex (IC) trapping was examined using purified horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-anti-HRP (PAP) on frozen sections of mouse spleen in vitro. We investigated the trapping mechanisms by applying the IC with or without fresh mouse serum added on the spleen sections of naive as

  14. Late return of function after intrathoracic torsion of the spleen in congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Pedersen, P V

    1986-01-01

    , and the spleen were intrathoracic. There was a 720 degree torsion of the splenic pedicle. After reduction, the spleen was placed in the abdomen. At scintiscans 12 days and 14 weeks after operation, no certain splenic function was demonstrated, but at follow-up up 21/2 years later the splenic scan was normal....

  15. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  16. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of the Depression of Heart-spleen Deficiency with Wuling Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinbin; Liu Ping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect on the treatment of depression belong to the type of heart-spleen deficiency with Wuling capsule, 37 patients were assigned into two groups: the deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (I) and the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group (II). The efficacy of two groups was surveyed and compared after taken Wuling capsule 2 and 4 weeks,respectively. After treatment, there was a difference (P 0.05). The satisfactory effects were showed on various kinds of depressions using wuling capsules,while deficiency of both the heart and spleen group effects were better than that of the non deficiency of both the heart and spleen group. (authors)

  17. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  18. A case of torsion of the wandering spleen presenting as hypersplenism and gastric fundal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irak, Kader; Esen, Irfan; Keskın, Murat; Emınler, Ahmet Tarık; Ayyildiz, Talat; Kaya, Ekrem; Kiyici, Murat; Gürel, Selim; Nak, Selim Giray; Gülten, Macit; Dolar, Enver

    2011-02-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen from its normal location due to the loss or weakening of ligaments that hold the spleen in the left upper quadrant. The possibility of torsion of the spleen is high due to the long and mobile nature of the vascular pedicle. Generally, cases are asymptomatic. Under conditions of delayed diagnosis, symptoms of splenomegaly, left portal hypertension, gastric fundal varices, and hypersplenism may present as a result of development of vascular congestion associated with chronic torsion. There are only a few cases in the literature reporting the association of wandering spleen and fundal varices. We report herein the case of a 55-year-old female who admitted to our clinic with complaints of fatigue and epigastric pain. She was determined to have gastric fundal varices and hypersplenism secondary to the development of left portal hypertension due to chronic splenic torsion.

  19. The 2010 patent landscape for spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Alessandro F; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Kaila, Neelu; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Thorarensen, Atli

    2012-05-01

    Discovery of small molecular inhibitors for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a major ongoing effort within the pharmaceutical industry. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is one of leading small molecular targets with regard to clinical development primarlly due to efforts by Rigel and Portola. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SYK patent landscape. The patent literature we evaluated relates to any organization that has filed applications that imply that SYK is the intended target. The interest in SYK was initiated in the early 2000's with many organizations, including several large pharmaceutical companies, and has been active for years. In general, the structural theme of most of the compounds in these applications is a traditional ATP competitive inhibitor with each organization having a different hinge binding element. In general, the attachment to the hinge is an aryl amine that is decorated with a solubilizing group. The other substituents are broadly variable across the numerous companies indicating that SYK has significant flexibility in its interactions in that portion of the kinase. This overview of the SYK patent literature and the learnings of the inhibitors' substitution patterns would be an important reference for anyone working in this area.

  20. Depression: Supporting a Family Member or Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression: Supporting a family member or friend Help a family member or friend dealing with depression get treatment and find resources. By Mayo Clinic Staff Helping someone with depression can be a challenge. If someone in your ...

  1. Metastasis and growth of friend tumor cells in irradiated syngeneic hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioli, G.

    1974-01-01

    Friend tumor cells (FTC) have been studied by growing them in lethally irradiated syngeneic mice. After establishing the FTC dilution factor (delta), extinction factor (Q), and the optimal time for colony counts, the FTC kinetic was analyzed by the recovery curve method. It was found that FTC growth is different from that experienced by normal or leukemic Friend stem cells when tested by the same in vivo assay. The most interesting differences were the high metastatic activity, the lack of differentiation, the deterministic growth, and the independence from the spleen microenvironment experienced by the FTC, in contrast with the normal and leukemic stem cells. In addition, the estimate of the critical size the FTC colony has to reach before releasing the first metastatic cells is presented. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end of normal expiration, breath holding at deep inspiration, and the valsalva maneuver, and spleen volume was measured from each image set based on the sum-of-areas method. Acquisition during free breathing was performed with respiratory triggering. The duration of each respiratory manipulation was 30 s, and five sets of MR images were acquired serially during each manipulation. Baseline spleen volume before respiratory manipulation was 173.0 ± 79.7 mL, and the coefficient of variance for two baseline measures was 1.4% ± 1.6%, suggesting excellent repeatability. Spleen volume decreased significantly just after the commencement of respiratory manipulation, remained constant during the manipulation, and returned to the control value 2 min after the cessation of the manipulation, irrespective of manipulation type. The percentages of volume reduction were 10.2% ± 2.9%, 10.2% ± 3.5%, and 13.3% ± 5.7% during expiration breath holding, deep-inspiration breath holding, and the valsalva maneuver, respectively, and these values did not differ significantly. Spleen volume is reduced during short breath-hold apnea in healthy adults. Physiological responses of the spleen to respiratory manipulations should be considered in the measurement and interpretation of spleen volume.

  3. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 63851 - Draft Friends Organizations Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Draft Friends Organizations Policy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION... Service's mission through partnerships with Friends organizations (volunteer/advocate). Today, Friends organizations play a vital role in helping to fulfill the Service's mission of ``working with others, to...

  5. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guang-yao; Zhang, Wu-ning; Shen, Xiao-jing; He, Xue-fen; Chen, Yi

    2004-08-01

    Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine, this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis. By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMIIb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P < 0.05 - 0.01. Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the clinical phenomenon of disease without

  6. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  7. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  8. Which common test should be used to assess spleen autotransplant effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ehsan; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

    2018-01-01

    Historically, total splenectomy was the only choice of treatment for traumatic splenic injuries. However, nonoperative management and spleen-preserving surgical techniques are preferred in modern medicine. In some situations in which the surgeon has to perform splenectomy, spleen autotransplant may preserve the splenic function. Selecting the best method for evaluating the splenic autotransplant effect has been debated for several years. In this study, we compared three common tests in evaluating the implanted spleen function. Participants included 10 patients who were candidates for laparotomy and splenectomy. After performing splenectomy, we implanted five pieces of the spleen in the greater omentum of each patient. After 3 months, the implanted spleen function was evaluated by nuclear red blood cell (RBC) scan, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M level, and presence of Howell-Jolly (HJ) bodies in the peripheral blood smear. All patients had normal peripheral blood smear. The IgM level was lower than normal in one patient, and scintigraphy did not demonstrate the transplanted spleen in another patient. All these tests may have comparable results, but because of availability and low cost of peripheral blood smear, which is also easily performed, it can be considered as the first option to evaluate the implanted spleen function.

  9. Microscopy of vascular architecture and arteriovenous communications in the spleen of two odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y

    1994-08-01

    The red pulp of the spleens of the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and the Pacific bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gilli) (Odontoceti) were examined by light and electron microscopy and found to comprise two venous layers, an inner and an outer. The inner layer is homologous to the intermediate zone (IZ) of primitive-type mammalian spleens and contains sinusoids consisting of endothelial cells and a thin layer of extracellular deposits. Its vascular structure is unclear. The venous vessels of this layer eventually communicate with veins of the perivenous outer layer. The perivenous layer contains veins of various sizes, interstitial elements, and trabeculae. It is filled with blood cells, particularly plasma cells, but no myeloid cells. The perivenous layer (PVL) is homologous to the red pulp of common mammalian spleens but shows signs of involution. The white pulp gives origin to arterial terminals that end in the red pulp, where they communicate directly with the sinusoidal veins producing a closed circulation. The arterial terminals do not show ellipsoids. The presence of an IZ with a closed circulation and the involution of the red pulp makes the spleen of Odeontoceti another example of a mammalian spleen of the primitive type that has been altered by the evolutionary process. Vascular remodelling of the spleen of Odontoceti seems to follow the pattern noted in the spleens of nonmammalian vertebrates.

  10. The spleen is the site where mast cells are induced in the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Ishida, Yasuo; Obata, Yuuki; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Abe, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that splenic immune responses play pivotal roles in the development of allergic diseases; however, the precise role of the spleen remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated a novel role of the spleen in the pathogenesis of food allergy (FA). We found that mast cells (MCs) developed from progenitor cells present in spleen during an antigen-specific T-cell response in vitro. In a Th2 response-mediated FA model, significant expansion of MCs was also observed in spleen. The incidence of allergic diarrhea was profoundly reduced in splenectomized mice, whereas adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced splenic MCs into these mice restored allergic symptoms, suggesting that the splenic MCs functioned as the pathogenic cells in the development of FA. The in vitro-generated MCs required not only IL-3 but also IFN-γ, and treatment of FA-induced mice with anti-IFN-γ antibody suppressed expansion of MCs in spleen as well as diarrhea development, highlighting that IFN-γ in the spleen orchestrated the development of FA, which was followed by a Th2 response in the local lesion. Overall, we propose that the role of the spleen in the development of FA is to provide a unique site where antigen-specific T cells induce development of pathogenic MCs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Language as friend and foe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    If the limits of our language are the limits of our world, in the famous Wittgensteinian formulation, we can confidently add that they are also the limits of our theories and methodologies. The terms we use to conceptualise psychological and social phenomena often reify and dichotomise realities...... will be offered from the field of creativity studies. A collective creative exercise will be set in place in order to overcome these barriers in our thinking and, consequently, in our acting in and on the world. Linguistic creativity, will be argued, should be the _best friend_ of researchers engaged...

  12. Release and retention of labelled DNA in the thymus and spleen of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, D.; Uray, Z.; Abraham, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process of release and retention of labelled DNA in thymus and spleen of normal and irradiated ( 06 Co) mice has been studied after administration of 3 H-thymidine. The results indicate that the dividing fraction of lymphoid cells is more resistant to radiation than the fraction of nondividing lymphoytes. The time courses of the specific activities of DNA in thymus and spleen were different especially after irradiation with lethal doses. It is suggested that the process of depletion in the lymphoid series is probably similar for both thymus and spleen but, the different cellular composition of these organs led to apparently unrelated results. (orig.) [de

  13. Torsion of a wandering spleen. A rare cause of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwashilli N. Jude

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.25% of all indications for splenectomy. It is characterized by ectopic localization of the spleen owing to the lack or weakening of its ligaments. Torsion is the most common complication due to its long pedicle and high mobility, which may result in acute abdomen. We report a case of torsion in a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old male presenting with an acute abdomen that was treated by splenectomy.

  14. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  15. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  16. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  17. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  18. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Montgomery, Eliza; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry; Back, Teddy; Balles, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings and Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) project is to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for the use of environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and CPCs for flight hardware and ground support equipment. This document is the Final Report for Phase I evaluations, which included physical property, corrosion resistance, and NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing and analysis of fifteen CPC types. The CPCs consisted of ten different oily film CPCs and five different wax or grease CPC types. Physical property testing encompassed measuring various properties of the bulk CPCs, while corrosion resistance testing directly measured the ability of each CPC material to protect various metals against corrosion. The NASA spaceport environment compatibility testing included common tests required by NASA-STD-6001, "Flammability, Odor, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments that Support Combustion". At the end of Phase I, CPC materials were down-selected for inclusion in the next test phases. This final report includes all data and analysis of results obtained by following the experimental test plan that was developed as part of the project. Highlights of the results are summarized by test criteria type.

  19. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  20. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  1. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation for an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The transplanted splenic tissues could be identified on a spleen scintigram obtained 3 months after the surgery. Howell-Jolly bodies were not observed in blood specimens. This procedure is able to prevent an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, and leads to satisfactory cosmetic results.

  2. Enhancement of erythroid colony formation in vitro by spleen extract from irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shiro; Terasawa, Waka; Kodama, Hiroaki; Terasawa, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    The effect of spleen extract from irradiated rats on CFU-e and BFU-e colony formation of rat bone marrow cells was investigated by using modified plasma clot culture media. In the presence of erythropoietin (Ep), CFU-e colony formation peaked at 48 hr of culture, and the Ep-induced increase of CFU-e colonies was dose-dependent. The addition of spleen extract enhanced the colony formation more than two-fold in the Ep-containing culture. BFU-e colony formation was also enhanced by the addition of spleen extract. These results indicate that spleen extract from irradiated rats contains factor(s) which stimulates the proliferation of erythroid progenitors. (author)

  3. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  4. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  5. Aniline-induced nitrosative stress in rat spleen: Proteomic identification of nitrated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiuzhen; Wang Jianling; Soman, Kizhake V.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2011-01-01

    Aniline exposure is associated with toxicity to the spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas on chronic exposure in rats. However, mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic responses are not well understood. Earlier we have shown that aniline exposure leads to increased nitration of proteins in the spleen. However, nitrated proteins remain to be characterized. Therefore, in the current study using proteomic approaches, we focused on characterizing the nitrated proteins in the spleen of aniline-exposed rats. Aniline exposure led to increased tyrosine nitration of proteins, as determined by 2D Western blotting with anti-3-nitrotyrosine specific antibody, compared to the controls. The analyzed nitrated proteins were found in the molecular weight range of 27.7 to 123.6 kDa. A total of 37 nitrated proteins were identified in aniline-treated and control spleens. Among them, 25 were found only in aniline-treated rats, 11 were present in both aniline-treated and control rats, while one was found in controls only. The nitrated proteins identified mainly represent skeletal proteins, chaperones, ferric iron transporter, enzymes, nucleic acids binding protein, and signaling and protein synthesis pathways. Furthermore, aniline exposure led to significantly increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the spleen, suggesting its role in increased reactive nitrogen species formation and contribution to increased nitrated proteins. The identified nitrated proteins provide a global map to further investigate alterations in their structural and functional properties, which will lead to a better understanding of the role of protein nitration in aniline-mediated splenic toxicity. - Highlights: → Proteomic approaches are used to identify nitrated proteins in the spleen. → Twenty five nitrated proteins were found only in the spleen of aniline-treated rats. → Aniline exposure led to increased iNOS mRNA and protein

  6. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  7. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  8. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  10. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of anorexy in children with the activating spleen prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S C; You, R D

    1991-02-01

    The treatment of 488 cases with anorexy in children showed that the curative effect of the group using Chinese medicines based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs by (1) activating the Spleen, (2) invigorating and activating the spleen was significantly higher than the control using concentrated vitamin B complex (P less than 0.001). The results of the experimental study were as follows: Erbao instant granules (the medicine for activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the D-xylose excretion rate of urine; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; raising the quality of 8 mineral elements in hair and the quality of SIgA in saliva; adjusting the abnormal peristalsis of the experimental rabbits and promoting the ability that duodenums which had been separated from rabbits had to absorb different amino acids and glucose. Jian'er syrup (the medicine for invigorating and activating the Spleen) had the effect of raising the quality of 14 mineral elements in hair; increasing the ratio of T-lymph cells in blood; increasing the index of thymus and spleen in the experimental rats and stimulating them to produce hemolysin. The authors tend to think that the therapeutic principle of activating the Spleen can improve appetite, help the body to absorb and utilize various nutrients which contain many kinds of essential trace elements.

  11. Incorporating parasite systematics in comparative analyses of variation in spleen mass and testes sizes of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlet, Nicolas; Chaisiri, Kitipong; Claude, Julien; Morand, Serge

    2011-11-01

    Parasite diversity is hypothesized to act on host life-history traits through investment in immunity. In order to incorporate the diversity of the parasite community that an individual host or a host species may face, two indices can be used: Taxonomic Species Richness and Taxonomic Entropy, where the taxonomic information is incorporated with the taxonomic weight. We tested whether these indices correlate with several morphological traits potentially implicated in immune defence and in reproduction, using data on gastrointestinal helminths and their rodent hosts sampled in Southeast Asia. We found no relationship between parasite diversity indices and either spleen mass or testes size at the intraspecific level, i.e. at the level of individuals. At the interspecific level, we found no relationship between the parasite diversity indices and testes size. However, we found that female spleen mass is significantly influenced by the specific species richness of parasites, whereas male spleen mass is influenced by individual mean parasite diversity indices. We concluded that female spleen mass may have evolved in response to gastrointestinal helminth pressure acting at species levels, while in males, the individual spleen mass could be constrained by other factors, such as the blood storage function of the spleen.

  12. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  13. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  14. Autotransplantation of Spleen Mitigates Drug-Induced Liver Damage in Splenectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Sabrine Teixeira Ferraz; Rezende, Alice Belleigoli; Figueiredo, Bárbara Bruna Muniz; Mendonça, Ana Carolina de Paula; Almeida, Caroline de Souza; de Oliveira, Erick Esteves; de Paoli, Flávia; Teixeira, Henrique Couto

    2017-12-01

    The spleen presents numerous functions, including the production of immunoglobulins and blood filtration, removing microorganisms and cellular debris. The spleen also has anatomical and functional relationship with the liver, but there are few studies on this topic. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of splenectomy and autologous spleen transplantation on both filtering functions of spleen and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty-two BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups: splenectomized; splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in the greater omentum; sham operated control; and non-operated control. At day 7th, 14th, and 28th after surgery, splenic filtration was assessed by counting Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB) and pitted red cells (PIT). The animals received 400 mg/kg acetaminophen by gavage at day 28 th and after 12 or 24 hours were euthanized for evaluation of splenic and hepatic morphology. The splenectomized group demonstrated reduced filtration of HJB and PIT in all analyzes, while the autotransplanted group developed progressive recovery of function after the 14th day. At day 28 after surgery the implants showed similar histology in comparison to normal spleen. Liver histology showed more intense centrilobular necrosis in splenectomized group in comparison to the others, suggesting a protective role of spleen in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Splenic implants showed structural and functional recovery, demonstrating the ability of autologous implant to rescue filtering function of intact spleen. Furthermore, the integrity of splenic function appears to influence liver morphology, since the presence of the splenic implants mitigated the effects of chemically-induced liver damage.

  15. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Highly chemoselective environment friendly deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketones has been ... Keywords. Environment friendly; acetonides; chemoselective; aqueous medium; deprotection; acetals. 1. Introduction ... were obtained using a Qtof Micro YA263 instrument. Ethyl acetate was dried over ...

  17. [Ginkgo biloba extract enhances the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Si, Lifang; Li, Xiangneng; Li, Zhansheng

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on the immune function of spleen and thymus in SD rats. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats each group). Three experimental groups were given GBE daily by gavage in doses of 40, 120, 360 mg/(kg.d), respectively. Animals in the control group were fed the same amount of PBS. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed by chloral hydrate anesthesia. The spleen and thymus were harvested to determine the organ index first. MTT assay was used to detect the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation and transformation. Neutral red assay was performed to measure the rat peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. The ultrastructural changes of spleen and thymus were observed under scanning electron microscope. Administration of GBE in the rats increased the mass indexes of rat thymus and spleen, dose-dependently elevated the lymphocyte proliferative responses and enhanced the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. In experimental groups, the numbers of mature spleen and thymus lymphocytes were significantly raised in comparison with the control rats. GBE plays a regulatory role in immune function of the rat by increasing the mass of immune organs, increasing the number of mature T lymphocytes as well as their proliferative responses, and enhancing the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages.

  18. Autophagy induces apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongchao; Zhao, Mingqiu; Fan, Shuangqi; Yuan, Jin; Liao, Jiedan; He, Wencheng; Xu, Hailuan; Chen, Jinding

    2017-10-19

    Lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression are typical clinical characteristics of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The apoptosis of virus-infected and bystander cells plays a role in the immunopathology of classical swine fever (CSF). Here, we offer the first evidence that autophagy is involved in apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes in the spleen of pigs infected with CSFV. Using immunohistochemical assays, we observed that more LC3II-positive cells appear in the T-cell zone of spleens. Spleen cell apoptosis was demonstrated using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that partial LC3II-positive cells were simultaneously TUNEL-positive. By cultivating spleen cells ex vivo, we demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA treatment inhibited apoptosis and death of T lymphocytes caused by CSFV infection but did not have this effect  on B lymphocytes. Further observations demonstrated that uninfected cells in the spleen were also undergoing autophagy in vivo. In summary, these results linked autophagy with the apoptosis and cell death of splenic T cells, providing a new outlook to understand the mechanism of T lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression during CSF.

  19. [Acute torsion of wandering spleen: a rare cause of acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés-Asenjo, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterized by an anomalous position of the spleen in the abdomen due to impaired splenic ligamentous attachments that produce an elongation of the vascular pedicle. This makes a partial or complete volvulus of the vascular axis more likely. Wandering spleen's clinical presentation is variable--from an asymptomatic patient to one with chronic abdominal pain or an acute abdomen. The most common complication is the acute torsion of the splenic pedicle causing acute abdominal pain. A 30-year-old woman who turned up at the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography and computerized axial tomography) revealed a huge spleen in an abnormal location and without vascularization. An urgent splenectomy was performed. Acute torsion of wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute abdomen, which makes early diagnosis difficult and can result in delayed treatment. This would lead to having to perform a splenectomy. Due to splenic necrosis or infarction, which increases the risk of postsplenectomy sepsis.

  20. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Spleen and thymic sonography as estimator of the immune response in children with repeated infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, Jesus; Fundora, Hermes; Rodriguez, Alexis; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2010-01-01

    The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ. The spleen has many functions: IgM class antibody production and phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria. We propose to measure the dimensions of the spleen in children with repeated infections, in order to describe them as a diagnosis marker and to explore the probable correlation between the thymic characteristics and the dimensions of the spleen. We study 81 patients that attended the consultation of Immunology from Aballi hospital with repeated infections and they were from 8 months to 9 years old. Children with nutritional value up to the third percentile and those taking steroids 45 days before the study were excluded. We measured the thymic and splenic areas by mediastinal and abdominal echography. The length, the splenic index and the weight are less in patients with repeated infections. These data were significant in 12 to 23 month of age group. The length and the splenic index were less in patients with depletion of thymic area. The sonographic evaluation of the spleen is very important in patients from 1 to 2 years old and in patients with thymic depletion, because they are on the age of vaccine administration according to the Cuban schedule and having affected a main organ for immune response might be a reason for them to show a deficient response and need special schedules

  2. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  3. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn -/- ;SMN2 tg/0 ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  5. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  6. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  7. Multidetector computed tomography findings of mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus combined with torsion of wandering spleen: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Kyung; Ku, Young Mi; Lee, Su Lim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gastric volvulus, defined as an abnormal rotation of stomach, may be idiopathic or secondary to abnormal fixation of intraperitoneal visceral ligaments. Wandering spleen is a movable spleen resulting from absence or underdevelopment of the splenic supporting ligaments that suspend the spleen to its normal position in the left part of the supramesocolic compartment of the abdomen. Wandering spleen increases the risk of splenic torsion. Both gastric volvulus and splenic torsion are potentially life-threatening if not urgently managed with surgery. Prompt and accurate diagnosis based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is crucial to prevent unforeseen complications. Gastric volvulus and coexistent torsion of wandering spleen is a very rare condition. Herein, we described a case of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen and intestinal non-rotation in a 15-year-old girl focusing on MDCT findings.

  8. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... of CSPH. We recently showed the algorithm to rule-out CSPH using sequential liver- (L-SWE) and spleen-Shear-wave elastography (S-SWE). This study investigated the diagnostic value of S-SWE for diagnosis of CSPH. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight cirrhotic patients with pressure gradient measurements...... were included into this prospective multicentre study. L-SWE was measured in 155 patients, S-SWE in 112 patients, and both in 109 patients. RESULTS: Liver-shear-wave elastography and S-SWE correlated with clinical events and decompensation. SWE of liver and spleen revealed strong correlations...

  9. Use of liver-spleen scintigraphy to detect immune status and Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, W.I.; Heiba, S.; Ganz, S.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) underwent liver-spleen scintigraphy. In 43 clinically immunocompromised patients splenic activity was decreased or absent. Eight of these patients had enlarged spleens with decreased uptake. Autopsy results are available on three, all of whom had Kaposi sarcoma of the spleen. Splenic uptake was initially demonstrated in six HTV-positive patients. In three of these subsequently symptomatic patients, follow-up scans showed decreased splenic uptake. Two non-AIDS, HIV-positive patients had normal splenic uptake. These preliminary data suggest that AIDS patients initially have increased uptake, which progresses to decreased splenic uptake as the patients become immunocompromised. Azidothymidine reversed this pattern in one patient. In addition, splenic enlargement with decreased uptake suggests the presence of Kaposi sarcoma

  10. A new procedure for imaging liver and spleen with water soluble contrast media in liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Davidenkova, E.F.; Khanson, K.P.; Gubareva, A.V.; Zhdanova, N.V.; Aliyakparov, M.T.; Loshakova, L.V.; Fomina, Eh.V.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of long-term, reversible, and safe contrast investigation of liver and spleen and reduction of the irritating action of water-soluble contrast media on the wall of blood vessels are unresolved. The production and experimental application of contrast media encapsulated in liposomes are described. It is possible to produce a liposome preparation with 10-20 % Verografin content. After intravenous injection it leads to a quick (after 16-30 min), persisting (10-12 h) and reversible (24-30 h) contrast imaging of liver and spleen in rodents. The contrast medium has no pathological effects on heart, blood and circulatory system and on the morphology of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. The perspectives of clinical application of such contrast media are discussed. (author)

  11. Nonvisualization of an enlarged spleen on Ga-67 scintigraphy but demonstrated by CT after splenic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Maruyama, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The presence of an enlarged spleen using CT with the absence of splenic visualization in Ga-67 citrate images in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and splenomegaly after splenic irradiation was observed. Since Howell-Jolly bodies had not been identified in the peripheral circulation, the finding of splenic nonvisualization was explained by disassociated splenic functions, which are not tightly coupled, and some activities that can be suppressed by irradiation without impairing others. The Ga-67 splenic localization mechanism is probably more sensitive and liable to disruption by irradiation, and was independent of spleen size. Ga-67 scintigraphy and Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy are two organ function-dependent imaging procedures, while CT provides anatomic information.

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Schille, Regine; Beer, Joerg

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  13. Yersinia enterocolitica-associated generalized microinfarctions of bone and spleen in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Schille, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Paediatric Department, Leipzig (Germany); Beer, Joerg [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    We report a case of unusual extraintestinal yersiniosis in a 16-year-old girl with generalized microinfarctions of the bone and spleen. For the past 2 years she had been repeatedly admitted to our hospital with reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum and iridocyclitis of unknown aetiology. Ultrasound showed multiple round hypoechoic lesions in the spleen that were shown to have low T2 signal on MRI. MRI also showed disseminated nodular lesions of the skeleton that were low T1 and high T2 signal and demonstrated inhomogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient is currently in good health on low-dose nonsteroidal immunosuppressive therapy. This is a unique case of microinfarctions of the skeleton and spleen caused by a severe postinfectious autoimmune reaction following extraintestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. (orig.)

  14. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Ghosh, Nabanita; Goswami, Suranjana; Datta, Anuradha; Das, Salomie; Maity, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Copper-induced ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes result in different consequences in spleen and thymus. ► Inflammation appeared in both the spleen and thymus after to copper treatment. ► Apoptosis in the spleen appears to follow a p53-independent pathway. ► Apoptosis in the thymus appears to follow a p53-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. ► In both the spleen and thymus, the CD4+ T cell population decreased and CD8+ T cell population increased after copper treatment. - Abstract: Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying copper-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. According to our previous in vivo report, to evaluate the further details of the apoptotic mechanism, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus. We have analyzed different protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. We also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, ROS and CD4 + and CD8 + population by flow cytometry. Sub lethal doses of copper in spleen and thymus of in vivo Swiss albino mice promote different apoptotic pathways. In case of spleen, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promotes intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent, ultimately leads to decrease in CD4 + T cell population and increase in CD8 + T cell population. However in case of thymus, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes lead to death receptor that regulate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism which was p53 dependent. Due to copper treatment, thymic CD4 + T cell population decreased and CD8 + T cell population was increased or

  15. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  16. Effect of rapamycin on spleen size in longstanding renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, N C; Sampaio Gonçalves de Lucena, S B; da Silveira Rioja, S

    2014-06-01

    Based on evidence available in the literature, rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, but not calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), has been shown to decrease spleen size. Small spleen, in some instances, is associated with hyposplenism, a condition recently reported in patients with longstanding renal transplant. Accordingly, the effect of immunosuppressive drugs on spleen size was evaluated. Renal transplant recipients (35 taking mTOR and 68 CNI) were included, in whom a standardized investigation of the kidney allograft and spleen with the use of color Doppler ultrasound was performed and a peripheral smear were reviewed for the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs). We enrolled 103 patients (64 men; 66 from a deceased donor). The mean age was 47.7 years (range, 23.0-74.0 y). Mean transplant duration was 1,899 days (range, 181-6,883 d). According to the presence of HJBs, the prevalence of hyposplenism was 47.6% for the entire cohort. The differences between the mTOR and CNI groups regarding sex and the presence of HJBs were not statistically significant (P > .05). Age, creatinine, hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, and Doppler parameters in spleen and kidney were similar in both groups (P > .05). mTOR patients had a decreased spleen length size (90.09 ± 13.02 mm vs 111.95 ± 18.66 mm; P < .001), a longer transplant duration (3,576 ± 1,594 d vs 1,036 ± 1,369 d; P < .001) and higher serum cholesterol (227.50 ± 38.75 mg/dL vs 182.67 ± 37.74 mg/dL; P < .001) and triglycerides (194.23 ± 79.88 mg/dL vs 148.70 ± 55.54 mg/dL; P = .003) levels compared with the CNI group. A multivariate analysis showed mTOR inhibitor to be the most important predictor of spleen size. In both the mTOR and CNI groups, the comparison between the subgroups of present and absent HJBs did not show any difference. The findings of this study suggest that small spleens in transplant recipients may be linked to treatment with an mTOR inhibitor, although this apparently does

  17. Determination of T1- and T2-relaxation times in the spleen of patients with splenomegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Josephsen, P; Karle, H

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter and the c......Twenty-nine patients with known splenomegaly and seven healthy volunteers were examined. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were read out from a region of interest centrally in the spleen. Even though different mean T1 and T2 relaxation times were found between the groups, the great scatter...

  18. Reduced Noradrenergic Signaling in the Spleen Capsule in the Absence of CB1and CB2Cannabinoid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Tyrell J; Fried, David; Parikh, Kevin; Galligan, James J; Goudreau, John L; Lookingland, Keith J; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2016-12-01

    The spleen is a visceral organ that contracts during hypoxia to expel erythrocytes and immune cells into the circulation. Spleen contraction is under the control of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation. The activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in the spleen capsule is regulated by α2-adrenergic receptors (AR). Interactions between endogenous cannabinoid signaling and noradrenergic signaling in other organ systems suggest endocannabinoids might also regulate spleen contraction. Spleens from mice congenitally lacking both CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors (Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mice) were used to explore the role of endocannabinoids in spleen contraction. Spleen contraction in response to exogenous norepinephrine (NE) was found to be significantly lower in Cnr1 -/- /Cnr2 -/- mouse spleens, likely due to decreased expression of capsular α1AR. The majority of splenic Cnr1 mRNA expression is by cells of the spleen capsule, suggestive of post-synaptic CB 1 receptor signaling. Thus, these studies demonstrate a role for CB 1 and/or CB 2 in noradrenergic splenic contraction.

  19. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  20. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    A location-based service called friend-locator notifies a user if the user is geographically close to any of the user’s friends. Services of this kind are getting increasingly popular due to the penetration of GPS in mobile phones, but existing commercial friend-locator services require users...... to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user......, and (iii) users have flexible choices of their proximity detection distances. To address this challenge, we develop a client-server solution for proximity detection based on an encrypted, grid-based mapping of locations. Experimental results show that our solution is indeed efficient and scalable...

  1. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Highly chemoselective environment friendly deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketones has been achieved by heating in aqueous medium without using any catalyst and organic solvent.

  2. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  3. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010;29:211. Cangelosi PR, et al. Walking for therapy with man's best friend. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental ...

  4. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  5. Determination of normal dimension of the spleen by ultrasound in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A prospective study of normal spleen ultrasound-based measurements in 200 Nigerian adults at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. Results: There were 91 males and 109 females; their age ranged between 20 and 60 years. For the males the mean age was 32.4 years (± 9.2 ...

  6. The involvement of the spleen during chronic phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection in galectin-3-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Camila; Oliveira, Felipe L; Takiya, Christina M; Palumbo, Antônio; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Borojevic, Radovan; Chammas, Roger; El-Cheikh, Márcia C

    2012-08-01

    Schistosoma mansoni synthesizes glycoconjugates which interact with galectin-3, eliciting an intense humoral immune response. Moreover, it was demonstrated that galectin-3 regulates B cell differentiation into plasma cells. Splenomegaly is a hallmark event characterized by polyclonal B cell activation and enhancement of antibody production. Here, we investigated whether galectin-3 interferes with spleen organization and B cell compartment during chronic schistosomiasis, using wild type (WT) and galectin-3-/- mice. In chronically-infected galectin-3-/- mice the histological architecture of the spleen, including white and red pulps, was disturbed with heterogeneous lymphoid follicles, an increased number of plasma cells (CD19-B220-/lowCD138+) and a reduced number of macrophages (CD19-B220-Mac-1+CD138-) and B lymphocytes (CD19+B220+/highCD138-), compared with the WT infected mice. In the absence of galectin-3 there was an increase of annexin-V+PI- cells and a major presence of apoptotic cells in spleen compared with WT infected mice. In spleen of WT infected mice galectin-3 was largely expressed in lymphoid follicles and extrafollicular sites. Thus, we propose that galectin-3 plays a role in splenic architecture, controlling distinct events such as apoptosis, macrophage activity, B cell differentiation and plasmacytogenesis in the course of S. mansoni infection.

  7. Amelioratory Effect of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin on Spleen during VRSA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant effects of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA infection on select makers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status in spleen. Methods. A coagulase-positive VRSA strain was used for this study. VRSA infection was developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5 × 106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. VRSA-infected mice were treated with nanoconjugated vancomycin at its effective dose for 10 days. After decapitation, blood was used for determination of viable bacteria count and spleen was excised from control and experimental groups, homogenized and used for different biochemical estimations. Results. Nitrate level, myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione, and DNA fragmentation level were increased significantly (P<0.05 in spleen of VRSA-infected group as compared to control group, and reduced glutathione level, activity of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST were decreased significantly (P<0.05; which were increased or decreased significantly (P<0.05 near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. Conclusion. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VRSA-infection-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in spleen.

  8. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following prompt and aggressive surgical intervention, both mother and baby survived. S Afr J Obstet Gynaecol 2015;21(2):50-51. DOI:10.7196.SAJOG.858. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal surgical emergency in the second trimester: Report of a case. M Heetun, MRCS; R Parameswaran, ...

  9. Recruitment of macrophages from the spleen contributes to myocardial fibrosis and hypertension induced by angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether macrophages migrated from the spleen are associated with angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to angiotensin II infusion in vehicle (500 ng/kg/min for up to four weeks. In splenectomy, the spleen was removed before angiotensin II infusion. In the angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade, telmisartan was administered by gastric gavage (10 mg/kg/day during angiotensin II infusion. The heart and aorta were isolated for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Angiotensin II infusion caused a significant reduction in the number of monocytes in the spleen through the AT1 receptor-activated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Comparison of angiotensin II infusion, splenectomy and telmisartan comparatively reduced the recruitment of macrophages into the heart. Associated with this change, transforming growth factor β1 expression and myofibroblast proliferation were inhibited, and Smad2/3 and collagen I/III were downregulated. Furthermore, interstitial/perivascular fibrosis was attenuated. These modifications occurred in coincidence with reduced blood pressure. At week 4, invasion of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the thoracic aorta was attenuated and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was upregulated, along with a reduction in aortic fibrosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that macrophages when recruited into the heart and aorta from the spleen potentially contribute to angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertension.

  10. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  11. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  12. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in rats: Lipid analyses and lipase activities in liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Yoshida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Fujiyama, J.; Igata, A.

    1990-01-01

    We report the biological characterization of an animal model of a genetic lipid storage disease analogous to human Wolman's disease. Affected rats accumulated cholesteryl esters (13.3-fold), free cholesterol (2.8-fold), and triglycerides (5.4-fold) in the liver, as well as cholesteryl esters (2.5-fold) and free cholesterol (1.33-fold) in the spleen. Triglycerides did not accumulate, and the levels actually decreased in the spleen. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides showed high percentages of linoleic acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) in both organs, especially in the liver. No accumulation of phospholipids, neutral glycosphingolipids, or gangliosides was found in the affected rats. Acid lipase activity for [14C]triolein, [14C]cholesteryl oleate, and 4-methyl-umbelliferyl oleate was deficient in both the liver and spleen of affected rats. Lipase activity at neutral pH was normal in both liver and spleen. Heterozygous rats showed intermediate utilization of these substrates in both organs at levels between those for affected rats and those for normal controls, although they did not accumulate any lipids. These data suggest that these rats represent an animal counterpart of Wolman's disease in humans

  13. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  14. Coconut water solutions for the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino César, J M; Petroianu, A; de Souza Vasconcelos, L; Cardoso, V N; das Graças Mota, L; Barbosa, A J A; Vianna Soares, C D; Lima de Oliveira, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coconut water in the preservation of spleen, ovary, and skin autotransplantations in rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups on the basis of the following tissue graft preservation solutions: group 1, lactated Ringer's; group 2, Belzer's solution; group 3, mature coconut water; group 4, green coconut water; and group 5, modified green coconut water. In group 5, the green coconut water solution was modified to obtain the same electrolyte composition as Belzer's solution. The spleen, ovaries, and a skin fragment were removed from each animal, stored for 6 hours in one of the solutions, and then re-implanted. The recoveries of tissue functions were assessed 90 days after surgery by means of spleen scintigraphy and blood tests. The implanted tissues were collected for histological analyses. Higher immunoglobulin G levels were observed in the animals of group 5 than in the animals of group 1. Differences in follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P coconut water group (P coconut water allowed for the preservation of the spleen, ovaries, and skin for 6 hours, and the normal functions of these tissues were maintained in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, C T; Maciel, D T; Caneca, O A; Castro, C M; Araújo, L B

    2001-01-01

    Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1) to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2) to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3) to assess the immune response to pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 +/- 29.8 ng/ml) was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  16. Autotransplant of spleen tissue in children with schistosomiasis: evaluation of splenic function after splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue has been done, in the past ten years, in children with schistosomiasis mansoni with bleeding varices. The purposes of this investigation were: (1 to study the morphology and function of the remnant spleen tissue; (2 to quantify the production of tuftsin; and (3 to assess the immune response to pneomococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty three children, who underwent splenectomy and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum were included in this investigation. The average postoperative follow-up is five years. Splenosis was proved by colloid liver-spleen scans. Search for Howell-Jolly bodies assessed the filtration function. Tuftsin and the titer of pneumococcal antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, it was insufficient in two. Howell-Jolly bodies were found only in these two patients. The mean tuftsin serum concentration (335.0 ± 29.8 ng/ml was inside the normal range. The immune response to pneumococcal vaccination was adequate in 15 patients; intermediate in four; and inadequate in four. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: splenosis was efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% and produced tuftsin inside the range of normality. It also provided the immunologic splenic response to pneumococcal vaccination in 65% of the patients of this series.

  17. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Robot-assisted pancreatectomies of the DutchMEN1 study

  18. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J.; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. Objective: To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Methods: Robot-assisted

  19. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A.; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van Dijkum, Els J. Nieveen; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H. J.; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D.; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. ObjectiveTo describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. MethodsRobot-assisted

  20. Solitary metastasis of ampullary carcinoma to the spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tri M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report a first case of ampullary cancer with solitary metastasis of the spleen, which was successfully treated with pancreatoduodenectomy and splenectomy and was discharged 7 days after the operation with outpatient chemotherapy. In such cases, physicians should consider splenectomy as an effective treatment option.

  1. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  2. Friend or foe: Personal use and friends' use of protective behavioral strategies and spring break drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Sheng, Elisa; Geisner, Irene M; Rhew, Isaac C; Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined associations between use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by college students and their friends and drinking-related outcomes during Spring Break (SB). Moreover, this study examined the influence of friends' own PBS use on participants' PBS use during SB. Participants included college students (N = 694) and their nominated friends (N = 131) who were part of a larger study of SB drinking. Data were collected via web-based surveys that participants and friends took after SB, which assessed SB PBS, drinking, and related negative consequences. Results indicated that higher levels of Serious Harm Reduction (SHR) strategies and Limiting/Stopping (LS) strategies were associated with increased consumption, higher likelihood of experiencing any consequences, and an increased number of consequences. A different pattern emerged for Manner of Drinking (MD) strategy use; participants utilizing higher levels of MD strategies drank less and had fewer consequences. LS and MD strategies used by the participant's friends appeared to have less of an impact on the participant's drinking outcomes. However, greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with increased alcohol use by the participant, but not with consequences. Greater friends' use of SHR strategies was associated with greater SHR strategy use by the participant. Friends' LS and MD strategies were not associated with participant drinking, consequences, or PBS. These findings highlight the potential utility of interventions that focus on drinking behaviors on specific high-risk occasions for those at risk as well as for their friends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles on albino rat thymus and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Marwa A; Selim, Sally A; Selim, Assmaa O; El-Shal, Amal S; Gouda, Zienab A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral intake of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the structure of thymus and spleen. Twenty-four young male Wistar albino rats were assigned into two groups: group I (control) and group II (ZnO NPs treated group).The thymus and spleen were analyzed biochemically, histopathologically and immunohistochemically. After ZnO NPs intake, hematologically, the total leucocytic count was significantly increased while the RBCs and platelets counts and Hb % were significantly decreased. Biochemically, a significant decrease in serum total antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 4 and 10 (IL-4 and IL-10) levels was noted. While a significant increase in splenic and thymic malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA shearing, as well as the studied proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β, tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α) and interferon (INF-γ) levels was detected. Notably, we noted upregulation of the immunomodulatory [CD3, CD11b, heme oxygenase (HO-1)] and the inflammatory [toll-like receptor 4 and 6 (TLR4 and TLR6)] genes. Histopathologically, degenerative changes were detected in thymus and spleen of ZnO NPs treated group. While the immunohistochemical analysis of the ZnO NPs treated group revealed a decrease in the number of cells expressed positive reactions of anti-PCNA and an increase in the number of cells expressed positive reaction of anti-p53 in the thymus and spleen. In conclusion, ZnO NPs induced obvious immunotoxicity in the thymus and spleen, where oxidative/inflammatory pathway may be the potential mechanism underlying this immunotoxicity. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(7):528-539, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Leishmania donovani infection induces anemia in hamsters by differentially altering erythropoiesis in bone marrow and spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Lafuse

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (α-globin, β-globin, ALAS2 were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1 were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-γ mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-γ inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by

  5. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  6. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  7. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  8. Role of spleen-derived IL-10 in prevention of systemic low-grade inflammation by obesity [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Koro; Fujiwara, Kansuke; Anai, Manabu; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2017-04-29

    Obesity can be associated with systemic low-grade inflammation that leads to obesity-related metabolic disorders. Recent studies raise the possibility that the inflammation in hypothalamus, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) contributes to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. We focus on the role of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced from spleen in obesity because it is indicated that obesity decreases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. Obesity results in decrease of IL-10 synthesis from spleen, probably due to reduction of B-cells expression by promoting oxidative stress and apoptosis in spleen. Splenectomy (SPX) aggravates the inflammatory response in hypothalamus, liver and WAT. These SPX-induced alterations are inhibited by systemic administration of IL-10. Moreover, in IL-10 deficiency, SPX had little effect on the inflammatory responses in these multiple organs. We show the role of spleen-derived IL-10 on inflammatory responses in obesity.

  9. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  10. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mbasera

    2016-06-01

    Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects. Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations. Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management. Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.

  11. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  12. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  13. "Friends" of Anglican Cathedrals: Norms and Values. Befriending, Friending or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…

  14. Gender Norms and Institutional Culture: The Family-Friendly versus the Father-Friendly University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the role that gender norms and expectations about parenting play in establishing the family-friendly versus the father-friendly university. Using interviews with 51 male faculty at three research universities, the article considers how faculty and administrators' actions perpetuate cultures that promote or hinder…

  15. Effectiveness of mouse interferon alpha/beta compared to single-agent chemotherapy in increasing survival time of mice after intravenous inoculation of Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresser, I; Maury, C; Belardelli, F; Maunoury, M T; Machover, D

    1988-03-16

    DBA/2 mice received an iv injection of 2 X 10(6) Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLCs; approximately equal to 4 X 10(5) lethal dose50), which multiplied rapidly in the liver and spleen and killed all untreated or control treated mice between 7 and 12 days. Daily interferon (IFN) treatment resulted in a very marked increase in survival time and apparent cure of 4 of 22 tumor-inoculated mice. In contrast, treatment of tumor-injected (iv) mice with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and methotrexate increased survival time by only a few days; and treatment of mice with cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, bleomycin, or etoposide was ineffective. However, when FLCs were injected ip, both cytostatic drugs and IFN exerted an antitumor effect. We conclude that IFN alpha/beta was particularly effective in inhibiting the development of liver and spleen metastases and in increasing mouse survival time after iv inoculation of FLCs.

  16. Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: friend versus non-friend comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-07-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments included: mothers' and teachers' reports about friends' and friendship characteristics and observed individual and dyadic behaviors throughout interactions with friends versus non-friends during construction, drawing, and free-play situations. Findings revealed group differences in peer interaction favoring the typical development group, thus supporting the neuropsychological profile of HFASD. However, both groups' interactions with friends surpassed interactions with acquaintances on several key socio-communicative and intersubjective capabilities, thus suggesting that friendship may contribute to enhancement and practice of social interaction in HFASD.

  17. [Fostering LGBT-friendly healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Chen, Mu-Hong; Ku, Wen-Wei

    2015-02-01

    LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) patients suffer from stigma and discrimination when seeking healthcare. A large LGBT healthcare survey revealed that 56% of gay patients and 70% of transgender patients suffered some type of discrimination while seeking healthcare in 2014. The fostering of LGBT-friendly healthcare services is not just an advanced step of gender mainstreaming but also a fulfillment of health equality and equity. Additionally, LGBT-friendly healthcare services are expected to provide new opportunities for healthcare workers. Therefore, proactive government policies, education, research, and clinical practice should all encourage the development of these healthcare services. We look forward to a well-developed LGBT-friendly healthcare system in Taiwan.

  18. Oxidative DNA damage and its repair in rat spleen following subchronic exposure to aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huaxian; Wang Jianling; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.; Boor, Paul J.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aniline exposure elicits splenotoxic response, especially the tumorigenic response, are not well-understood. Splenotoxicity of aniline is associated with iron overload and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids (oxidative stress). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is one of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions resulting from ROS, and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzyme, plays a key role in the removal of 8-OHdG adducts. This study focused on examining DNA damage (8-OHdG) and repair (OGG1) in the spleen in an experimental condition preceding a tumorigenic response. To achieve that, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day via drinking water for 30 days), while controls received drinking water only. Aniline treatment led to a significant increase in splenic oxidative DNA damage, manifested as a 2.8-fold increase in 8-OHdG levels. DNA repair activity, measured as OGG1 base excision repair (BER) activity, increased by ∼ 1.3 fold in the nuclear protein extracts (NE) and ∼ 1.2 fold in the mitochondrial protein extracts (ME) of spleens from aniline-treated rats as compared to the controls. Real-time PCR analysis for OGG1 mRNA expression in the spleen revealed a 2-fold increase in expression in aniline-treated rats than the controls. Likewise, OGG1 protein expression in the NEs of spleens from aniline-treated rats was ∼ 1.5 fold higher, whereas in the MEs it was ∼ 1.3 fold higher than the controls. Aniline treatment also led to stronger immunostaining for both 8-OHdG and OGG1 in the spleens, confined to the red pulp areas. It is thus evident from our studies that aniline-induced oxidative stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage. The BER pathway was also activated, but not enough to prevent the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG). Accumulation of mutagenic oxidative

  19. Liver/spleen volume ratio as a predictor of prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Yosuke; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The course of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is determined by clinical symptoms and histological findings. The present study examined the prognostic importance of imaging parameters in PBC. The volumes of the liver and spleen of patients with PBC were assessed by computed tomography (CT). The volume ratio of liver to spleen (LV/SV ratio) was evaluated and used for further analyses. The prognosis was significantly poorer in PBC patients with a low, rather than high, LV/SV ratio. The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the serum bilirubin level and the LV/SV ratio could predict the prognosis of PBC patients. In addition, the LV/SV ratio was significantly lower in patients who developed symptoms (s-PBC) than in those who remained asymptomatic (a-PBC) during the observation period. The LV/SV ratio is of prognostic importance in patients with PBC. (author)

  20. Spleen irradiation and splenectomy for treatment of hypersplenism in chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphatic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolzenbach, G.; Franke, H.D.; Montz, R.; Schulze, P.J.; Hamburg Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    1979-01-01

    Hypersplenism is characterized by cytopenia, splenomegaly (possibly hyperplastic bone-marrow), and lienal hypersequestration. It is necessary, in view of the rather important surgical risks of splenectomy, to clarify if the hypersplenism may be influenced by splenic irradiation in case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). References in literature are rare and do not present a reliable differentiation of the syndrome, according to its present definition. Of our patients, three cases with hypersplenism verified by radioiron studies are reported: in one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia, irradiation of the spleen had no effect, whereas pancytopenia was completely repaired by means of splenectomy. The same result were seen in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. In the last patient, however, who had chronic lymphatic leukemia, fractionated irradiation of the spleen led to a distinct improvement of anemia and thrombopenia, but the recovery lasted only six months. This effect is due to transient normalization of the lienal hypersequestration. (orig.) [de

  1. Splenic Pathology in Traumatic Rupture of the Spleen: A Five Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; Devi, Leena; George, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To Study the histopathology of spleens with a history of traumatic rupture with a view to establish possible predisposing factors to the rupture Methods This study examined the gross and microscopic features of consecutive cases of splenectomies done for traumatic rupture during a five year period in order to evaluate the presence or absence of any pathology prior to rupture. Results Of the 17 cases of splenectomy during this period, 14 were normal and 3 cases showed pathology other than rupture. Conclusion In the five year period of studying splenic pathology in traumatic rupture, 82% of the spleens showed normal histology except for the rupture. 18% of the cases showed different pathological findings on histopathology which could have contributed to the rupture. PMID:22334849

  2. Abdominal pregnancy with placenta inserted in the spleen left in situ causing subphrenic abscess

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    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pregnancy appears once in 3000 pregnancies. It usually terminates with abortion and urgent surgery. Thanks to ultrasonography and computed tomography the diagnosis is possible before surgery. Most frequently the diagnosis has been established during emergency laparotomy. Gynaecologists are not in agreement wheather removal of placenta is mandatory or not, as it may include removal of parts or entire organs or may be followed with serious bleeding difficult to control. We present a 21-year old woman in whom during an urgent laparotomy performed for abdominal pregnancy placenta inserted in the spleen was left in situ. Postoperatively the patient developed subphrenic abscess which could not be solved without reoperation during which both the placenta and the spleen were removed. Ten years after surgery she is symptom-free.

  3. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  4. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG uptake by spleen in acute radiation disease

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    Shao-jie WU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether 18F-FDG uptake can be applied in dosimetry to facilitate a rapid and accurate evaluation of individual radiation dosage after a nuclear accident. Methods Forty-eight Tibetan minipigs were randomly assigned into 6 groups, i.e., 0, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11Gy groups. Animals in all except 0Gy group received total body irradiation (TBI with a 8MV X centrifugal linear accelerator, and 18F-FDG combined positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT were carried out before TBI, and also at 6, 24 and 72h after receiving TBI in different doses ranging from 1 to 11Gy. Spleen tissues and blood samples were collected for histological examination, apoptosis, and routine blood analysis. Results Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs of the spleen showed significant differences between experimental groups and control group. The spleen SUVs at 6h post-irradiation showed significant correlation with radiation dose; Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.95(P<0.01. Histopathological observations showed that the degree of splenic damage was proportional to the radiation dose. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed that apoptosis was one of the major forms of splenic lymphocyte death. Conclusion In the Tibetan minipig model, it was shown that radiation doses bear a close relationship with the 18F-FDG uptake of spleen. This finding suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for the rapid detection of individual radiation dosage after acute radiation disease (ARD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.07.08

  5. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  6. The guinea fowl spleen at embryonic and post-hatch periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeanusi, B I

    2006-06-01

    The spleen of the guinea fowl was bean-shaped but without a dented hilus. It is supplied by three short arteries that came from the ventral surface, two on the cranial end and one at the caudal end of the organ. The whole organ had a thin but tough capsule covering the outer surface except at the point of entry of the blood vessels. By day 18 of incubation, the spleen had a thin but well-defined capsule and internal to this been complete network of sinusoids filled with erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes. By day 19, dark and light staining zones, which could be termed red and white pulps, had appeared. By day 20, the granulocytes with a lot of granules within their cytoplasm, had become the biggest-sized cells in the spleen. At day 21, arteries and veins were noticed clearly in the spleen and many lymphocytes, few granulocytes and reticular cells surrounded these. Red pulp with its sinusoids was now distinct. A giant cell containing three nuclei was seen within the red pulp. At day 1 post-hatch, the capsule was at its greatest thickness so far and muscle cells were seen at the inner most part of the capsule. Granulocytes that had been a constant feature suddenly disappeared. At day 5, the small lymphocytes had dominated the large and medium-sized ones. By 2 weeks, the red and white pulps were virtually equal in distribution but by 3 weeks, the red pulp was convincingly greater. By 7 weeks, plasma cells had appeared in the peripheral splenic cords. Monocytes were observed in the sinusoids. Two germinal centres were identified for the first time in week 13 post-hatch.

  7. Computer tomographic findings in splenic ruptures, subcapsular haematomas of the spleen and perisplenic abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, E.; Semerak, M.; Jaschke, W.; Rehabilitations-Krankenhaus Langensteinbach

    1980-01-01

    The computer tomographic criteria of splenic rupture, new or old haematomas of the spleen (pseudocysts) and perisplenic or subphrenic abscesses are described with reference to three cases. It is shown that all the relevant problems in the pre-operative stage can be clarified by computer tomography, making arteriography unnecessary. The differential diagnosis between old haematomas and perisplenic abscesses can only be made by taking account of the history and other clinical information. (orig.) [de

  8. Invasive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the spleen treated with partial splenectomy in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krl, Elif Altnay; Orhan, Diclehan; Haliloğlu, Mithat; Karnak, Ibrahim

    2012-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare benign tumor that can be found in intra-abdominal organs such as the liver, intestine, extrahepatic bile ducts, and mesentery. The spleen is an extremely unusual location for an IMT. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with invasive splenic IMT, present a review on the current literature about childhood splenic IMT, and emphasize the necessity of total excision of the tumor together with tumor-invaded surrounding tissues.

  9. Unfolding the mechanism of cisplatin induced pathophysiology in spleen and its amelioration by carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sinha, Krishnendu; Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sil, Parames C

    2018-01-05

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) is an effective chemotherapeutic and is widely used for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. Bio-distribution of cisplatin to other organs due to poor targeting towards only cancer cells constitutes the backbone of cisplatin-induced toxicity. The adverse effect of this drug on spleen is not well characterized so far. Therefore, we have set our goal to explore the mechanism of the cisplatin-induced pathophysiology of the spleen and would also like to evaluate whether carnosine, an endogenous neurotransmitter and antioxidant, can ameliorate this pathophysiological response. We found a dose and time-dependent increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the spleen tissue of the experimental mice exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin. The increase in inflammatory cytokine can be attributed to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-ĸB. This also aids in the transcription of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. Exposure of animals to cisplatin at both the doses resulted in ROS and NO production leading to oxidative stress. The MAP Kinase pathway, especially JNK activation, was also triggered by cisplatin. Eventually, the persistence of inflammatory response and oxidative stress lead to apoptosis through extrinsic pathway. Carnosine has been found to restore the expression of inflammatory molecules and catalase to normal levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, NF-ĸB and JNK. Carnosine also protected the splenic cells from apoptosis. Our study elucidated the detailed mechanism of cisplatin-induced spleen toxicity and use of carnosine as a protective agent against this cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dexamethasone Regulates Macrophage and Cd4+Cd25+ Cell Numbers in the Chicken Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Calefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is a corticoid hormone that is experimentally used to mimic the effects of increased levels of endogenous corticosterone observed during the stress response. Currently, stress is considered one of the major predisposing factors for diseases in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DEX and/or of a 20-fold coccidial vaccine dose on leukocyte phenotypes in the spleen and cecal tonsils of chickens. Twenty specific-pathogen-free (SPF Leghorn chickens were divided into four groups: a non-treated group (NT, a DEX-treated group (Dex, a vaccinated group (V and a DEX-treated+vaccinated group (Dex+V. On experimental day (ED 42, each bird in the vaccinated groups received a anti-coccidial vaccine. DEX was injected in the birds of the Dex and Dex+V groups (0.9 mg/kg onED42 and ED45. The immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry analysis of splenocytes and cecal tonsils cells onED48. DEX treatment per se was unable to change CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ populations with TCRgd or CD28 in the spleen, or macrophages and T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils. V group birds presented higher numbers of splenic macrophages compared with those measured in the Dex+V group. The number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the spleen of birds of the V group was higher than those measured in the other experimental groups. Our data suggest that CD4+CD25+ cells and macrophages might be influenced by DEX treatment in spleen, but not in the cecal tonsils of chickens inoculated with Eimeria.

  11. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  12. Transcription from a spleen necrosis virus 5' long terminal repeat is suppressed in mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Embretson, J E; Temin, H M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the block(s) to spleen necrosis virus (SNV) replication in mouse cells, we studied the expression of a dominant selectable marker, neo, or a gene whose product is easily assayed, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, in SNV-derived and murine leukemia virus-derived vectors. Using transient (CAT) and stable (Neor phenotype) transfection assays, we showed that the SNV promoter was used in mouse cells only when the 3' SNV long terminal repeat (LTR) was absent. Infection ...

  13. A case report with atypical liver-spleen scan after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcora, N.; Ilgin, N.; Basaklar, C.

    1992-01-01

    Remodeling of the liver following splenectomy may simulate hypertrophy of an accessory spleen on sulphur colloid scans. There are but a few reports about the persistent splenic activity as a prominent finding during the post-splenectomy period. Splenic simulation may be attributed to the unusual hepatic lobe displacement, as in this case. The clinician should be aware of possible splenic simulation in the post-splenectomy period, if hypersplenism is suspected

  14. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  15. A comparison of low and high dose-rate radiation for recipient mice in spleen-colony studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H.; Keene, J.P.; Hodgson, B.W.; Xu, C.X.; Rezvani, M.; Jordan, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, endogenous spleen-colony formation in mice, following lethal irradiation, has increased to an unacceptable level. It has been found necessary, therefore, to introduce a new method of preparing recipient mice for spleen-colony studies. Irradiation with low dose-rate 60 Cobalt γ rays has been compared with high dose-rate linear accelerator electrons, and their effects on endogenous spleen colony formation compared with earlier X and γ ray dose-response data. A large dose (13.5 Gy) of γ rays results in fewer endogenous colonies than 8.5 gy of electrons, yet because of its low dose rate it has a marked sparing of the intestinal tissue as measured by the intestinal microcolony technique. This in turn permits better survival and, therefore, a 'healthier' animal for spleen-colony work. Exogeneous colony formation is also lower in the low dose-rate, γ-irradiated recipients and this is shown to be due to a reduced spleen-seeding efficiency. It is concluded that very low dose-rate radiation is preferable for haemopoietic ablation, that a mouse colony requires constant monitoring for changes of endogenous spleen-colony formation and that the spleen-seeding efficiency of CFU-s depends on the irradiation technique used. (author)

  16. Simultaneous increases in immune-competent cells and nitric oxide in the spleen during Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrevanian, Hossein; Dascombe, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    Nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) are thought to be important mediators of both immunological and pathological responses of the vertebrate host to malaria infection. The role of RNI has been studied most often by assay of stable RNI metabolites (nitrites, nitrates) in blood. This study evaluated the nature of the RNI response of mice to malaria by analyzing the subsets of immune-competent cells within the organ displaying increased RNI in vivo. We measured RNI production indirectly, as stable metabolites of nitric oxide activity in tissue homogenates (brain, liver, spleen) from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Only spleen exhibited an RNI concentration response during rising parasitemia. Subsets of immune-competent cells (B cells, CD19+), macrophages/monocytes (MOMA2+) and T cells (CD4+, CD8+) in the spleen were assayed by fluorescence activated cell scan flow cytometry. The spleen was confirmed as a major source of RNI during mid-phase P. berghei infection. Significant increases in CD19+ and MOMA2+ spleen cells were evident during the mid-phase of P. berghei infection in MF1 mice when RNI are maximally elevated. The time courses of the cellular and RNI responses indicate that CD19+ and MOMA2+ cells may be responsible for the increase in RNI in the spleen. However, experiments in vitro are needed to make a definitive identification of the cell type(s) responsible for the increase in RNI in the mouse spleen during P. berghei infection.

  17. [Relation between PMI and FTIR spectral changes in asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ying; Shao, Yu; Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Qin, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi-jiu; Huang, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to observe the postmortem degradation process in mechanical asphyxiated rat's liver and spleen for providing a new method of estimating PMI. Rats were sacrificed by mechanical asphyxia and cadavers were kept at (20 +/- 2) degrees C in a control chamber. The liver and spleen were sub-sampled from the same rat at intervals of 0-15 days postmortem and the data were measured by FTIR spectrometer. The different absorbance (A) ratios of peaks were calculated and the curve estimation analysis between absorbance ratios (x) and PMI (y) were performed to establish mathematical models by the statistical software. The band absorbance ratios showed increase, decrease and stable with PMI. The cubic model functions showed the strongest correlation coefficient. Compared with the spleen, the liver showed a higher correlation coefficient. The A1541/A1396 of liver showed the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.966). After 6-7 days postmortem, band absorbance ratios showed a steady period. FTIR spectroscopy can be a new and efficient method to estimate PMI within 7 days.

  18. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  19. Morphological changes in lymph nodes and spleen upon EAE induction in C57BL/6 mic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovarić Irina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG is a protein widely used in the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE for studying human multiple sclerosis (MS. In C57BL/6 female mice aged eight weeks, we administered subcutaneously MOG35-55 peptide in CFA (complete Freund’s adjuvant along with pertussis vaccine injected intraperitoneally. We observed the sign of flaccid tail as early as thirteen days post-immunization in five of twelve animals. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of paraffin-embedded sections of lymph nodes and spleen revealed the presence of germinal centers in the immunized animals. In the control group of animals, lymphoid follicles without germinal centers were observed. Immunohistochemical staining of spleen sections revealed an expression of MHC II molecules in the EAE-induced group. We would like to point out that even though the clinical signs are mild, the morphological changes are apparent in the lymph nodes and spleen of MOG35-55-immunized mice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. M-175050

  20. Search for antisense copies of beta-globin mRNA in anemic mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor John M

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by Volloch and coworkers have reported that during the expression of high levels of β-globin mRNA in the spleen of anemic mice, they could also detect small but significant levels of an antisense (AS globin RNA species, which they postulated might have somehow arisen by RNA-directed RNA synthesis. For two reasons we undertook to confirm and possibly extend these studies. First, previous studies in our lab have focussed on what is an unequivocal example of host RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity on the RNA genome of human hepatitis delta virus. Second, if AS globin species do exist they could in turn form double-stranded RNA species which might induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, a phenomenon somehow provoked in eukaryotic cells by AS RNA sequences. Results We reexamined critical aspects of the previous globin studies. We used intraperitoneal injections of phenylhydrazine to induce anemia in mice, as demonstrated by the appearance and ultimate disappearance of splenomegaly. While a 30-fold increase in globin mRNA was detected in the spleen, the relative amount of putative AS RNA could be no more than 0.004%. Conclusions Contrary to earlier reports, induction of a major increase in globin transcripts in the mouse spleen was not associated with a detectable level of antisense RNA to globin mRNA.

  1. Melanomacrophage centers aggregation in P. lineatus spleen as bioindicator of environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiyappan Balamurugan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor the water quality parameters and climatic impact on the health condition of the fish through pathology study of Marine catfish spleen using Melano-macrophage centers (MMCs aggregation as a biomarker Marine catfishes along the parangipettai coast of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Replicate samples were done for all the seasons along the coast. Condition factor (K and Histopathology technique, were used to evaluate the condition. Results: The result revealed the Condition factor (K of fish was minimum in winter 1.0874 and maximum in summer 1.6726. Histology show the number of MMCs aggregation in spleen 59.5 暲8.3 MMCs/mm2 was observed in at post monsoon and 2-5 MMCs/mm2 in summer. Anova shows significantly different at P<0.05. The MMCs aggregation excited 30/mm2 when the water temperature is below 22曟and reaches maximum at temperatures of below 20 曟. The MMCs were correlated with water temperature shows positive correlation mean drop in water temperature may also reason for MMCs aggregation in spleen. Conclusion: The rise in temperature causes effect in health of the fish which was indicated in condition factor and MMCs aggregation. Animals are vulnerable to disease due to lowering of temperature and other environmental conditions. The MMCs aggregation can be used as bio-indicators for environmental.

  2. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  3. Creating computer aided 3D model of spleen and kidney based based on Visible Human Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldur, Muhammad M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of computer aided 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique on visualization and modeling of gross anatomical structures with an affordable methodology applied on the spleen and kidney. From The Visible Human Project Dataset cryosection images, developed by the National Library of Medicine, the spleen and kidney sections were preferred to be used due to their highly distinct contours. The software used for the reconstruction were Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac and Cinema 4D X L version 7.1 for Mac OS X. This study was carried out in May 2004 at the Department of Anatomy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of this study, it is determined that these 2 programs could be effectively used both for 3D modeling of the mentioned organs and volumetric analyses on these models. It is also seen that it is possible to hold the physical models of these gross anatomical digital ones with stereolithography technique by means of the data exchange file format provided by the program and present such images as anaglyph. Surf Driver 3.5.3 for Mac OS and Cinema 4 DXL version 7.1 for Mac OS X can be used effectively for reconstruction of gross anatomical structures from serial parallel sections with distinct contours such as spleen and kidney and the animation of models. These software constitute a highly effective way of getting volumetric calculations, spatial relations and morphometrical measurements of reconstructed structures. (author)

  4. Postsplenectomy recurrence of idiopathic thrombocitopenic purpura: role of laparoscopic splenectomy in the treatment of accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, C A; Pravisani, R; Bidinost, S; Baccarani, U; Bresadola, V; Risaliti, A; Terrosu, G

    2015-01-01

    Idiopatic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for splenectomy. The failure rate of surgery is about 8% and the failure rate after splenectomy is approximately 28% for all patients. When the presence of an accessory spleen is diagnosed, splenectomy is recommended. Laparoscopic approach is considered the first choice. At our Department, between July and November 2011 two patients underwent laparoscopic accessory splenectomy for recurrence of ITP. Both patients had a previously laparoscopic splenectomy. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance (MR) was performed in both the cases revealing the presence of an accessory spleen. The operative time was 105 and 100 minutes respectively. No perioperative complications occured. Hospital stay was four days in both cases. The first patient had a disease free period of two months; the second one of one month. Both patients restarted immunosuppressive therapy. The relapse of thrombocytopenia post-splenectomy can be associated with the presence of an accessory spleen. The laparoscopic accessory splenectomy should be considered the first choice approach. Surgical accessory splenectomy allows a transitory remission of the disease.

  5. Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma Presenting as an Enlarging Vascular Lesion within the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A. Emamaullee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE is a rare vascular neoplasm with variable malignant potential that most often presents within the liver. Many patients present with bilobar or extrahepatic disease, and the current treatment paradigm involves liver transplantation, with favorable long term results. Up to 25% of patients are diagnosed incidentally following imaging for other indications, and confirmation of diagnosis requires histologic analysis, as there are no classical imaging features to distinguish hepatic EHE (HEHE from other solid hepatic lesions. Here we describe a case of microscopic HEHE that was diagnosed following splenectomy for an enlarging vascular tumor within the spleen. Due to the unexpected diagnosis of EHE within the spleen and coexisting but stable appearing liver hemangiomata, a left hepatic lobectomy was performed. Explant histology revealed benign hemangiomata and diffuse, microscopic HEHE. The patient ultimately underwent liver transplantation. HEHE can be a challenging diagnosis, and this case emphasizes that any enlarging vascular lesion, even within the spleen, should prompt a high index of suspicion for HEHE in the setting of known hemangiomata.

  6. Three-dimensional demonstration of liver and spleen by computer graphics technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiromi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takao; Takayama, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional demonstration system of the liver and spleen has been developed using computer graphics technique. Three-dimensional models were constructed from CT images of the organ surface. The three-dimensional images were displayed as wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. The anatomical surface of the liver and spleen was realistically viewed from any direction. In liver cirrhosis, atrophy of the right lobe, hypertrophy of the left lobe and splenomegaly were displayed vividly. The liver and hepatoma were displayed as wire-frame and solid models respectively on the same image. This combined display clarified the intrahepatic location of hepatoma together with configuration of liver and hepatoma. Furthermore, superimposed display of three dimensional models and celiac angiogram enabled us to understand the location and configuration of lesions more easily than the original CT data or angiogram alone. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for noninvasive evaluation of patho-morphological changes of the liver and spleen. (author)

  7. Strengthening youth friendly health services through expanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening youth friendly health services through expanding method choice to include long-acting reversible contraceptives for Ethiopian youth. ... Odds of adopting LARCs at pre-intervention (0.70); rose to 1.30 for the post-intervention phase (p-value <0.0001); comparing intervention to non-intervention study arms.

  8. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...

  9. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Magnetic and ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Deptartment of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab 148 106, India.

  10. The Importance of Friends in Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less...

  11. Metacommunication Behaviors Used by Adult Best Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Karen

    A study examined what type of communication behaviors best friends use when they talk about their relationship (meta-relate), or discuss the nature of talk within the friendship (meta-talk). Questionnaire data collected from middle-aged adults and young college students indicated that the respondents discussed their friendships more than their…

  12. Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under static and dynamic conditions using a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The impedance and ...

  13. Prader/Willi Syndrome Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome, which include obesity, short stature, and mental retardation, are explained; and the history and activities of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Parents and Friends organization, whose primary purpose is to act as a vehicle of communication for sharing experiences on how to cope with the syndrome, are…

  14. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketals in aqueous medium without using any catalyst or organic solvent. S MUKHERJEE, A SENGUPTA and S C ROY. ∗. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur,. Kolkata 700 ...

  15. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth / For Teens / My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  16. The most common friend first immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fu-Zhong; Hu Cha-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts–Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi–Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. (paper)

  17. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketals in aqueous medium without using any catalyst or organic solvent. S Mukherjee A Sengupta ... S C Roy1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Needle-Based Probe Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) of Intrapancreatic Ectopic Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Amanda B.; Holloman, David; Lankarani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Accessory spleens and splenosis represent the congenital and acquired type of ectopic splenic tissue. Generally, they are asymptomatic entities posing as solid hypervascular masses at the splenic hilum or in other organs, such as the pancreas. Intrapancreatic ectopic spleen mimics pancreatic neoplasms on imaging studies, and due to the lack of radiological diagnostic criteria, patients undergo unnecessary distal pancreatectomy. We present the first case of intrapancreatic ectopic spleen in which the concomitant use of needle-based probe confocal laser endomicroscopy and fine-needle aspiration supported the final diagnosis. PMID:27144203

  19. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  20. Immunity in the spleen and blood of mice immunized with irradiated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Sato, Maria Notomi; do Nascimento, Nanci; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong and long-lasting immune response that is able to prevent most reinfections but allows tissue cysts. Irradiated, sterilized T. gondii tachyzoites are an interesting vaccine, and they induce immunity that is similar to infection, but without cysts. In this study, we evaluated the cellular immune response in the blood and spleen of mice immunized with this preparation by mouth (v.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) and analyzed the protection after challenge with viable parasites. BALB/c mice were immunized with three i.p. or v.o. doses of irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites. Oral challenge with ten cysts of the ME-49 or VEG strain at 90 days after the last dose resulted in high levels of protection with low parasite burden in the immunized animals. There were higher levels of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in the serum, and the i.p. immunized mice had higher levels of the high-affinity IgG and IgM antibodies than the orally immunized mice, which had more high-affinity IgA antibodies. B cells (CD19(+)), plasma cells (CD138(+)) and the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations were increased in both the blood and spleen. Cells from the spleen of the i.p. immunized mice also showed antigen-induced production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). The CD4(+) T cells, B cells and likely CD8(+) T cells from the spleens of the i.p. immunized mice proliferated with a specific antigen. The protection was correlated with the spleen and blood CD8(+) T cell, high-affinity IgG and IgM and antigen-induced IL-10 and IL-4 production. Immunization with irradiated T. gondii tachyzoites induces an immune response that is mediated by B cells and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with increased humoral and cellular immune responses that are necessary for host protection after infection. The vaccine is similar to natural infection, but free of tissue cysts; this immunity restrains infection at challenge and can be an

  1. Are Friendly Farmers Environmentally Friendly? Environmental Awareness as a Social Capital Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Munasib, Abdul B.A.; Jordan, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis that social capital at the individual level affects environmentally friendly practices. Social capital represents the social connectedness of the individual. An individual with higher social capital is more likely to have better exposure and access to information about the importance of environmentally friendly practices. We study sustainable agricultural practices among Georgia farmers and examine whether their social capital levels have any effect on, (1) ...

  2. Conditions affecting the activity of glucocerebrosidase purified from spleens of control subjects and patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Brouwer-Kelder, E. M.; van Weely, S.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Glucocerebrosidase was purified to homogeneity from spleens of control subjects and Type 1 Gaucher disease patients by immunoaffinity chromatography. Activation of the enzyme by taurocholate, phosphatidylserine and sphingolipid activator protein 2 (saposin C; SAP-2) was investigated by titration of

  3. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H. [Department of CT-MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece); Stagianis, K.D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Larissa (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  4. The value of MR angiography in predicting the risk of torsion of a pelvic spleen during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Stagianis, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    A case of an enlarged pelvic spleen, studied with MRI and MR angiography (MRA), is presented in a 32-year-old female wishing to become pregnant. An ectopic located spleen may be complicated by an acute abdomen due to torsion of the splenic vascular pedicle, resulting in splenic infarction. Displacement of the spleen and splenic pedicle during pregnancy may further increase the risk of torsion. Urgent splenectomy during pregnancy is associated with a high fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, elective splenectomy of a pelvic spleen before pregnancy can result in adhesion formation, compromising the patient's fertility. The abilities of MRI and MRA in predicting the risk of these life-threatening complications during pregnancy are discussed, in order to evaluate the benefit-risk ratio of surgical treatment by splenectomy of splenopexia. (orig.)

  5. COMPARATIVE GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SPLEEN OF SHEEP AND GOAT OF JAMMU REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Suri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the histology and micrometry of the spleen of sheep and goat of Jammu region. The spleen of goat was quadrangular whereas that of sheep was triangular. The biometrical measurements of the spleens of sheep and goat revealed that the weight of spleen of sheep was 81.39 ± 12.79 gm while that of goat was 64.48 ± 7.82 gm. The length of the spleen was 12.70 ± 0.81 cm and 11.48 ± 0.73 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. The width of spleen of sheep was recorded to be 9.26 ± 0.38 cm and that of goat was measured as 9.37 ± 0.79 cm and the thickness of spleen was found to be 2.69 ± 0.2 cm and 2.37 ± 0.21 cm in sheep and goat, respectively. Histologically, spleen was covered by thick capsule with thickness 282.27 ± 14.88 µ in goat and 150.13 ± 8.14 µ in sheep. The thickness of trabeculae in goat was 224.67 ± 67 µ and in sheep was 104.35 ± 8.92 µ. Average diameter of white pulp was 478.20 ± 26.88 µ in sheep and 412.22 ± 47.85 µ in goat. Number of white pulps per field at 100 X magnification was 1.30 ± 0.21 in sheep and 1.60 ± 023 in goat. Similarly, number of white pulps per mm2 was 1.32 ± 0.22 in sheep and 1.62 ± 023 in goat. Red pulp consisted of spleenic cords and sinusoids. Sinusoids were lined by endothelial cells with large nuclei bulging into the sinusoidal lumen.

  6. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  7. Demonstration of Antigenic Identity Between Purified Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and an Antigen Extracted from Infected Horse Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Norcross, Neil L.; Coggins, Leroy

    1972-01-01

    Antigenic relationship between purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus and spleen-derived antigen from EIA-infected horses was examined by immunodiffusion. Identical antigenicity of these two antigens has been proven because precipitation lines formed between the two antigens and EIA antiserum connected with each other. The results indicate that the antigenic substance derived from infected spleen is a component of EIA virus. Images PMID:4629262

  8. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C.; Valderrama, E.

    1998-01-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Liver and spleen MRI findings in virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkha, A.; Madan, V.; Leonidas, J.C. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Valderrama, E. [Department of Pathology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome is characterized by the phagocytosis of erthythrocytes and other blood elements in multiple organ systems, especially the liver and spleen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can suggest this diagnosis in the proper clinical setting by demonstrating multiple, rounded signal voids in the spleen corresponding to hemosiderin deposition. We report a patient with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome during the course of acute lymphocytic leukemia and MRI findings that suggested the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  10. Is agro-tourism eco-friendly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurea Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will highlight the impact of agro-tourism on environment in Romania, focusing on the Sibiu County. Thanks to the results obtained from this analysis, research and information collection, the paper will give some answers regarding the question: are agro-tourisms environmentally friendly? The authors identify potential causes of environmental pollution from agro-tourism and some resources that could be economically used. The negative and positive aspects on the increase of agro-tourism activities in the proposed region will be also discussed taking into account there impact on the environment. Based on the obtained results, the authors will propose a method for the management of resources in order to arrive to an eco-friendly system for the proposed case-study. Future developments and applications on other EU case-study will be also discussed in this paper.

  11. Political discussions with family and friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire...... survey, this article explores how young people experience political discussions in their everyday life. Our data indicate that young people who feel that their father, mother or friends, respectively, hold more distant political views are less likely to engage in political discussions with each of them....... These findings support previous studies in political communication suggesting that people tend to avoid social situations where political disagreements are likely to appear. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant gender differences when analysing the role of the parents as political discussion...

  12. Perioperative spleen embolization as a useful tool in laparoscopic splenectomy for simple and massive splenomegaly in children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Veken, E; Laureys, M; Rodesch, G; Steyaert, H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the efficiency of perioperative spleen embolization prior to laparoscopic splenectomy indicated for hypersplenism. We conducted a prospective study exploring a technique combining ultra-selective perioperative embolization and splenectomy. Between January 2008 and March 2013, 16 splenectomies were performed in children suffering from hypersplenism due to varying hematologic diseases. Spleen embolization was performed by an interventional radiologist in the operating room (OR) just before splenectomy and during the same general anesthesia. Ages varied from 3 to 17 years. Spleen volume was measured by preoperative ultrasound. One patient underwent a laparotomy because of suspected adhesions due to previous surgery. All other operations were performed laparoscopically. One complication arose from embolization: a perforation of the splenic artery. After immediately placing a platinum coil proximal to the perforation, the splenectomy was carried out as usual. Fourteen children (87.5 %) had splenomegaly, of which eight (50 %) had massive splenomegaly. There were no deaths, no conversions to laparotomy, no reoperations and none of these patients had to be transfused. Perioperative spleen embolization performed in the OR by an interventional radiologist makes laparoscopic splenectomy a safer procedure. We propose a preoperative method for spleen measurement that is adapted to children: simple and massive splenomegaly is defined through patient body weight and a preoperative ultrasound. We conclude that spleen size is no more a limiting factor for laparoscopic splenectomy in children.

  13. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  14. Environment Friendly Biodiesel Fuel in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudriniece, E.; Strēle, M.; Skujiņš, V.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel (RME and REE) are alternative, environment friendly fuels for diesel engines, obtained from rapeseed oil and methanol or ethanol. RME are produced with capacity 2500 t/year at SIA “Delta Riga” experimental factory Naukseni in Latvia. The laboratory method of production biodiesel fuel (REE) from rapeseed oil and ethanol has been worked out at RTU. Blends RME and REE with fossil diesel fuel are applied, as well.

  15. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  16. Histopathological effects of sodium nitrite on the spleen of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Juibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrite and nitrate are common additives in meat processed products. In spite of all technological advantages of nitrite, creation of nitrosamine carcinogenic substances causes a lot of concerns for use of these additives. In this study, the histopatological effects of sodium nitrite on the splenic tissue in adult male and female rats were evaluated. Material and method: In recent studies, 60 adult male and female rats strain Vistar, divided in 6 groups of 10. They were examined for 60 day, and they (male and female rats separately were divided in 175 mg/kg/day dose recipient group, 350 mg/kg/day dose recipient group and control group which was absorbed nitrite through drinking water. At the end of day 60, using cotton dipped in ether in the jar of anesthesia, were anesthetized. After anesthesia, blood from the left ventricle was taken .the spleen was taking out of body, and then tissue sections were prepared for testing tissue changes. The samples were stained with Hematoxilin- Eozin method. In both sex, factors like morphometric and morphologic from spleen tissue, body weight changes before and after test and blood NOx level was checked. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 17 with using Independent sample t-test and ANOVA. P value of less than 0.05 were reported as statistically significant. Result: The results showed that consume of sodium nitrite, cause background inflammation type of Mononuclear in both sex, especially around the pulp. Also, in both sex NOx levels in the blood of animals in the group receiving 350 mg/ kg and group receiving 175 mg of sodium nitrite per kg compared with the control group, significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Considering of this study and other studies, Nitrite can cause damage to blood vessels, liver, spleen and other organs. Also sodium nitrite has to switching to other food preservatives.

  17. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  18. Portal Hypertension in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spleen Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Yoshitaka; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Youichi; Tomokuni, Junko; Sahara, Akiko; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of spleen stiffness (SS) and liver stiffness (LS) measured by using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in the diagnosis of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis, with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as a reference standard. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective single-center study. From February 2012 to August 2013, 60 patients with liver cirrhosis (mean age, 70.8 years; age range, 34-88 years; 34 men, 26 women) with HVPG, LS, and SS measurements and gastrointestinal endoscopy and laboratory data were included if they met the following criteria: no recent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, no history of splenectomy, no history of partial splenic embolization, no history of β-blocker therapy, and absence of portal thrombosis. The efficacy of the parameters for the evaluation of portal hypertension was analyzed by using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The correlation coefficient between SS and HVPG (r = 0.876) was significantly better than that between LS and HVPG (r = 0.609, P higher (0.943, 0.963, 0.937, and 0.955, respectively) than those of LS, spleen diameter, platelet count, and platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (P < .05 for all). SS could be used to accurately rule out the presence of clinically important portal hypertension, severe portal hypertension, EVs, and high-risk EVs (negative likelihood ratios, 0.051, 0.056, 0.054, and 0.074, respectively). SS is reliable and has better diagnostic performance than LS for identifying portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  19. Characterization of the rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identification of immune-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eAli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resistance against diseases affects profitability of rainbow trout. Limited information is available about functions and mechanisms of teleost immune pathways. Immunogenomics provides powerful tools to determine disease resistance genes/gene pathways and develop genetic markers for genomic selection.RNA-Seq sequencing of the rainbow trout spleen yielded 93,532,200 reads (100bp. High quality reads were assembled into 43,047 contigs. 26,333 (61.17% of the contigs had hits to the NR protein database and 7,024 (16.32% had hits to the KEGG database. Gene ontology showed significant percentages of transcripts assigned to binding (51%, signaling (7%, response to stimuli (9% and receptor activity (4% suggesting existence of many immune-related genes. KEGG annotation revealed 2,825 sequences belonging to organismal systems with the highest number of sequences, 842 (29.81%, assigned to immune system. A number of sequences were identified for the first time in rainbow trout belonging to Toll-like receptor signaling (25, B cell receptor signaling pathway (28, T cell receptor signaling pathway (33, chemokine signaling pathway (44, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis (23, leukocyte transendothelial migration (34 and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity (21. In addition, 51 transcripts were identified as spleen-specific genes. The list includes 277 full-length cDNAs.The presence of a large number of immune-related genes and pathways similar to other vertebrates suggests that innate and adaptive immunity in fish are conserved. This study provides deep-sequence data of rainbow trout spleen transcriptome and identifies many new immune-related genes and full-length cDNAs. This data will help identify allelic variations suitable for genomic selection and genetic manipulation in aquaculture.

  20. Robotic splenectomy with ex vivo bench surgery and hemi-spleen autotransplant: the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis F; Bianco, Francesco M

    2017-06-01

    We describe our experience with what is, to our knowledge, the first case of robotic assisted ex vivo partial splenectomy with auto-transplantation for a benign non parasitic cyst. The patient is a 32 year-old female with a giant, benign splenic cyst causing persistent abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging showed a cystic lesion measuring 8.3 × 7.6 cm, in the middle portion of the spleen. Due to the central location of the bulky lesion a partial splenectomy was not feasible. As an alternative to a total splenectomy, a possible reimplantation of hemi-spleen after bench surgery was offered. We proceeded with a robotic total splenectomy and bench hemisplenectomy, preserving the lower pole and a portion of the middle segment of the organ. A robotic reconstruction of the splenic vessels was then performed intra-abdominally. The reperfusion was optimal. The total operative time was 305 min, with 78 min of robotic time. Postoperative ultrasound confirmed a patent arterial and venous flow. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The pathology report was consistent with epithelial cyst of the spleen. The patient is doing well at 6-month follow-up. The optimized vision and dexterity provided by the robotic system allowed a safe and precise reconstruction of the splenic vessels, even in a deep and narrow operative field. Partial splenectomy with autotransplantation of the organ was thus achieved, avoiding a total splenectomy in a young patient.

  1. Radioembolization of the Spleen: A Revisited Approach for the Treatment of Malignant Lymphomatous Splenomegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylle, Kristoff, E-mail: kristoff.muylle@bordet.be [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Belgium); Nguyen, Jasmine [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Wind, Alexandre de [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Anatomo-Pathology (Belgium); Meuleman, Nathalie [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Delatte, Philippe [UMC Sint-Pieter, Department of Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Vanderlinden, Bruno [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiophysics (Belgium); Roelandts, Martine [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiotherapy (Belgium); Van der Stappen, Anja [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Bron, Dominique [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Haematology (Belgium); Flamen, Patrick [Jules Bordet Institute, ULB, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    Intraarterial administration of {sup 90}Y microspheres to the spleen in patients with malignant lymphoma was mentioned once in the literature in 1973. This case study illustrates the potential indication of selective internal radiotherapy in a heavily pretreated patient with highly refractory disease with a marginal zone lymphoma in leukemic phase and symptomatic splenomegaly. We describe the clinical course of disease; the biological and clinical response to the treatment after radioembolization; and simulation and dosimetry by multimodal imaging via single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. The advantages of radioembolization for the management of lymphomatous splenomegaly are discussed.

  2. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID mice spleen after low dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, A.; Kondo, N.; Inaba, H.; Uotani, K.; Kiyohara, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.

    To assess the radioadaptive response of the whole body system in mice, we examined the temporal effect of low dose priming as an indicator of challenging irradiation-induced apoptosis through a p53 tumor suppressor protein- mediated signal transduction pathway. The p53 protein also plays an important role both in cell cycle control and DNA repair through cellular signal transduction. Using severe combined immunodeficiency mice defective in DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, we examined the role of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity in radioadaptation induced by low dose irradiation. Specific pathogen free 5-week-old female severe combined immunodeficiency mice and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr +/ + were irradiated with X-ray at 3.0 C3y at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after the challenging irradiation. The p53-dependent apoptosis related Bax proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method The apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis-positive cells increased up to 12 h after the challenging irradiation in the spleen of both mice. However, these cells were not observed after a low dose irradiation at 0.15-0.60 Gy When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before the challenging irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by challenging irradiation were depressed in the spleens of CB-17 Icr +/ + mice, but not in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These data suggest that DNA-dependent protein kinase might play a major role in radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation with a low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information in the health care of space crews.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in Factor XIII deficiency: A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, Pankaj; Al-Hilli, Shatha

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to factor XIII defieciency is a rare cause of abdominal pain with disastrous consequences and can be easily confused with other abdominal pathologies until a strong possibility is entertained.The patients usually present in emergengy with acute abdomen and diagnosis is difficult.The diagnosis is usually made on high degree of clinical suspicion and falling hematorit and failure of conservative management or by imaging. The radiologist need to be aware of this potentially fatal complication since early intervention is life saving. CT imaging can also help in conservative management in non critical patients

  4. Cross channel infections: nostalgia, spleen and the construction of national character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    In the nineteenth century, both spleen and nostalgia were considered clinical categories, and each associated with the character of a nation. English medical commentators boasted of their compatriots' resistance to nostalgia, an often fatal form of homesickness, while the French in turn argued that the splenetic English were flocking to France to escape their own insalubrious climate. Behind such jingoistic claims were broader concerns, on both sides of the channel but particularly acute for the French, about the impact of modernity on subjectivity, the relation between home, homeland and empire, and the fitness of both nations to succeed in the modern age.

  5. Changes in mouse thymus and spleen after return from the STS-135 mission in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila S Gridley

    Full Text Available Our previous results with flight (FLT mice showed abnormalities in thymuses and spleens that have potential to compromise immune defense mechanisms. In this study, the organs were further evaluated in C57BL/6 mice after Space Shuttle Atlantis returned from a 13-day mission. Thymuses and spleens were harvested from FLT mice and ground controls housed in similar animal enclosure modules (AEM. Organ and body mass, DNA fragmentation and expression of genes related to T cells and cancer were determined. Although significance was not obtained for thymus mass, DNA fragmentation was greater in the FLT group (P<0.01. Spleen mass alone and relative to body mass was significantly decreased in FLT mice (P<0.05. In FLT thymuses, 6/84 T cell-related genes were affected versus the AEM control group (P<0.05; up: IL10, Il18bp, Il18r1, Spp1; down: Ccl7, IL6; 15/84 cancer-related genes had altered expression (P<0.05; up: Casp8, FGFR2, Figf, Hgf, IGF1, Itga4, Ncam1, Pdgfa, Pik3r1, Serpinb2, Sykb; down: Cdc25a, E2F1, Mmp9, Myc. In the spleen, 8/84 cancer-related genes were affected in FLT mice compared to AEM controls (P<0.05; up: Cdkn2a; down: Birc5, Casp8, Ctnnb1, Map2k1, Mdm2, NFkB1, Pdgfa. Pathway analysis (apoptosis signaling and checkpoint regulation was used to map relationships among the cancer-related genes. The results showed that a relatively short mission in space had a significant impact on both organs. The findings also indicate that immune system aberrations due to stressors associated with space travel should be included when estimating risk for pathologies such as cancer and infection and in designing appropriate countermeasures. Although this was the historic last flight of NASA's Space Shuttle Program, exploration of space will undoubtedly continue.

  6. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy in Wegener's granulomatosis involving the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morayati, S.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1986-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 44-yr-old man to exclude an occult abscess. Four- and twenty-four-hour images of the abdomen revealed splenic photopenia except for a rim of activity medially. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated necrosis or hemorrhage of the spleen except for a medial rim. Exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotizing vasculitis with granuloma formation consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis and a rim of viable splenic tissue corresponding to the radionuclide and CT studies.

  7. Morphological changes in the kidney, liver and spleen during prolonged administration of iron nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Bucharskya, A. B.; Kong, X. M.; Zuev, V. V.; Medvedev, B. A.; Ignatiev, A. A.; Bochkaryeva, T. V.

    2012-02-01

    We determined the cytotoxic effect of iron nanoparticles of 70 nm, with a single per oral administration in an experiment on white outbred mice. Morphological changes were evaluated in the internal organs. Thus, changes depend on the concentration of nanoparticles at long-term per oral exposure: identified violations of the structure of the liver, kidneys and spleen as venous plethora and degeneration of cells at 250 and 500 mkg / kg dose of nanoparticles are reversible, changes in the organs were pronounced with a dosage of 1000 mkg / kg.

  8. Nonreciprocal Pseudotyping: Murine Leukemia Virus Proteins Cannot Efficiently Package Spleen Necrosis Virus-Based Vector RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Certo, Jeanine L.; Shook, Betsy F.; Yin, Philip D.; Snider, John T.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    1998-01-01

    It has been documented that spleen necrosis virus (SNV) can package murine leukemia virus (MLV) RNA efficiently and propagate MLV vectors to the same titers as it propagates SNV-based vectors. Although the SNV packaging signal (E) and MLV packaging signal (Ψ) have little sequence homology, similar double-hairpin RNA structures were predicted and supported by experimental evidence. To test whether SNV RNA can be packaged by MLV proteins, we modified an SNV vector to be expressed in an MLV-base...

  9. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Wang

    Full Text Available Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day in drinking water or drinking water only (controls for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and

  10. Selective spleen scintigraphy to evaluate frequency of splenosis after posttraumatic splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, A.; Tischler, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Wolf, F.; Meier, H.

    1981-01-01

    In 60 patients having had posttraumatic splenectomy between 9 months and 12 years ago frequency of splenosis was investigated in comparison to immunological and hematological parameters. Selective spleen scintigraphy was performed with sup(99m)-Tc-labelled heat-damaged auto-erythrocytes. In 46,7% of the patients splenosis was found without age dependence. Between patients with and without splenosis no significant differences concerning the immunological and hematological parameters were seen. Therefore, the lack of pathological manifestations after posttraumatic splenectomy is not to be related to autotransplantation of splenic tissue. (orig.) [de

  11. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  12. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  13. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Murali Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Insect pest and diseases management, Lack of awareness of agro environmental problems and farmer’s attitude towards the Eco Friendly Conservation Practices are the major constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices.The study suggests educational, extension & training strategies for fostering the adopted of ECO friendly Conservation Practices.

  14. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T; Diack, Abigail B; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2013-04-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and recipient spleen

  15. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Will, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and

  16. Best friends' interactions and substance use: The role of friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakpinoglou, Florence; Poulin, François

    2017-10-01

    Best friends exert a substantial influence on rising alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence. Two mechanisms occurring within friendship - friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy - may partially capture the way friends influence one another. The current study aims to: (1) examine the psychometric properties of a new instrument designed to assess pressure from a youth's best friend and unsupervised co-deviancy; (2) investigate the relative contribution of these processes to alcohol and marijuana use; and (3) determine whether gender moderates these associations. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires completed by 294 Canadian youths (62% female) across two time points (ages 15-16). Principal component analysis yielded a two-factor solution corresponding to friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy. Logistic regressions subsequently showed that unsupervised co-deviancy was predictive of an increase in marijuana use one year later. Neither process predicted an increase in alcohol use. Results did not differ as a function of gender. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Li, Lu; Zhen, Weng-Ya; Wang, Le-Feng; Pan, Meng; Lv, Jia-Qian; Wang, Fan; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) is a bioactive compound with antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PSG-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. The results showed that PSG-1 protected mice against CTX-mediated immunosuppression, as evidenced by enhancing the ratios of thymus and spleen weights to body weight, promoting T cell and B cell survival, and increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-2. Apoptosis, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in the immune organs of the immunosuppressed animals were ameliorated by PSG-1. The immune benefits of PSG-1 were associated with the enhancement of the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the immune organs, implying that antioxidant activities of PSG-1 may play an important role in PSG-1-evoked immune protection. Taken together, these findings have demonstrated that PSG-1 may ameliorate CTX-induced immunosuppression through reducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  19. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Liu, J.C.; Yang, L.N.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-04-15

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  20. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  1. [The study on the morphology character of blood-spleen barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, An-long; Jiang, Hong-chi; Liu, Lian-xin; Piao, Da-xun; Pan, Shang-ha; Qiao, Hai-quan

    2005-05-01

    To study the morphology and functional character of blood-spleen barrier (BSB) and establish the concept of BSB. Thirty healthy Wistar rats were studied. Ten rats were injected with 1.5 ml mixed fluid of India ink and physiological saline through the tail vein. Histological changes of the spleen in all animals were observed with light and electron microscopy, including HE, Foot, Masson staining and immunohistochemistry of CD68 and CD34. Most of the carbon particles were within the splenic sinuses in marginal zone but not in the white pulp after 6 h. There was a characteristic distribution of the macrophagocytes, vessel endothelial cell, reticular tissue and collagen fiber in the BSB. BSB, surrounding the white pulp, is composed of macrophagocytes, marginal-sinus-endothelial cells and their basement membrane, the reticular tissue (reticular cells and reticular fibers) and collagen fibers. The role of BSB is to keep the microenvironment of white pulp stable. It becomes mature while the formation of germinal center of the white pulp. The permeability of BSB changes during its development.

  2. 2[125I]Iodomelatonin binding sites in spleens of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Pang, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    2-[ 125 I]Iodomelatonin was found to bind specifically to the membrane preparations of the spleens of guinea pigs with high affinity. The binding was rapid, stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the binding assays revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 49.8±4.12 pmol/l and binding site density (Bmax) of 0.69±0.082 fmol/mg protein at mid-light. There was no significant change in the Kd or the Bmax at mid-dark. Kinetic analysis showed a Kd of 23.13±4.81 pmol/l, in agreement to that derived from the saturation studies. The 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites have the following order of potency: 2-iodomelatonin > melatonin > 6-chloromelatonin much-gt N-acetylserotonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin > 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-methoxytryptophol > serotonin, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid > 5-hydroxytryptophol, 3-acetylindole, 1-acetylindole-3-carboxyaldehyde, L-tryptophan > tryptamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Differential centrifugation studies showed that the binding sites are localized mainly in the nuclear fraction, the rest are distributed in the microsomal fraction, mitochondrial fraction and cytosolic fraction. The demonstration of 2-[ 125 I]iodomelatonin binding sites in the spleen suggests the presence of melatonin receptors and a direct mechanism of action of melatonin on the immune system

  3. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    , the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta 4 and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17F were determined over a period of 3 weeks in A. galli and non-A. galli-infected chickens. A characteristic Th2 response was observed in the jejunum of A. galli-infected chickens with increased expression of IL-13...... and decreased expression of IFN-gamma from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and TGF-beta 4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...

  4. Immune-Related Gene Expression Patterns in GPV- or H9N2-Infected Goose Spleens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV or a RNA virus (H9N2, RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, the up-regulated transcripts in the two virus-infected groups were mainly involved in immune-related pathways. In addition, the two virus-infected groups displayed similar expression patterns in the immune response pathways, including pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathways, the antigen processing and presentation pathway, the NF-κB signaling pathway and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as cytokines. Furthermore, most of the immune-related genes, particularly TLR7, TRAF3, Mx, TRIM25, CD4, and CD8α, increased in response to GPV and H9N2 infection. However, the depression of NF-κB signaling may be a mechanism by which the viruses evade the host immune system or a strategy to achieve immune homeostasis.

  5. Radiosensitivity of mice and its modifiers based on the endogeneous spleen colony formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Jindo; Wagatuma, Kaoru

    1987-02-01

    In irradiated mouse hematopoietic tissue, there is a group of cells which can proliferate and form macroscopic colonies. In the spleen, the colonies formed in this manner are discrete and easy to count. In order to look into a difference of radiosensitivity between male and female and the mechanisms of the modification, such as protective agent and hormones on radiosensitivity, the spleen colony forming (SCF) is used as an indicator of reactions in the x-rays irradiated mice. A linear decrease was found in SCF depended on x-rays dose. From the colony forming after irradiation the male was more radiosensitive than female. AET protected from the injury depended on the radiation dose in male mice, but in female mice, protection effects were not observed. Gonatropin showed protective effects for radiation injury on high dose irradiation both in male and female mice. Adrenaline showed similar effects as Gonatropin. Insuline showed a negative effects of protection on 400 R irradiation, while on 600 R irradiation, protective effects were observed.

  6. Laparoscopic Resection of an Epithelial Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1 were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

  7. Spleen, tedio y ennui. El valor indiciario de las emociones en la literatura del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Cebreiro Rábade Villar, María

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the semantic implications of the concept of tedio through a comparative analysis of Rosalia de Castro´s novel, Flavio, and Edgar Allan Poe’s tale, «The Man of the Crowd». Like spleen and ennui, hispanic tedio is an emotional concept inseparable from the industrial dynamic of the modern city. In this sense, it can be read as a symptom of the profound modification of aesthetic and sociological aspects of narrative which took place in the second half of the XIX century.El artículo se propone explorar las implicaciones semánticas del concepto de tedio a través de un análisis comparado de la novela Flavio, de Rosalía de Castro, y del cuento «The Man of the Crowd», de Edgar Allan Poe. Al igual que el spleen y el ennui, el tedio hispánico es un concepto emocional indisociable de la dinámica industrial instaurada en la ciudad moderna. En este sentido, puede leerse como síntoma de una profunda modificación en el horizonte estético y sociológico de la narrativa en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.

  8. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  9. The case of the mysterious vanishing spleen: autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Georgina; Jenkins, Megan; Shetty, Dushyant; Blundell, Julie

    2017-05-04

    A 57-year-old previously healthy fisherman was admitted in fulminant pneumococcal septic shock, with disseminated intravascular coagulation, requiring aggressive management including bilateral below-knee amputations for ischaemic necrosis. He began to recover and was discharged for rehabilitation, however during his convalescence was found to be hypercalcaemic. No malignancy was found on CT scan, but it was noted that his spleen was absent, replaced by a 4 cm smooth-walled, fluid-filled lesion. This was unexpected as an ultrasound in intensive care 10 weeks previously had demonstrated a normal spleen. Functional hyposplenism was confirmed on a peripheral blood film with evidence of target cells, spherocytes and Howell-Jolly bodies. A diagnosis of autosplenectomy complicating pneumococcal sepsis was therefore made, of which there is just one case previously reported. The patient continues to recover well and was discharged on penicillin prophylaxis after receiving vaccinations for hyposplenism. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Spleen for Treatment of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, XiangWu; Gao, Fei; Ma, Yan; Feng, ShuFen; Liu, XueLian; Zhou, HongKe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the feasibility and therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous microwave ablation in the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhosis. Forty-one cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism were treated with ultrasonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation between February 2007 and August 2011. Peripheral blood cell counts, portal vein diameter, splenic vein diameter, and blood flow of splenic vein were evaluated before and after the operation, and complications of the treatment were also investigated. All patients were followed up for 24 months. The levels of platelets and white blood cells were increased, while the splenic vein diameter narrowed gradually after the therapy and 24 months later. Moreover, patients received percutaneous microwave ablation had much lower splenic venous flow velocity. The portal vein diameter did not change significantly 6 months after the treatment, although it narrowed gradually within 3 months after the treatment. Furthermore, no complications such as uncontrollable bleeding, splenic abscess, spleen rupture, and damage in surrounding organ happened after the therapy. Graded percutaneous microwave ablation, as a minimally invasive therapy, could damage the spleen, increase the levels of platelets and white blood cells, and reduce portal hypertension effectively without serious complications. Percutaneous microwave ablation is an effective, safe, and feasible method for cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism.

  11. Spleen cell proliferation during and after skin myiasis by human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jomara Mendes; Nascimento, Maria Fernanda Alves do; Breyner, Natália Martins; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Góes, Alfredo Miranda de; Leite, Antonio César Rios

    2009-01-01

    Spleen cells from mice were examined at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days post-infection (dpi) with Dermatobia hominis larva and at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Cell proliferation in vitro assays were carried out with RPMI-1640 medium and larval secretory product (LSP) of D. hominis at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. When each group of mice was tested against each medium, significance was only seen for 25 dpi, with increasing order: LSP-10 d, -25 d, -5 d, -20 d, -15 d and RPMI. Significant results were also observed when each medium was tested against mice at each dpi or dple. Each dple group vs. each medium produced significant results only for 10 dple, with increasing order: LSP-5 d, -20 d, -25 d, -10 d, -15 d and RPMI. Comparative tests were also carried out between groups to refine certain observations. The LSPs were also analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The results prove that myiasis caused depletion of spleen cells, particularly under the effect of the LSP-10 and -15, but the cells tended to increase up to 60 dple. This in vitro assay may represent the real systemic immune response in the relationship LSP-D. hominis-host.

  12. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L L; Zhang, C H; Liu, J C; Yang, L N; Niu, C Y; Zhao, Z G

    2014-05-01

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  13. Robot-assisted spleen preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Brunaud, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bonsing, Bert A; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J; Kazemier, Geert; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Hagendoorn, Jeroen; Molenaar, I Quintus; Valk, Gerlof D; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R

    2016-09-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients often undergo multiple pancreatic operations at a young age. To describe robot-assisted and laparoscopic spleen-preserving pancreatic surgery in MEN1 patients, and to compare both techniques. Robot-assisted pancreatectomies of the DutchMEN1 study group and the Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France were compared to a historical cohort of laparoscopic treated MEN1 patients. Perioperative outcomes were compared. A total of 21 MEN1 patients underwent minimally invasive pancreatic surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, seven patients were subjected to robot-assisted surgery, and 14 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. Demographics and clinical characteristics did not differ between the cohorts and no significant differences in operative outcomes were found. A high number of ISGPS grade B/C pancreatic fistulas were observed in both cohorts (38%), and no conversions were seen in the robot-assisted cohort (respectively 0% vs. 43%, P = 0.06). In one laparoscopic and one robot-assisted case the primary tumor was not resected. Minimally invasive spleen-preserving surgery in MEN1 patients is safe and feasible. Patients who underwent robot-assisted surgery did not require conversion to open surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:456-461. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  15. Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.

  16. Detection of Babesia DNA in blood and spleen samples from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 - KY250477).

  17. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  18. I and My Friends are Good People: The Perception of Incivility by Self, Friends and Strangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Hess

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three studies were conducted to assess self-serving biases in participants’ beliefs about incivility, its antecedents and consequences as well as restitution behaviors and forgiveness as a function of whether a behavior was performed by themselves, strangers or friends. Participants who imagined themselves in the active role not only described their own behavior as more excusable, congruent with an actor-observer bias, but more importantly, they showed strong self-serving biases with regard to all their reactions to the situation – even though this leads to logical contradictions. This self-serving expectation generalized to friends and contrasted sharply with expectations for strangers, whose behaviors were described as logically consistent. The difference between what is expected from self and friends and what is expected from others may account for much of the popular moral outrage at incivility in various social realms.

  19. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    circle and whether it is a necessary prerequisite for a virtuous circle to emerge and to continue to work that the individual possesses certain general values or ethical norms. The data material is a three-wave panel study with a large random sample of Danish consumers. The data were analysed by means...... of spillover is marginally but significantly higher when respondents give high priority to the value domain that Schwartz (1994) termed universalism or hold strong personal norms for envi-ronmentally friendly behaviour. Udgivelsesdato: SEP...

  20. Media and breastfeeding: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuchaud Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mass media have the potential to be powerful friends or foes in promoting breastfeeding. The media could help by putting the issue of breastfeeding on policy agendas and by framing breastfeeding as healthy and normative for baby and mother. Currently, however, it looks as if the media are more often contributing to perceptions that breastfeeding is difficult for mothers and potentially dangerous for babies. This paper presents a brief overview of research on the media and breastfeeding, some insights into the market forces and human psychological factors that may play into media representations of breastfeeding, and strategies to help breastfeeding advocates work more effectively with the media.

  1. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  2. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  3. Influence of friends on children's physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-07-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends' PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs.

  4. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  5. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.. Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ and melanomacrophage center (MMC areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL- 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN- γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols.

  6. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Fontana, Sergio; Laforgia, Flavia; Dragone, Teresa; Jirillo, Emilio; Passantino, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.). Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ) and melanomacrophage center (MMC) areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN-) γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols. PMID:26779301

  7. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  8. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  9. Creation of an Innovation-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinas Maceika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on identifying the methods useful for improving the process of creating an innovation ­friendly environment. For this purpose, conditions for innovation activity in industry were investigated, and the expert evaluation of the selected knowledge and the assessment of the importance of skills for the successful development of innovations were car­ ried out. The work referred to the analysis of the sources of scientific information, a sociological inquiry of the personnel of industrial enterprises, correlation analysis and expert evaluation. The study has found that for building the innovation ­friendly environment, knowledge of the psychology of creativity, personnel management, formation and implementation of the innova­ tion strategy, risk management, business development and sales organization are of a particular importance. Expert assessment has showed that abilities to work in a team, be an entrepreneur, use marketing tools, generate ideas and create new products play a crucial role in innovation development. A situation in industry companies has shown the currently existing various groups of employees with a different point of view on the surveyed parameter. Managers, workers, engineers and other staff have different opinions and knowledge, and therefore a well thought­out policy is required for wider innovative activities. The directives of such a policy must be available for everyone.

  10. Societal embedding of climate-friendly innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, E.; Kivisaari, Sirkku; Lovio, R.

    2002-01-01

    This project assesses the possibilities of constructing a market for climate-friendly energy technologies by applying the process of 'societal embedding of innovations'. The term refers to an interactive learning process amongst three groups of key actors: producers, users and societal actors. Their co-operation shapes the innovation to fit the needs of the market and contributes to creation of conditions in which the innovation can be adopted. The project consists of two case studies: (1) Shaping of the ESCO energy service concept in Finnish municipalities and (2) Increasing the use of wood pellets in single-family houses. The case studies have illustrated the possibilities and limitations concerning the application of societal embedding in the energy sector. The project indicates that societal embedding may promote the implementation of climate-friendly energy technologies in at least three ways. Firstly, the process mobilises key actors to cooperation. This generates interactive learning on the problem and its solving. Market construction is forged ahead by mutual adaptation of the innovation and its environment. Secondly, this approach offers a tool to examine the societal quality of the innovation, a question related vitally to climate change. Thirdly, by producing new knowledge of the needs on the market this approach supports the societal actors in choosing different instruments to induce the intended transition to sustainability. (orig.)

  11. Gammaherpesvirus Colonization of the Spleen Requires Lytic Replication in B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Clara; de Miranda, Marta Pires; May, Janet; Wyer, Orry; Simas, J Pedro; Stevenson, Philip G

    2018-04-01

    Gammaherpesviruses infect lymphocytes and cause lymphocytic cancers. Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus all infect B cells. Latent infection can spread by B cell recirculation and proliferation, but whether this alone achieves systemic infection is unclear. To test the need of MuHV-4 for lytic infection in B cells, we flanked its essential ORF50 lytic transactivator with loxP sites and then infected mice expressing B cell-specific Cre (CD19-Cre). The floxed virus replicated normally in Cre - mice. In CD19-Cre mice, nasal and lymph node infections were maintained; but there was little splenomegaly, and splenic virus loads remained low. Cre-mediated removal of other essential lytic genes gave a similar phenotype. CD19-Cre spleen infection by intraperitoneal virus was also impaired. Therefore, MuHV-4 had to emerge lytically from B cells to colonize the spleen. An important role for B cell lytic infection in host colonization is consistent with the large CD8 + T cell responses made to gammaherpesvirus lytic antigens during infectious mononucleosis and suggests that vaccine-induced immunity capable of suppressing B cell lytic infection might reduce long-term virus loads. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses cause B cell cancers. Most models of host colonization derive from cell cultures with continuous, virus-driven B cell proliferation. However, vaccines based on these models have worked poorly. To test whether proliferating B cells suffice for host colonization, we inactivated the capacity of MuHV-4, a gammaherpesvirus of mice, to reemerge from B cells. The modified virus was able to colonize a first wave of B cells in lymph nodes but spread poorly to B cells in secondary sites such as the spleen. Consequently, viral loads remained low. These results were consistent with virus-driven B cell proliferation exploiting normal host pathways and thus having to transfer lytically to new B cells for new proliferation. We

  12. The effects of labetalol (AH 5158) on adrenergic transmission in the cat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, A G; Summers, R J

    1977-01-01

    1. The competitive alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent labetalol, in concentrations up to 10(-4) M, produced dose-dependent increases in transmitter overflow from the isolated blood perfused spleen of the cat following nerve stimulation at 10 and 30 Hz. 2. At concentrations above 10(-4) M labetol produced a pronounced decrease in transmitter overflow. 3. Labetalol (1.5 X 10(-4) M) increased the recovery of 3H label in the venous blood following the close-arterial infusion of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline indicating that the drug inhibits uptake of the amine. 4. Both labetalol (3.8 X 10(-5) M) and piperoxan (7.4 X 10(-6) M) produced parallel shifts to the right of the dose-response curves to noradrenaline and oxymetazoline in isolated strips of cat splenic capsule. In this preparation both drugs acted as competitive postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agents. 5. Labetalol (3.3 X 10(-5) M) increased the transmitter overflow following stimulation of the splenic nerves with 200 impulses at 10 Hz. The overflow could be further increased by subsequent addition of piperoxan (7.2 X 10(-6 M). Piperoxan (5.7 X 10(-6) M) alone produced a marked increase in transmitter overflow which could be further increased by subsequent addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI; 3.2 X 10(-5) M). Cocaine (1.5 X 10(-5) M) or DMI (5.4 X 10(-5 M) produced a small increase in transmitter overflow which was not further increased by addition of labetalol (2.8 X 10(-5) M). 6. Labetalol produced a biphasic effect on the responses of the isolated blood perfused spleen of the cat to nerve stimulation. With low doses (up to 10(-4) M) vascular responses were potentiated and with high doses (greater than 10(-4) M) inhibited. The potentiation was related to uptake blockade and the inhibition to decreased transmitter overflow and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor blockade. 7. Labetalol appears to act as a postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist in the isolated blood perfused spleen of the cat with

  13. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  14. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders.

  15. Modulation of gamma radiation induced changes in the weight of spleen and thymus by centella asiatica pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Radha; Jaimala

    2003-01-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn) is a medicinal plant widely used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with Centella asiatica one hour before irradiation with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight protected the animal from death by way of reducing the histopathological changes and loss of weight of the spleen and thymus against radiation. In irradiated animals (6 and 8 Gy) the reduction in the weight of spleen and thymus was significantly higher and recovery was slower in comparison to animals pretreated with Centella asiatica. It might be due to the increased cell population in the spleen and thymus of the animal pretreated with the plant extract or plant extract might have inhibited the cell death caused by radiation. (author)

  16. Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Adoptive transfer of immunity with enriched populations of spleen T and B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, V.; Phillips, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Thymectomized NIH and C57BL mice were more susceptible to Plasmodium chabaudi than controls, indicating a role for T cells in acquired immunity to the parasite. Enriched populations of T and B cells were prepared from the spleens of immune mice using nylon-wool columns, and were adoptively transferred to syngeneic non-irradiated mice or mice irradiated with 600 or 800 rad. Some immunity could usually be transferred with immune T, B and glass-wool (g.w.) filtered spleen cell populations. In the heavily irradiated mice g.w. filtered immune spleen cells gave the best protection and the immune T cells the least. Preliminary attempts to show synergistic activity between immune T and B cells in irradiated mice were not successful. (author)

  17. Preoperative computed tomography and scintigraphy to facilitate the detection of accessory spleen in patients with hematologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Nobuhiro; Kanematsu, Takashi; Sugimachi, Keizo

    1988-01-01

    Accessory spleens of 1.5 cm in size were preoperatively identified by the combined use of computerized tomography and splenic scintigraphy in two patients with hematologic diseases. After the accessory spleen had been removed from the first patient, who had persistent hereditary spherocytosis and had undergone a splenectomy 15 months before, a postoperative decrease in hyperbilirubinemia was noted. In the other patient who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, a successful accessory splenectomy was done at the same time as her splenectomy, and was followed by 6 months' complete remission. These events indicate that preoperative investigations using computerized tomography and scintigraphy are indispensable for ruling out an accessory spleen in those patients for whom splenectomy needs to be done in order to alleviate hematologic disorders. (author)

  18. Early expression of nucleolar SURF-6 protein in mouse spleen lymphocytes activated for proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleva, A A; Malysheva, M V; Magoulas, Ch; Polzikov, M A; Zatsepina, O V

    2009-05-01

    Using specific antibodies we studied the content of nucleolar SURF-6 protein, which participates in rRNA processing, in mouser spleen lymphocytes activated for proliferation with concanavalin A and compared it with the content of nucleolar nucleophosmin/B23 protein and DNA replication factor PCNA, well-known markers of proliferating cells. Using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting methods we demonstrate that the concentration of all these proteins increases simultaneously with increasing the proportion of proliferating cells. Unlike nucleophosmin/B23, SURF-6 protein was not revealed in quiescent lymphocyte nucleoli, while the increase of its level in activated lymphocytes preceded elevation of PCNA level. These observations suggest that nucleolar protein SURF-6 can act as a marker of early T lymphocyte activation for proliferation and that it could participate in cell cycle regulation in mammals.

  19. [Inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen. An old concept with many questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, B; Pérez del Río, M J; Vara, A; Ablanedo, P; Ovidio González, L; Florentino Fresno, M

    1998-06-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen is an infrequent benign condition. It is difficult to differentiate, on a clinical and radiological basis, from haematologic neoplasms, granulomatous diseases as sarcoidosis and splenic hamartoma. Sometimes can be an incidental finding. Two women, aged 72 years, are presented. On the first case the sympthons mi micked a malignant disease. The second one was an incidental finding in a routine study for cholecystitis. Histological and immunohistochemical study showed a polymorphic cellular population including plasma cell, lymphoid cells, histiocytes, eosinophils and spindle cells, showing a reactive benign character. Plasma cells presented light chains polyclonality. Lymphoid cells were mature and with T inmunophenotype. Spindle cells were focally positive for muscle spe-cific actin and vimentine. In the first case, ultraestructural study showed myofibroblast morphology on the stromal spindle cells. Like many other authors have already postulated, immunohistochemical and ultraestructural findings would corroborate the mesenchymal reactive and benign nature of this type of lesions.

  20. 3D segmentation of liver, kidneys and spleen from CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekes, G.; Fidrich, M.; Nyul, L.G.; Mate, E.; Kuba, A.

    2007-01-01

    The clinicians often need to segment the abdominal organs for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation of these organs is very time-consuming, therefore automated methods are desired. We developed a semi-automatic segmentation method to outline liver, spleen and kidneys. It works on CT images without contrast intake that are acquired with a routine clinical protocol. From an initial surface around a user defined seed point, the segmentation of the organ is obtained by an active surface algorithm. Pre- and post-processing steps are used to adapt the general method for specific organs. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of our method is about 90%, which can be further improved with little manual editing, and that the precision is slightly higher than that of manual contouring. Our method is accurate, precise and fast enough to use in the clinical practice. (orig.)

  1. [Acute illness following chicken pox: spleen infarction as a complication of varicella zoster infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeninga, Nynke; Willemze, Annemieke J; Emonts, Marieke; Appel, Inge M

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause temporary acquired protein S or C deficiency via cross reacting antibodies and consequently inducing a hypercoagulable state. A 6-year-old girl with a history of congenital cardiac disease was seen at an Emergency Department with acute chest pain, dyspnoea and fever, seven days after developing chicken pox. Diagnostic tests revealed massive infarction of the spleen, and a protein S and C deficiency. In addition, blood cultures revealed a Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). The patient recovered fully after treatment with low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. In this patient, septic emboli caused splenic infarction. Thromboembolic complications should be suspected in children with VZV who present with acute symptoms, in particular if bacterial superinfection is found.

  2. Induced prion protein controls immune-activated retroviruses in the mouse spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Lötscher

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrP is crucially involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, but neither its exact role in disease nor its physiological function are known. Here we show for mice, using histological, immunochemical and PCR-based methods, that stimulation of innate resistance was followed by appearance of numerous endogenous retroviruses and ensuing PrP up-regulation in germinal centers of the spleen. Subsequently, the activated retroviruses disappeared in a PrP-dependent manner. Our results reveal the regular involvement of endogenous retroviruses in murine immune responses and provide evidence for an essential function of PrP in the control of the retroviral activity. The interaction between PrP and ubiquitous endogenous retroviruses may allow new interpretations of TSE pathophysiology and explain the evolutionary conservation of PrP.

  3. The absent and vanishing spleen: congenital asplenia and hyposplenism--two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbertsma, F J J; Neeleman, C; Weemaes, C M; van Deuren, M

    2005-03-01

    Two unrelated patients are reported: one with isolated familial asplenia diagnosed postmortem, the other with isolated hyposplenism diagnosed after recurring invasive bacterial infections. Because both children died of fulminant septic shock, the importance of early diagnosis of splenic dysfunction is evident. Clues for an early diagnosis of congenital asplenia are recurrent invasive bacterial infections, Howell-Jolly bodies in the blood smear or a relative with congenital isolated asplenia. Although the guidelines for infection prevention in asplenism--patient education, antibiotic prophylaxis and vaccination--are well defined, controversy remains as to how to differentiate hyposplenism from functional asplenism. Based on the present observations, we define a patient as functionally asplenic--and therefore at risk for life-threatening infections-when Howell-Jolly bodies are present in the blood smear, a very small spleen is found by ultrasound, or splenic blood flow is compromised.

  4. Pharmacological manipulation of early PrPres accumulation in the spleen of scrapie-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringue, V; Lamoury, F; Adjou, K T; Maignien, T; Demoy, M; Couvreur, P; Dormont, D

    2000-01-01

    In most experimental models of scrapie and in some naturally infected species, the lymphoreticular system and the spleen in particular play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous studies demonstrated scrapie infectivity in peripheral organs from the day of infection up to the terminal stage. The discovery of the abnormal prion protein, PrPres, as a specific molecular hallmark of scrapie should permit enhanced study of scrapie pathogenesis and has some pharmacological applications. In this study, PrPres accumulation was followed day by day in peripheral organs. Four different phases were identified: the circulation of scrapie inoculum, a clearance phase, the peripheral accumulation of PrPres and a plateau phase. This kinetics was then pharmacologically modified (i) by applying the macrophage "suicide" technique to unveil the cellular types involved in scrapie pathogenesis and (ii) with anti-scrapie drugs such as polyene antibiotics, polyanions and Congo red to investigate their mode and site of action.

  5. Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

  6. Carboxamide Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) Inhibitors: Leveraging Ground State Interactions To Accelerate Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. Michael; Altman, Michael D.; Cash, Brandon; Haidle, Andrew M.; Kubiak, Rachel L.; Maddess, Matthew L.; Yan, Youwei; Northrup, Alan B. (Merck)

    2016-12-08

    Optimization of a series of highly potent and kinome selective carbon-linked carboxamide spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitors with favorable drug-like properties is described. A pervasive Ames liability in an analogous nitrogen-linked carboxamide series was obviated by replacement with a carbon-linked moiety. Initial efforts lacked on-target potency, likely due to strain induced between the hinge binding amide and solvent front heterocycle. Consideration of ground state and bound state energetics allowed rapid realization of improved solvent front substituents affording subnanomolar Syk potency and high kinome selectivity. These molecules were also devoid of mutagenicity risk as assessed via the Ames test using the TA97a Salmonella strain.

  7. Differential transcriptomic response in the spleen and head kidney following vaccination and infection of Asian seabass with Streptococcus iniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Jiang

    Full Text Available Vaccination is an important strategy in the protection of aquaculture species from major diseases. However, we still do not have a good understanding of the mechanisms underlying vaccine-induced disease resistance. This is further complicated by the presence of several lymphoid organs that play different roles when mounting an immune response. In this study, we attempt to elucidate some of these mechanisms using a microarray-based approach. Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer were vaccinated against Streptococcus iniae and the transcriptomic changes within the spleen and head kidney at one and seven days post-vaccination were profiled. We subsequently challenged the seabass at three weeks post-vaccination with live S. iniae and similarly profiled the transcriptomes of the two organs after the challenge. We found that vaccination induced an early, but transient transcriptomic change in the spleens and a delayed response in the head kidneys, which became more similar to one another compared to un-vaccinated ones. When challenged with the pathogen, the spleen, but not the head kidneys, responded transcriptomically at 25-29 hours post-challenge. A unique set of genes, in particular those involved in the activation of NF-κB signaling, was up-regulated in the vaccinated spleens upon pathogen challenge but not in the un-vaccinated spleens. A semi-quantitative PCR detection of S. iniae using metagenomic DNA extracted from the water containing the seabass also revealed that vaccination resulted in reduction of pathogen shedding. This result indicated that vaccination not only led to a successful immune defense against the infection, but also reduced the chances for horizontal transmission of the pathogen. In conclusion, we have provided a transcriptomic analysis of how the teleost spleen and head kidneys responded to vaccination and subsequent infection. The different responses from the two organs are suggestive of their unique roles in establishing a

  8. Spleen dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a new method for staging liver fibrosis in a piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore spleen hemodynamic alteration in liver fibrosis with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, and to determine how to stage liver fibrosis with spleen DCE-MRI parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen piglets were prospectively used to model liver fibrosis staged by liver biopsy, and underwent spleen DCE-MRI on 0, 5th, 9th, 16th and 21st weekend after modeling this disease. DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak (TTP, positive enhancement integral (PEI, maximum slope of increase (MSI and maximum slope of decrease (MSD of spleen were measured, and statistically analyzed to stage this disease. RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlation tests showed that TTP tended to increase with increasing stages of liver fibrosis (r = 0.647, P0.05, and decreased from stage 2 to 4 (P0.05. Mann-Whitney tests demonstrated that TTP and PEI could classify fibrosis between stage 0 and 1-4, between 0-1 and 2-4, between 0-2 and 3-4, or between 0-3 and 4 (all P<0.01. MSD could discriminate between 0-2 and 3-4 (P = 0.006, or between 0-3 and 4 (P = 0.012. MSI could not differentiate between any two stages. Receiver operating characteristic analysis illustrated that area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of TTP was larger than of PEI for classifying stage ≥1 and ≥2 (AUC = 0.851 and 0.783, respectively. PEI could best classify stage ≥3 and 4 (AUC = 0.903 and 0.96, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spleen DCE-MRI has potential to monitor spleen hemodynamic alteration and classify liver fibrosis stages.

  9. [The value of spleen sub-pedicle two steps severance with LigaSure in laparoscopic splenectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yi; Liu, Ya-hui; Lü, Guo-yue; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Li, Nan; Tan, Yu-quan

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and utility of the methods of spleen sub-pedicle two steps severance with LigaSure Vessel Sealing System combined with ultrasound scalpel to resect peri-splenic ligaments during laparoscopic splenectomy. The methods and the curative effect of 32 patients with laparoscopic splenectomy performed by the way as mentioned above were summarized and analyzed. 4 males, 28 females, median 36 years (range 16 - 64 years). Mean dimensions of spleens were 17 cm (range 11 - 23 cm). Nineteen patients had idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), 6 hereditary spherocytosis (HS) (5 of them were the same family constellation), 3 hemolytic anemia (HA), 2 spleen injury with haematoma infection, 1 Evan syndrome, 1 leukemia. Peri-splenic ligaments were resected by LigaSure combined with ultrasound scalpel, splenic pedicle was resected by spleen sub-pedicle two steps severance with LigaSure when splenic pedicle were sufficiently free. Splenic pedicle was non-excisional occluded by LigaSure at pancreatic cauda, in the first step and was occluded and resected alongside of the spleen in the second step. All of the 32 cases were completely succeed, the average operating time was 70 min (55 - 130 min), the estimated intraoperative blood loss was 200 ml (50 - 600 ml), no complications such as abdominal haemorrhage, visceral injury, pancreatic leakage and infection were observed. All the patients were healed well, the average hospital stay after an operation was 6 days. The average expense of each patients could save 8050 yuan because Endo-GIA was not used. Spleen sub-pedicle two steps severance with LigaSure Vessel Sealing System combined with ultrasound scalpel to resect peri-splenic ligaments during laparoscopic splenectomy, which shorten the operating persistence time with less hemorrhage is a safe, effective and low-cost minimally invasive surgery in selective cases.

  10. Autoradiographic study of gamma-irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitsov, L.G.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Burneva, V.G.; Martinova, J.Sh.; Viklichka, S.

    1978-01-01

    Study on the kinetics of the cells in the mouse spleen during the primary immune response against thymusdependent antigen after sublethal irradiation was carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep erythrocytes one day after their irradiation with 700 r gamma rays. On the 5th day after the immunization, tritium labelled thymidine was injected three times at two hourly intervals. Mice were killed two hours after the third injection for preparation of routine histological samples and autoradiographs. Immunized, but not irradiated mice were utilized as controls. Extensive zones of lymphocyte destruction were observed in the spleen of the irradiated mice - accumulation of picnotic lymphocyte nuclei, surrounded by reticulo-histocyte elements. The number of the labelled cells and the intensity of labelled are lower than that of the germinal centres in control animal. There is no marked cell destruction in the periarteriolar zone nor labelled cells, whereas in the controls there is a considerable number of labelled blast cells. In the red pulp of the irradiated animals islands of erythroblasts were found, whereas in the controls - parallely to the erythroblast islands, there are islands of proliferating lymphocytes and plasmocytes. The decrease of lymphocyte number in irradiated mice is connected with their destruction and with the altered lymphocytopoiesis in the red pulp. It is assumed that the observed preservation of the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths in an expression of a higher radioresistance of the T-cells as compared to the B-cells in the white pulp. This study contributes for elucidation of the irradiation immunosuppressive effect. It points out also that the post-irradiation lymphopaenia is due not only to the cell death but also to the exclusion of part of the T-lymphocytes from the circulation and their selective deposition in the thymus-dependent zones of the peripheral lymphoid organs. (A.B.)

  11. Trends in pediatric spleen management: Do hospital type and ownership still matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoming; Bowman, Stephen M; Smith, Tyler C; Sharar, Sam R

    2015-05-01

    Nonoperative management of traumatic blunt splenic injury is preferred over splenectomy because of improved outcomes and reduced complications. However, variability in treatment is previously reported with respect to hospital profit types and ownership. Our study objectives were to investigate the past decade's trends in pediatric splenic injury management and to determine whether previously reported disparities by hospital type have changed. We analyzed data from the Kid's Inpatient Database from Healthcare Cost and Utility Project for Years 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the likelihood of receiving splenectomy in different hospital profit and ownership types. Patients 18 years and younger admitted with blunt splenic injury (DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification code 865) were included. Treatment was dichotomized into nonoperative management, defined as initial attempt at nonoperative management, and operative management, defined as splenectomy within 1 day of admission. Of 17,044 patient records, 11,893 participants were studied. Not-for-profit hospitals demonstrated a higher rate of nonoperative management than for-profit hospitals in 2000 (83.8% vs. 71.0 %). Both not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals increased the use of nonoperative management, with a narrower disparity observed by 2009 (87.5% vs. 84.6%). The use of splenectomy was reduced significantly between 2000 and 2003 (odds ratio, 0.66; weighted 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.81). The rate of nonoperative management in children's hospitals remained very high across the study period (98.6% in 2009) and continued to be the benchmark for pediatric spleen injury management. Improvement was observed in nonoperative management rates for pediatric spleen injuries in both not-for-profit and for-profit hospitals. However, general hospitals still fail to reach the target of 90% nonoperative management. Further

  12. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic neoplasms: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Jin, Wei-Wei; Huang, Chao-Jie; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Ren-Chao; Harsha, Ajoodhea; Mou, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, technical procedures, and outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (LSPDP) for benign and malignant pancreatic neoplasms. METHODS: The clinical data of 38 patients who underwent LSPDP in the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital between January 2003 and August 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Surgical techniques for LSPDP included preservation of the splenic artery and vein (Kimura’s technique) and ligation of the splenic pedicle with preservation of the short gastric vessels (Warshaw’s technique). RESULTS: There were no conversions to open surgery in the 38 patients. Splenic vessels were conserved during spleen-preserving pancreatectomy, except in two patients who underwent resection of the splenic vessels and preservation only of the short gastric vessels. The mean operation time was 123.2 ± 52.4 min, the mean intraoperative blood loss was 78.2 ± 39.5 mL, and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.6 ± 2.9 d. The overall rate of postoperative complications was 18.4% (7/38), and the rate of clinical pancreatic fistula was 13.2% (5/38). All postoperative complications were treated conservatively. The postoperative pathological diagnoses were 22 cases of benign pancreatic disease and 16 cases of borderline or low-grade malignant lesions. During a median follow-up of 38 mo (range: 5-133 mo), no recurrence was observed. CONCLUSION: LSPDP is a safe, feasible and effective procedure for the treatment of benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the distal pancreas. PMID:25320534

  13. Investigation of the role of calcium in the supersensitivity produced by cocaine in cat spleen strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J; Tillman, J

    1979-01-01

    1. Cocaine (2 x 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M) produced 2 and 7 fold shifts to the left of the dose-response curve to (-)-noradrenaline recorded isotonically in isolated splenic capsular strips of the cat. 2. The same concentrations of cocaine also produced increases in the maximum response of the tissue to 117% and 126.7% of control. 3. Desmethylimipramine (DMI, 10(-7) to 10(-6) M) produced no significant potentiation of the response of cat spleen strips to (-)-noradrenaline. At 10(-5) M DMI decreased the maximum response. 4. Cocaine (10(-5) M) produced a 3.3 fold shift to the left of the dose-response curve whereas DMI (10(-6) M) had no effect on the dose-response curve to oxymetazoline in cat splenic capsular strips. 5. Cocaine (10(-5) M) in the presence of phentolamine (10(-6) M) produced a shift to the left and an increase in the maximum response to K+, an agonist which is believed to produce muscle contraction by increasing the membrane calcium flux. 6. Cocaine (10(-5 M) had no effect on the dose-response curve to angiotensin which is believed to contract vascular muscle by releasing calcium from intracellular storage sites. 7. The potentiating effect of cocaine (10(-5) M) on responses of spleen strips to (-)-noradrenaline was blocked by the calcium flux inhibitor SKF 525A (2.65 x 10(-5) M). 8. It is concluded that the results are compatible with the view that cocaine enhances the influx of calcium across the cell membrane during responses to agonists that utilize the extracellular pool of calcium and that this effect is responsible for a large part of the potentiation of the response. PMID:435692

  14. Pathologic rupture of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Cunha De Santis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic rupture has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic rupture. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6 mg/dL. Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory shock and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic rupture. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic rupture. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic rupture, as it is essentially atraumatic.

  15. Improving Spleen Volume Estimation Via Computer-assisted Segmentation on Clinically Acquired CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Gertz, Adam L; Burke, Ryan P; Bansal, Neil; Kang, Hakmook; Landman, Bennett A; Abramson, Richard G

    2016-10-01

    Multi-atlas fusion is a promising approach for computer-assisted segmentation of anatomic structures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and time efficiency of multi-atlas segmentation for estimating spleen volumes on clinically acquired computed tomography (CT) scans. Under an institutional review board approval, we obtained 294 de-identified (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant) abdominal CT scans on 78 subjects from a recent clinical trial. We compared five pipelines for obtaining splenic volumes: Pipeline 1 - manual segmentation of all scans, Pipeline 2 - automated segmentation of all scans, Pipeline 3 - automated segmentation of all scans with manual segmentation for outliers on a rudimentary visual quality check, and Pipelines 4 and 5 - volumes derived from a unidimensional measurement of craniocaudal spleen length and three-dimensional splenic index measurements, respectively. Using Pipeline 1 results as ground truth, the accuracies of Pipelines 2-5 (Dice similarity coefficient, Pearson correlation, R-squared, and percent and absolute deviation of volume from ground truth) were compared for point estimates of splenic volume and for change in splenic volume over time. Time cost was also compared for Pipelines 1-5. Pipeline 3 was dominant in terms of both accuracy and time cost. With a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99, average absolute volume deviation of 23.7 cm(3), and time cost of 1 minute per scan, Pipeline 3 yielded the best results. The second-best approach was Pipeline 5, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98, absolute deviation of 46.92 cm(3), and time cost of 1 minute 30 seconds per scan. Manual segmentation (Pipeline 1) required 11 minutes per scan. A computer-automated segmentation approach with manual correction of outliers generated accurate splenic volumes with reasonable time efficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  17. Howell-Jolly bodies and liver-spleen scanning for assessment of splenic filtrative function yields discordant results in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nordeval Cavalcante; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camões; Neves, Moises Bonifácio; Rioja, Suzimar Silveira; de Lucena, Stella Beatriz Gonçalves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Given discrepancies between methods for diagnosing hyposplenism, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the spleen size on the correlation between the methods, and to propose a model for improving the interpretation. Patients with renal allografts were included, in whom the spleen was assessed using Doppler ultrasound, scintiscan, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs) in peripheral smears. In 35 subjects, scintiscan and HJBs were normal (Group 0); 20 had an abnormal result in both methods (Group 1); 34 had discordant results with HJBs present (Group 2); and 14 had discordant results with decreased spleen uptake (Group 3). There was no association between HJBs and scintiscan. The patients of Groups 1 and 2 had smaller spleens. The patients with smaller spleen had more hematological evidence of hyposplenism and exhibit smaller discrepancies between the methods than patients with larger spleen. The spleen can tip the balance from a normal to impaired function provided that the spleen size is below the critical mass required to maintain splenic function. A mild impairment of phagocytic function and slight dyserythropoiesis along with a small spleen would result in decreased take up of radiocolloid or the appearance of HJBs in blood smears. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intergenerational Links in Victimization: Prosocial Friends as a Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors buffered the associations between family-of-origin aggression and later victimization. Adolescent participants ( N =125) and their parents reported on different types of family aggression in early adolescence. Approximately 5 years later, adolescents reported on their victimization experiences with dating partners and friends, and their friends' prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Only father-to-child aggression was significantly associated with dating and friend victimization, with stronger risk for females' dating victimization. Moreover, having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors had both a direct inverse relationship with dating partner victimization. This also buffered the risk for dating victimization associated with father-daughter aggression. Findings suggest that greater attention be paid to the father-daughter relationship and to the importance of having friends who engage in prosocial behaviors in the prevention of adolescents' victimization.

  19. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waesterlund, I.; Hassan, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  20. Autophagy in endometriosis: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lei; Li, Jun; Wei, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent disease and characterized by the implantation of endometrial glands and stroma deep and haphazardly into the outside the uterine cavity. It affects an estimated 10% of the female population of reproductive age and results in obvious reduction in health-related quality of life. Unfortunately, there is no a consistent theory for the etiology of endometriosis. Furthermore, the endometriosis is hard to diagnose in early stage and the treatment methods are limited. Importantly, emerging evidence has investigated that there is a close relationship between endometriosis and autophagy. However, autophagy is a friend or foe in endometriosis is puzzling, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy in endometriosis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we provide an integrated view on the acquired findings of the connections between endometriosis and autophagy. We also discuss which may contribute to the abnormal level of autophagy in endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of receiving a rape disclosure: college friends' stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that college women are at greater risk for rape and sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. College women, away from home and family, may turn to friends for support. Friends may experience emotional reactions that affect their own functioning and may not feel they have anywhere to turn. In this study, we interviewed male and female college students who had received a rape disclosure from a friend. Their unique stories provide insight into the secondary effects of rape disclosure on friends. Implications of these findings for college campuses are discussed.

  3. Environmental Friendly Coatings & Corrosion Prevention for Flight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives for this project are to identify, test, and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion...

  4. New mechanisms of the TCM spleen-based treatment of immune thrombocytopenia purpura from the perspective of blood neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The JYS prescription may regulate the expression levels of blood neurotransmitters via the brain-gut axis in patients with “spleen deficiency” ITP and thus activate hemostatic mechanisms to promote hemostasis. β-EP and VIP are key neurotransmitters of the JYS-induced functional regulation.

  5. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Assessment of spleen size using gamma camera scintigraphy in newly diagnosed patients with essential thrombocythaemia and polycythaemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneskog, J.; Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section, Goeteborg (Sweden); Fjaeelling, M. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Section of Nuclear Med., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    By using gamma camera imaging the spleen size was assessed in 18 consecutive patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and in 18 consecutive patients with polycythaemia vera (PV). All ET and PV patients were newly diagnosed and had not received any myelosuppressive therapy prior to study. The spleen areas in both posterior and left lateral projections were determined. Eighteen consecutive patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) served as a control group since by definition they do not present with splenic enlargement; in these latter subjects the mean posterior and left lateral splenic areas were almost identical (48 {+-} 15 and 47 {+-} 17 cm{sup 2}, respectively). In comparison with this control group patients with ET an dPV had significantly larger spleens. In both ET and in PV patients the left lateral spleen scan area exceeded the posterior one. Patients with PV had larger splenic areas in both projections than did patients with ET, but the differences were not statistically significant. Compared to the ITP patients it was found that at least 50% of the ET patients and at least 61% of the PV patients at diagnosis presented with splenomegaly. (au) 35 refs.

  7. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  8. Response of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF ) in blood and spleen mice that vaccinated with P.berghei radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlina; Tur R; Teja K

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is a glycoprotein derived from helper T lymphocytes that play an important role in the body's response against malaria infection. However, TNF-α has double play that is on appropriate levels will provide protection and healing, while at excessive levels which may be a response to hyperparasitemia. Thus investigated the expression of TNF alpha secreted blood lymphocytes and spleen cells the mice that's infected with 1 x 10 7 P.berghei infectious or inactivated by radiation. Levels of TNF alpha serum and spleen cell culture medium was monitored on days 2, 7, 14 post infection. Monitoring of parasite growth every two days for 60 days. Determination of TNF alpha levels were measure using ELISA. The results showed parasitaemia mice infected with 175 Gy irradiated parasites have pre patent period of 16 days longer than the control (non-irradiated parasites) with low parasitaemia. TNF alpha concentration that secreted spleen cells of mice vaccinated higher than control mice. Concentration of TNF alpha that secreted blood lymphocyte of mice vaccinated lower than control mice. It was concluded that the secretion of TNF alpha by blood lymphocytes caused more pathogenic factors of the parasite, while the secretion of TNF alpha in spleen due to an immune response against the parasite. (author)

  9. Radiation-related lymphopenia is associated with spleen irradiation dose during radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Qianqian; Deng, Weiye; Lu, Jie; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Renben; Li, Xia; Yue, Jinbo

    2017-05-30

    The decrease in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by radiation lessens the antitumour effect of the immune response, which might cause immunosuppression. We aimed to investigate the correlation between the decrease in peripheral blood lymphocytes during radiotherapy (RT) and the spleen irradiation dose in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The subjects were 59 patients with HCC who had received RT from 2005 to 2014. The Min ALC (minimum value of absolute counts for peripheral blood lymphocytes) was collected from the routine workup for each patient prior to RT and weekly during RT. Spleen dose-volume variables, including the percentage of the organ volume receiving ≥ n Gy (V n ) and the mean spleen dose (MSD), were calculated using Eclipse treatment planning. Potential associations between dosimetric variables and the Min ALC were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Peripheral lymphocytes decreased during RT (P irradiation doses were significantly correlated with lower Min ALC during RT for HCC. V 5 should be limited in clinical practice. Maximum sparing for spleen irradiation during RT is recommended to preserve peripheral blood lymphocytes, which may decrease immunosuppression.

  10. A novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor blocks c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated gene expression in synoviocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cha, Hoon-Suk; Boyle, David L.; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Schoot, Reineke; Tak, Paul P.; Pine, Polly; Firestein, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a key regulator of cell signaling induced by cytokines or Fc receptor engagement. However, the role of Syk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not known yet. We investigated the pathways activated by Syk in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-stimulated fibroblast-like

  11. Cadmium induces BNIP3-dependent autophagy in chicken spleen by modulating miR-33-AMPK axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Yang, Jie; Jin, Xi; Hamid, Sattar; Xu, Shiwen

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental pollutant, has toxic effects on organs including spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms of Cd induced spleen toxicity and the roles of micro-RNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To investigate this, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 10 mg/kg) was administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. Electron microscopy, qPCR and Western blot were performed. Results showed that Cd exposure suppressed miR-33-5q which increased the levels of AMPK. Subsequently, significant decrease in AKT/mTOR signaling and HSP70 were observed. Concurrently, levels of NF-κB, p-JNK/JNK increased significantly. Moreover, the expression of BNIP3 and other autophagy markers (LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin-1) increased significantly. Additionally, the levels of ions (Ca, Cr, Se, Sr, Sn, Ba) and (Na, Mg, V, Fe, Mo, Cu, Zn, Cd) significantly decreased and increased, respectively. Taken together, we conclude that Cd induced the deregulation of miR-33-AMPK axis led to BNIP3-dependent autophagy in chicken spleen through AKT/mTOR and HSP70-NF-κB/JNK signal pathways. In-addition Cd could affect ion homeostasis in chicken spleen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with conservation of the splenic artery and vein: techniques and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Wataru; Yano, Mitsuhiro; Sugawara, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Shinji; Sato, Tamie; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Hiroto; Tezuka, Koji; Takeshita, Akiko; Hirai, Ichiro

    2010-11-01

    Preservation of the spleen in distal pancreatectomy has recently attracted considerable attention. Since our first trial and success with spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with conservation of the splenic artery and vein for tumors of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis, this procedure (Kimura's procedure) has been performed very frequently. The techniques for spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SpDP) with conservation of the splenic artery and vein are clarified. The splenic vein is identified behind the pancreas and within the thin connective tissue membrane (fusion fascia of Toldt). The connective tissue membrane is cut longitudinally above the splenic vein. It is important to remove the splenic vein from the pancreas by working from the body of the pancreas toward the spleen (median approach), because it is very difficult to remove it in the other direction. The pancreas is removed from the splenic artery by proceeding from the spleen toward the head of the pancreas. Preservation of the spleen offers various advantages. The maximum platelet levels in blood serum are significantly lower in postoperative patients with splenic preservation than in those with splenectomy. The platelet count was maximal on postoperative day 10 in the 16 patients with SpDP and the count was maximal on postoperative day 13 in the 16 patients with distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (DPS), and there was a smaller increase in the patients with SpDP than in the patients with DPS. Postoperative bleeding from an ablated splenic artery and vein in SpDP has not been encountered. Either DPS or spleen preservation without preservation of the splenic artery and vein may reduce the blood supply to the residual proximal stomach after distal gastrectomy, which is different from the findings in the Kimura procedure. In SpDP, a very slight elevation of the platelet count in serum may help to prevent infarction of the lungs and brain compared to DPS. Another advantage of Sp

  13. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Ee Uli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53–63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the

  14. Ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, and urinary tract of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ann; Kirberger, Robert M; Spotswood, Tim; Wagner, Wencke M; Grimbeek, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Diseases of the abdomen of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) include those affecting the liver, spleen, and urinary tract. The most common diseases of captive-bred cheetah are gastritis, gastric ulceration, glomerulosclerosis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and are the most frequent causes of mortality in these animals. The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic anatomy of the normal liver, spleen, kidney, and urinary bladder of the anesthetized captive-bred cheetah. Twenty-one cheetahs were examined. Eight of the 21 animals had subclinical evidence of either gastritis or chronic renal disease. The ultrasonographic appearances of the liver, gall bladder, common bile duct, and spleen were evaluated and various measurements made. Statistical analyses of the measurements were performed on all the healthy and subclinically ill animals taking sex, age, mass, and anesthetic protocol into account. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the healthy and subclinically ill animals (P > 0.25) and data were combined for statistical analyses. The mean mass was 41.1kg ( +/- 8.8) and the mean age was 5.0 years (+/- 2.2). The mean thickness of the liver medial to the gall bladder was 67.0 mm (+/- 14.8) and the liver was within the left costal arch in 75% of animals, extended caudal to the right costal arch in 50% of animals for an average of 30 mm, and extended caudal to the sternum in 63% of animals for an average of 32.5 mm. The maximum mean hepatic vein diameter at the entrance to the caudal vena cava was 8.6 +/- 2.8 mm; the mean diameters of the portal vein at the hilus and that of the caudal vena cava as it entered the liver were 7.5 +/- 1.6 and 9.9 +/- 4.1 mm, respectively. The mean diameter of the caudal vena cava was significantly affected by the type of anesthetic used (P < 0.10). The mass of the animals was significant in explaining the variance in maximum portal vein diameters (P < 0.10). The mean maximum velocity of the

  15. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2012-12-01

    Organomegaly can be a sign of disease and pathologic abnormality, although standard tables defining organomegaly have yet to be established and universally accepted. This study was designed to address the issue and to determine a normal weight for the major organs in adult human males. A prospective study of healthy men aged 18 to 35 years who died of sudden, traumatic deaths was undertaken. Cases were excluded if there was a history of medical illness including illicit drug use, if prolonged medical treatment was performed, if there was a prolonged period between the time of injury and death, if body length and weight could not be accurately assessed, or if any illness or intoxication was identified after gross and microscopic analysis including evidence of systemic disease. Individual organs were excluded if there was significant injury to the organ, which could have affected the weight. A total of 232 cases met criteria for inclusion in the study during the approximately 6-year period of data collection from 2005 to 2011. The decedents had a mean age of 23.9 years and ranged in length from 146 to 193 cm, with a mean length of 173 cm. The weight ranged from 48.5 to 153 kg, with a mean weight of 76.4 kg. Most decedents (87%) died of either ballistic or blunt force (including craniocerebral) injuries. The mean weight of the brain was 1407 g (range, 1070-1767 g), that of the liver was 1561 g (range, 838-2584 g), that of the spleen was 139 g (range, 43-344 g), that of the right lung was 445 g (range, 185-967 g), that of the left lung was 395 g (range, 186-885 g), that of the right kidney was 129 g (range, 79-223 g), and that of the left kidney was 137 g (range, 74-235 g). Regression analysis was performed and showed that there were insufficient associations between organ weight and body length, body weight, and body mass index to allow for predictability. The authors, therefore, propose establishing a reference range for organ weights in men, much like those in use

  16. Automated detection and volumetric segmentation of the spleen in CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, M.; Dankerl, P.; Janka, R.; Uder, M.; Cavallaro, A.; Kramer, M.; Seifert, S.; Tsymbal, A.; Costa, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    To introduce automated detection and volumetric segmentation of the spleen in spiral CT scans with the THESEUS-MEDICO software. The consistency between automated volumetry (aV), estimated volume determination (eV) and manual volume segmentation (mV) was evaluated. Retrospective evaluation of the CAD system based on methods like ''marginal space learning'' and ''boosting algorithms''. 3 consecutive spiral CT scans (thoraco-abdominal; portal-venous contrast agent phase; 1 or 5 mm slice thickness) of 15 consecutive lymphoma patients were included. The eV: 30 cm 3 + 0.58 (width x length x thickness of the spleen) and the mV as the reference standard were determined by an experienced radiologist. The aV could be performed in all CT scans within 15.2 (± 2.4) seconds. The average splenic volume measured by aV was 268.21 ± 114.67 cm 3 compared to 281.58 ± 130.21 cm 3 in mV and 268.93 ± 104.60 cm 3 in eV. The correlation coefficient was 0.99 (coefficient of determination (R 2 ) = 0.98) for aV and mV, 0.91 (R 2 = 0.83) for mV and eV and 0.91 (R 2 = 0.82) for aV and eV. There was an almost perfect correlation of the changes in splenic volume measured with the new aV and mV (0.92; R 2 = 0.84), mV and eV (0.95; R 2 = 0.91) and aV and eV (0.83; R 2 = 0.69) between two time points. The automated detection and volumetric segmentation software rapidly provides an accurate measurement of the splenic volume in CT scans. Knowledge about splenic volume and its change between two examinations provides valuable clinical information without effort for the radiologist. (orig.)

  17. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  18. Immunotoxicity assessment for the novel Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor R406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanhong; Herlaar, Ellen; Masuda, Esteban S.; Burleson, Gary R.; Nelson, Andrew J.; Grossbard, Elliott B.; Clemens, George R.

    2007-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a novel pharmaceutical target for treatment of allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. Previous studies have indicated that Syk signaling plays critical roles in regulating the lymphohematopoietic system. These observations prompted us to investigate whether inhibition of Syk would promote immunotoxicity. In a series of studies, rats were treated orally with R406, at dose levels up to and including 100 mg/kg/day (or its prodrug R788 at dose levels up to and including 100 mg/kg/day, reduced to 50 mg/kg/day for females as MTD was exceeded), a potent Syk inhibitor, twice daily for 28 days. In addition to standard toxicological assessments, immunophenotyping by flow cytometric analysis, and a study of humoral immune response measuring anti-KLH IgM and IgG levels, were undertaken. Other immunotoxicity studies included three host resistance models in female Balb/c mice to further ascertain effects of R406 on innate and acquired immunity. Following R406 treatment, expected immunomodulating effects (e.g., decreased thymic and spleen weight, hypocellularity of bone marrow, and reduced lymphocyte counts, including T and B cells) were observed in the rat studies. These changes essentially resolved during a 14-day treatment-free recovery period. A KLH challenge in rats demonstrated no adverse effects on IgG or IgM response. R788/406, administered orally at dose levels up to and including 80 mg/kg/day for 28 days, did not affect bacterial or viral clearance in the Listeria, Streptococcal, or Influenza host resistance mouse models, respectively. This correlated with previous in vitro macrophage and neutrophil function assays (assessing migration, phagocytosis, oxidative burst and microbicidal activity), which revealed that R406 did not adversely affect macrophage or neutrophil function in innate immune responses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that R406 has minimal functional immunotoxicity notwithstanding its lymphocytopenic

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on expressions of regulatory T cells and related molecules in mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fanxu; He Shumei; Dong Juancong; Guo Haizhuo; Jin Shunzi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes in expressions of spleen regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the related factor forkhead box protein-3 (Foxp3) after irradiation with different doses of X-ray in mice at different times, and to elaborate the effects of X-rays on regulatory T cells and Foxp3. Methods: 112 male ICR mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and irradiated by X-rays at the doses of 0.075 and 2 Gy, respectively. The mice were killed at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h post-irradiation and the spleens removed. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Treg and protein expression of (Foxp3), and RT-PCR was used to exmiamine the mRNA expression of Fox3. Results: Compared with those before irradiation, the CD4 + CD25 + Treg positive rates began to increase and peaked at 8 h post-irradiation with 0.075 Gy at 8, 16, 24, 72 h (t=8.73, 10.55, 4.21, 4.65, P<0.05) and 2 Gy at 8, 16, 48, 72 h (t=4.65, 4.28, 3.71, 2.88, P<0.05), and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels. The mRNA protein levels of Fox3 did not change significantly after exposure to the dose of 0.075 Gy, but began to significantly increase at 8 h after exposure to the dose of 2 Gy. However, the Fox3 protein level began to increase 4 h post-irradiation, peaked at 16 h, and then slightly decreased, but still remained at high levels (t=2.59, 3.37, 3.70, 3.20, P<0.05). Conclusions: The changes in expressions of Tregs and Foxp3 after high- and low-dose X-ray irradiation may be used to explain the differences in immune effects induced ionizing radiation at different doses. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of Spleen Glucose Metabolism Using18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Febrile Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Hwang, Sang Hyun; Jung, Seung Min; Lee, Sang-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Yun, Mijin; Song, Jason Jungsik

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of 18 F-FDG uptake by the spleen in patients with autoimmune disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Severance Hospital's electronic medical records of patients hospitalized for the evaluation of fever who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT. We found 91 patients with autoimmune diseases and 101 patients with localized infection. 18 F-FDG uptake was assessed by measuring SUV in the spleen and liver. The spleen-to-liver ratio of the SUV mean (SLR mean ) was calculated. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected and evaluated for association with SLR mean In-hospital mortality was defined as all-cause mortality during hospital admission for fever. Results: SLR mean was significantly higher in autoimmune disease than in localized infectious disease (1.28 ± 0.43 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P autoimmune disease, SLR mean was correlated with monocytes, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, and ferritin. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves revealed that in comparison with laboratory parameters, SLR mean had the highest performance in differentiating autoimmune from localized infectious disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high SLR mean and low platelets were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in febrile autoimmune disease. Conclusion: These findings suggest that spleen glucose metabolism is increased in febrile autoimmune disease. Spleen 18 F-FDG uptake may provide information useful in differentiating febrile autoimmune disease from localized infectious disease and predicting clinical outcomes in febrile autoimmune disease. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  1. Expression of cytokine genes in head kidney and spleen cells of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with Nocardia seriolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanekhy, M; Matsuda, S; Itano, T; Kawakami, H; Kono, T; Sakai, M

    2010-04-15

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is an important disease affecting marine fish for which neither control nor preventive measures are available. In this study, we investigated cytokine gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with N. seriolae to understand the innate immune response. Japanese flounder were challenged with different concentrations of N. seriolae suspensions (0, 1, and 10 mg/L) by immersion for 10min. Mortality was 75% and 95% in fish infected by 1 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The expression of cytokine genes (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, CC-chemokine) in head kidney and spleen cells to N. seriolae challenge was investigated 2, 24 h, 3 days, and 10 days post-challenge. TNF-alpha expression was significantly increased in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/L group and in HK after 2 h in 10 mg/L group, but after 24 h and 3 days in 10 mg/L group and after 3 days in 1 mg/L group, it was significantly decreased. IL-1beta expression was significantly up-regulated in spleen after 24 h in 1 mg/l group while in HK only after 2 h in 10 mg/L group before suddenly down-regulated significantly 24 h in 10 mg/L group. The expression of CC-chemokine gene in both spleen and HK was significantly up-regulated in 10 mg/L group 2 h post-challenge and down-regulated in HK after 24 h and after 10 days in 1 mg/L group in spleen, compared to the control group. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Experimental study on the treatment of serious soft tissue injuries with strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-wen; Zhu, Yong-zhan; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wu, Zheng-jie; He, Li-lei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of Chinese drugs based on strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule on neoformative capillaries and fibroblast during the soft tissue repair after serious trauma in rats, so as to explore the biological basis of the TCM theory "the spleen dominate extremities and muscles" applied to the treatment of soft tissue injuries. The model rats were established by bleeding from femoral artery and lancing method, and the rats were randomly divided into the control group, strengthening the spleen group and activating blood and resolving stasis group. The samples were got from the tissue of the wounded area at the 5th, 10th and 15th days after oral administration of the traditional Chinese medicine. After fixation and section, the tissues were stained by CD31 and PCNA staining. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the tissue of the wounded area were observed through multi-purpose microscope (ZEISS Axioskop2). Quantitative analysis was carried out on Image-ProPlus image analyzer. The amount of the capillaries and fibroblasts in the wounded tissue in the strengthening the spleen group were larger than that in the control group at the 5th, 10th and 15th day. And the proliferation speed of capillaries and fibroblasts was faster than those in the control group or the activating blood and resolving stasis group. The Chinese drugs according to strengthening the spleen and replenishing qi treatment rule were effective to promote growth of the granulation tissue and facilitate healing of the wounded area. And it has better effect than the treatment of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis.

  3. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  4. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  5. College Men's Involvement in Friends with Benefits Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Spencer B.; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Friends with benefits relationships (FWBRs) occur when two friends who are not in a committed romantic relationship engage in ongoing sexual activity (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) over a period of time. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic and psychosocial characteristics of college men involved in FWBRs (N = 407) using s…

  6. Women-friendly Support Services and Work Performance: The Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study titled 'Women-friendly Support Services (WFFS) and Work Performance: The role of Marital Status', investigated the role of marital status in the work performance of female employees who are beneficiaries of Women friendly Support Services in work organizations. The study's participants consisted of a total of ...

  7. "Friending" Professors, Parents and Bosses: A Facebook Connection Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katherine A.; Peluchette, Joy V.

    2011-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Facebook has led some educators to ponder what role social networking might have in education. The authors examined student reactions to friend requests from people outside their regular network of friends including professors, parents, and employers. We found students have the most positive reactions to friend…

  8. A Little Help from My Friends: Creating Socially Supportive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Students get by with a little help from their friends; students try with a little help from their friends. When their social needs are met, students tend to be better adjusted and perform more effectively in school. A strong social network serves to protect students and mitigates the effects of a variety of risk factors. Due to the rich empirical…

  9. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial effects of eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and characterize eco-friendly gold nanorods (Au-NRs) and to assess their effects against two bacterial strains. Methods: Synthesis of eco-friendly gold nanorods was done from an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by mixing Olea europaea fruit and Acacia ...

  10. How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those who self-injure are able to stop within a year of beginning treatment. Help your friend find resources. Try to help your friend find someone to talk to and a place to get treatment. There are also some good books and online support groups for teens who self- ...

  11. Patients as friends -awkward or advantageous? | Moosa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural General Practitioners often find themselves in a small community having patients as friends. This can lead to difficulty in the relationship. This is a reflection on family friends where I missed the youngest child's diagnosis of myoclonic epilepsy in the social context and which led to a crisis in the relationship. This led me ...

  12. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  13. The Breastfeeding-Friendly Pediatric Office Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Joan Younger; Hatcher, Amy J

    2017-05-01

    The landscape of breastfeeding has changed over the past several decades as more women initiate breastfeeding in the postpartum period and more hospitals are designated as Baby-Friendly Hospitals by following the evidence-based Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The number of births in such facilities has increased more than sixfold over the past decade. With more women breastfeeding and stays in the maternity facilities lasting only a few days, the vast majority of continued breastfeeding support occurs in the community. Pediatric care providers evaluate breastfeeding infants and their mothers in the office setting frequently during the first year of life. The office setting should be conducive to providing ongoing breastfeeding support. Likewise, the office practice should avoid creating barriers for breastfeeding mothers and families or unduly promoting infant formula. This clinical report aims to review practices shown to support breastfeeding that can be implemented in the outpatient setting, with the ultimate goal of increasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the continuation of any breastfeeding. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  15. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  16. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  17. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

  18. Study of the kinetics and morphology of immune reaction spleen cells by immunocytoadherence method. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    1976-01-01

    The course of immunocytoadherence was followed in the mouse spleen during primary immune response to intraperitoneal administration of sheep erythrocytes at 24 hours, 72 hours and 6 days following whole-body irradiation with a dose of 450 R after antigen administration. The number of RFC becomes reduced immediately after irradiation. The reduction thereof always correlates with a relative increase of macrophages. Small and medium-sized lymphocytes rapidly disappear from the population of rosette-forming cells. If the irradiation had been carried out before the radiation-uninfluenced reaction reached its maximum, the large lymphocytes relatively increase in number. In other cases their immunocytoadherent activity also shows a steadily decreasing tendency. During the primary reaction, irradiation always increases the total relative plasma cell count as related to the other RFC. In such cases the proportion of mature forms is larger than of blastic forms. The values observed at the end of the studied postirradiation period in the course of the primary reaction are always characterized by a higher proportion of the plasma cell line after about 20 to 25 days. (author)

  19. Spleen evaluation using contrast enhanced ultrasonography and Doppler in dogs with subclinical ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Maronezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the splenic parenchyma of dogs with subclinical ehrlichiosis using Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and provide reference values for this organ in affected animals. Seventeen dogs naturally infected with E. canis were selected for this study. Splenic parenchyma echotexture and echogenicity, size and borders were determined by ultrasound scan. The vascular indices of the splenic artery were determined by Doppler. SonoVue, at 0.1mL per animal, was used in microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to determine wash in, wash out and peak enhancement time in the splenic tissue. B-mode ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly with rounded borders, heterogeneous echotexture and mixed echogenicity. The vascular indices of the splenic artery were: systolic velocity of 22.59±8.07cm/s, diastolic velocity of 5.25±4.66cm/s and resistance index of 0.71±0.14; values not yet reported in Veterinary Medicine. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography recorded wash in time of 5.31±0.7s, peak enhancement time of 18.56±2.90s and wash out time of 94.56±35.21s. The combination of conventional ultrasonography of the spleen and hemodynamic evaluation by Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is important for the diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis and could help monitor the clinical evolution of subclinical cases.

  20. Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy with or without Preservation of the Spleen for Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Hori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare tumor of the pancreas. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (DP is a feasible and safe procedure, and successful spleen preservation rates are higher using a laparoscopic approach. We hypothesized that certain patients with SPN would be good candidates for laparoscopic surgery; however, few surgeons have reported laparoscopic DP for SPN. We discuss the preoperative assessment and surgical simulation for two SPN cases. A simulation was designed because we consider that a thorough preoperative understanding of the procedure based on three-dimensional image analysis is important for successful laparoscopic DP. We also discuss the details of the actual laparoscopic DP with or without splenic preservation that we performed for our two SPN cases. It is critical to use appropriate instruments at appropriate points in the procedure; surgical instruments are numerous and varied, and surgeons should maximize the use of each instrument. Finally, we discuss the key techniques and surgical pitfalls in laparoscopic DP with or without splenic preservation. We conclude that experience alone is inadequate for successful laparoscopic surgery.

  1. Lipid composition of microdomains is altered in neuronopathic Gaucher disease sheep brain and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Leanne K; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa K; Hopwood, John J; Karageorgos, Litsa

    2017-07-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls. We observed significant increases in the concentrations of glucosylceramide, hexosylsphingosine, BMP and gangliosides and decreases in the percentage of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine leading to an altered DRM composition. Altered sphingolipid/cholesterol homeostasis would dramatically disrupt DRM architecture making them less ordered and more fluid. In addition, significant changes in the length and degree of lipid saturation within the DRM microdomains in the Gaucher brain were also observed. As these DRM microdomains are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane homeostasis may impair normal cell function. This disruption of membrane raft microdomains and imbalance within the environment of cellular membranes of neuronal cells may be a key factor in initiating a cascade process leading to neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The postnatal growth of ICRP target organs in reference humans: Spleen and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to improve radiation dose estimates to infants and children are hampered because of the lack of mathematical models that describe the age variation in anatomical and physiological parameters. Specifically, for one anatomical parameter, organ size, there are no growth models available to the health physics community. In this paper, an empirical mathematical model is introduced for estimating age-specific masses of two ICRP target organs: the spleen and liver. That model, the Power Logistic Additive (PLA) growth model, is fitted to ICRP 23 organ growth data to determine five growth parameters. This model assumes that organs grow under the influence of two main processes: a primary (power function) and a sexual maturation (logistic function) process, which are additive from birth to adulthood. The results show that the model describes the ICRP growth data quite well. Growth parameters and tables listing the predicted masses and mass velocities as a function of age for each organ are provided for application in the ICRP modeling system

  3. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: Cytological findings and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Anbardar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a unique lesion of the spleen that arises from the cells lining the venous sinuses of the splenic red pulp and shows the features of combined endothelial and histiocytic differentiation. Several cases of LCA have been reported in the literature; however, the cytological findings have been described for only a few cases. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with anemia, epigastric abdominal pain, and splenomegaly. The splenic lesions showed anastomosing vascular channels with cyst-like spaces filled by many sloughed endothelial cells, which were positive for CD68 and CD31 and negative for CD34. Scraping cytology revealed isolated and clusters of three-dimensional bland looking, epithelioid foamy tumoral cells with low nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, which mostly contained intracytoplasmic hemosiderin pigment. Although the fine needle aspiration cytology of splenic lesions is uncommon and LCA is a rare splenic lesion, it must be noted in the differential diagnosis of any splenic vascular neoplasm.

  4. Improved transfection of spleen-derived antigen-presenting cells in culture using TATp-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Juan Sebastián; Quattrocchi, Valeria; Langellotti, Cecilia; Di Giacomo, Sebastián; Gnazzo, Victoria; Olivera, Valeria; Calamante, Gabriela; Zamorano, Patricia I; Levchenko, Tatyana S; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-02-20

    Antigen presenting cells (APC) are among the most important cells of the immune system since they link the innate and the adaptative immune responses, directing the type of immune response to be elicited. To modulate the immune response in immune preventing or treating therapies, gene delivery into immunocompetent cells could be used. However, APC are very resistant to transfection. To increase the efficiency of APC transfection, we have used liposome-based lipoplexes additionally modified with cell-penetrating TAT peptide (TATp) for better intracellular delivery of a model plasmid encoding for the enhanced-green fluorescent protein (pEGFP). pEGFP-bearing lipoplexes made of a mixture of PC:Chol:DOTAP (60:30:10 molar ratio) with the addition of 2% mol of polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate (plain-L) or TATp-PEG-PE (TATp-L) were shown to effectively protect the incorporated DNA from degradation. Uptake assays of rhodamine-labeled lipoplexes and transfections with the EGFP reporter gene were performed with APC derived from the mouse spleen. TATp-L-based lipoplexes allowed for significantly enhanced both, the uptake and transfection in APC. Such a tool could be used for the APC transfection as a first step in immune therapy.

  5. A spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor attenuates the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang‑Hee Seo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration after vascular injury promotes the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, an effective chemical agent to suppress aberrant proliferation and migration of VSMCs can be a potential therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. To find an anti-proliferative chemical agent for VSMCs, we screened an in-house small molecule library, and the selected small molecule was further validated for its anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as cell proliferation assays, wound healing assays, transwell migration assays, and ex vivo aortic ring assay. Results Among 43 initially screened small molecule inhibitors of kinases that have no known anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs, a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor (BAY61-3606 showed significant anti-proliferative effect on VSMCs. Further experiments indicated that BAY61 attenuated the VSMC proliferation in both concentration- and time-dependent manner, and it also significantly suppressed the migration of VSMCs as assessed by both wound healing assays and transwell assays. Additionally, BAY61 suppressed the sprouting of VSMCs from endothelium-removed aortic rings. Conclusion The present study identified a Syk kinase inhibitor as a potent VSMC proliferation and migration inhibitor and warrants further studies to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms, such as its primary target, and to validate its in vivo efficacy as a therapeutic agent for restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  6. Human heart, spleen, and perirenal fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogduijn, M J; Crop, M J; Peeters, A M A; Van Osch, G J V M; Balk, A H M M; Ijzermans, J N M; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2007-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have important tissue repair functions and show potent immunosuppressive capacities in vitro. Although usually isolated from the bone marrow, MSCs have been identified in other tissues, including the skin and liver. In the present study, we isolated and characterized MSCs from human heart, spleen, and perirenal adipose tissue. MSCs from these different tissue sites were similar to those derived from bone marrow in that they expressed comparable levels of the cell-surface markers CD90, CD105, CD166, and HLA class I, were negative for CD34, CD45, HLA class II, CD80, and CD86 expression, and were capable of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Like bone marrow-derived MSCs, MSCs from these different tissue sources inhibited the proliferation of alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), giving 85%, 79%, 79%, and 81% inhibition, respectively. Also in line with bone marrow-derived MSCs they inhibited proliferative responses of PBMCs to phytohemagglutinin, a nonspecific stimulator of lymphocyte proliferation, and reduced-memory T lymphocyte responses to tetanus toxoid. The results of this study demonstrate that MSCs from various tissues have similar immunophenotypes, in vitro immunosuppressive properties, and differentiation potential.

  7. Unclassified haemolytic anaemia with splenomegaly and erythrocyte cation abnormalities - a disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.F.; Bournier, O.; Renoux, M.; Charron, D.; Boivin, P.

    1976-01-01

    An unclassified case of haemolytic anaemia with voluminous splenomegaly is reported. This anaemia was normocytic without any specific morphologic aspect of red blood cells (RBC); Coombs test was negative; the osmotic fragility was normal; the increased autohaemolysis was not affected by the presence of glucose; Hb studies were normal; no RBC enzyme deficiency was found; RBC lipids and membrane proteins were normal; there was a marked reduction in RBC survival with exclusive splenic uptake of erythrocytes. Before splenectomy, RBC cations and water content were abnormal: 1) the RBC water was decreased moderately; 2) the RBC sodium was about twice the normal mean with an increased 22 Na turn-over; 3) the RBC potassium was markedly reduced and 42 K influx was twice the normal mean; 4) the RBC calcium content was increased. Splenectomy was followed by rapid disappearance of haemolysis and RBC water and cation disturbances. Because of this extremely rapid disappearance after splenectomy the authors suggest this case of haemolytic anaemia could be a primary disease of the spleen. (author)

  8. Nonangiogenic and nonlymphomatous sarcomas of the canine spleen: 57 cases (1975-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, M.J.; Carpenter, J.L.; Mehlhaff Schunk, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The case records of and histopathologic findings in 57 dogs with nonangiogenic and nonlymphomatous splenic sarcomas were reviewed. Splenic neoplasms in these dogs included leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, liposarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma. The clinical signs associated with splenic sarcoma included anorexia or decreased appetite, abdominal distention, polydipsia, lethargy, vomiting, weight loss, and weakness. An abdominal mass was detected in 86% of the dogs by use of abdominal palpation (63%), and/or abdominal radiography (74%). The diagnosis was based on histopathologic findings in the spleen. Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed on 43 of the 57 dogs. Twenty-seven dogs were treated by splenectomy, and 16 were euthanatized at the time of surgery because of widespread metastatic lesions. Of the 14 dogs on which surgery was not performed, 11 were euthanatized on the basis of results of preoperative diagnostic tests, and the remaining 3 dogs had splenic neoplasms that were incidental findings at necropsy. Of the 27 surgically treated dogs, 5 died in the immediate postoperative period, 12 died or were euthanatized within 1 year after splenectomy, and only 5 dogs survived greater than or equal to 1 year. Three dogs were lost to follow-up evaluation, and 2 were still alive 6 and 7 months after surgery. The median survival time of the 22 dogs for which survival was known was 2.5 months. The median survival time for 11 dogs with no obvious metastasis at the time of splenectomy was 9 months

  9. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing of focal spleen lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoling; Yu Jie; Liang Ping; Liu Fangyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of focal spleen lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Materials and methods: CEUS with a blot injection of SonoVue was performed in 48 patients with 75 FSLs (median diameter 2.6 cm) and their perfusion characteristics were analyzed by using contrast pulse sequences (CPS) technique. Results: Among 19 malignant lesions (10 metastases, 7 lymphoma, 1 hemangiosarcoma, 1 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) and 56 benign lesion (23 hemangiomas, 14 cysts, 8 infarctions, 4 splenic ruptures, 3 tuberculosis, 2 abscess, 1 pseudoaneurysm, 1 lymphangioma), 25 benign lesions were demonstrated nonenhancement. For malignancy, 50.0% (5/10) metastases and 57.1% (4/7) lymphomas were showed hypoenhancement in the arterial phase, and 18 (94.7%) of malignant lesions were hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase. Among 31 benign lesions with enhancement, 27 (87.1%) were showed isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and 22 (71.0%) lesions were isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the parenchymal phase. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for FSLs were 91.1%, 95.0% and 92.0% for CEUS and 75.0%, 84.2% and 77.3% respectively, for the conventional baseline ultrasound (BUS). Conclusion: Real-time CEUS can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FSLs.

  10. Bonobos protect and console friends and kin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palagi

    Full Text Available Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim. We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation, and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction. Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported. Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching, thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture--more than the protection itself--works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous--but not solicited--third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported. Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also

  11. Microbial 'old friends', immunoregulation and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A

    2014-07-01

    The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society. for Immunology.

  12. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  13. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  14. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  15. Why do people lose their friends after a stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Sarah; Hilari, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that people lose friends after a stroke; what is less well understood is why this occurs. This study explored why people lose contact with their friends, and whether there are any protective factors. It also examined how friendship loss and change is perceived by the individual. Participants with a first stroke were recruited from one acute stroke unit in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews took place between 8 and 15 months post stroke. 29 participants were recruited of whom 10 had aphasia. The main reasons given for losing friends were: loss of shared activities, reduced energy levels, physical disability, aphasia, unhelpful responses of others, environmental barriers, and changing social desires. The subset of participants who experienced the most extensive loss of friends were those who described a sense that they were 'closing in' on themselves leading to a withdrawal from social contact and a new preference for meeting only close friends and family. Those with aphasia experienced the most hurtful negative responses from others and found it more difficult to retain their friends unless they had strong supportive friendship patterns prior to the stroke. The factors which helped to protect friendships included: having a shared history, friends who showed concern, who lived locally, where the friendship was not activity-based, and where the participant had a 'friends-based' social network prior to the stroke. Given the link between depression and loss of friends post stroke, supporting an individual in maintaining a social network is likely to be beneficial. For intervention to be effective, however, it may need to take into account not only the impact of new physical and language disabilities, but also changing social desires. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  16. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  17. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    L. Murali Krishnan; H. Philip; M. Chinnadurai; V. Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices requires strong attitude and good knowledge level. Further, the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices has put fourth many constraints. This study was conducted in The Nilgiris district to assess the constraints and suggestions to overcome the constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices. Thus, to analyse the constraints Garett ranking method was used (Garett, H.E. et al 1973). The study revealed that the constrain...

  18. Laparoscopy-Assisted Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy for Living-Donor Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, S; Noguchi, H; Kaku, K; Kurihara, K; Miyasaka, Y; Okabe, Y; Nakamura, U; Ohtsuka, T; Nakamura, M

    2017-06-01

    Living pancreas transplantation plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatectomy is very invasive for the donor, and less-invasive surgical procedures are needed. Although some reports have described hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for distal pancreatectomy in living-donor operations, less-invasive laparoscopy-assisted (LA) procedures are expected to increase the donor pool. We herein report the outcomes of four cases of LA spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (Warshaw technique [WT]) in living pancreas donors. Four living pancreas donors underwent LA-WT at our institution from September 2010 to January 2013. All donors fulfilled the donor criteria established by the Japan Society for Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. The median donor age was 54 years. Two donors underwent left nephrectomy in addition to LA-WT for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The median donor operation time for pancreatectomy was 340.5 minutes. The median pancreas warm ischemic time was 3 minutes. The median donor blood loss was 246 g. All recipients immediately achieved insulin independence. One donor required reoperation because of obstructive ileus resulting from a port-site hernia. Another donor developed a pancreatic fistula (International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula grade B), which was controlled with conservative management. After a maximum follow-up of 73 months, no clinically relevant adverse events had occurred. These results were comparable with those of previous studies concerning living-donor pancreas transplantation. The LA-WT is a safe and acceptable operation for living-donor pancreas transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spleen stiffness measurement can predict clinical complications in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Colli, Agostino; Casazza, Giovanni; Mandolesi, Daniele; Schiumerini, Ramona; Reggiani, Letizia Bacchi; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Lisotti, Andrea; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Golfieri, Rita; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement represents the best predictor of clinical decompensation (CD) in cirrhotic patients. Recently data show that measurement of spleen stiffness (SS) has an excellent correlation with HVPG levels. Aim of the present prospective study was to assess SS predictive value for CD compared to HVPG, liver stiffness (LS), and other non-invasive tests for portal hypertension in a cohort of patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis. From an initial cohort of 124 patients, 92 underwent baseline LS, SS, HVPG measurements and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at enrolment and then followed-up for 2 years or until the occurrence of the first CD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for determining judgement criteria associated parameters. Accuracy of predictive factors was evaluated using c statistic. The final model was internally validated using the bootstrap method. During follow-up, 30 out 92 (32.6%) patients developed CD. At univariate analysis varices at enrolment, all non-invasive parameters, HVPG, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) resulted clinical predictors of CD. At multivariate analysis only SS (p=0.0001) and MELD (p=0.014) resulted as predictive factors. A decision algorithm based on the results of a predictive model was proposed to detect patients with low risk of decompensation. This study shows that in compensated cirrhotic patients a SS and MELD predictive model represents an accurate predictor of CD with accuracy at least equivalent to that of HVPG. If confirmed by further studies, SS and MELD could represent valid alternatives to HVPG as prognostic indicator of CD in HCV-related cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul U Cameron

    Full Text Available Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591. A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140 were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45. Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB, occurred early (median 25 days and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population.

  1. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul U.; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (psplenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  2. Randomized clinical trial of ligasure™ versus conventional splenectomy for injured spleen in blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkazem, Vejdan Seyyed; Malihe, Khosravi

    2017-02-01

    Spleen is the most common organ damaged in cases of blunt abdominal trauma and splenectomy and splenorrhaphy are the main surgical procedures that are used in surgical treatment of such cases. In routine open splenectomy cases, after laparotomy, application of sutures in splenic vasculature is the most widely used procedure to cease the bleeding. This clinical trial evaluates the role and benefits of the Ligasure™ system in traumatic splenectomy without using any suture materials and compares the result with conventional method of splenectomy. After making decision for splenectomy secondary to a blunt abdominal trauma, patients in control group (39) underwent splenectomy using conventional method with silk suture ligation of splenic vasculature. In the interventional group (41) a Ligasure™ vascular sealing system was used for ligating of the splenic vein and artery. The results of operation time, volume of intra-operation bleeding and post-operative complications were compared in both groups. The mean operation times in control and interventional group were 21 and 12 min respectively (p splenectomy was 280 cc, but in the interventional group decreased significantly to 80 ml (p splenectomy not only can decrease the operation time but also can decrease the volume of bleeding during operation without any additional increase in post-operative complications. This method is recommendable in traumatic splenic injuries that require splenectomy in order to control the bleeding as opposed to use of traditional silk sutures. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Spleen-Induced Fimbria Production in Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Vaccine Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łaniewski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome encodes 13 fimbrial operons. Most of the fimbriae encoded by these operons are not produced under laboratory conditions but are likely to be synthesized in vivo. We used an in vivo expression technology (IVET strategy to identify four fimbrial operons, agf, saf, sti, and stc that are expressed in the spleen. When any three of these operons were deleted, the strain retained wild-type virulence. However, when all four operons were deleted, the resulting strain was completely attenuated, indicating that these four fimbriae play functionally redundant roles critical for virulence. In mice, oral doses of as low as 1 × 105 CFU of the strain with four fimbrial operons deleted provided 100% protection against challenge with 1 × 109 CFU of wild-type S. Typhimurium. We also examined the possible effect of these fimbriae on the ability of a Salmonella vaccine strain to deliver a guest antigen. We modified one of our established attenuated vaccine strains, χ9088, to delete three fimbrial operons while the fourth operon was constitutively expressed. Each derivative was modified to express the Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen PspA. Strains that constitutively expressed saf or stc elicited a strong Th1 response with significantly greater levels of anti-PspA serum IgG and greater protective efficacy than strains carrying saf or stc deletions. The isogenic strain in which all four operons were deleted generated the lowest anti-PspA levels and did not protect against challenge with virulent S. pneumoniae. Our results indicate that these fimbriae play important roles, as yet not understood, in Salmonella virulence and immunogenicity.

  4. Strong concordance between transcriptomic patterns of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes in response to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Erin E; Orr, Megan; Li, Xianyao; Zhou, Huaijun; Johnson, Timothy J; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Liu, Peng; Nolan, Lisa K; Lamont, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes morbidity in chickens and exhibits zoonotic potential. Understanding host transcriptional responses to infection aids the understanding of protective mechanisms and serves to inform future colibacillosis control strategies. Transcriptomes of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of the same individual birds in response to APEC infection were compared to identify common response patterns and connecting pathways. More than 100 genes in three contrasts examining pathology and infection status were significantly differentially expressed in both tissues and similarly regulated. Tissue-specific differences in catalytic activity, however, appear between birds with mild and severe pathology responses. Early expression differences, between birds with severe pathology and uninfected controls, in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in PBLs precede spleen responses in the p53 and cytokine-cytokine receptor pathways. Tissue bianalysis is useful in identifying genes and pathways important to the response to APEC, whose role might otherwise be underestimated in importance.

  5. Maintenance of CD8+memory T lymphocytes in the spleen but not in the bone marrow is dependent on proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Francesco; Alp, Özen Sercan; Maschmeyer, Patrick; McGrath, Mairi; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Hojyo, Shintaro; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Tokoyoda, Koji; Radbruch, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    It is current belief that numbers of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the memory phase of an immune response are maintained by homeostatic proliferation. Here, we compare the proliferation of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes, generated by natural infections and by intentional immunization, in spleen and bone marrow (BM). Fifty percent of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the spleen are eliminated by cyclophosphamide within 14 days, indicating that numbers of at least 50% of splenic CD8 + memory T lymphocytes are maintained by proliferation. The numbers of CD8 + memory T lymphocytes in the BM, however, were not affected by cyclophosphamide. This stability was independent of circulating CD8 + memory T cells, blocked by FTY720, showing that BM is a privileged site for the maintenance of memory T lymphocytes, as resident cells, resting in terms of proliferation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Studies on the superoxide dismutase activity in the cytosolic fractions of the liver and spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rai; Chung, Doo Young; Yang, Jong Dai; Cha, Jong Hee

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase(SOD, superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) is a metalloprotein ubiquitously present in all aerobic living cells. At present, three types of SOD: copper and zinc-containing (Cu, Zn-SOD), manganese-containing(Mn-SOD) and iron-containing(Fe-SOD) enzyme have been isolated from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. As a scanvenger of euperoxide radicals in biological tissues, these metalloenzymes are undoubtedly of importance in the protection of living organisms against the effect of highly toxic superoxide radicals. A variety of biologically important processes are accompaied by formation of these radiation. The present paper report the results of experiments dealing with SOD activity in the cytosolic fraction of the liver and spleen of mice exposed to 400R whole-body irradiation. The whole-body irradiation caused a decrease in the specific activity of SOD in the both liver and spleen which persist more than 21 days.(Author)

  7. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  8. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  9. The influence of U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract on the formation of ectopic locus of haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Prus, E.K.; Basova, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of a bone marrow fragment of intact mouse donors below the kidney capsule of irradiated (7 Gy) recipients leads to the formation of the haemopoiesis locus that somewhat exceeds, by mass and cellularity, the new-formed locus of control animals. The U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract administered to recipients irradiated with the same dose increases the mass and cellularity of the haemopoiesis locus by 2.2 and 4.9 times respectively

  10. A comparison of microRNA expression profiles from splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn; Cattley, Russell; Lindley, Stephanie; Boothe, Harry W; Henderson, Ralph A; Smith, Bruce F

    2016-12-03

    Splenic masses are common in older dogs; yet diagnosis preceding splenectomy and histopathology remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that play a role in post-transcriptional regulation, and differential expression of miRNAs between normal and tumor tissue has been used to diagnose neoplastic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine differential expression of miRNAs by use of RNA-sequencing in canine spleens that were histologically confirmed as hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, or normal. Twenty-two miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples (4 between hemangiosarcoma and both nodular hyperplasia and normal spleen and 18 between hemangiosarcoma and normal spleen only). In particular, mir-26a, mir-126, mir-139, mir-140, mir-150, mir-203, mir-424, mir-503, mir-505, mir-542, mir-30e, mir-33b, mir-365, mir-758, mir-22, and mir-452 are of interest in the pathogenesis of hemangiosarcoma. Findings of this study confirm the hypothesis that miRNA expression profiles are different between canine splenic hemangiosarcoma, nodular hyperplasia, and normal spleens. A large portion of the differentially expressed miRNAs have roles in angiogenesis, with an additional group of miRNAs being dysregulated in vascular disease processes. Two other miRNAs have been implicated in cancer pathways such as PTEN and cell cycle checkpoints. The finding of multiple miRNAs with roles in angiogenesis and vascular disease is important, as hemangiosarcoma is a tumor of endothelial cells, which are driven by angiogenic stimuli. This study shows that miRNA dysregulation is a potential player in the pathogenesis of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma.

  11. Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Dianne Tania Dayanthi; Peries, Pattiya Pathirennahalage Uddika Chamila; Rathnasekara, Yaddehi Arachchillage Chaminda; Jayawardena, KaluArachchige Thushari Madurika; Upasena, Angappulige; Wickremasinghe, Anada Rajitha

    2017-11-16

    Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Three hundred fifty-seven children, 5-13 years of age were selected from two randomly selected schools in the Gampaha district in the western province of Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was administered to the parents after obtaining informed written consent. Participants were screened for risk factors for organomegaly and were examined by a trained officer. Children with a past history of infective, inflammatory, haematological, malignant, congestive, collagenous or congenital conditions that can affect the size of the organs were excluded as well as those with clinically evident malnutrition, anemia, lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Ultrasonographic assessment was done using a high resolution real-time scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer by a trained officer. Children with ultrasonographic abnormalities of organs were also excluded from the study and referred for further evaluation. The study comprised 332 children comprising 176 girls (53%). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal dimension of the liver between the two sexes with a higher value recorded among females (Mann Whitney U = 11,830.5, p = 0.037). Body weight was correlated with the dimensions of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. On multiple regression analysis body weight significantly associated with all the organs. (p < 0.01) Percentile graphs for longitudinal length of liver, spleen, right and left kidneys were formed according to the body weight. The organ dimensions showed the highest correlation with body weight. We hope the normal ultrasonographic values of healthy Sri Lankan children will assist in interpretation of sonographic examinations in daily clinical practice.

  12. PLATELET COUNT SQUARED/SPLEEN DIAMETER-ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE RATIO: NON-INVASIVE METHOD TO PREDICT ESOPHAGEAL VARICES

    OpenAIRE

    MATTOS, Ângelo Zambam de; DAROS, Larissa Faraco; MATTOS, Angelo Alves de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND - Variceal bleeding has a high mortality among cirrhotics, and screening with endoscopy is indicated at the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Screening with endoscopy implies discomfort, risks and considerable costs. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate platelet count squared/spleen diameter-aspartate aminotransferase ratio (PS/SA), as a non-invasive predictor of esophageal varices in cirrhotics. METHODS - This cross-sectional study evaluated cirrhotics for PS/SA and presence of esophageal...

  13. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus petal ethanolic extract on hematology, antibody response, and spleen histology in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Babaei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6 were used in a completely randomized design. Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC and different white blood cells (WBC and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD. Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology. Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.

  14. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Anja M; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J; Niessen, Hans W M; Piek, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Post-mortem tissue specimens of myocardium, spleen and bone marrow were collected from 28 patients who died at different time points after AMI. Twelve patients who died from other causes served as controls. The presence and localization of monocytes (CD14(+) cells), and their CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets, were evaluated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. CD14(+) cells localized at distinct regions of the infarcted myocardium in different phases of healing following AMI. In the inflammatory phase after AMI, CD14(+) cells were predominantly located in the infarct border zone, adjacent to cardiomyocytes, and consisted for 85% (78-92%) of CD14(+)CD16(-) cells. In contrast, in the subsequent post-AMI proliferative phase, massive accumulation of CD14(+) cells was observed in the infarct core, containing comparable proportions of both the CD14(+)CD16(-) [60% (31-67%)] and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets [40% (33-69%)]. Importantly, in AMI patients, of the number of CD14(+) cells was decreased by 39% in the bone marrow and by 58% in the spleen, in comparison with control patients (P = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). Overall, this study showed a unique spatiotemporal pattern of monocyte accumulation in the human myocardium following AMI that coincides with a marked depletion of monocytes from the spleen, suggesting that the human spleen contains an important reservoir function for monocytes.

  15. Selenium antagonizes cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleen but not involving Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Cao, Changyu; Yao, Haidong; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and is involved in the regulation of genes participated in defending cells against oxidative damage, which have been confirmed in animal models. Selenium (Se), known as an important element in the regulation of antioxidant activity, can antagonize Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in birds. However, the role of Nrf2 in selenium-cadmium interaction has not been reported in birds. To further explore the mechanism of selenium attenuating spleen toxicity induced by cadmium in chickens, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 150mg/kg) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 , 2mg/kg) were co-administrated or individually administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT). Cd exposure increased obviously nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and the expression of Nrf2 downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), reduced the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap1), Gpx-1 and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1). In addition, Cd induced the increase of bak, caspase9, p53, Cyt c mRNA levels, increased bax/bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase3 mRNA and protein levels. Selenium treatment reduced the accumulation of Cd in the spleen, attenuates Cd-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen. In summary, our results demonstrate that Se ameliorated spleen toxicity induced by cadmium by modulating the antioxidant system, independently of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue in children with mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy: Evaluation of splenic residual functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation of spleen tissue is an attempt for maintenance of splenic functions when splenectomy is indicated in children. It minimizes the risks of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection and it has been done in children with severe portal hypertension due to hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis that underwent splenectomy. The purposes of this investigation were to study the morphology of the residual splenic tissue; to evaluate the residual filtration function of this splenosis; and to assess the immune response to polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine of these patients. Twenty-three children with portal hypertension from mansonic schistosomiasis who underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein, autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch were evaluated for residual splenic parenchyma and functions. Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scans were used for detection of splenic nodules. The search for Howell Jolly bodies were used for assessing the filtration function and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for measuring the relative rise in titter of specific pneumococcal antibodies. Splenosis was evident in all children; however, in two there were less than five splenic nodules in the greater omentum, which was considered insufficient. Howell-Jolly bodies were found in the peripheral blood only in these two patients with less evident splenosis. The immune response was adequate in 15 patients; it was intermediate in 4 patients and inadequate in 4 patients. Autotransplantation of spleen tissue into an omental pouch is efficient in maintaining the filtration splenic function in more than 90% of the cases and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccination in approximately 65% of the children.

  17. Effects of splenic allograft in lipid profile of non-splenectomized rats: the immune and metabolic role of the "double spleen"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barbosa Gonçalves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of the spleen and splenic allograft in lipid control and evaluate its effect on the lipid profile of rats.METHOD: 32 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (1, total splenectomy group (2, splenectomy and implantation of allograft group (3 and double spleen group (4. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups: A and B, based on the death of the animals after 30 or 120 days of monitoring. The procedures in groups 2, 3 and 4 were made simultaneously, and splenectomized animals, groups 2 and 3 were donors, respectively, for the animals of groups 3 and 4. In group 4 the spleen was preserved and the animals received implants from the spleens of rats from group 3. The regeneration of splenic tissue was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic analyzes of the grafts and own spleens, as well as with measurements of VLDL, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides.RESULTS: after 120 days, Group 4 showed levels of total cholesterol and LDL lower than the other groups. Group 1 had higher levels of lipids.CONCLUSION: The technique of double spleen was effective in the control of lipid metabolism, corroborating the function of the spleen as a reserve of lipids.

  18. The long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization for portal hypertension due to cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinyuan; Geng Huijie; Wang Baocai; Zhang Xinfang; Du Ruiqing; Wang Lijing; Yin Shumei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term hemodynamic changes of liver and spleen after partial splenic embolization (PSE) in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Methods: PSE was performed in 1720 patients with portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to cirrhosis. The survival rate of 1 - 5 years and the cause of death were observed. The preoperative and postoperative hemodynamics of both the liver and spleen, the blood picture, splenic size and the complications in 600 patients who survived over five years and had integrated document were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Results Obvious changes in hemodynamics at different time after PSE were seen. The frequency and the volume of gastrointestinal bleeding were obviously decreased, while the leucocyte and platelet count was markedly increased. The spleen size began to reduce two months after PSE, which became very obvious in three months. The difference in above items between pre-PSE and post-PSE was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: PSE can definitely improve hepatic and splenic hemodynamics, reduce the pressure of portal vein, alleviate hypersplenism and reduce the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, elongate the life span and improve the living quality. With obvious and reliable long-term efficacy and fewer complications, PSE is a minimallyinvasive, safe and effective therapy. (authors)

  19. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage /sup 51/Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed.

  20. Depletion of spleen macrophages delays AA amyloid development: a study performed in the rapid mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lundmark

    Full Text Available AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM, marginal zone macrophages (MZM, metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM. MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

  1. [Efficacy comparison between acupuncture smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen method and regulating Governor Vessel method for menopausal insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    To compare the efficacy difference among acupuncture smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen method, regulating Governor Vessel method and oral administration of western medicine for menopausal insomnia. One hundred and fifty-six cases of menopausal insomnia were randomized into a smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen group (group A), a regulating Governor Vessel group (group B) and a medication group (group C), 52 cases in each one. Acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12), Daheng (SP 15), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Taichong (LR 3), etc. was applied in the group A; acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16), Shenting (GV 24) and Yintang (GV 29), etc. was used in the group B; oral administration of estazolam tablets (1 mg each-day) was adapted in the group C, all once a day for totally 30 days. The each item score and total score in Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were evaluated before and after treatment in each group, also the efficacy in each group was assessed. After the treatment, the sleeping rate in the group A and B was significantly higher than that in the group C (both P vs 63.5% (33/52), both P vs 23.1% (12/52) and 25.0% (13/52), both P Acupuncture has better effect for menopausal insomnia than estazolam. Between the two acupuncture methods, the acupuncture method of smoothing-liver and regulating-spleen has a better effect.

  2. Antitumor effect of a Coliolus preparation, PSK: induction of macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) in spleens of tumor bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K; Majima, T; Ebina, T

    1992-01-01

    The effect of administration of PSK (Polysaccharide Kureha), a Coliolus preparation, in Meth-A solid tumors was analyzed in BALB/c mice. Spleen cells prepared from normal, non-treated Meth-A bearing, PSK-treated normal and PSK-treated tumor bearing mice were examined for induction of macrophage chemotatic factor (MCF). Only spleen cells from the latter mice produced MCF after 48 hrs of cultivation in the presence of Meth-A cells or concanavalin A (Con A). MCF-producing cells were indicated to be Lyt-1 positive, L3T4 positive and Lyt-2 negative cells in the negative elimination assay. There were no differences in the production of other cytokines including interleukin-2, interferon and tumor necrosing factor, spleen cells obtained other different groups of mice. The antitumor effect of either crude or purified MCF (molecular weight 100,000) was examined by daily consecutive intratumoral injections into Meth-A tumor tissues, and a significant inhibitory effect was detected.

  3. A Case of Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome Resulting from an Invasive Pneumococcal Infection in a Patient with a Hypoplastic Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Emori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with complaints of pain and numbness in both legs. At arrival, purple spots were evident on his neck and face. Examination of the vital sign indicated septic shock. Laboratory data and blood gas analysis revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure, and metabolic acidosis. Peripheral blood smears revealed Howell-Jolly bodies, indicating decreased splenic function. A rapid urinary pneumococcal antigen test was also found to be positive. After admission to the intensive care unit, extensive treatment, including polymyxin-B direct hemoperfusion and administration of methylprednisolone and broad spectrum antibiotics was immediately initiated. Despite of our efforts to save his life, the patient died six hours after the arrival. The following day, blood cultures revealed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. An autopsy revealed a hypoplastic spleen and a bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, indicating acute adrenal insufficiency caused by sepsis. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. Although severe infection may be seen in the splenectomized patients, it should be noted that patients with a hypoplastic spleen may have acute severe infections. We, therefore, report a case of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome resulting from an invasive pneumococcal infection in a patient with a hypoplastic spleen.

  4. A Case of Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome Resulting from an Invasive Pneumococcal Infection in a Patient with a Hypoplastic Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Kazumasa; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Soneda, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male was brought to our emergency department by ambulance with complaints of pain and numbness in both legs. At arrival, purple spots were evident on his neck and face. Examination of the vital sign indicated septic shock. Laboratory data and blood gas analysis revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure, and metabolic acidosis. Peripheral blood smears revealed Howell-Jolly bodies, indicating decreased splenic function. A rapid urinary pneumococcal antigen test was also found to be positive. After admission to the intensive care unit, extensive treatment, including polymyxin-B direct hemoperfusion and administration of methylprednisolone and broad spectrum antibiotics was immediately initiated. Despite of our efforts to save his life, the patient died six hours after the arrival. The following day, blood cultures revealed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. An autopsy revealed a hypoplastic spleen and a bilateral adrenal hemorrhage, indicating acute adrenal insufficiency caused by sepsis. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. Although severe infection may be seen in the splenectomized patients, it should be noted that patients with a hypoplastic spleen may have acute severe infections. We, therefore, report a case of Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome resulting from an invasive pneumococcal infection in a patient with a hypoplastic spleen.

  5. Nonspecific targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles to the liver, kidney and spleen: A novel approach to achieving specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana Arachchige, Maheshika; Flack, Amanda; Chen, Xuequn; Li, Jing; Oupicky, David; Cheng, Y.-C. Norman; Shen, Yimin; Jena, Bhanu; Lawes, Gavin

    2013-03-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest in developing Fe3O4 nanoparticles for biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. One of the major problems in these applications is the undesirable filtration of these materials by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Preliminary magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization studies on hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles injected intravenously into mice confirm that the nanoparticles accumulate in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. To identify whether certain specific proteins are responsible for nanoparticle accumulation in these organs, we exposed hyaluronic acid coated nanoparticles to proteins extracted from the liver, spleen, and kidneys, together with blood plasma proteins, then subsequently used gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy to identify the proteins binding to the nanoparticles. We find that the unwanted accumulation of nanoparticles in these organs can potentially be attributed to specific binding by a small number of proteins. By appropriately functionalizing the iron oxide nanoparticles, we expect that the nanoparticles uptake in the liver, spleen, and kidneys will be reduced.

  6. Killing of targets by CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V Ganusov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been difficult to correlate the quality of CD8 T cell responses with protection against viral infections. To investigate the relationship between efficacy and magnitude of T cell responses, we quantify the rate at which individual CD8 effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using mathematical modeling, we analyze recent data on the loss of target cells pulsed with three different peptides from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV in mouse spleens with varying numbers of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass-action, i.e., the death rate of individual target cells remains proportional to the frequency (or the total number of specific CD8 T cells in the spleen despite the fact that effector cell densities and effector to target ratios vary about a 1000-fold. The killing rate of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells is largely independent of T cell specificity and differentiation stage. Our results thus allow one to calculate the critical T cell concentration at which growth of a virus with a given replication rate can be prevented from the start of infection by memory CD8 T cell response.

  7. Killing of targets by CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V; Barber, Daniel L; De Boer, Rob J

    2011-01-24

    It has been difficult to correlate the quality of CD8 T cell responses with protection against viral infections. To investigate the relationship between efficacy and magnitude of T cell responses, we quantify the rate at which individual CD8 effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using mathematical modeling, we analyze recent data on the loss of target cells pulsed with three different peptides from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mouse spleens with varying numbers of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass-action, i.e., the death rate of individual target cells remains proportional to the frequency (or the total number) of specific CD8 T cells in the spleen despite the fact that effector cell densities and effector to target ratios vary about a 1000-fold. The killing rate of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells is largely independent of T cell specificity and differentiation stage. Our results thus allow one to calculate the critical T cell concentration at which growth of a virus with a given replication rate can be prevented from the start of infection by memory CD8 T cell response.

  8. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  9. Erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E*) from Friend virus-infected mice undergo 55Fe suicide in vitro in the absence of added erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Rizzo, D.F.; Axelrad, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have investigated the effect of 55 Fe on the survival in suspension of erythropoietin (epo)-independent erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E*) induced by Friend polycythemia virus (FV). Spleen cells from C3Hf/Bi mice previously infected with FV were exposed to carrier-free 55 Fe, and the survival of CFU-E* as a function of time in liquid medium was determined from the number of erythroid colonies that developed from these cells seeded in plasma cultures without added epo. The results showed that spleen CFU-E* were highly vulnerable to 55 Fe. Marrow CFU-E* behaved in a similar manner. The 55 Fe responsible for their suicide had been presented to the progenitor cells only during the 4-h period of incubation, after which they were washed and plated in excess nonradioactive iron. They therefore conclude that CFU-E* themselves, and not only their progeny, are capable of actively incorporating iron. Under the same conditions in the absence of added epo, the effect of 55 Fe on the survival of normal spleen or marrow CFU-E could not be assessed because two few normal CFU-E survived the incubation period. Normal bone marrow cells incubated in complete medium containing epo retained their capacity for erythrocytic colony formation, and CFU-E could then be shown to be vulnerable to 55 Fe. Thus, either the iron-incorporating system of normal CFU-E was inducible by epo, or else epo permitted survival of the CFU-E so that the activity of a constitutive iron-incorporating system could be recognized

  10. Some (more) features of conversation amongst women friends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the maintenance of good social relationships' and 'the reaffirming and strengthening of friendship' (Coates, 1988: 98). While this last feature, the function of conversation between women friends, is borne out by the extract to be analysed, the ...

  11. A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  12. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  13. Interventions by students in friends' alcohol, tobacco, and drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R G; Stoduto, G

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates self-reported interventions by students in the alcohol, tobacco, illicit drug use, and drinking-driving of their friends. The data came from a study of 1184 students in Ontario schools in grades 7, 9, 11, and 13. We found that about a third of students intervened in friends' illegal drug use and drinking-driving but about half intervened about smoking. Students who intervened were more likely to be older and spend fewer nights at home. They were less likely to use cannabis, but had more friends using cannabis and illegal drugs. Also, they had more exposure to drug education and were more disapproving of drug use. Drug education may give students the knowledge and confidence to intervene in friends' drug use.

  14. Near-Centenarian Makes Friends Quickly in New Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat meals with my friends, take choir and music classes, and try to read the news daily. And, I never miss the Red Sox, the Patriots, or any other Boston sports event. Everyone tries to help everyone else here." ...

  15. Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The co...

  16. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  18. Personality Types and Development of Adolescents' Conflict with Friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan J. T.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  19. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available and sustainable products. In recent years, natural fibers have gained attention as suitable reinforcements in polymeric matrices because they are biodegradable, low cost, environmentally friendly and renewable. Furthermore, they possess high specific strength...

  20. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: types, processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of eco-friendly polymeric materials with balanced properties has become a subject of research attention due to concerns with increasing global-warming, carbon-emission, and limited natural resources. Nano...

  1. Investigation of hemostatic effect of Spleen-invigorating, Qi-replenishing and Blood-arresting Formula on simvastatin-induced zebrafish hemorrhage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The manifestations of simvastatin-induced zebrafish hemorrhage are basically similar to that of failure of the spleen to control blood in human beings. The Spleen-invigorating, Qi-replenishing and Blood-arresting Formula has good hemostatic effect on simvastatin-induced hemorrhage in the zebrafish. It also boasts the functions of improving blood flow and velocity of motion in the hemorrhagic zebrafish. Such a conclusion provides the experimental basis for the treatment of the syndrome of failure of the spleen to control blood by this formula.

  2. Fever of unknown origin and the value of gallium-67 and technetium-99/sup m/ for defining abnormality of the spleen: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopersmith, A.; Ritchey, A.K.; Zinkham, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A three-year-old white female with acute promyelocytic leukemia developed persistent fever after successful induction-remission therapy; many large monilial abscesses were later found in the grossly enlarged spleen. Although the technetium/sup 99M/-sulfur colloid scan prior to splenectomy suggested only a slight abnormality of the spleen, the gallium-67 citrate scintigraph showed a marked increase in gallium accumulation. The disparate results of the scanning techniques utilized in this patient suggest that it may be necessary to use more than one type of radiopharmaceutical to define an enlarged spleen, as well as the pathological process responsible for its enlargement

  3. The role of local wisdom in developing friendly city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibarani, Robert

    2018-03-01

    This present paper discusses the local wisdom which can be applied to build the character of people living in a friendly city. It aims at (1) finding the main local wisdom which can be used to construct the integrity of human beings dwelling in it and (2) describing the concept of developing the friendly city based on local wisdom. Anthropolinguistics is applied to study this topic by focusing on the performance, indexicality, and participation. The analytic parameters are interconnection, evaluability, and sustainability.

  4. Friendly Fire and the Sustained Attention to Response Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kyle M; Head, James; de Joux, Neil R; Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Helton, William S

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether losses of inhibitory control could be responsible for some friendly-fire incidents. Several factors are commonly cited to explain friendly-fire incidents, but failure of inhibitory control has not yet been explored. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) could be a valid model for inhibition failures in some combat scenarios. Participants completed small-arms simulations using near infrared emitter guns, confronting research assistants acting as friends or foes. In Experiment 1, seven participants completed three conditions with three different proportions of foes (high, medium, low). In Experiment 2, 13 participants completed high-foe (high-go) and low-foe (low-go) versions of a small-arms simulation as well as comparative computer tasks. Participants made more friendly-fire errors (errors of commission) when foe proportion was high. A speed-accuracy trade-off was apparent, with participants who were faster to fire on foes also more likely to accidentally shoot friends. When foe proportion was higher, response times to foe stimuli were faster, and subjective workload ratings were higher. Failures of inhibitory control may be responsible for some friendly-fire incidents and the SART could be a suitable empirical model for some battlefield environments. The effect appears to be disproportionately greater at higher foe proportions. The exact nature of performance reductions associated with high-foe proportions requires further investigation. The SART may be a useful model of friendly-fire scenarios. It could be used to indicate a soldier's likelihood to commit a friendly-fire mistake and to identify high-risk environments. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Intergenerational Links in Victimization: Prosocial Friends as a Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sohyun C.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether having friends who engaged in more prosocial than antisocial behaviors buffered the associations between family-of-origin aggression and later victimization. Adolescent participants (N=125) and their parents reported on different types of family aggression in early adolescence. Approximately 5 years later, adolescents reported on their victimization experiences with dating partners and friends, and their friends��� prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Only fathe...

  6. User-Friendly Tail Bounds for Matrix Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-16

    USER-FRIENDLY TAIL BOUNDS FOR MATRIX MARTINGALES JOEL A. TROPP ! Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE User-Friendly Tail Bounds for Matrix Martingales 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...BOUNDS FOR MATRIX MARTINGALES JOEL A. TROPP Abstract. This report presents probability inequalities for sums of adapted sequences of random, self

  7. Age-Friendly Portland: a university-city-community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Margaret B; DeLaTorre, Alan K; Carder, Paula C

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how creating an age-friendly city has come to be an important policy and planning issue in Portland, Oregon. In 2006, researchers from Portland State University's Institute on Aging examined the meanings of age friendliness among a broad range of participants in Portland, Oregon. The research was conducted in conjunction with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Age-Friendly Cities project and followed the completion of two earlier non-WHO-related projects. The city of Portland, through the Institute on Aging, was one of nine original members to apply for and be accepted into the WHO Global Network of Age-Friendly Cities and Communities. An Age-Friendly Portland Advisory Council was formed to guide the development of an action plan, monitor progress over time, and suggest additional research. To understand how Portland's age-friendly policy effort has developed over time, we use Kingdon's (1984) agenda-setting framework to explain how the policy problem was formulated, how solutions were developed, and the influence of local politics. The policy actors, including individuals and organizations working within and outside of government, are described. The Portland experience provides a case study that other cities, especially those with a strong commitment to community-engaged urban planning, may find useful as they develop age-friendly initiatives.

  8. Changes of lymphocytes in spleen and liver by local irradiation to the maxilla in mice. Th1/Th2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazawa, Ken; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    This study was to examine changes in cell-mediated immunity by local irradiation, in particular focusing on the Th1/Th2 balance. We investigated influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla in mice. The wet-weight of spleen, the percentage and the absolute numbers of the lymphocytes in spleen, wet-weight of the liver, the percentage of lymphocytes in liver were measured using a flow cytometer and values were compared with those obtained from non-irradiated animals. Furthermore, we analysed the percentage and absolute numbers of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells by the intracellular cytokine. The following results were obtained: Wet-weight of the spleen showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. Wet-weight of the liver did not show any significant change after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and one of the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed an extreme increase one and three days after irradiation. The absolute numbers of the Th1-like cells and the Th2-like cells showed a significant decrease one and three days after irradiation. In liver, the percentage of the Th1-like cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, and the percentage of the Th2-like cells did not show any significant change after irradiation. The ratio of the Th1-like cells to Th2-like cells showed a significant increase one day after irradiation. In spleen, the percentage of the Th1 cells and Tc1 cells showed a significant increase one and three days after irradiation, but neither of the absolute numbers showed any significant change after irradiation. These results indicated that the characteristic changes of Th1/Th2 balance shifted to a Th1-dominant status by irradiation, and the ability from irradiation therapy to the

  9. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goose (Anser cygnoides, having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina. In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH, mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1 and C–X–C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4. Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B, C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4, CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA, MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα, transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2, IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The

  10. Comparative effects of the herbal constituent parthenolide (Feverfew on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression in murine spleen and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolinski Alexa T

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenolide, a major sesquiterpene lactone present in extracts of the herb Feverfew, has been investigated for its inhibitory effects on mediators of inflammation, including the proinflammatory cytokines. Although parthenolide's anti-inflammatory effects have been investigated in vitro, little in vivo data are available. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms for these inhibitory effects are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that parthenolide suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced serum (interleukin IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in mice as indicated by reduced splenic and liver mRNA levels. Methods Mice were co-treated i.p. with LPS (1 mg/kg bw and parthenolide (5 mg/kg bw and blood, spleen and liver collected. Serum was analyzed for IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from spleen and liver, and real-time RT-PCR was used to determine relative mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2. Results LPS induced increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations with only IL-6 being suppressed in parthenolide-treated mice. Induction of IL-6 mRNA was reduced, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNAs unchanged, and IL-1β mRNA increased in spleens of parthenolide plus LPS co-treated animals compared to LPS-only. No significant differences were observed in inflammatory gene expression between these two groups in liver samples. Overall, mRNA expression of each proinflammatory gene was much higher in spleen when compared to liver. Conclusion In summary, only one gene, IL-6, was modestly suppressed by parthenolide co-exposure which contrasts with many in vitro studies suggesting anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Also, LPS evoked greater effects in spleen than liver on expression of proinflammatory genes. Further study of the effects of parthenolide and other herbal constituents on inflammatory gene expression using model

  11. Babesia microti Infection Changes Host Spleen Architecture and Is Cleared by a Th1 Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Babesia microti is a malaria-like parasite, which infects ∼2000 people annually, such that babesiosis is now a notifiable disease in the United States. Immunocompetent individuals often remain asymptomatic and are tested only after they feel ill. Susceptible C3H/HeJ mice show several human-like disease manifestations and are ideal to study pathogenesis of Babesia species. In this study, we examined parasitemia of B. microti at different time points and assessed its impact on hemoglobin levels in blood, on spleen pathology and overall immune response in C3H/HeJ mice. Peak parasitemia of 42.5% was immediately followed by diminished hemoglobin level. Parasitemia at 21 days of infection was barely detectable by microscopy presented 5.7 × 108 to 5.9 × 109B. microti DNA copies confirming the sensitivity of our qPCR. We hypothesize that qPCR detects DNA released from recently lysed parasites or from extracellular B. microti in blood, which are not easily detected in blood smears and might result in under-diagnosis of babesiosis in patients. Splenectomized patients have been reported to show increased babesiosis severity and result in high morbidity and mortality. These results emphasize the importance of splenic immunity in resolution of B. microti infection. Splenomegaly in infected mice associated with destruction of marginal zone with lysed erythrocytes and released B. microti life forms in our experiments support this premise. At conclusion of the experiment at 21 days post-infection, significant splenic B and T cells depletion and increase in macrophages levels were observed in B. microti infected mice suggesting a role of macrophage in disease resolution. Infected mice also showed significantly higher plasmatic concentration of CD4 Th1 cells secreted cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ while cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells increase was not always significant. Thus, Th1 cells-mediated immunity appears to be

  12. Comparison of CTL reactivity in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after immunization with peptides pulsed on dendritic cells or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare CTL reactivity in the spleen and the draining lymph nodes (LN) from C57BL/6 mice after immunization with self and non-self peptides pulsed on autologous dendritic cells (DC) or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). METHODS: Peptides showing high to low binding...... in the draining LN, whereas non-self peptides mixed with FIA generated the strongest response in the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: DC-based immunization with non-self and self peptides is more efficient than immunization based on peptides mixed with FIA. DC-based immunization focuses the CTL response towards the spleen....... Immunization based on FIA focuses the response against self peptides towards the draining LN and non-self peptides towards the spleen....

  13. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  14. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savy Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.

  15. Howell-Jolly bodies and liver-spleen scanning for assessment of splenic filtrative function yields discordant results in renal transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Nordeval Cavalcante; Orlando, Margarida Maria Camões; Neves, Moises Bonifácio; Rioja, Suzimar Silveira; de Lucena, Stella Beatriz Gonçalves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given discrepancies between methods for diagnosing hyposplenism, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the spleen size on the correlation between the methods, and to propose a model for improving the interpretation. Patients with renal allografts were included, in whom the spleen was assessed using Doppler ultrasound, scintiscan, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJBs) in peripheral smears. In 35 subjects, scintiscan and HJBs were normal (Group 0); 20 had an ...

  16. Detection of splenosis and ectopic spleens with sup(99m)Tc-labelled heat damaged autologous erythrocytes in 90 splenectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanng Nielsen, J.; Ellegaard, J.

    1981-01-01

    Splenosis or ectopic spleens were determined in 22 of 45 patients splenectomized after either abdominal trauma or accidental lesions of the spleen during operation. The incidence of ectopic spleen in various groups of splenectomized patients has been investigated by a sensitive scanning method employing reinjection of sup(99m)Tc-labelled heat damaged autologous erythrocytes. In comparison 7 cases were found among 45 patients who underwent splenectomy for haematological reasons. The time span between the operation and a positive scan varied between 3 months and 11 years. None of the patients in the haematological group with reoccurrence of spleen tissue presented any signs of relapse of their primary disorder. The only patient with overwhelming infection was a girl in whom splemectomy was performed for hereditary spherocytosis. She recovered from the sepsis and her scan was negative. It is concluded that recurrence of spleen tissue is frequent after traumatic lesions of the spleen but rare after selective splenectomy for haematological reasons. This may account for the lesser tendency to overwhelming sepsis after post-traumatic splenectomy. (author)

  17. Global climate-friendly trade : Canada's chance to clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, D.

    2010-03-01

    This paper discussed the global trade and investment in climate-friendly technologies, Canada's current position in this market, and the policy changes that are necessary for Canadian businesses to gain a stronger foothold in this sector. The global market for climate-friendly technologies is growing rapidly, but Canadian businesses have generally failed to exploit opportunities to export climate-friendly technologies and have generally lagged other countries in adopting such technologies developed elsewhere. Although Canadian businesses generally underperform in this sector, Canada does have notable strengths in 13 identified areas, including waste management technologies, energy technologies, and in parts of the value chains associated with wind and solar power. Targeting these areas of relative strength for further development could position Canada as a global leader in some climate-friendly technologies. For this to happen, Canadian governments need to establish clear policies, invest in research and development, and remove domestic and international barriers to the development and trade in climate-friendly technologies. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Glaucoma screening: analysis of conventional and telemedicine-friendly devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sajeesh; Giubilato, Antonio; Morgan, William; Jitskaia, Ludmila; Barry, Chris; Bulsara, Max; Constable, Ian J; Yogesan, Kanagasingam

    2007-04-01

    Portable, telemedicine-friendly devices offer novel opportunity for screening and monitoring glaucoma in the remote and rural regions of the world. This study examines the effective combination of telemedicine-friendly screening devices for detection of glaucoma in relation with conventional, hospital-based devices. A total of 399 eyes were screened with telemedicine-friendly devices and conventional, hospital-based devices such as ophthalmoscope, tonometer and perimeter. Combination of age and family history of glaucoma alone has a sensitivity of 35.6% (specificity 94.2%, area under the curve 0.81, correctly classified 81.1%) and an addition of telemedicine-friendly or conventional visual field tests optimized the sensitivity to 91.1% (specificity 93.6%, area under the curve 0.95, correctly classified 93%). Analysis indicates good agreement between vertical cup-to-disc ratio by ophthalmoscopy and digital image reading. An addition of intraocular pressure test does not change sensitivity (35.6%) and specificity (94.2%). This study indicates that evaluations of cup-to-disc ratio and visual field, using telemedicine-friendly devices, are most useful tools in screening for glaucoma. When used together these devices may be an alternative for conventional glaucoma screenings.

  19. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  20. Exogenous intervention modulates expression of radiosensitive proteins predominantly by regulating cell death pathway: study in mouse spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhinav; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Dutta, Ajaswrata; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) affects cellular macromolecule inclusive of proteins by regulating transcription, translation and signal transduction pathways. A combination of active principles, isolated from high altitude plant Podophyllum hexandrum, extensively studied in our group for its radioprotective efficacy in various in-vitro and in-vivo model system, has shown its high radioprotective potential. To study the modulatory effect of P. hexandrum on radiation mediated cell death pathway in mice spleen by measuring status of various apoptotic proteins in different experimental groups. Strain 'A' female mice, divided into four groups: control, drug only, radiation only (9 Gy) and drug+radiation, were sacrificed at 6,12, and 24 h post experimentation. Spleen were excised from the animal and processed for western blotting and flow cytometric based expression of various pro and anti-apoptotic proteins (bak, bax, caspase, p53, puma bcl-2 and bcl-xl). Drug is a combination of three active principles, isolated from the dried rhizome of P. hexandrum. These three components coded as A (Lignan), B (Glucoside) and C (Rutin), were mixed in 3:1:1 ratio and freshly dissolved in the DMSO at the time of experimentation. In IR group we observed time dependent up-regulation of various pro-apoptotic proteins (bak, bax, p53, puma, caspases) in contrast to untreated controls. Time dependent studies indicated expression of these proteins were maximum at 24 h in IR group. In G-003M treated and irradiated mice, pro-apoptotic proteins were found significantly down-regulated when compared to corresponding radiation treated group. In the same group, we observed that the protein responsible for the cytoprotection and antioxidation (Nrf-2, Bcl-2,) got up regulated in comparison to radiation alone group and untreated control. Present study clearly demonstrates the ability of G-003M to attenuate radiation induced cell death in mice spleen by altering the levels of pro-apoptotic and anti