PROGRAM-PATTERN MULTIPOLE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR FRICTIONAL CONTACT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Chunxiao; Shen Guangxian; Liu Deyi
2005-01-01
A mathematical program is proposed for the highly nonlinear problem involving frictional contact. A program-pattern using the fast multipole boundary element method (FMBEM) is given for 3-D elastic contact with friction to replace the Monte Carlo method. A new optimized generalized minimal residual (GMRES) algorithm is presented. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the program-pattern optimization model for node-to-surface contact with friction. The GMRES algorithm greatly improves the computational efficiency.
Method of dimensionality reduction in contact mechanics and friction
Popov, Valentin L
2015-01-01
This book describes for the first time a simulation method for the fast calculation of contact properties and friction between rough surfaces in a complete form. In contrast to existing simulation methods, the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR) is based on the exact mapping of various types of three-dimensional contact problems onto contacts of one-dimensional foundations. Within the confines of MDR, not only are three dimensional systems reduced to one-dimensional, but also the resulting degrees of freedom are independent from another. Therefore, MDR results in an enormous reduction of the development time for the numerical implementation of contact problems as well as the direct computation time and can ultimately assume a similar role in tribology as FEM has in structure mechanics or CFD methods, in hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it substantially simplifies analytical calculation and presents a sort of “pocket book edition” of the entirety contact mechanics. Measurements of the rheology of bodies in...
Zhang, Jie
2014-01-01
Based on the plenty method, this paper describes a numerical method for 2D non-smooth contact problems with Coulomb friction and bilateral constraints and its application to the simulation of statics and dynamics for a frictional translational joint. Comparison is made with results obtained using a finite element program, ANSYS.
SOLVING CONTACT PROBLEM WITH FRICTION BY A NEW FAST BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
The formulation of boundary element method for handling contact problems with friction and the technique for high-speed contact analysis are presented. This formulation is based on the idea of modifying the length of contact elements without altering the total number of elements. The high precision of solution and high-speed analysis are verified according to the results of conventional method and analysis method.
A NEW METHOD FOR SOLUTION OF 3D ELASTIC-PLASTIC FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张洪武; 钟万勰; 顾元宪
2001-01-01
The solution of 3 D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belongs to the unspecified boundary problems where the interaction between two kinds of nonlinearities should occur. Considering the difficulties for the solution of 3 D frictional contact problems, the key part is the determination of the tangential slip states at the contact points, and a great amount of computing work is needed for a high accuracy result. A new method based on a combination of programming and iteration methods, which are respectively known as two main kinds of methods for contact analysis, was put forward to deal with 3 D elastic-plastic contact problems. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm illustrated here.
A Mortar Segment-to-Segment Frictional Contact Method for Large Deformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puso, M; Laursen, T
2003-10-29
Contact modeling is still one of the most difficult aspects of nonlinear implicit structural analysis. Most 3D contact algorithms employed today use node-on-segment approaches for contacting dissimilar meshes. Two pass node-on-segment contact approaches have the well known deficiency of locking due to over constraint. Furthermore, node-on-segment approaches suffer when individual nodes slide out of contact at contact surface boundaries or when contacting nodes slide from facet to facet. This causes jumps in the contact forces due to the discrete nature of the constraint enforcement and difficulties in convergence for implicit solution techniques. In a previous work, we developed a segment-to-segment contact approach based on the mortar method that was applicable to large deformation mechanics. The approach proved extremely robust since it eliminated the overconstraint which caused ''locking'' and provided smooth force variations in large sliding. Here, we extend this previous approach in to treat frictional contact problems. The proposed approach is then applied to several challenging frictional contact problems which demonstrate its effectiveness.
Semi-Smooth Newton Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Tresca and Coulomb Friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristina Motyckova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The contribution deals with contact problems for two elastic bodies with friction. After the description of the problem we present its discretization based on linear or bilinear finite elements. The semi--smooth Newton method is used to find the solution, from which we derive active sets algorithms. Finally, we arrive at the globally convergent dual implementation of the algorithms in terms of the Langrange multipliers for the Tresca problem. Numerical experiments conclude the paper.
Mixed Finite Element Method for Static and Dynamic Contact Problems with Friction and Initial Gaps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanhao Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel mixed finite element method is proposed for static and dynamic contact problems with friction and initial gaps. Based on the characteristic of local nonlinearity for the problem, the system of forces acting on the contactor is divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in contact region under local coordinate system is selected as the iteration variable to confine the nonlinear iteration process in the potential contact surface which is more numerically efficient. In this way, the sophisticated contact nonlinearity is revealed by the variety of the contact forces which are determined by the external load and the contact state stick, slip, or separation. Moreover, in the case of multibody contact problem, the flexibility matrix is symmetric and sparse; thus, the iterative procedure becomes easily carried out and much more economical. In the paper, both the finite element formulations and the iteration process are given in detail for static and dynamic contact problems. Four examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.
Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented using finite element method. Nonlinear finite element model for gear tooth contact with rolling/sliding is then developed. The contact zones for multiple tooth pairs are identified and the associated integration situation is derived. The illustrated bending stress and transmission error results with static and dynamic boundary conditions indicate the significant effects due to the sliding friction between the surfaces of contacted gear teeth, and the friction effect can not be ignored. To understand the particular static and dynamic frictional effects on gear tooth contact analysis, some significant phenomena of gained results will also be discussed. The potentially significant contribution of tooth frictional shear stress is presented, particularly in the case of gear tooth contact analysis with both static and dynamic boundary conditions.
Analysis of 3-D Frictional Contact Mechanics Problems by a Boundary Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KEUM Bangyong; LIU Yijun
2005-01-01
The development of two boundary element algorithms for solving 3-D, frictional, and linear elastostatic contact problems is reported in this paper. The algorithms employ nonconforming discretizations for solving 3-D boundary element models, which provide much needed flexibility in the boundary element modeling for 3-D contact problems. These algorithms are implemented in a new 3-D boundary element code and verified using several examples. For the numerical examples studied, the results using the new boundary element algorithms match very well with the results using a commercial finite element code, and clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the new boundary element approach for 3-D contact analysis.
Frictional heating of tribological contacts
Bos, Johannes
1995-01-01
Wherever friction occurs, mechanical energy is transformed into heat. The tem perature rise associated with this heating can have an important influence on the tribological behaviour of the contacting components. Apart from determining per formance, thermal phenomena affect reliability and may cau
Simulating frictional contact in smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Jian; WU; Hao; GU; ChongShi; HUA; Hui
2013-01-01
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a powerful tool for large deformation computation of soil flow. However, the method to simulate frictional contact in the framework of SPH is still absent and needs to be developed. This paper presents an algorithm to simulate frictional contact between soil and rigid or deformable structure in the framework of SPH. In this algo-rithm, the computational domain is divided into several sub-domains according to the existing contact boundaries, and contact forces are used as bridges of these sub-domains to fulfill problem solving. In the process of the SPH discretization for govern-ing equation of each sub-domain, the inherent problem of boundary deficiency of SPH is handled properly. Therefore, the par-ticles located at contact boundary can have precise acceleration, which is critical for contact detection. Then, based on the as-sumption that the SPH particle of soil can slightly penetrate into the structure, the contact forces along normal and tangential directions of the contact surface are computed by momentum principle, and the frictional force is modified if sliding occurs.Compared with previous methods, in which only particle-to-particle contact is considered or frictional sliding is just ignored,the method proposed in this study is more efficient and accurate, and is suitable for simulating interaction between soft materi-als and rigid or deformable structures, which are very common in geotechnical engineering. A number of numerical tests have been carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the proposed algorithm, and the results have been compared with ana-lytical solutions or FEM results. The consistency obtained from these comparisons indicates that the algorithm is robust and can enhance the computing capability of SPH.
Mathematical Programming Solution for the Frictional Contact Multipole BEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Chunxiao; SHEN Guangxian; LIU Deyi
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new mathematical model for the highly nonlinear problem of frictional contact. A programming model, multipole boundary element method (BEM), was developed for 3-D elastic contact with friction to replace the Monte Carlo method. A numerical example shows that the optimization programming model for the point-to-surface contact with friction and the fast optimization generalized minimal residual algorithm (GMRES(m)) significantly improve the analysis of such problems relative to the conventional BEM.
Friction and wear calculation methods
Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S
1981-01-01
Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny
2010-01-01
In interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating and control slipping between bodies. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifact...... and a minimum map reformulation. The resulting model is called the Projected Gauss–Seidel method. Quantitative research results are presented and can be used as a taxonomy for selecting a suitable heuristic when using the Projected Gauss–Seidel method....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny
2010-01-01
In interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating and control slipping between bodies. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifact...... and a minimum map reformulation. The resulting model is called the Projected Gauss–Seidel method. Quantitative research results are presented and can be used as a taxonomy for selecting a suitable heuristic when using the Projected Gauss–Seidel method....
Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis
Zheng Li; Ken Mao
2013-01-01
The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented us...
Li, Si; Wang, Zhigang; Ruan, Jinhua; Liu, Changming; Xu, Zengbing
2017-10-01
In order to avoid strip marks or perturbation of local lubricant flow at the interface between strip and work roll in strip rolling, an indirect friction sensor has been designed. This sensor is based on the inverse method improved by envelope fitting method, which utilizes strain gage to measure strains at one point inside the work roll to evaluate the contact stress in roll gap. Then several cold rolling tests have been performed at different reductions to demonstrate the rational and the validity of this indirect friction sensor. Comparing the results evaluated by finite element method with the results reconstructed by different inverse methods, it is found that the improved inverse method leads to a better solution to evaluation of the contact stress, in particular for prediction of shear stress. In addition, reasonable prediction is obtained for large reduction but not for small reduction (only the order of magnitude is obtained). It is believed that this research has a strategic importance for practical application.
Simulation of Strip Rolling Using Elastoplastic Contact BEM With Friction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yu-gui; HUANG Qing-xue; SHEN Guang-xian; XIAO Hong; PANG Si-qin; WANG Jian-mei
2008-01-01
With rollers as elastic bodies and workpieces as elastoplastic bodies, the rolling problem can be viewed as a friction elastic-plastic contact problem. With fewer assumptions in the simulation of strip-rolling process, a boundary element method (BEM) for two-dimensional elastoplastic finite strain and finite deformation analysis of contact problems with friction was presented. All the equations for contact problems, which include multi-nonlinearities, were obtained. Incremental and iterative procedures were used to find contact pressure and friction stress. Moreover, initial strain rate algorithm and work-hardening material behavior can be assumed in the plastic analysis. Several examples were presented, and the results of contact pressure and friction stress were in excellent agreement with those of analysis.
Numerical Analysis of Frictional Heat-Stress Coupled Field at Dynamic Contact
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张一兵; 刘佐民
2004-01-01
A new analysis method was developed to simulate the dynamic process of a frictional heat-stress coupled field.The relationship between the frictional heat and the thermal stress was investigated for concave cylinder contact conditions.The results show that, as a nonlinear contact problem, the frictional heat at the contact areas changes with moving velocity in both value and distribution, and that the transient frictional heat at the dynamic condition has a peak within a cycle.The dynamic process of friction heat and thermal stresses affects diffusion of the frictional effects.The result can be helpful for dynamic simulation of diffusion lubrication of elements at elevated temperatures.
Solution procedure of dynamical contact problems with friction
Abdelhakim, Lotfi
2017-07-01
Dynamical contact is one of the common research topics because of its wide applications in the engineering field. The main goal of this work is to develop a time-stepping algorithm for dynamic contact problems. We propose a finite element approach for elastodynamics contact problems [1]. Sticking, sliding and frictional contact can be taken into account. Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce non-penetration condition. For the time discretization, we propose a scheme equivalent to the explicit Newmark scheme. Each time step requires solving a nonlinear problem similar to a static friction problem. The nonlinearity of the system of equation needs an iterative solution procedure based on Uzawa's algorithm [2][3]. The applicability of the algorithm is illustrated by selected sample numerical solutions to static and dynamic contact problems. Results obtained with the model have been compared and verified with results from an independent numerical method.
Implicit frictional-contact model for soft particle systems
Nezamabadi, Saeid; Radjai, Farhang; Averseng, Julien; Delenne, Jean-Yves
2015-10-01
We introduce a novel numerical approach for the simulation of soft particles interacting via frictional contacts. This approach is based on an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method, allowing for large particle deformations, combined with the Contact Dynamics method for the treatment of unilateral frictional contacts between particles. This approach is both precise due to the treatment of contacts with no regularization and artificial damping parameters, and robust due to implicit time integration of both bulk degrees of freedom and relative contact velocities at the nodes representing the contact points. By construction, our algorithm is capable of handling arbitrary particle shapes and deformations. We illustrate this approach by two simple 2D examples: a Hertz contact and a rolling particle on an inclined plane. We also investigate the compaction of a packing of circular particles up to a solid fraction well above the jamming limit of hard particles. We find that, for the same level of deformation, the solid fraction in a packing of frictional particles is above that of a packing of frictionless particles as a result of larger particle shape change.
DAE-LCP MIXED METHOD FOR MULTIBODY SYSTEM DYNAMICS WITH FRICTIONAL CONTACTS%多体系统摩擦接触问题的DAE-LCP方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
富立; 岳凤桐
2011-01-01
differential equations of motion have discontinuous right-hand vector fields, therefore to allow our system to be classified as a Filippov system. In addition to the friction constraints, our model also incorporates frictionless bilateral ones. If the simulation has only friction constraints, then the problem is an ODE-LCP model. Combining friction contacts with frictionless bilateral constaints, the ODE-LCP model has to be extended to DAE-LCP (DAE, Differential Algebra Equation) mixed model. In order to obtain the model,the basic system is derived from the original system by removing the friction constraints firstly. Because the equality constraints are retained in the basic system, the dynamic model of basic system is a set of DAE. With the aid of constraint Jacobian matrix, the normal contact forces and tangential friction forces of nonsmooth constraints, which obey the complementarity contact laws, are added to the DAE of the basic system to obtain the DAE-LCP mixed modelApproaches used in the past for simulating rigid mnltibody dynamics with friction contacts include piecewise DAE approaches, acceleration-force LCP approaches, and velocity-impulse LCP-based time-stepping methods. Recognizing that the nature of the frictional constraint can induce sick-slip motion, the last approach is used in this work, which has the advantage that it does not suffer from the detection for stick-slip transition that conld appear in the first two approaches. This framework is based on a LCP, but it is different from acceleration-force LCP approaches that attempt to find the accelerations of the bodies. Our approach considers impulses and velocities as the fundamental unknowns. Acceleration-force LCP approaches solve for accelerations from the dynamics equations and then use the accelerations in an integration procedure. Because the complementarity law between acceleration and friction surplus is valid only when the relative tangential velocity is zero, zero crossing detection for velocity
Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment
Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2000-01-01
Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact
Contact mechanics and friction physical principles and applications
Popov, Valentin L
2017-01-01
This application-oriented book introduces readers to the associations and relationships between contact mechanics and friction, providing them with a deeper understanding of tribology. It addresses the related phenomena of contacts, adhesion, capillary forces, friction, lubrication, and wear from a consistent point of view. The author presents (1) methods for rough estimates of tribological quantities, (2) simple and general methods for analytical calculations, and (3) the crossover into numerical simulation methods, the goal being to convey a consistent view of tribological processes at various scales of magnitude (from nanotribology to earthquake research). The book also explores the system dynamic aspects of tribological systems, such as squeal and its suppression, as well as other types of instabilities and spatial patterns. It includes problems and worked-out solutions for the respective chapters, giving readers ample opportunity to apply the theory to practical situations and to deepen their understandi...
Elastoplastic frictional contact problem study on interference fits of compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwu ZHANG; Aihua LIAO; Changhua WU
2008-01-01
The FE parametric quadratic programming (PQP) method developed from the parametric variational principle (PVP) was used for the analysis of the stress distribution of the 3D elastoplastic frictional contact of an impeller-shaft sleeve-shaft. A locomotive-type turbo-charger compressor with 24 blades under combined cen-trifugal and interference-fit loading was considered in the numerical analysis. The solution of elastoplastic frictional contact problems belongs to unspecified boundary pro-blems where the interaction between two kinds of nonli-nearities should occur. To save time in the numerical computation, a multi-substructure technique was adopted in the structural modeling. The effect of fit tolerance, wall thickness of the shaft sleeve, and rotational speed on the contact stress was discussed in detail in the numerical computation. To decrease the difficulty of the assembly process and ensure the safety of the working state, the amount of interference between the shaft sleeve and shaft by press-fitting should be controlled strictly to avoid the rapid increase of contact stress. The numerical results show that the algorithm has high accuracy and good con-vergence. The study can be referred to in deciding the proper fit tolerance and improving the design and man-ufacturing technology of compressor impellers.
Microscopic contact area and friction between medical textiles and skin.
Derler, S; Rotaru, G-M; Ke, W; El Issawi-Frischknecht, L; Kellenberger, P; Scheel-Sailer, A; Rossi, R M
2014-10-01
The mechanical contact between medical textiles and skin is relevant in the health care for patients with vulnerable skin or chronic wounds. In order to gain new insights into the skin-textile contact on the microscopic level, the 3D surface topography of a normal and a new hospital bed sheet with a regular surface structure was measured using a digital microscope. The topographic data was analysed concerning material distribution and real contact area against smooth surfaces as a function of surface deformations. For contact conditions that are relevant for the skin of patients lying in a hospital bed it was found that the order of magnitude of the ratio of real and apparent contact area between textiles and skin or a mechanical skin model lies between 0.02 and 0.1 and that surface deformations, i.e. penetration of the textile surface asperities into skin or a mechanical skin model, range from 10 to 50µm. The performed analyses of textile 3D surface topographies and comparisons with previous friction measurement results provided information on the relationship between microscopic surface properties and macroscopic friction behaviour of medical textiles. In particular, the new bed sheet was found to be characterised by a trend towards a smaller microscopic contact area (up to a factor of two) and by a larger free interfacial volume (more than a factor of two) in addition to a 1.5 times lower shear strength when in contact with counter-surfaces. The applied methods can be useful to develop improved and skin-adapted materials and surfaces for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friction Behavior on Contact Interface of Linear Ultrasonic Motor with Hard Contact Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jinpeng; Zhou Hongping; Jin Jiamei; Zhao Chunsheng
2015-01-01
How to improve the efficiency of the linear ultrasonic motor with hard contact materials (HLUSM ) or the precision motion stage driven by HLUSM ,becomes a hot issue .Analysis and testing of friction behavior on the contact interface of HLUSM is one of the key issues .Under the action of ultrasonic vibration and impact ,the fric-tion behavior on contact interface is very complex due to micro-amplitude and high frequency .Moreover ,it is diffi-cult to observe and test it .Focusing on the frictional behavior on the interface of HLUSM ,a new method ,through testing the vibration of the driving tips (scanning vibrometer PSV-400-3D) and the motion of the slider (displace-ment sensor LK-G30) ,respectively ,is proposed .Then ,take the HLUSM as an example ,theoretical analyses and experiments are carried out .Theoretical analysis shows that the average speed of the slider should be 600 mm/s when there is no slippage between the stator and slider during the contact process .Experimental results show that the average speed of the slider is about 390 mm/s .At the same time ,the tangential vibration speed of the driving tip of HLUSM is larger than 600 mm/s .Therefore ,there must be slippage between the stator and slider of HLUSM .Further experimental results show that the maximum efficiency is less than 10% .The slippage on the contact interface should be the main reason for the low efficiency of HLUSM .
Contact mechanics, friction and adhesion with application to quasicrystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, Bo; Carbone, Giuseppe; Samoilov, Vladimir N.;
2015-01-01
We discuss the origin of friction and adhesion between hard solids such as quasicrystals. We emphasize the fundamental role of surface roughness in many contact mechanics problems, in particular for friction and adhesion between solid bodies. The most important property of rough surfaces is the s...
A Damping Characteristics Calculation Method of Metal Dry Friction Isolators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Hong-yuan; HAO De-gang; XIA Yu-hong; ULANOV A M; PONOMAREV Yu K
2008-01-01
The dry friction ring-type vibration isolator is considered as an isotropic continuous medium. A method of dry friction hysteresis loop calculation is proposed based on friction force analysis of contact beam. The friction force is modeled as an equivalent distributed moment to use the finite element method (FEM) to calculate the dry friction vibration isolator hysteresis loop, so the damping characteristics can be obtained. A comparison of the hysteresis loop calculation results and the experimental results shows the average relative error is 2.7%, it proves the calculation method is feasible.
Finite element analysis of 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem for Cosserat materials
Zhang, S.; Xie, Z. Q.; Chen, B. S.; Zhang, H. W.
2013-06-01
The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem of Cosserat materials. Because 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belong to the unspecified boundary problems with nonlinearities in both material and geometric forms, a large number of calculations are needed to obtain numerical results with high accuracy. Based on the parametric variational principle and the corresponding quadratic programming method for numerical simulation of frictional contact problems, a finite element model is developed for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact analysis of Cosserat materials. The problems are finally reduced to linear complementarity problems (LCP). Numerical examples show the feasibility and importance of the developed model for analyzing the contact problems of structures with materials which have micro-polar characteristics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Zhongming; HUANG Ping
2007-01-01
A method based on the energy dissipation mechanism of an Independent Oscillator model is used to calculate the frictional force and the friction coefficient of interfacial friction. The friction work is calculated with considering the potential change of contact surfaces during sliding. The potential change can be gained by a universal adhesive energy function. The relationships between frictional force and parameters of a tribo-system, such as surface energy and microstructure of interfacial material, are set up. The calculation results of the known experimental data denote that the frictional force is nearly proportional to the surface energy of the material, nearly inversely proportional to the scaling length, and independent of the lattice constant. The results agree with that of adhesion friction equations. They also agree with the experimental results performed with an atomic-force microscope under the ultra high vacuum condition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
The boundary element method in framework is given to evaluate three dimensional frictional contact problems. Elasto-plastic material behavior is taken into account by mean of an initial stress formulation and Von Mises yield criterion. The amount of tangential traction at contact surface is limited by Coulomb's friction law and constant shear rule. From some numerical results of a plate rolling problem, it is demonstrated here that the BEM can be used to efficiently and accurately analyze this class of forming problems.
Dry frictional contact of metal asperities : A dislocation dynamics analysis
Sun, Fengwei; van der Giessen, Erik; Nicola, Lucia
2016-01-01
Discrete dislocation plasticity simulations are performed to investigate the static frictional behavior of a metal asperity on a large single crystal, in contact with a rigid platen. The focus of this study is on understanding the relative importance of contact slip opposed to plasticity in a single
Plasticity under rough surface contact and friction
Sun, F.
2016-01-01
The ultimate objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the plastic behavior of rough metal surfaces under contact loading. Attention in this thesis focuses on the study of single and multiple asperities with micrometer scale dimensions, a scale at which plasticity is known to be si
On the Modeling of Contact Interfaces with Frictional Slips
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ligia Munteanu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The paper analyses the contact interfaces between the scatterers and the matrix into the sonic composites, in the presence of the frictional slips. The sonic composite is a sonic liner designed in order to provide suppression of unwanted noise for jet engines, with emphases on the nacelle of turbofan engines for commercial aircraft.
Hu, Chengzhi; Bai, Minli; Lv, Jizu; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaojie
2014-12-01
This study investigated the effect of copper (Cu) nanoparticles on the solid contact between friction surfaces by applying a molecular dynamics method to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the favorable friction properties of nanoparticles. Two models were built, which were named model A (without Cu) and model B (with Cu), respectively. The differences in the mechanical properties between these two models were compared. The simulation results demonstrated that the improvement in friction properties by Cu nanoparticles was more obvious at low velocity than at high velocity. At low velocity, a Cu nano-film was formed on the friction surface, which accommodated the velocity gradient and plastic deformation. Due to the good lubrication effect of the nano-film, the plastic deformation, defect structures and friction force of model B were improved compared with model A. Under high velocity conditions, a transfer layer appeared adjacent to the interface in both models. Because of this, the friction forces of the two models decreased with increased velocity. The fluid mechanics theory was used to explain why the friction force in model B was lower than that in model A at high velocity. The effect of the load on friction properties was also analyzed and the results showed that the mechanisms of anti-wear and friction reduction by Cu nanoparticles under a low load were the same as those under a high load.
Static Coefficient of Rolling Friction at High Contact Temperatures and Various Contact Pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Tadić
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper theoretically and experimentally analyzes the influence of increased temperature and load contact in the value of the coefficient of rolling friction. Theoretical analyzes show that at temperatures of the order of 200 0C, exist thermal potential necessary to narrow contact zone leads to a redistribution of the contact pressure and an increase in torque performance. Based on the measurement results, established the regression coefficient of friction depending on the temperature, normal load and geometry parameters of contact elements (radius of curvature of the contact elements. Material of examination contact pairs is steel ASTM A-295 hardness 64-66 HRC. The measurement results indicate a very significant impact on the temperature coefficient of friction, normal load and contact geometry (the radius of curvature of the contact elements. According to the authors future research should focus on optimizing the choice of materials that under the given conditions of mechanical and thermal load of contact to ensure a minimum value of the coefficient of rolling friction.
Frictional behavior of carbon fiber tows: a contact mechanics model of tow–tow friction
Cornelissen, Bo; Rooij, de Matthijn B.; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko
2014-01-01
Composite-forming processes involve mechanical interactions at the ply, tow, and filament level. The deformations that occur during forming processes are governed by friction between the contacting tows on the mesoscopic level and consequently between filaments on the microscopic level. A thorough u
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1989-12-31
Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.
Multiscale Modeling of Stiffness, Friction and Adhesion in Mechanical Contacts
2012-02-29
displacements in the plane is performed. Forces can then be calculated by multiplying by a precalculated Greens function for each wave vector q and...that contacts could advance through propagation of dislocations across the interface rather than uniform sliding. The Burgers vector of the...College London, Dec. 9, 2010 13) "Friction forces from atomic to macroscopic scales," XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Iguassu
Analysis of a Frictional Contact Problem with Adhesion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Lerguet
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the contact between a deformable body and an obstacle, the so-called foundation. The contact is frictional and is modelled with aversion of normal compliance condition and the associated Coulomb's law of dry friction in which the adhesion of contact surfaces is taken into account. The evolution of the bonding fieldis described by a first order differential equation and the material's behavior is modelled with a nonlinear elastic constitutive law. We derive a variational formulation of the problem then, under a smallness assumption on the coefficient of friction, we prove the existence of a unique weak solution for the model. The proof is based on arguments of time-dependent variational inequalities, differential equations and Banach'sfixed point theorem. Finally, we extend our results in the case when the piezoelectric effect is taken into account, i.e. in the case when the material's behavior is modelled with a nonlinear electro-elastic constitutive law.
A formulation of contact with dry friction; computational application
Moreau, Jean-Jacques
1986-01-01
International audience; The usual law of dry friction is turned into a statement which does not involve splitting the contact force into its normal and tangential components. A numerical algorithm is derived for the dynamics of systems with unilateral contact; possible shocks are inelastic.; La loi usuelle du frottement sec est mise sous une forme évitant d'exhiber la composante normale et la composante tangentielle de la réaction. On en tire un algorithme numérique pour la dynamique de systè...
摩擦接触问题的比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法%ANALYSIS OF FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS BY SBIGA-BDE METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
薛冰寒; 林皋; 胡志强; 庞林
2016-01-01
摩擦接触问题是计算力学领域最具挑战性的问题之一，接触系统的泛函具有非线性、非光滑的特点，导致接触算法的收敛性与精确性难以保证。因此将比例边界等几何分析(scaled boundary isogeometric analysis, SBIGA)与B可微方程组(B differential equation, BDE)相结合，提出了求解二维摩擦接触问题的比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法。在比例边界等几何坐标变换的基础上，通过虚功原理推导了关于边界控制点变量的接触平衡方程，表示成B可微方程组形式的接触条件可被严格满足，求解B可微方程组的算法的收敛性有理论保证。此比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法(SBIGA-BDE)只需在接触体边界进行等几何离散，使问题降低一维，能精确描述接触边界，并可通过节点插入算法进行真实接触区域的识别。此外，由于几何建模和数值分析使用相同的基函数，节约了划分网格的时间。以赫兹接触问题和悬臂梁摩擦接触问题为例，通过与解析解及数值计算软件ANSYS计算结果进行对比，验证了该方法求解二维摩擦接触问题的有效性及高精度等特点。%Frictional contact analysis is one of the most challenging problems in computational mechanics. The functional system of the contact problem is not only nonlinear, but also non-smooth, so in general the convergence and accuracy of contact algorithms are diﬃcult to be guaranteed. For 2D elastic frictional contact problem, the scaled boundary isogeo-metric analysis combined with B differential equation method (SBIGA-BDE method) is developed. Based on the scaled boundary isogeometric transformation, the contact equilibrium equation is derived by using virtual principle. The contact conditions are formulated as B differential equation and satisfied rigorously. The convergence of the algorithm to solve the B differential equation is guaranteed by the theory of
Modeling and Calculation of Impact Friction Caused by Corner Contact in Gear Transmission
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Changjiang; CHEN Siyu
2014-01-01
Corner contact in gear pair causes vibration and noise, which has attracted many attentions. However, teeth errors and deformation make it difficulty to determine the point situated at corner contact and study the mechanism of teeth impact friction in the current researches. Based on the mechanism of corner contact, the process of corner contact is divided into two stages of impact and scratch, and the calculation model including gear equivalent error-combined deformation is established along the line of action. According to the distributive law, gear equivalent error is synthesized by base pitch error, normal backlash and tooth profile modification on the line of action. The combined tooth compliance of the first point lying in corner contact before the normal path is inversed along the line of action, on basis of the theory of engagement and the curve of tooth synthetic compliance & load-history. Combined secondarily the equivalent error with the combined deflection, the position standard of the point situated at corner contact is probed. Then the impact positions and forces, from the beginning to the end during corner contact before the normal path, are calculated accurately. Due to the above results, the lash model during corner contact is founded, and the impact force and frictional coefficient are quantified. A numerical example is performed and the averaged impact friction coefficient based on the presented calculation method is validated. This research obtains the results which could be referenced to understand the complex mechanism of teeth impact friction and quantitative calculation of the friction force and coefficient, and to gear exact design for tribology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
We present a novel, yet simple, method for stabilization of normal forces. A normal stabilization term, carefully designed from hypotheses about interactive usability, is added to the contact force problem. Further, we propose friction stabilization as a completely new stabilization paradigm in i...
Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naci Zafer
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.
Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naci Zafer
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.
Method for Investigation of Frictional Properties at Impact Loading
Sundin, K. G.; Åhrström, B. O.
1999-05-01
In the assessment of lubricant performance and also in various other contact applications it is of importance to know the frictional qualities of a surface. Under quasi-static conditions, normal and frictional forces are measured using force transducers but the task is more difficult when loads are transient. The experimental method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of propagating waves in a beam, due to an impact on the end surface. The impact is oblique and therefore a transverse as well as a normal force is generated. The normal force history is measured from the axial non-dispersive wave using strain gauges. Transverse force and bending moment both generate dispersive flexural waves. From the FFT of two transverse acceleration histories, the frictional force at the end of the rod is evaluated using beam theory. The relation between normal and frictional force histories displays the frictional properties at the impact. Preliminary results are presented.
Meshless shape design sensitivity analysis and optimization for contact problem with friction
Kim, N. H.; Choi, K. K.; Chen, J. S.; Park, Y. H.
In this paper, a continuum-based shape design sensitivity formulation for a frictional contact problem with a rigid body is proposed using a meshless method. The contact condition is imposed using the penalty method that regularizes the solution of variational inequality. The shape dependency of the contact variational form with respect to the design velocity field is obtained. The dependency of the response with respect to the shape of the rigid body is also considered. It is shown that the sensitivity equation needs to be solved at the final converged load step for the frictionless contact problem, whereas for the frictional contact case the sensitivity solution is needed at the converged configuration of each load step because the sensitivity of the current load step depends on that of the previous load step. The continuum-based contact formulation and consistent linearization is critical for accurate shape design sensitivity results. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared with the finite difference result and excellent agreement is obtained for a door seal contact example. A design optimization problem is formulated and solved to reduce the contact gap opening successfully in a demonstration of the proposed method.
Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite—silicon wafer contacts
van den Ende, D. A.; Fischer, H. R.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.
2013-04-01
The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and a silicon wafer counter surface rests solely on the matrix region of the piezocomposite surface. When actuated, the piezoelectric ceramic fibers protrude from the surface and the wafer rests solely on these protrusions. A threefold decrease in engineering static friction coefficient upon actuation of the piezocomposite was observed: from μ* = 1.65 to μ* = 0.50. These experimental results could be linked to the change in contact surface area and roughness using capillary adhesion theory, which relates the adhesive force to the number and size of the contacting asperities for the different surface states.
Nosonovsky, Michael
2013-01-01
Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechani
Gwinner, Joachim
2016-12-01
This contribution deals with unilateral contact problems with Tresca friction (given friction model) in hemitropic mi-cropolar elasticity. Based on a boundary integral approach such problems can be reduced to boundary variational inequalities. This suggests the use of boundary element methods for their numerical treatment. With higher order approximation this leads to a nonconforming approximation what can numerically be realized by means of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature. The contribution is based on the recent papers [7, 8] of the author and on joint work [3] with A. Gachechiladze, R. Gachechi-ladze, and D. Natroshvili.
Contact Pressure Effect on Frictional Characteristics of Steel Sheet for Autobody
Han, S. S.; Kim, D. J.
2011-08-01
The high strength steel (HSS) is widely used in auto body part due to its advantage of weight reduction. The usage of HSS extends the range of contact pressure than that of mild steel's and makes it is not disregardable fact that the effect of contact pressure on frictional characteristics of steel sheet. To investigate the influence of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet, the flat type friction test with high strength bare steel sheet was conducted under various contact pressures. According to the test result, the relationship between contact pressure and friction coefficient shows U shape. When the contact pressure is lower than 10 MPa, the friction coefficient was slightly decreased as contact pressure was increased. However the amount of decrement was very small. Above 10 MPa contact pressure the friction coefficient was increased as the contact pressure was increased and the amount of increment of friction coefficient was not negligible. This study shows that the effect of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet is very big, especially on HSS stamping which has the wide range of contact pressure.
Renouf, Mathieu; Alart, Pierre
2005-01-01
International audience; This paper presents gradient type algorithms to solve frictional multi contact problems written as quasi optimization problems. A single loop scheme formally close to the classical conjugate gradient method is proposed with some adap tations of the iterate corrections and gradient projections. Since the convergence is difficult to prove, various tests in the field of granular media are performed with comparison with the non linear Gauss Seidel scheme.
Bifurcations in Systems with Friction : Basic Models and Methods
Ivanov, A. P.
2009-01-01
Examples of irregular behavior of dynamical systems with dry friction are discussed. A classification of frictional contacts with respect to their dimensionality, associativity, and the possibility of interruptions is proposed and basic models showing typical features are stated. In particular,
Methods and Devices used to Measure Friction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeswiet, Jack; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul
2004-01-01
The physical condition at the work-piece/die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals, yet it remains the least understood. Hence the need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms....... To gain a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure friction-stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods, which have...
A flexible multi-body approach for frictional contact in spur gears
Lundvall, O.; Strömberg, N.; Klarbring, A.
2004-12-01
In the present paper, a large rotational approach for dynamic contact problems with friction is proposed. The approach is used for modelling a spur gear pair with shafts and bearings. The model is obtained by superposing small displacement elasticity on rigid-body motions, and postulating tribological laws on the gear flanks. The finite element method is used to model the elastic properties of the gear pair. Shafts and bearings are represented by linear springs. The tribological laws of the contact interface are Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's law of friction. An important feature of the approach is that the difficulties of impacting mass nodes are avoided. The governing equations of the model are numerically treated by use of the augmented Lagrangian approach. In such manner the geometry of the gear flanks are well represented in the numerical simulations. It is possible to study accurately the consequences of different types of profile modifications as well as flank errors. In this work, the dynamic transmission error is studied. For instance, it turns out that the effect from profile modification is less significant for the transmission error when frictional effects are included.
Taghizadeh, K.; Kumar, N.; Magnanimo, V.; Luding, S.
2015-09-01
Understanding the mechanical stiffness of closely packed, dense granular systems is of interest in many fields, such as soil mechanics, material science and physics. The main difficulty arises due to discreteness and disorder in granular materials at the microscopic scale which requires a multi-scale approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a powerful tool to inspect the influence of the microscopic contact properties of its individual constituents on the bulk behavior of granular assemblies. In this study, the isotropic deformation mode of polydisperse packings of frictionless and frictional spheres are modeled by using DEM, to investigate the effective stiffness of the granular assembly. At various volume fractions, for every sample, we determine the stress and fabric incremental response that result from the application of strain-probes. As we are interested first in the reversible, elastic response, the amplitude of the applied perturbations has to be small enough to avoid opening and closing of too many contacts, which would lead to irreversible rearrangements in the sample. Counterintuitively, with increasing inter-particle contact friction, the bulk modulus decreases systematically with the coefficient of friction for samples with the same volume fraction. We explain this by the difference in microstructure (isotropic fabric) the samples get when compressed to the same density.
Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1984-01-01
The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.
Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John
2003-01-01
generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... a known contact condition at the contact interface, e.g. either as pure sliding or sticking. The present model uses Coulomb’s law of friction for the sliding condition and the material yield shear stress for the sticking condition to model the contact forces. The model includes heat generation...
DAE for Frictional Contact Modeling of Constrained Multi-Flexible Body Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ray P.S.Han; S. G. Mao
2004-01-01
A general formulation for modeling frictional contact interactions in a constrained multi-flexible body system is outlined in this paper. The governing differential-algebraic equations (DAE) for the constrained motion contains not only a frictional term but also, the unknown contact conditions. These contact conditions are characterized by a set of nonlinear complementarity equations. To demonstrate the model, a falling-spinning beam impacting a rough elastic ground with damping is solved and comparison with Stewart-Trinkles' results provided.
CONTACT FRICTION ANALYSIS AND STRESS OSCILLATION SUPPRESSION WITH A SIMPLE INTERFACE ELEMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Xiaoyan
2000-01-01
A simple interface element for analyzing contact friction problems is developed. Taking nodal displacements and contact stresses as unknowns, this element can simulate frictional slippage, decoupling and re-bonding of two bodies initially mating or having gaps at a common interface. The method is based on the Finite Element Method and load incremental theory. The geometric and static constraint conditions on contact surfaces are treated as additional conditions and are included in stiffness equations. This simple element has the advantages of easy implementation into standard finite element programs and fast speed for conv ergence as well as high accuracy for stress distribution in interface. Undesirable stress oscillations are also investigated whenever large stress gradients exist over the contact surfaces. Exact integration or the conventional Gauss integration scheme used to evaluate the interpolation function matrix of the interface element is found to be the source of the oscillations. Eigenmode analysis demonstrates that the stress behavior of an interface element can be improved by using the Newton-Cotes integration scheme. Finally, the test example of a strip footing problem is presented.
Fundamental considerations in adhesion, friction and wear for ceramic-metal contacts
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa
1990-01-01
Fundamental studies of friction, wear and adhesion of ceramics in contact with metals are evaluated. It is shown that friction and adhesion are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. The surface energy, friction, adhesion and hardness of a metal are related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. Generally, the greater the sheer modulus, the less metal transfer there is to the ceramic.
Effect of capillary-condensed water on the dynamic friction force at nanoasperity contacts
Sirghi, L.
2003-05-01
A single nanoasperity contact in ambient air is usually wetted by capillary condensation of water vapor and is surrounded by a water meniscus. This phenomenon strongly affects the contact friction, not only by the effect of meniscus loading force (superficial tension and capillary forces), but also by a friction force that accounts for the energy loss in the meniscus movement along with the sliding contact. Occurrence of the water-meniscus-generated friction is experimentally proved by atomic force microscopy measurements of the tip-sample friction force at minimum possible external load (before pull-off). A qualitative explanation for the observed dependence of the friction force on air humidity and solid surface wettability is proposed.
The friction behavior of semiconductors Si and GaAs in contact with pure metals
Mishina, H.
1984-01-01
The friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals was studied. Five transition and two nontransition metals, titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, and silver, slid on a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Four metals, indium, nickel, copper and silver, slid on a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Experiments were conducted in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 7th power N/sq cm (10 to the minus 9th power torr). The results indicate that the sliding of silicon on the transition metals exhibits relatively higher friction than for the nontransition metals in contact with silicon. There is a clear correlation between friction and Schottky barrier height formed at the metal silicon interface for the transition metals. Transition metals with a higher barrier height on silicon had a lower friction. The same effect of barrier height was found for the friction of gallium arsenide in contact with metals.
Experimental quantification of contact forces with impact, friction and uncertainty analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar
2013-01-01
During rotor-stator contact dry friction plays a significant role in terms of reversing the rotor precession. The frictional force causes an increase in the rotor's tangential velocity in the direction opposite to that of the angular velocity. This effect is crucial for defining ranges of dry whip...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alain Mignot
2005-09-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.
The influence of bearing grease composition on friction in rolling/sliding concentrated contacts
De Laurentis, N.; Kadiric, A.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Cann, P.M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents new results examining the relationship between bearing grease composition and rolling-sliding friction in lubricated contacts. Friction coefficient and lubricating film thickness of a series of commercially available bearing greases and their bled oils were measured in laboratory
New Micro- and Macroscopic Models of Contact and Friction
1992-11-01
T., and Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the Coefficient of Friction," .Journ. Appl. Phys., 24, 2, pp. 136-139, 1953. 23. Bush, A. W., Gibson, R. D...Nonlinear Friction Laws," International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 1755-1768, 1986. 76. Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the...Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction," Journ. AppL. Physics, 11, 22, pp. 1373-1379, 1951. 77. Rabinowicz , E., "The Intrinsic Variables Affecting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xydas, N.; Kao, I.
1999-09-01
A new theory in contact mechanics for modeling of soft fingers is proposed to define the relationship between the normal force and the radius of contact for soft fingers by considering general soft-finger materials, including linearly and nonlinearly elastic materials. The results show that the radius of contact is proportional to the normal force raised to the power of {gamma}, which ranges from 0 to 1/3. This new theory subsumes the Hertzian contact model for linear elastic materials, where {gamma} = 1/3. Experiments are conducted to validate the theory using artificial soft fingers made of various materials such as rubber and silicone. Results for human fingers are also compared. This theory provides a basis for numerically constructing friction limit surfaces. The numerical friction limit surface can be approximated by an ellipse, with the major and minor axes as the maximum friction force and the maximum moment with respect to the normal axis of contact, respectively. Combining the results of the contact-mechanics model with the contact-pressure distribution, the normalized friction limit surface can be derived for anthropomorphic soft fingers. The results of the contact-mechanics model and the pressure distribution for soft fingers facilitate the construction of numerical friction limit surfaces, and will enable us to analyze and simulate contact behaviors of grasping and manipulation in robotics.
Anisotropic friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1978-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with manganese-zinc ferrite (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes in contact with themselves. Mating the highest-atomic-density directions, (110), of matched crystallographic planes resulted in the lowest coefficients of friction. Mating matched (same) high-atomic-density planes and matched (same)crystallographic directions resulted in low coefficients of friction. Mating dissimilar crystallographic planes, however, did not give significantly different friction results from those with matched planes. Sliding caused cracking and the formation of hexagonal- and rectangular-platelet wear debris on ferrite surfaces, primarily from cleavage of the (110) planes.
Contact-line friction of liquid drops on self-assembled monolayers: chain-length effects.
Voué, M; Rioboo, R; Adao, M H; Conti, J; Bondar, A I; Ivanov, D A; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J
2007-04-24
The static and dynamic wetting properties of self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers of increasing chain length were studied. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction on the microscopic scale. Although the surfaces had a similar static wettability, the coefficient of contact-line friction zeta0 increased linearly with alkyl chain length. This result supports the hypothesis of energy dissipation due to a local deformation of the nanometer-thick layer at the contact line.
Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul
2006-01-01
a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...... to measure friction in rolling in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs that can now be used to measure friction both in production situations and for research purposes....
Friction of viscoelastic elastomers with rough surfaces under torsional contact conditions
Trejo, Miguel; Fretigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine
2013-11-01
Frictional properties of contacts between a smooth viscoelastic rubber and rigid surfaces are investigated using a torsional contact configuration where a glass lens is continuously rotated on the rubber surface. From the inversion of the displacement field measured at the surface of the rubber, spatially resolved values of the steady state frictional shear stress are determined within the nonhomogeneous pressure and velocity fields of the contact. For contacts with a smooth lens, a velocity-dependent but pressure-independent local shear stress is retrieved from the inversion. On the other hand, the local shear stress is found to depend on both velocity and applied contact pressure when a randomly rough (sand-blasted) glass lens is rubbed against the rubber surface. As a result of changes in the density of microasperity contacts, the amount of light transmitted by the transparent multicontact interface is observed to vary locally as a function of both contact pressure and sliding velocity. Under the assumption that the intensity of light transmitted by the rough interface is proportional to the proportion of area into contact, it is found that the local frictional stress can be expressed experimentally as the product of a purely velocity-dependent term, k(v), by a term representing the pressure and velocity dependence of the actual contact area, A/A0. A comparison between k(v) and the frictional shear stress of smooth contacts suggests that nanometer scale dissipative processes occurring at the interface predominate over viscoelastic dissipation at microasperity scale.
Adhesion and friction of single-crystal diamond in contact with transition metals
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1980-01-01
An investigation was conducted to examine the adhesion and friction of single-crystal diamond in contact with various transition metals and the nature of metal transfer to diamond. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with diamond in sliding contact with the metals yttrium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, iron, cobalt, nickel, tungsten, platinum, rhenium and rhodium. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.05 to 0.3 N, at a sliding velocity of 0.003 m per minute, in a vacuum of 10 to the -8th Pa, at room temperature, and on the (111) plane of diamond with sliding in the 110 line type direction. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction for diamond in contact with various metals is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals in high vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of diamond in sliding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikaël Barboteu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Rus
2013-12-01
Full Text Available It is generally known that the friction and wear between polymers and polished steel surfaces has a special character, the behaviour to friction and wear of a certain polymer might not be valid for a different polymer, moreover in dry friction conditions. In this paper, we study the reaction to wear of certain polymers with short glass fibres on different steel surfaces, considering the linear friction contact, observing the friction influence over the metallic surfaces wear. The paper includes also its analysis over the steel’s wear from different points of view: the reinforcement content influence and tribological parameters (load, contact pressure, sliding speed, contact temperature, etc.. Thus, we present our findings related to the fact that the abrasive component of the friction force is more significant than the adhesive component, which generally is specific to the polymers’ friction. Our detections also state that, in the case of the polyamide with 30% glass fibres, the steel surface linear wear rate order are of 10-4 mm/h, respectively the order of volumetric wear rate is of 10-6 cm3 /h. The resulting volumetric wear coefficients are of the order (10-11 – 10-12 cm3/cm and respectively linear wear coefficients of 10-9 mm/cm.
Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R
2011-10-13
In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multigrid with FFT smoother for a simplified 2D frictional contact problem
Zhao, J.; Vollebregt, E.A.H.; Oosterlee, C.W.
2014-01-01
This paper aims to develop a fast multigrid (MG) solver for a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind, arising from the 2D elastic frictional contact problem. After discretization on a rectangular contact area, the integral equation gives rise to a linear system with the coefficient matrix bein
Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John
2003-01-01
The objective of the present paper is to investigate the heat generation and contact condition during Friction Stir Welding (FSW). For this purpose, an analytical model is developed for the heat generation and this is combined with a Eulerian FE-analysis of the temperature field. The heat...... generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... is governed by the contact condition, i.e. whether there is sliding, sticking or partial sliding/sticking. The contact condition in FSW is complex (dependent on alloy, welding parameters, tool design etc.), and previous models (both analytical and numerical) for simulation of the heat generation assume...
Bifurcations in Systems with Friction : Basic Models and Methods
Ivanov, A. P.
2009-01-01
Examples of irregular behavior of dynamical systems with dry friction are discussed. A classification of frictional contacts with respect to their dimensionality, associativity, and the possibility of interruptions is proposed and basic models showing typical features are stated. In particular, bifu
Friction and wear of metals in contact with pyrolytic graphite
Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.
1975-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with gold, iron, and tantalum single crystals sliding on prismatic and basal orientations of pyrolytic graphite in various environments, including vacuum, oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen, and hydrogen bromide. Surfaces were examined in the clean state and with various adsorbates present on the graphite surfaces. Auger and LEED spectroscopy, SEM, and EDXA were used to characterize the graphite surfaces. Results indicate that the prismatic and basal orientations do not contain nor do they chemisorb oxygen, water vapor, acetylene, or hydrogen bromide. All three metals exhibited higher friction on the prismatic than on the basal orientation and these metals transferred to the atomically clean prismatic orientation of pyrolytic graphite. No metal transfer to the graphite was observed in the presence of adsorbates at 760 torr. Ion bombardment of the graphite surface with nitrogen ions resulted in the adherence of nitrogen to the surface.
Symmetric-Galerkin BEM simulation of fracture with frictional contact
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Phan, AV
2003-06-14
Full Text Available by a contiguous covering of surface patches or line segments termed ?elements?. A straight- forward solution procedure can be implemented if no continuity requirements are imposed on the unknown surface variables at the junctions between adjacent... and normal components of the traction vector p66, imposed by sliding friction or by non-linear joint stiVTness relationships can be easily resolved. On the other hand, two major disadvantages are associated with the internal collocation scheme. Firstly...
The Effects of Contact Interface on the Friction Characteristics of Self-assembly Monolayers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGHui-chen; GAOYu-zhou; YANLi
2004-01-01
The effects of different contact interfaces on the friction characteristics of OTS self-assembled monolayers were investigated by a universal micro-tribometer in different sliding velocities. The results indicate that there exist lower friction coefficients between OTS SAMs and Ti, Ni and Cu films deposited on GCrl5 steel balls than those between OTS SAMs and GCr15 steel ball. The friction coefftcient between OTS SAMs and Ti film is the largest, and the friction coefficient between OTS SAMs and Cu film is the least in these three films, which depends the iatrinsic characteristics of the materials. The friction coefficients between OTS SAMs and GCrI5 steel balland three nanometer films increase with the sliding velachy increasing, which can be explained by the relaxationcharacteristics of OTS molecules.
Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haichao Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.
Adhesion and friction of iron and gold in contact with elemental semiconductors
Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.
1977-01-01
Adhesion and friction experiments were conducted with single crystals of iron and gold in contact with single crystals of germanium and silicon. Surfaces were examined in the sputter cleaned state and in the presence of oxygen and a lubricant. All experiments were conducted at room temperature with loads of 1 to 50 grams, and sliding friction was at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the friction nature of metals in contact with semiconductors is sensitive to orientation, that strong adhesion of metals to both germanium and silicon occurs, and that friction is lower with silicon than with germanium for the same orientation. Surface effects are highly sensitive to environment. Silicon, for example, behaves in an entirely brittle manner in the clean state, but in the presence of a lubricant the surface deforms plastically.
A new visco-elastic contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor with stator frictional layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A new contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) with a visco-elastic stator frictional layer was presented. In this model, the initial boundaries were revised, and the rotor revolution speed could be calculated iteratively. This model was compared with compliant slider and rigid stator model. The results of motor characteristics simulations showed that the motors based on this model would gain bigger stall torque. Then the friction and wear characteristics of two models were analyzed. The motors based on this model had lower coefficient of friction and better wear resistance.
Friction and transfer behavior of pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with various metals
Buckley, D. H.
1976-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with pyrolytic boron nitride in sliding contact with itself and various metals. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor transfer of pyrolytic boron nitride to metals and metals to pyrolytic boron nitride. Results indicate that the friction coefficient for pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with metals can be related to the chemical activity of the metals and more particularly to the d valence bond character of the metal. Transfer was found to occur to all metals except silver and gold and the amount of transfer was less in the presence than in the absence of metal oxide. Friction was less for pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with a metal in air than in vacuum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
湛利华; 李晓谦; 胡仕成; 曹俊
2002-01-01
According to the thermodynamic characteristics in the work interface of the plastic forming of metals, a set of TCR (thermal contact resistance) experimental system under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure has been designed. The interrelations between the thermal contact resistance (TCR) and its influence factors such as contact pressure etc, are obtained. A modified coefficient E is introduced to consider the relative slide in the contact interface. Then the interfacial TCR calculating model, which suits to the special conditions of ‘high temperature+plastic rheology' and frictional contact such as continuous roll casting process, is established.
Micro friction stir welding of copper electrical contacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Klobčar
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of micro friction stir welding (μFSW of electrolytic tough pitch copper (CuETP in a lap and butt joint. Experimental plan was done in order to investigate the influence of tool design and welding parameters on the formation of defect free joints. The experiments were done using universal milling machine where the tool rotation speed varied between 600 and 1 900 rpm, welding speed between 14 and 93 mm/min and tilt angle between 3° and 5°. From the welds samples for analysis of microstructure and samples for tensile tests were prepared. The grain size in the nugget zone was greatly reduced compared to the base metal and the joint tensile strength exceeded the strength of the base metal.
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1984-01-01
The effects of humidity (water-vapor) in nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite spherical pin were studied. The coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. In elastic contacts the coefficient of friction increased linearly with increasing humidity; it decreased linearly when humidity was lowered. This effect is the result of changes in the chemistry and interaction of tape materials such as degradation of the lubricant. In plastic contacts there was no effect of humidity on friction below 40 percent relative humidity. There is no effect on friction associated with the breakthrough of the adsorbed water-vapor film at the interface of the tape and Ni-Zn ferrite. The coefficient of friction, however, increased rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent in plastic contacts.
Dynamic model for the wheel-rail contact friction
Lee, HyunWook; Sandu, Corina; Holton, Carvel
2012-02-01
Accurately estimating the coefficient of friction (CoF) is essential in modelling railroad dynamics, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing safety in rail operations. The typical assumption of a constant CoF is widely used in theoretical studies; however, it has been noticed that the CoF is not constant, but rather depends on various dynamic parameters and instantaneous conditions. In this paper, we present a newly developed three-dimensional nonlinear CoF model for the dry rail condition and test the CoF variation using this model with estimated dynamic parameters. The wheel-rail is modelled as a mass-spring-damper system to simulate the basic wheel-rail dynamics. Although relatively simple, this model is considered sufficient for the purpose of this study. Simulations are performed at a train speed of 20 m/s using rail roughness as an excitation source. The model captures the CoF extremes and illustrates its nonlinear behaviour and instantaneous dependence on several structural and dynamic parameters.
Solving frictional contact problems by two aggregate-function-based algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Suyan He; Hongwu Zhang; Xingsi Li; Ron Marshall
2005-01-01
Three dimensional frictional contact problems are formulated as linear complementarity problems based on the parametric variational principle. Two aggregate-functionbased algorithms for solving complementarity problems are proposed. One is called the self-adjusting interior point algorithm, the other is called the aggregate function smoothing algorithm. Numerical experiment shows the efficiency of the proposed two algorithms.
A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception
van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile
2015-01-01
In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the
A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception
Kuilenburg, van J.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.
2015-01-01
In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Li; ZHU You-li; HUANG Yuan-lin; XU Bin-shi; LI Xiao-yan
2004-01-01
Ferrography is deemed as one of the most effective methods for wear particle analysis and failure diagnosis. By analyzing the configuration, content and composition of wear particles in the lubricanting grease and the surface state of the worn surface with combined ferrography and surface analysis techniques, the wear mechanism of the ball groove of the master clutch's release device of a heavy load tracked vehicle was determined. Results show that the controlling wear mechanism is combined of abrasion, adhesion, contact fatigue and corrosion wear, which demonstrates the effectiveness of using combined ferrography and worn surface analysis for the study of wear mechanism of contact surface with friction.
Friction and morphology of magnetic tapes in sliding contact with nickel-zinc ferrite
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Bhushan, B.
1984-01-01
Friction and morphological studies were conducted with magnetic tapes containing a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in laboratory air at a relative humidity of 40 percent and at 23 C. The results indicate that the binder plays a significant role in the friction properties, morphology, and microstructure of the tape. Comparisons were made with four binders: nitrocellulose; poly (vinyledene) chloride; cellulose acetate; and hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester added to the base polymer, polyester-polyurethane. The coefficient of friction was lowest for the tape with the nitrocellulose binder and increased in the order hydroxylterminated, low molecular weight polyester resin; poly (vinyledene) chloride; and cellulose acetate. The degree of enclosure of the oxide particles by the binder was highest for hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester and decreased in the order cellulose acetate, poly (vinyledene) chloride, and nitrocellulose. The nature of deformation of the tape was a factor in controlling friction. The coefficient of friction under elastic contact conditions was considerably lower than under conditions that produced plastic contacts.
Sednaoui, Thomas; Vezzoli, Eric; Dzidek, Brygida; Lemaire-Semail, Betty; Chappaz, Cedrick; Adams, Michael
2017-01-01
In part 1 of the current study of haptic displays, a finite element (FE) model of a finger exploring a plate vibrating out-of-plane at ultrasonic frequencies was developed as well as a spring-frictional slider model. It was concluded that the reduction in friction induced by the vibrations could be ascribed to ratchet mechanism as a result of intermittent contact. The relative reduction in friction calculated using the FE model could be superimposed onto an exponential function of a dimensionless group defined from relevant parameters. The current paper presents measurements of the reduction in friction, involving real and artificial fingertips, as a function of the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the applied normal force and the exploration velocity. The results are reasonably similar to the calculated FE values and also could be superimposed using the exponential function provided that the intermittent contact was sufficiently well developed, which for the frequencies examined correspond to a minimum vibrational amplitude of ∼ 1 µm P-P. It was observed that the reduction in friction depends on the exploration velocity and is independent of the applied normal force and ambient air pressure, which is not consistent with the squeeze film mechanism. However, the modelling did not incorporate the influence of air and the effect of ambient pressure was measured under a limited range of conditions, Thus squeeze film levitation may be synergistic with the mechanical interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhail Popov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.
Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction
Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z. B.; Peng, J. F.; Cao, B. B.; Jin, X. S.; Zhu, M. H.
2016-12-01
The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe2O3, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe2O3 and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2-3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.
Influence of Friction Interface Contact on Ultrasonic Motor Efficiency Under Static Conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Yifeng; ZhangWu; XiaoAiwu; Zhu Meng; Pan Yunhua; Zhang Xiaoya
2015-01-01
The friction interface matching plays a deterministic role in the motor efficiency ,and the microcosmic contact status of friction interface should be investigated to improve the ultrasonic motor performance .The main purpose is to improve the effective output power of ultrasonic motor .Hence ,one studies the contact condition of the friction interface of the ultrasonic motor ,analyzes the micro condition of contact interface through finite ele-ment analysis ,optimizes unreasonable structures ,and compares the two different-structure ultrasonic motors through experiments .The results reflect the necessity of optimization .After optimization ,the stator and rotor de-form after pre-pressure and the contact interface of them full contact theoretically .When reaching heat balance the effective output of the motor is 37% ,and the average effective output efficiency is 2 .384 times higher than that of the unoptimized .It can be seen that the total consumption of the ultrasonic motor system decreases significantly . Therefore ,when using in certain system the consumption taken from the system will decreases largely ,especially in the system with a strict consumption control .
The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact
Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher
1994-01-01
The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel-based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.
Effect of the Material Parameters on Layered Viscoelastic Frictional Contact Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatin F. Mahmoud
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the design process, one of the main targets is to reduce the peak values of the contact stresses. This can be attained by layering the contacting bodies by layers of different material characteristics. Viscoelastic materials are characterized by either a stress relaxation or a creep deformation; therefore, the contacting bodies can be layered with such materials to attain this target. This paper discusses effects of the material characteristics of viscoelastic layers upon the unbounded contact configuration. Three material parameters are considered: the layer/contact solids stiffness ratio, the delayed/instantaneous elasticity ratio, and the material relaxation time. The results are obtained by using a two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear computational model, developed by the authors, capable of analyzing quasistatic viscoelastic frictional contact problems.
Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Drinkaus, Philip
2009-01-01
This study compares two methods for estimating static friction coefficients for skin. In the first method, referred to as the 'tilt method', a hand supporting a flat object is tilted until the object slides. The friction coefficient is estimated as the tangent of the angle of the object at the slip. The second method estimates the friction coefficient as the pull force required to begin moving a flat object over the surface of the hand, divided by object weight. Both methods were used to estimate friction coefficients for 12 subjects and three materials (cardboard, aluminium, rubber) against a flat hand and against fingertips. No differences in static friction coefficients were found between the two methods, except for that of rubber, where friction coefficient was 11% greater for the tilt method. As with previous studies, the friction coefficients varied with contact force and contact area. Static friction coefficient data are needed for analysis and design of objects that are grasped or manipulated with the hand. The tilt method described in this study can easily be used by ergonomic practitioners to estimate static friction coefficients in the field in a timely manner.
Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces
Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.
2017-09-01
This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.
Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with various metals
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1978-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals. Results indicate the coefficient of friction is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to silicon carbide. The chemical activity of the metal and its shear modulus may play important roles in metal-transfer, the form of the wear debris and the surface roughness of the metal wear scar. The more active the metal, and the less resistance to shear, the greater the transfer to silicon carbide and the rougher the wear scar on the surface of the metal. Hexagon-shaped cracking and fracturing formed by cleavage of both prismatic and basal planes is observed on the silicon carbide surface.
Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul
2006-01-01
Friction at the workpiece-die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals; yet it remains the least understood. Hence there is a need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms. To gain...... a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...
Effect of Microscale Contact State of Polyurethane Surface on Adhesion and Friction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Min; Ji Ai-hong; Dai Zhen-dong
2006-01-01
The effect of microscale contact of rough surfaces on the adhesion and friction under negative normal forces was experimentally investigated. The adhesive force of single point contact - sapphire ball to flat polyurethane did not vary with the normal force. With rough surface contact, which was assumed to be a great number of point contacts, the adhesive force increased logarithmically with the normal force. Under negative normal force adhesive state, the tangential force (more than hundred mN)were much larger than the negative normal force (several mN) and increased with the linear decrease of negative normal force.The results reveal why the gecko's toe must slide slightly on the target surface when it makes contact on a surface and suggest how a biomimetic gecko foot might be designed.
Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Surface Roughness on Coefficient of Friction in Rolling Contact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.G. Ghalme
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in silicon nitride- steel rolling contact. Two samples of silicon nitride with two different values of surface roughness were tested against steel counter face. The test was performed on four ball tester in presence of lubricant with two different values of viscosity. Taguchi technique a methodology in design of experiment implemented to plan the experimentation and same is utilized to evaluate the interacting effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity. Analysis of experimental results presents a strong interaction between surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in rolling contact.
Fundamental formulation for frictional contact with graded materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In the paper, we develop the fundamental solutions for a graded half-plane subjected to concentrated forces acting perpendicularly and parallel to the surface. In the solutions, Young’s modulus is assumed to vary in the form of E(y)=E0eαy and Poisson’s ratio is assumed to be constant. On the basis of the fundamental solutions, the singular integral equations are formulated for the unknown traction distributions with Green’s function method. From the fundamental integral equations, a series of integral equat...
Numerical analysis of piezoelectric active repair in the presence of frictional contact conditions.
Alaimo, Andrea; Milazzo, Alberto; Orlando, Calogero; Messineo, Antonio
2013-04-02
The increasing development of smart materials, such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloys, has opened new opportunities for improving repair techniques. Particularly, active repairs, based on the converse piezoelectric effect, can increase the life of a structure by reducing the crack opening. A deep characterization of the electromechanical behavior of delaminated composite structures, actively repaired by piezoelectric patches, can be achieved by considering the adhesive layer between the host structure and the repair and by taking into account the frictional contact between the crack surfaces. In this paper, Boundary Element (BE) analyses performed on delaminated composite structures repaired by active piezoelectric patches are presented. A two-dimensional boundary integral formulation for piezoelectric solids based on the multi-domain technique to model the composite host damaged structures and the bonded piezoelectric patches is employed. An interface spring model is also implemented to take into account the finite stiffness of the bonding layers and to model the frictional contact between the delamination surfaces, by means of an iterative procedure. The effect of the adhesive between the plies of piezoelectric bimorph devices on the electromechanical response is first pointed out for both sensing and actuating behavior. Then, the effect of the frictional contact condition on the fracture mechanics behavior of actively repaired delaminated composite structures is investigated.
Shen, Tianqi
This thesis presents four computational and theoretical studies of the structural, mechanical, and vibrational properties of purely repulsive disks, dimer-, and ellipse-shaped particles with and without friction. The first study investigated the formation of interparticle contact networks below jamming onset at packing fraction φJ, where the pressure of the system becomes nonzero. We generated ensembles of static packings of frictionless disks over a range of packing fraction. We find that the network of interparticle contacts forms a system spanning cluster at a critical packing fraction φP missing contacts relative to the isostatic value N0c We show that the probability Pm(micro) to obtain a static packing with m missing contacts at micro can be expressed as a power series in micro. Using Pm(micro), we find that the average contact number versus micro agrees quantitatively with that from simulations of the Cundall-Strack model for frictional disks. In the final project, we performed calculations of the structure of the basin volumes of mechanically stable packings in configuration space as a function packing fraction. Using the basin volumes, we show that the probability to obtain a given MS packing depends strongly on the packing fraction of the initial configuration.
Influence of the Tool Shoulder Contact Conditions on the Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding
Doude, Haley R.; Schneider, Judy A.; Nunes, Arthur C.
2014-09-01
Friction stir welding (FSWing) is a solid-state joining process of special interest in joining alloys that are traditionally difficult to fusion weld. In order to optimize the process, various numeric modeling approaches have been pursued. Of importance to furthering modeling efforts is a better understanding of the contact conditions between the workpiece and the weld tool. Both theoretical and experimental studies indicate the contact conditions between the workpiece and weld tool are unknown, possibly varying during the FSW process. To provide insight into the contact conditions, this study characterizes the material flow in the FSW nugget by embedding a lead (Pb) wire that melted at the FSWing temperature of aluminum alloy 2195. The Pb trace provided evidence of changes in material flow characteristics which were attributed to changes in the contact conditions between the weld tool and workpiece, as driven by temperature, as the tool travels the length of a weld seam.
Stick slip contact mechanics between dissimilar materials: effect of charging and large friction.
McGuiggan, Patricia M
2008-04-15
Measurements of the contact radius as a function of applied force between a mica surface and a silica surface (mica/silica) in air are reported. The load/unload results show that the contact radius generally increases with applied force. Because of the presence of charging due to contact electrification, both a short-range van der Waals adhesion force and longer-range electrostatic adhesive interaction contribute to the measured force. The results indicate that approximately 20% of the pull-off force is due to van der Waals forces. The contact radius versus applied force results can be fit to Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory by considering that only the short-range van der Waals forces contribute to the work of adhesion and subtracting a constant longer-range electrostatic force. Also, an additional and unexpected step function is superimposed on the contact radius versus applied force curve. Thus, the contact diameter increases in a stepped dependence with increasing force. The stepped contact behavior is seen only for increasing force and is not observed when symmetric mica/mica or silica/silica contacts are measured. In humid conditions, the contact diameter of the mica/silica contact increases monotonically with applied force. Friction forces between the surfaces are also measured and the shear stress of a mica/silica interface is 100 times greater than the shear stress of a mica/mica interface. This large shear stress retards the increase in contact area as the force is increased and leads to the observed stepped contact mechanics behavior.
Ultrasonic Friction Reduction in Elastomer - Metal Contacts and Application to Pneumatic Actuators
Pham, The Minh; Twiefel, Jens
Ultrasonic friction reduction is well known in metal-metal contacts. Due to the vibration, the stick phase in the contact phase vanishes and only sliding occurs. As long as the macroscopic relative velocity of the contact partners is much lower than vibration velocity, the necessary force to move the parts tends to (nearly) zero. If the effect also exists in material combinations with a significant difference in stiffness and damping characteristic has not been investigated in the past. This contribution shows the effect for various material combinations, which are typical for sealings in pneumatic actuators. Further, a novel integrated transducer design for a pneumatic actuator is presented. In this design the transducer also acts as moving part within the pneumatic actuator. The design challenges are the two contact areas on the moving part, where the friction reduction and consequently high vibration amplitudes are needed. The first area is fixed on the transducer geometry, the other is moving along the piston. This novel design has been implemented in the laboratory; detailed experimental results are presented in this contribution.
Elastic contact conditions to optimize friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.
Kuribayashi Kurosawa, M; Takahashi, M; Higuchi, T
1998-01-01
The optimum pressing force, namely the preload, for a slider to obtain superior operation conditions in a surface acoustic wave motor have been examined. We used steel balls as sliders. The preload was controlled using a permanent magnet. The steel balls were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm diameter, with the differences in diameter making it possible to change contact conditions, such as the contact pressure, contact area, and deformation of the stator and the slider. The stator transducer was lithium niobate, 128 degrees rotated, y-cut x-propagation substrate. The driving frequency of the Rayleigh wave was about 10 MHz. Hence, the particle vibration amplitude at the surface is as small as 10 nm. For superior friction drive conditions, a high contact pressure was required. For example, in the case of the 1 mm diameter steel ball at the sinusoidal driving voltage of 180 V(peak), the slider speed was 43 cm/sec, the thrust output force was 1 mN, and the acceleration was 23 times as large as the gravitational acceleration at a contact pressure of 390 MPa. From the Hertz theory of contact stress, the contact area radius was only 3 microm. The estimation of the friction drive performance was carried out from the transient traveling distance of the slider in a 3 msec burst drive. As a result, the deformation of the stator and the slider by the preload should be half of the vibration amplitude. This condition was independent of the ball diameter and the vibration amplitude. The output thrust per square millimeter was 50 N, and the maximum speed was 0.7 m/sec. From these results, we conclude that it is possible for the surface acoustic wave motor to have a large output force, high speed, quick response, long traveling distance, and a thin micro linear actuator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Rosenkranz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation of such surface patterns on technical surfaces in order to mimic these biological surfaces and effects. Friction optimization and antibacterial effects by DLIP are exemplarily described. Topographic surface patterns on the micro- and nano-scale demonstrated a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction and bacterial adhesion. It was shown that in both cases, the control of the contact area between surfaces or between surface and bacteria is of utmost importance.
FEM simulation of friction testing method based on combined forward rod-backward can extrusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakamura, T; Bay, Niels; Zhang, Z. L
1997-01-01
A new friction testing method by combined forward rod-backward can extrusion is proposed in order to evaluate frictional characteristics of lubricants in forging processes. By this method the friction coefficient mu and the friction factor m can be estimated along the container wall and the conic...... in a mechanical press with aluminium alloy A6061 as the workpiece material and different kinds of lubricants. They confirm the analysis resulting in reasonable values for the friction coefficient and the friction factor....
Studi Eksperimental Keausan Permukaan Material Akibat Adanya Multi-Directional Contact Friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Hasry
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Penelitian terkait keausan akibat gesekan satu arah dan gesekan dua arah sampai saat ini telah banyak dilakukan, tetapi hanya sedikit yang mengkaji keausan akibat gesekan banyak arah (multi-directional friction, padahal tidak sedikit suatu mekanisme mengakibatkan terjadinya multi-directional contact friction, seperti pada kontak ban mobil terhadap jalan saat melakukan drifting ataupun pada sistem yang meggunakan ball joint. Data penelitian berupa data keausan merupakan hasil pengujian menggunakan tribometer tipe Pin-on-disk dengan material Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE sebagai pin uji dan material Stainless steel sebagai disk. Pada pengujian, masing-masing pin dan disk bergerak rotasi dan saling kontak permukaan sehingga pada permukaan material terjadi gesekan ke arah yang berubah-ubah sepanjang waktu. Secara garis besar penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 macam, yaitu penelitian keausan akibat gesekan tanpa pelumasan (dry sliding dan dengan pelumasan (wet sliding. Sebagai data pembanding, diambil juga data keausan akibat dari gesekan satu arah, yaitu dengan menggerakkan disk secara rotasi sedangkan pin hanya mengalami pembebanan dan tidak bergerak sama sekali. Permukaan spesimen yang telah diuji selanjutnya diamati struktur permukaannya menggunakan mikroskop optis dengan perbesaran 100 kali. Hasil dari penelitian menyebutkan bahwa gesekan banyak arah (Multi-Directional Friction akan menghasilkan keausan yang lebih besar dibanding gesekan satu arah (Uni-Directional Friction. Material yang mengalami gesekan banyak arah dengan pembebanan statis sebesar 39.2 N dan dengan kecepatan sesaat yang berubah-ubah mulai dari nol sampai 19.546 m/menit, akan mengalami keausan dengan mekanisme abrasi. Berdasarkan penelitian diketahui juga bahwa adanya pelumas memberi pengaruh yang besar dalam mengurangi keausan.
Swing Friction Behavior of the Contact Interface Between CoCrMo and UHMWPE Under Dynamic Loading
Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang; Qi, Jianwei
2016-12-01
CoCrMo alloy and UHMWPE have been widely used in knee joint prosthesis implantation materials. In this paper, swing friction behavior of the contact interface between CoCrMo alloy and UHMWPE is studied under dynamic loading. Swing friction characteristic and damage mechanism are discussed. The results show that swing friction coefficients increase with the rising of maximum normal load and swing angular amplitude. Unloading-standing could play alleviative roles in friction and wear to a large degree. As the cycle number gradually increases, the surface roughness of UHMWPE decreases, while the roughness of CoCrMo increases. During the swing friction, the main damage mechanism of CoCrMo is abrasive wear and the main damage mechanisms of UHMWPE are abrasive wear, fatigue wear and plastic deformation. Besides, it is easier to generate surface damages with small angle and heavy load.
Le Gal, André; Yang, Xin; Klüppel, Manfred
2005-07-01
The paper presents a combined experimental and theoretical approach to the understanding of hysteresis and adhesion contributions to rubber friction on dry and lubricated rough surfaces. Based on a proper analysis of the temperature- and frequency-dependent behaviors of nonlinear viscoelastic materials such as filler reinforced elastomer materials, master curves for the viscoelastic moduli are constructed. It is shown that the classical williams-Landel-Ferry equation cannot be applied in its simple form, but needs the introduction of an energy term describing the temperature dependency of glassy polymer bridges, which transmit the forces within flocculated filler clusters. The activation energy for carbon black and silica-filled elastomers is compared based on two different evaluation methods. The obtained dynamic data are shown to be related to a different friction behavior of elastomers regarding the two filler systems. Theoretical predictions of the stationary frictional behavior of the systems are in fair agreement with the experimental friction data at low sliding velocities. It is found that the formulated adhesion plays a dominant role on rough dry surfaces within this range of velocities.
Duality based contact shape optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John
2001-01-01
An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....
Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Nalam, Prathima C; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Spencer, Nicholas D
2013-01-01
We have previously investigated the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness by employing a roughness gradient. In this study, we correlate the obtained adhesion forces on nanometer-scale rough surfaces to their frictional properties. A roughness gradient with varying silica particle (diameter ≈ 12 nm) density was prepared, and adhesion and frictional forces were measured across the gradient surface in perfluorodecalin by means of atomic force microscopy with a polyethylene colloidal probe. Similarly to the pull-off measurements, the frictional forces initially showed a reduction with decreasing particle density and later an abrupt increase as the colloidal sphere began to touch the flat substrate beneath, at very low particle densities. The friction-load relation is found to depend on the real contact area (A(real)) between the colloid probe and the underlying particles. At high particle density, the colloidal sphere undergoes large deformations over several nanoparticles, and the contact adhesion (JKR type) dominates the frictional response. However, at low particle density (before the colloidal probe is in contact with the underlying surface), the colloidal sphere is suspended by a few particles only, resulting in local deformations of the colloid sphere, with the frictional response to the applied load being dominated by long-range, noncontact (DMT-type) interactions with the substrate beneath.
THE CONTROL VARIATIONAL METHOD FOR ELASTIC CONTACT PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea Sofonea
2010-07-01
Full Text Available We consider a multivalued equation of the form Ay + F(y = fin a real Hilbert space, where A is a linear operator and F represents the (Clarke subdifferential of some function. We prove existence and uniqueness results of the solution by using the control variational method. The main idea in this method is to minimize the energy functional associated to the nonlinear equation by arguments of optimal control theory. Then we consider a general mathematical model describing the contact between a linearly elastic body and an obstacle which leads to a variational formulation as above, for the displacement field. We apply the abstract existence and uniqueness results to prove the unique weak solvability of the corresponding contact problem. Finally, we present examples of contact and friction laws for which our results work.
FRICTIONAL CONTACT MULTIPOLE-BEM AND 3-D ANALYSIS OF SCREWPAIRS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Xiumin; Shen Guangxian; Liu Deyi
2004-01-01
The 3-D traction field in the pressure screw-pair of a 3 500 heavy and medium plate mill press down system is successfully calculated by applying the 3-D frictional contact multipole-BEM and the corresponding program that has been developed. The computing results show the medium diameter orientation is unreliable, especially under the interference of an outer force couple. Under such working conditions, the circumferential traction distribution on the screw teeth is extremely uneven, which is the main reason for the destruction and short life time of screw-pairs. When utilizing the same precision (the relative tolerance is 10×10-5),the mltipole-BEM uses almost the CPU time as used by the FEM,but the needed computer menory size is only one eighieth of that needed by the FEM(10 MB vs.800 MB).The multipole-BEM is well suited for computing large-scale engineering problems.
BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR MOVING AND ROLLING CONTACT OF 2D ELASTIC BODIES WITH DEFECTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚振汉; 蒲军平; 金哲植
2001-01-01
A scheme of boundary element method for moving contact of two dimensional elastic bodies using conforming discretization is presented. Both the displacement and the traction boundary conditions are satisfied on the contacting region in the sense of discretization. An algorithm to deal with the moving of the contact boundary on a larger possible contact region is presented. The algorithm is generalized to rolling contact problem as well. Some numerical examples of moving and rolling contact of 2D elastic bodies with or without friction, including the bodies with a hole-type defect, are given to show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the presented schemes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. S.M. El-Tayeb
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increase interest in polymeric composite materials for high-performance in many industrial applications. In other words, the tribo-studies on polymeric materials are growing fast to enhance the polymeric products such as bearings, seals, ring and bushes. The current work presents an attempt to study the correlation between the type of counterface material and frictional heating at the interface surfaces for different, normal loads (23N, 49N and 72N, sliding velocities (0.18, 1.3 and 5.2 m sË1 and interval time (0-720 sec. Sliding friction experiments are performed on a pin-on-ring (POR tribometer under dry contact condition. Interface temperature and friction force were measured simultaneously during sliding of glass fiber reinforced epoxy (GFRE composite against three different counter face materials, hardened steel (HS, cast iron (CI and Aluminum alloy (Al. Experimental results showed that the type of counterface material greatly influences both interface temperature and friction coefficient. Higher temperature and friction coefficient were evident when sliding took place against HS surface, compared to sliding against CI and Al under same condition. When sliding took place against HS, the friction coefficient of GFRE composite was about an order of magnitude higher than sliding the GFRE composite against the other counter face materials. Based on the optical microscope graphs, the friction and induced temperature results of GFRE composite are analyzed and discussed.
Surface chemistry, friction, and wear of Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1983-01-01
X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis were used in sliding friction experiments. These experiments were conducted with hot-pressed polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites, and single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite in contact with various transition metals at room temperature in both vacuum and argon. The results indicate that Ni2O3 and Fe3O4 were present on the Ni-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents, while MnO2 and Fe3O4 were present on the Mn-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites in contact with metals were related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites were correlated with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite does strengthen the metal-ferrite contact and increase the friction. The ferrites exhibit local cracking and fracture with sliding under adhesive conditions. All the metals transferred to the surfaces of the ferrites in sliding. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19901
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,the response characteristics of dry friction backward whirl of a general rotor/stator model,which accounts for both the dynamics of the rotor and the stator as well as the friction and the deformation at the contact surfaces,are investigated.The existence boundaries and the whirl frequencies of the dry friction backward whirl are determined analytically.It is found that there are two or three existence boundaries of the dry friction backward whirl that usually form two existence regions,either standing completely separately,or overlapping each other partly,or one containing the other completely,depending upon the system parameters.The whirl frequencies in the two existence regions are quite different and may jump between the lower and the higher values with the variation of the rotating speed.The results have been found to have good correspondence in the related rotor/stator rubbing experiments.
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1977-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal (SCF) and hot-pressed polycrystalline (HPF) manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with various metals. Results indicate that the coefficients of friction for SCF and HPF are related to the relative chemical activity of those metals in high vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for both SCF and HPF were the same and much higher in vacuum than in argon at atmospheric pressure. All the metals tested transferred to the surface of both SCF and HPF in sliding. Both SCF and HPF exhibited cracking and fracture with sliding. Cracking in SCF is dependent on crystallographic characteristics. In HPF, cracking depends on the orientation of the individual crystallites.
Numerical Simulation of the Friction Stir Welding Process Using Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Method
Iordache, M.; Badulescu, C.; Iacomi, D.; Nitu, E.; Ciuca, C.
2016-08-01
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process that relies on frictional heating and plastic deformation realized at the interaction between a non-consumable welding tool that rotates on the contact surfaces of the combined parts. The experiments are often time consuming and costly. To overcome these problems, numerical analysis has frequently been used in last years. Several simplified numerical models were designed to elucidate various aspects of the complex thermo-mechanical phenomena associated with FSW. This research investigates a thermo-mechanical finite element model based on Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian method to simulate the friction stir welding of the AA 6082-T6 alloy. Abaqus/cae software is used in order to simulate the welding stage of the Friction Stir Welding process. This paper presents the steps of the numerical simulation using the finite elements method, in order to evaluate the boundary conditions of the model and the geometry of the tools by using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian method.
Protein Residue Contacts and Prediction Methods
Adhikari, Badri
2016-01-01
In the field of computational structural proteomics, contact predictions have shown new prospects of solving the longstanding problem of ab initio protein structure prediction. In the last few years, application of deep learning algorithms and availability of large protein sequence databases, combined with improvement in methods that derive contacts from multiple sequence alignments, have shown a huge increase in the precision of contact prediction. In addition, these predicted contacts have also been used to build three-dimensional models from scratch. In this chapter, we briefly discuss many elements of protein residue–residue contacts and the methods available for prediction, focusing on a state-of-the-art contact prediction tool, DNcon. Illustrating with a case study, we describe how DNcon can be used to make ab initio contact predictions for a given protein sequence and discuss how the predicted contacts may be analyzed and evaluated. PMID:27115648
Dynamic contact with friction of an ultra-low flying head-disk interface with thermal protrusion
Vakis, A.I.; Lee, S.-C.; Polycarpou, A.A.
2009-01-01
A dynamic two-degree-of-freedom contact with friction model of the head-disk interface (HDI) is presented accounting for slider thermal protrusion and its influence on the HDI dynamics. Using this model, which includes roughness, the applied power to the thermal protrusion is calculated that leads t
Numerical Simulation of Friction Stir Welding by Natural Element Methods
Alfaro, I.; Fratini, L.; CUETO, Elias; Chinesta, Francisco
2009-01-01
International audience; In this work we address the problem of numerically simulating the Friction Stir Welding process. Due to the special characteristics of this welding method (i.e., high speed of the rotating pin, very large deformations, etc.) finite element methods (FEM) encounter several difficulties. While Lagrangian simulations suffer from mesh distortion, Eulerian or Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) ones still have difficulties due to the treatment of convective terms, the treatm...
Deladi, E.L.; Rooij, de M.B.; Vries, de E.G; Schipper, D.J.
2006-01-01
The static friction regime is of great importance for systems requiring accurate positioning. The parameters of the static friction regime in terms of static friction force and limiting displacement before gross sliding are investigated for a rubber ball/metal flat configuration. Single-asperity fri
Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; de Vries, Erik G.; de Vries, E.G; Schipper, Dirk J.
2006-01-01
The static friction regime is of great importance for systems requiring accurate positioning. The parameters of the static friction regime in terms of static friction force and limiting displacement before gross sliding are investigated for a rubber ball/metal flat configuration. Single-asperity fri
Kamenskikh, A. A.; Trufanov, N. A.
2017-02-01
The paper presents data on the influence of the frictional properties of a material antifrictional layer on the parameters of the spherical bearing contact zone. The dependences of the friction coefficient from the load were obtained as a result of the study. Series of numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the frictional properties of a materials contact pair in the work. Regularities of the relative contact pressure and relative contact tangential stress were obtained for seven variants of the load-friction coefficient for the spherical bearing with a layer of modified fluoroplastic. The study puts emphasis on the fact that that adhesion area of the contact surface is reduced and the load is increased taking into account the fact that the friction properties of the layer has been fixed in the study.
The bi-potential method applied to the modeling of dynamic problems with friction
Feng, Z.-Q.; Joli, P.; Cros, J.-M.; Magnain, B.
2005-10-01
The bi-potential method has been successfully applied to the modeling of frictional contact problems in static cases. This paper presents an extension of this method for dynamic analysis of impact problems with deformable bodies. A first order algorithm is applied to the numerical integration of the time-discretized equation of motion. Using the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques in C++ and OpenGL graphical support, a finite element code including pre/postprocessor FER/Impact is developed. The numerical results show that, at the present stage of development, this approach is robust and efficient in terms of numerical stability and precision compared with the penalty method.
Ciavarella, M.
2015-11-01
Classically, the transition from stick to slip is modelled with Amonton-Coulomb law, leading to the Cattaneo-Mindlin problem, which is amenable to quite general solutions using the idea of superposing normal contact pressure distributions - in particular superposing the full sliding component of shear with a corrective distribution in the stick region. However, faults model in geophysics and recent high-speed measurements of the real contact area and the strain fields in dry (nominally flat) rough interfaces at macroscopic but laboratory scale, all suggest that the transition from 'static' to 'dynamic' friction can be described, rather than by Coulomb law, by classical fracture mechanics singular solutions of shear cracks. Here, we introduce an 'adhesive' model for friction in a Hertzian spherical contact, maintaining the Hertzian solution for the normal pressures, but where the inception of slip is given by a Griffith condition. In the slip region, the standard Coulomb law continues to hold. This leads to a very simple solution for the Cattaneo-Mindlin problem, in which the "corrective" solution in the stick area is in fact similar to the mode II equivalent of a JKR singular solution for adhesive contact. The model departs from the standard Cattaneo-Mindlin solution, showing an increased size of the stick zone relative to the contact area, and a sudden transition to slip when the stick region reaches a critical size (the equivalent of the pull-off contact size of the JKR solution). The apparent static friction coefficient before sliding can be much higher than the sliding friction coefficient and, for a given friction fracture "energy", the process results in size and normal load dependence of the apparent static friction coefficient. Some qualitative agreement with Fineberg's group experiments for friction exists, namely the stick-slip boundary quasi-static prediction may correspond to the arrest of their slip "precursors", and the rapid collapse to global
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
W Yuan; L Li; D G Zhang; J Z Hong
2016-01-01
A flexible beam with large overall rotating motion impacting with a rigid slope is studied in this paper. The tangential friction force caused by the oblique impact is analyzed. The tangential motion of the system is divided into a stick state and a slip state. The contact constraint model and Coulomb friction model are used respectively to deal with the two states. Based on this hybrid mod-eling method, dynamic equations of the system, which include all states (before, during, and after the collision) are obtained. Simulation results of a concrete example are compared with the results obtained from two other models: a nontangential friction model and a modified Coulomb model. Differences in the results from the three models are discussed. The tangential friction force cannot be ignored when an oblique impact occurs. In addition, the results obtained from the model proposed in this paper are more consistent with real movement.
Wang, Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Fine, M. E.
1994-07-01
The frictional behavior of certain nitrogen-containing ceramics, such as silicon nitride, alpha sialons, and beta sialons as journal materials were studied in conformal contact with a tin-coated Al-Si alloy (Al-Si/Sn), forged 1141 steel and a cast aluminum matrix composite with silicon carbide reinforcement (cast metal matrix composites (MMC)) as bearing materials while lubricated with SAE 10W30. A case-hardened 1016 steel was also tested with the Al-Si/Sn and cast MMC bearings under the same conditions. The friction values of the ceramic and the steel journal wear pairs were compared and their frictional behaviors were evaluated. Silicon nitride and one of the beta sialons exhibited higher load-supporting capacities than the others when they were in contact with the 1141 steel bearings. The journal surface roughness was found to be very important when the journals were in contact with the Al-Si/Sn bearings. The frictional behavior of the ceramics and cast MMC pairs and the steel and cast MMC pairs were controlled by different wear machanisms, namely for the former, hard particle pull-out and matrix plowing, and for the latter, iron transfer from the journal to the cast MMC bearing surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iulian Rosu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of an aircraft tire in contact with a rough surface using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and contact pressure. A sliding facility was used in order to evaluate this dependence of the friction coefficient. The temperature diffusion throughout the tire cross-section was measured by means of thermocouples. Both frictional heating and temperature diffusion were compared to numerical two- and three- dimensional simulations. An adequate temperature prediction could be obtained. In future simulations, wear should be taken into account in order to have a more accurate simulation especially in the case of high pressures and slipping velocities. A 3D finite element model for a rolling tire at a velocity of 37.79 knots (19.44 m/s and in a cornering phase was investigated using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and pressure. The numerical simulation tended to predict the temperature of the tire tread after a few seconds of rolling in skidding position, the temperature of the contact zone increases to 140 °C. Further investigations must be carried out in order to obtain the evolution of the temperature observed experimentally. The authors would like to point out that for confidentiality reasons, certain numerical data could not be revealed.
Yin, L.; Shao, Y. M.; Liu, J.; Zheng, H. L.
2015-07-01
The stability of friction disc could be seriously affected by the tooth surface damage due to poor working conditions of the wet multi-disc brake in heavy trucks. There are few current works focused on the damage of the friction disc caused by torsion-vibration impacts. Hence, it is necessary to investigate its damage mechanisms and evaluation methods. In this paper, a damage mechanism description and evaluation method of a friction disc based on the high-speed photography and tooth-root stress coupling is proposed. According to the HighSpeed Photography, the collision process between the friction disc and hub is recorded, which can be used to determine the contact position and deformation. Combined with the strain-stress data obtained by the strain gauge at the place of the tooth-root, the impact force and property are studied. In order to obtain the evaluation method, the damage surface morphology data of the friction disc extracted by 3D Super Depth Digital Microscope (VH-Z100R) is compared with the impact force and property. The quantitative relationships between the amount of deformation and collision number are obtained using a fitting analysis method. The experimental results show that the damage of the friction disc can be evaluated by the proposed impact damage evaluation method based on the high-speed photography and tooth-root stress coupling.
Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery.
Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick
2014-11-01
We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action.
Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U.S. Mbamara
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-face surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. Both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1978-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with transition metals (tungsten, iron, rhodium, nickel, titanium, and cobalt), copper, and aluminum. Results indicate the coefficient of friction for a silicon carbide-metal system is related to the d bond character and relative chemical activity of the metal. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of silicon carbide in sliding. The chemical activity of metal to silicon and carbon and shear modulus of the metal may play important roles in metal transfer and the form of the wear debris. The less active and greater resistance to shear the metal has, with the exception of rhodium and tungsten, the less transfer to silicon carbide.
Gröger, S.; Burkhardt, T.; Dietzsch, M.
2011-08-01
For a specific manipulation of friction surfaces it is important to measure and calculate geometrical parameters to derive the tribological behavior. The new functional approach presented in this paper is the calculation of the characteristic lateral extension of the real contact surface as well as the representative contact radius by applying morphological filters to a 3D-set of data. All surface characteristics, including form, waviness, roughness as well as defined microstructures, are extracted holistically with a 3D Coordinate Measuring Instrument or a Form Measuring Instrument, but with the smallest available tip radius. The paper presents the benefit of this holistic extraction method and the application of morphological filtering for the description of the contact form (plateau or sphere), the real contact surface, number of contacts, the typical contact radius and the typical lateral extension of the micro contact plateaus.
Transducer for measuring normal and friction stress in contact zone during rolling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Wanheim, Tarras; Arentoft, Mogens
2004-01-01
by the friction conditions. To achieve this important information, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are requested. The interface conditions are analyzed by several authors [1-8] The direction of the friction stress is changing during the rolling gap....... At the entrance of the deformation zone, the peripherical velocity of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll...
Unilateral contact problems variational methods and existence theorems
Eck, Christof; Krbec, Miroslav
2005-01-01
The mathematical analysis of contact problems, with or without friction, is an area where progress depends heavily on the integration of pure and applied mathematics. This book presents the state of the art in the mathematical analysis of unilateral contact problems with friction, along with a major part of the analysis of dynamic contact problems without friction. Much of this monograph emerged from the authors'' research activities over the past 10 years and deals with an approach proven fruitful in many situations. Starting from thin estimates of possible solutions, this approach is based on an approximation of the problem and the proof of a moderate partial regularity of the solution to the approximate problem. This in turn makes use of the shift (or translation) technique - an important yet often overlooked tool for contact problems and other nonlinear problems with limited regularity. The authors pay careful attention to quantification and precise results to get optimal bounds in sufficient conditions f...
Kar, Chinmaya; Mohanty, A. R.
2008-01-01
This paper deals with determining various time-varying parameters that are instrumental in introducing noise and vibration in a helical gear system. The most important parameter is the contact line variation, which subsequently induces friction force variation, frictional torque variation and variation in the forces at the bearings. The contact line variation will also give rise to gear mesh stiffness and damping variations. All these parameters are simulated for a defect-free and two defective cases of a helical gear system. The defective cases include one tooth missing and two teeth missing in the helical gear. The algorithm formulated in this paper is found to be simple and effective in determining the time-varying parameters.
Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions
Tuononen, Ari J.
2016-06-01
Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.
a Development of Multi Purpose Testing Machine for Friction, Wear and Rolling Contact Fatigue
Choi, Gab-Su; Pyun, Young-Sik; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Doo; Tominaga, Yasutoshi; Darisuren, Shirmendagwa
In this paper, the newly developed tribometer was introduced. Ball-on-disk, pin-on-disk, small-sized journal and thrust bearings tests on friction and wear were carried out using a newly developed tribometer which is built up according to the ASTM G99. Those friction and wear test results were compared with the friction results which were approved by Korean (KOLAS) and CSM Instruments. The comparison revealed that friction characteristics and trends of three different tribometers were similar to each other. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the newly developed tribometer. As a result, the newly developed tribometer is capable of performing friction tests using pin-on-disk, disk-on-disk, journal and thrust bearings configurations.
Friction-induced nanofabrication method to produce protrusive nanostructures on quartz
Song, Chenfei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Bingjun; Dong, Hanshan; Qian, Linmao; Zhou, Zhongrong
2011-12-01
In this paper, a new friction-induced nanofabrication method is presented to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces through scratching a diamond tip under given normal loads. The nanostructures, such as nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas and nanowords, can be produced on the target surface by programming the tip traces according to the demanded patterns. The height of these nanostructures increases with the increase of the number of scratching cycles or the normal load. Transmission electron microscope observations indicated that the lattice distortion and dislocations induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces. Further analysis reveals that during scratching, a contact pressure ranged from 0.4 P y to P y ( P y is the critical yield pressure of quartz) is apt to produce protuberant nanostructures on quartz under the given experimental conditions. Finally, it is of great interest to find that the protrusive nanostructures can be selectively dissolved in 20% KOH solution. Since the nanowords can be easily 'written' by friction-induced fabrication and 'erased' through selective etching on a quartz surface, this friction-induced method opens up new opportunities for future nanofabrication.
Friction-induced nanofabrication method to produce protrusive nanostructures on quartz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Xiaoying
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a new friction-induced nanofabrication method is presented to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces through scratching a diamond tip under given normal loads. The nanostructures, such as nanodots, nanolines, surface mesas and nanowords, can be produced on the target surface by programming the tip traces according to the demanded patterns. The height of these nanostructures increases with the increase of the number of scratching cycles or the normal load. Transmission electron microscope observations indicated that the lattice distortion and dislocations induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the protrusive nanostructures on quartz surfaces. Further analysis reveals that during scratching, a contact pressure ranged from 0.4Py to Py (Py is the critical yield pressure of quartz is apt to produce protuberant nanostructures on quartz under the given experimental conditions. Finally, it is of great interest to find that the protrusive nanostructures can be selectively dissolved in 20% KOH solution. Since the nanowords can be easily 'written' by friction-induced fabrication and 'erased' through selective etching on a quartz surface, this friction-induced method opens up new opportunities for future nanofabrication.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soza, P.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.
2011-01-01
Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to investigate lateral friction in contact-mode atomic force microscopy of tetracosane (n-C24H50) films. We find larger friction coefficients on the surface of monolayer and bilayer films in which the long axis of the molecules is parallel to the interface ...
Evaluation of Contact Friction in Fracture of Rotationally Bent Nitinol Endodontic Files
Haimed, Tariq Abu
2011-12-01
The high flexibility of rotary Nitinol (Ni-Ti) files has helped clinicians perform root canal treatments with fewer technical errors than seen with stainless steel files. However, intracanal file fracture can occur, compromising the outcome of the treatment. Ni-Ti file fracture incidence is roughly around 4% amongst specialists and higher amongst general practitioners. Therefore, eliminating or reducing this problem should improve patient care. The aim of this project was to isolate and examine the role of friction between files and the canal walls of the glass tube model, and bending-related maximum strain amplitudes, on Ni-Ti file lifetimes-tofracture in the presence of different irrigant solutions and file coatings. A specifically designed device was used to test over 300 electropolished EndoSequenceRTM Ni-Ti files for number of cycles to failure (NCF) in smooth, bent glass tube models at 45 and 60 degrees during dry, coated and liquid-lubricated rotation at 600rpm. Fractured files were examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) afterwards. Four different file sizes 25.04, 25.06, 35.04, 35.06 (diameter in mm/taper %) and six surface modification conditions were used independently. These conditions included, three solutions; (1) a surfactant-based solution, Surface-Active-Displacement-Solution (SADS), (2) a mouth wash proven to remove biofilms, Delmopinol 1%(DEL), and (3) Bleach 6% (vol.%), the most common antibacterial endodontic irrigant solution. The conditions also included two low-friction silane-based coating groups, 3-Hepta-fluoroisopropyl-propoxymethyl-dichlorosilane (3-HEPT) and Octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), in addition to an as-received file control group (Dry). The coefficient of friction (CF) between the file and the canal walls for each condition was measured as well as the surface tension of the irrigant solutions and the critical surface tension of the coated and uncoated files by contact angle measurements. The radius of curvature and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL
2012-03-01
If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.
Transducer for measuring normal and friction stress in contact zone during rolling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Wanheim, Tarras; Arentoft, Mogens
2004-01-01
For the cold rolling process, knowledge about interface conditions is important since it directly influences the maximum reduction ratio and thereby the number of steps required for a given reduction. The mechanical properties of the produced sheet and the surface quality are also influenced...... by the friction conditions. To achieve this important information, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are requested. The interface conditions are analyzed by several authors [1-8] The direction of the friction stress is changing during the rolling gap....... At the entrance of the deformation zone, the peripherical velocity of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll...
Bouchoucha, A.; Chekroud, S.; Paulmier, D.
2004-02-01
Among the various parameters that influence the friction and wear behaviour of a copper-stainless steel couple crossed by an electrical current and in a dry contact is the sliding speed. The tests were carried out under ambient environment and the sliding speed was in the range of 0.2-8 ms -1. The electrical current intensity was varied from 0 to 40 A and held constant during each experiment. The normal load was maintained constant corresponding to an average Hertzian stress of 10 7 Pa. It appears that the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase at first with the speed, reach their maximums, then slowly decrease and tend to constant values. Over the entire range of sliding speeds two types of wear are observed. These latters are essentially mild wear as long as hard debris do not appear at the interface and severe wear when debris consisting of oxides or oxide metal mixture become big enough, they are removed from the surface and have abrasive effect. The results are discussed in terms of observations of wear debris size and composition, wear track study, metallographic study of worn surfaces and friction and electrical contact resistance records.
Rolling Friction Torque in Ball-Race Contacts Operating in Mixed Lubrication Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Rodica D. Bălan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Based on a theoretical model and an experimental methodology for defining the friction torque for lubricated conditions in a modified thrust ball bearing having only three balls, the authors experimentally investigated the influence of the lubricant parameter Λ on friction torque for mixed IVR (isoviscous rigid and EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions. The experiments were conducted using ball diameters of 3 mm, 3.97 mm and 6.35 mm loaded at 0.125 N, 0.400 N and 0.633 N. Two oils of viscosity 0.08 Pa·s and 0.05 Pa·s were used and rotational speed was varied in the range 60–210 rpm to obtain a lubricant parameter Λ varying between 0.3 and 3.2. The experiments confirmed that the measured friction torque can be explained using hydrodynamic rolling force relationships respecting the transition from an IVR to an EHL lubrication regime.
Ruths, M
2006-02-09
Friction force microscopy has been used to study single-component and mixed self-assembled monolayers of aminothiophenol and thiophenol on gold. The friction forces and transition pressures of mixed monolayers were intermediate to the ones of single-component monolayers, and varied systematically with composition. The strength of the adhesion was altered by working in dry N2 gas or in ethanol. In all systems studied, low adhesion (in ethanol) resulted in a linear dependence of the friction on load already at low loads, whereas high adhesion (in dry N2) gave an apparent area-dependence. However, for a given monolayer composition, similar transition pressures were observed in dry N2 and in ethanol, suggesting that the overall monolayer structure was not strongly altered by the presence of ethanol. Similar observations were made for very close-packed monolayers of octadecanethiol.
Analysis of a class of thermal frictional contact problem for the Norton-Hoff fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Messelmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the static flow of aNorton-Hoff fluid whose viscosity depends on the temperature, and with mixedboundary conditions, including friction. The latter is modelled by ageneral velocity dependent dissipation functional and the temperature. We derive a weak formulation of the coupled system of the equation of motion and the energy equation, consisting of a variational inequality for the velocity field. We prove the existence of a weak solution of the model using compactness, monotonicity, $L^{1}$-Data theory and a fixed point argument. In the asymptotic limit case of a high thermal conductivity, the temperature becomes a constant solving an implicit total energy equation involving the viscosity function and the subdifferential friction. Finally, we describe a number of concrete thermal friction conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李建宇; 潘少华; 张洪武
2009-01-01
Frictional contact problems frequently arise in various engineering applications, but their solutions, especially the solutions of three dimensional (3D) frictional contact problems, are challenging since the conditions for contact and friction are highly nonlinear and non-smooth. The 3D frictional contact problem is nonlinear and non-differentiable at least in three aspects: (1) The unilateral contact law, combining a geometric condition of impenetrability, a static condition of no-tension and an energy condition of complementarity, is represented by a multi-valued force-displacement relation. (2) The friction law, governed by a relation between reaction force and local relative velocity, is also multi-valued. (3) The Coulomb friction law in 3D space is expressed as a nonlinear inequality that is non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. In this paper, we propose a new linear second-order cone complementarity formulation for the numerical finite element analysis of 3D frictional contact problem by using the parametric variational principle. Specifically, we develop a regularization technique to resolve the multi-valued difficulty involved in the unilateral contact law, and utilize a second-order cone complementarity condition to handle the regularized Coulomb friction law in contact analysis. We reformulate the governing equations of the 3D frictional contact problem as a linear second-order cone complementarity problem (SOCCP) via the parametric variational principle and the finite element method. Compared with the linear complementarity formulation of 3D frictional contact problems, the proposal SOCCP formulation avoids the polyhedral approximation to the Coulomb friction cone so that the problem to be solved has much smaller size and the solution has better accuracy. A semismooth Newton method is used to solve the obtained linear SOCCP. Numerical examples are computed and the results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the SOCCP formulation developed.%
Rolling–Sliding Laboratory Tests of Friction Modifiers in Leaf Contaminated Wheel–Rail Contacts
Li, Z.; Arias-Cuevas, O.; Lewis, R.; Gallardo-Hernández, E.A.
2008-01-01
Leaf-related adhesion problems have been present in many railway networks all over the world in the last few decades. Since the early 1970s many measures have been undertaken in order to mitigate the problem. One of the measures adopted by many railway networks is the use of friction modifiers. Howe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander
2016-01-01
stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged...
WEAR OF THE FRICTION SURFACES PARTS IN THE PRESENSE OF SOLID PARTICLES CONTACTING ZONE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. M. Musaibov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered.
Tomar, P.; Pandey, R. K.; Nath, Y.
2013-11-01
The objective of this article is to investigate numerically frictional stress in the contact zone at the die/billet interface in the direct extrusion of aluminum alloys considering starved lubricated conditions. In the modeling, both the inlet and work zones have been investigated by coupled solution of the governing equations. The influences of the billet material's strain hardening and its heating due to the plastic deformation are accounted for in the numerical computation. The frictional shear stress at the die/billet interface is computed using three different lubricating oils. Numerical results have been presented herein for the various operating parameters viz. starvation factor ( ψ = 0.2-0.6), lubricants' viscosities ( η 0 = 0.05 Pa s-0.2 Pa s), semi die angle ( β = 10°-20°), and material parameter ( G = 0.56-2.25). It has been observed that the frictional stress increases with an increase in the severity of the lubricant's starvation for the given values of semi-die angle, extrusion speed, and material parameter.
A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张洪武; 韩炜; 陈金涛; 段庆林
2003-01-01
Two kinds of variational principles for numerical simulation of heat transfer and contact analyses are respectively presented. A finite element model for numerical simulation of the thermal contact problems is developed with a pressure dependent heat transfer constitutive model across the contact surface. The numerical algorithm for the finite element analysis of the thermomechanical contact problems is thus developed. Numerical examples are computed and the results demonstrate the validity of the model and algorithm developed.
Piotrowski, Jerzy
2012-10-01
Dither generated by rolling contact of wheel and rail smoothes dry friction damping provided by the primary suspension dampers of freight wagons and it should be taken into account in numerical simulations. But numerically the problem is non-smooth and this leads to long execution time during simulation, especially when the vehicle with friction dampers is modelled in the environment of an multi-body system simulation program, whose solver has to cope with many strong non-linearities. The other difficulty is the necessity of handling within the code a number of big volume files of recorded dither sampled with high frequency. To avoid these difficulties, a substitute model of two-dimensional dry friction exposed to dither is proposed that does not need application of dither during simulation, but it behaves as if dither were applied. Due to this property of the model, the excitation of the vehicle model by track irregularities may be supplied as low-frequency input, which allows fast execution and, the necessity of handling high-volume files of recorded dither is avoided. The substitute model is numerically effective. To identify parameters of the substitute model, a pre-processing employing a sample of the realistic dither is carried-out on a simple two-degrees-of-freedom system. The substitute model is anisotropic, describing anisotropic properties of the two-dimensional friction arising in the presence of one-dimensional dither. The model may be applied in other branches of engineering, for example, in mechatronics and robotics, where application of dither may improve the accuracy of positioning devices.
Andreani, Roberto; Friedlander, Ana; Mello, Margarida P.; Santos, Sandra A.
2005-06-01
In this work we show that the mixed nonlinear complementarity problem may be formulated as an equivalent nonlinear bound-constrained optimization problem that preserves the smoothness of the original data. One may thus take advantage of existing codes for bound-constrained optimization. This approach is implemented and tested by means of an extensive set of numerical experiments, showing promising results. The mixed nonlinear complementarity problems considered in the tests arise from the discretization of a motion planning problem concerning a set of rigid 3D bodies in contact in the presence of friction. We solve the complementarity problem associated with a single time frame, thus calculating the contact forces and accelerations of the bodies involved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholz, Christian
2013-02-01
Due to the growing environmental awareness worldwide, containment provisions for CO{sub 2} emissions in mobility systems and increasing performance requirements the demands on mechanical systems and their materials continuously rise. These high demands require the implementation of new technical approaches, for example of light-weight strategies in automotive powertrains, and directly raise questions about the suitability of the most promising technical solution. Two basic parameters, the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the core fatigue strength of the tooth root, illustrate exemplarily increasing demands on material grades used for gear wheels in automotive powertrains. In addition to light-weight strategies, a reduction in friction and an increase of the fatigue lifetime are two other major development directions to strive the mentioned targets. It is clear that any kind of solution must show an equal application profile, preferably an improvement, compared to the state-of-the-art solutions. For tribological systems, the following paths may offer lower friction and higher load carrying capabilities: 1. Alternative base oils and additives (such as esters, polyglycols), 2. Thin film coatings (e.g. DLC) and/or 3. Novel steel metallurgies. In previous investigations on the slip-rolling resistance of thin film coatings (a-C, ta-C, Zr(C,N)) the substrates were mainly made of the bearing steels 100Cr6H and Cronidur 30. Applying contact pressures of up to P{sub 0max} = 2.9 GPa (F{sub N} = 2,000 N), the samples were tested up to 10 million load cycles in endurance tests. The aim of the present work is to broaden the research by varying the input parameters. Newly developed engine oil mixtures, high performance thin film coatings and alternative steel solutions are intensively investigated in highly stressed slip-rolling contacts at lubricant temperatures of 120 C. Specifically, in using new steel metallurgies, i.e. the high toughness and high strength steels V300
Friction and wear characteristics of elastomers in lubricated contact with EALs
Mofidi, Mohammad; Simmons, Gregory; Prakash, Braham
2008-01-01
The friction and wear characteristics of several elastomers have been studied during reciprocating sliding conditions when lubricated with uncontaminated environmentally adapted lubricants and the same lubricants contaminated with moisture. The elastomers studied are Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR), and Fluorocarbon Rubber (FKM). The lubricants used are complex ester and polyol ester as well as both aged and non-aged polyol esters with 5% water con...
Friction Mapping as a Tool for Measuring the Elastohydrodynamic Contact Running-in Process
2015-10-01
AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Elastohydrodynamically...state friction coefficient and surface morphology , once the running-in process is complete, does not depend significantly on the ramp direction, nor... morphological changes may also be taking place.1–5 The running-in process has lasting consequences for the operation, efficiency, and failure conditions of the
Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.
1979-01-01
Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various metals and iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with single-crystal silicon carbide riders. Results indicate that the coefficient of friction and groove height (corresponding to the wear volume) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. The coefficient of friction and groove height generally decrease with an increase in solute content of binary alloys. A separate correlation exists between the solute to iron atomic radius ratio and the decreasing rates of change of coefficient of friction and groove height with increasing solute content. These rates of change are minimum at a solute to iron radius ratio of unity. They increase as the atomic ratio increases or decreases linearly from unity. The correlations indicate that atomic size is an important parameter in controlling friction and wear of alloys.
A method to change frictional characteristics based on ultrasonic micro driving technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Weishan; ZHANG Fan; LIU Junkao
2006-01-01
In order to reduce friction force and eliminate stick-slip phenomenon of a mechanic system at a low velocity, a method based on the ultrasonic micro driving technique to change the frictional characteristics is proposed. Exciting clockwise and anticlockwise microscopic elliptical motion of driving points on the ultrasonic actuator's two longitudinal bolt-clamped vibrators will generate ultrasonic lubrication action; furthermore, the friction can be actively controlled by adjusting the vibrators' vibrating amplitude. An experimental installation for friction control is designed using aerostatic guide, force sensors and a low speed moment motor.Fuzzy control theory is applied into this system. The experiments indicate the friction force has been reduced largely and the motion of the experimental system is stable. The friction coefficient is only about 0.0053 when the total mass of the ultrasonic actuator and load is3.8 kg and the motor's driving velocity is 0.5 mm/s.
Frictional transfer and the self-organization phenomenon in the friction
Kolesnikov, I. V.; Manturov, D. S.
2017-05-01
The paper is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface structures formation in the process of metal-polymer frictional contact. IR spectroscopy methods have showed that the formation kinetics of a frictionally transferred film is determined by the adhesion of the composite components and the direction of the electric field at the contact.
Gao, Xingwen; Tang, Dewei; Yue, Honghao; Jiang, Shengyuan; Deng, Zongquan
2017-06-01
The direct push sampling method is one of the most commonly used sampling methods in lunar regolith exploration. However, the disturbance of in situ bedding information during the sampling process has remained an unresolved problem. In this paper, the discrete element method is used to establish a numerical lunar soil simulant basing on the Hertz-Mindlin contact model. The result of simulated triaxial test shows that the macro mechanical parameters of the simulant accurately simulate most known lunar soil samples. The friction coefficient between the simulant and the wall of the sampling tube is also tested and used as the key variable in the following simulation and study. The disturbance phenomenon is evaluated by the displacement of marked layers, and a swirling structure is observed. The changing trend of the friction coefficient on the soil simulant void ratio and stress distribution is also determined.
Separation of contact in a sliding system with frictionally excited thermoelastic instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voldřich J.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The first phase of the thermoelastic instability, which is characterized by a full contact regime, can be modelled using Fourier decomposition and application of an analytical description. However, in case of further increase of instability, a separation of the contact occurs which is more difficult to cover by mathematical means. The contribution deals with numerical simulations of the separation. The problems are topical in connection with the disk brakes design, should we give an example.
Shaebani, M Reza; Kertesz, Janos
2008-01-01
The contact dynamics method (CD) is an efficient simulation technique of dense granular media where unilateral and frictional contact problems for a large number of rigid bodies have to be solved. In this paper we present a modified version of the contact dynamics to generate homogeneous random packings of rigid grains. CD is coupled to an external pressure bath, which allows the variation of the size of a periodically repeated cell. We follow the concept of the Andersen dynamics and show how it can be applied within the framework of the contact dynamics method. The main challenge here is to handle the interparticle interactions properly, which are based on constraint forces in CD. We implement the proposed algorithm, perform test simulations and investigate the properties of the final packings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Anyszka
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Tribological properties of commercially available silicone-based ceramizable composites were studied. Friction forces of three different types of ceramizable composites were measured against three different-shape steel samples. Each friction pair contact was loaded with 15, 30, 45 or 60 N. Conducted studies reveal that tribological behavior of the composites vary considerably depending on the composite type and friction contact. However, friction force was increasing with an increase of the load, which mean that the composites behave accordingly to the classic friction theory.
Method for Predicting Void Ratio and Triaxial Friction Angle from Laboratory CPT at Shallow Depths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim André; Ibsen, Lars Bo
In this report an investigation of the relationship between the tip resistance, qc of a laboratory CPT-probe versus the relative density, Dr and friction angle, ∏ of Aalborg University Sand No. 0 is carried out. A method for estimating the relative density and the triaxial friction angle from...... the cone resistance of the laboratory probe is proposed. The suggested method deals with the fact that the friction angle is depended of the stress level especially at low stresses. The method includes a calibration of the cone resistance from the laboratory CPT at shallow depths i.e. low values of d...
A Solution Method for Large Deformation Contact Problems.
1984-10-01
number) Contact Problem Algorithm Implicit Solution Technique 20. ANSTNACT’ (rntftae r eves aIi N yaeemy mrd identify by block numnber) P. solution...WITHOUT oL0 H! 0-CONTACT ALGORITHM Z w 00 0 ev 0.8- w kL 0.0 0 U< O0.26 U)_ * z Z OBTINE 0H53 56 59 ANGE,4 Ficure~~~~~ ~*A G RI H 17 Peitdtatoso iesi itrae...41, Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard Univ., March 1983. [20] Rabinowicz , E., Friction and Wear of Materials, J. Wiley and Sons, 1965. [21
An adjoint data assimilation method for optimizing frictional parameters on the afterslip area
Kano, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Ito, Kosuke; Hirahara, Kazuro
2013-12-01
Afterslip sometimes triggers subsequent earthquakes within a timescale of days to several years. Thus, it may be possible to predict the occurrence of such a triggered earthquake by simulating the spatio-temporal evolution of afterslip with estimated frictional parameters. To demonstrate the feasibility of this idea, we consider a plate interface model where afterslip propagates between two asperities following a rate-and-state friction law, and we adopt an adjoint data assimilation method to optimize frictional parameters. Synthetic observation data are sampled as the slip velocities on the plate interface during 20 days. It is found that: (1) all frictional parameters are optimized if the data sets consists not only of the early phase of afterslip or acceleration, but also of the decaying phase or deceleration; and (2) the prediction of the timing of the triggered earthquake is improved by using adjusted frictional parameters.
Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts
Klinkhamer, J.F.F.
2003-01-01
Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact
Ritz, E.; Pollard, D. D.
2011-12-01
Geological and geophysical investigations demonstrate that faults are geometrically complex structures, and that the nature and intensity of off-fault damage is spatially correlated with geometric irregularities of the slip surfaces. Geologic observations of exhumed meter-scale strike-slip faults in the Bear Creek drainage, central Sierra Nevada, CA, provide insight into the relationship between non-planar fault geometry and frictional slip at depth. We investigate natural fault geometries in an otherwise homogeneous and isotropic elastic material with a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (DDM). Although the DDM is a powerful tool, frictional contact problems are beyond the scope of the elementary implementation because it allows interpenetration of the crack surfaces. By incorporating a complementarity algorithm, we are able to enforce appropriate contact boundary conditions along the model faults and include variable friction and frictional strength. This tool allows us to model quasi-static slip on non-planar faults and the resulting deformation of the surrounding rock. Both field observations and numerical investigations indicate that sliding along geometrically discontinuous or irregular faults may lead to opening of the fault and the formation of new fractures, affecting permeability in the nearby rock mass and consequently impacting pore fluid pressure. Numerical simulations of natural fault geometries provide local stress fields that are correlated to the style and spatial distribution of off-fault damage. We also show how varying the friction and frictional strength along the model faults affects slip surface behavior and consequently influences the stress distributions in the adjacent material.
Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander; Wörgötter, Florentin; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Spinner, Marlene; Heepe, Lars
2016-12-01
Based on the principles of morphological computation, we propose a novel approach that exploits the interaction between a passive anisotropic scale-like material (e.g., shark skin) and a non-smooth substrate to enhance locomotion efficiency of a robot walking on inclines. Real robot experiments show that passive tribologically-enhanced surfaces of the robot belly or foot allow the robot to grip on specific surfaces and move effectively with reduced energy consumption. Supplementing the robot experiments, we investigated tribological properties of the shark skin as well as its mechanical stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged robot locomotion but also provides a better understanding of the functionalities and mechanical properties of anisotropic surfaces. That understanding will assist developing new types of material for other real-world applications.
Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander; Wörgötter, Florentin; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Spinner, Marlene; Heepe, Lars
2016-01-01
Based on the principles of morphological computation, we propose a novel approach that exploits the interaction between a passive anisotropic scale-like material (e.g., shark skin) and a non-smooth substrate to enhance locomotion efficiency of a robot walking on inclines. Real robot experiments show that passive tribologically-enhanced surfaces of the robot belly or foot allow the robot to grip on specific surfaces and move effectively with reduced energy consumption. Supplementing the robot experiments, we investigated tribological properties of the shark skin as well as its mechanical stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged robot locomotion but also provides a better understanding of the functionalities and mechanical properties of anisotropic surfaces. That understanding will assist developing new types of material for other real-world applications. PMID:28008936
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. N. Vereshchagin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The appraisal of character of the temperature fields distribution in dies at their interactions in the processes of wire drawing in dependence on contact friction in conditions of the system wire-die is given.
Investigation on tribology behavior of lubricants using the coefficient of friction test method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2001-01-01
This test method is used to determine the property of lubricants by measure the pa-rameters such as the coefficient of friction, wear value and seizure load on the Four Ball Wear TestMachine. Experiments were conducted using ASTM D5183-95 Standard Test Method (StandardTest Method For Determination Of The Coefficient of Friction of Lubricants Using the Four BallWear Test Machine) to measure the friction reducing ability , antiwear property and ex-treme-pressure property of different type of lubricants, the additives are also been studied at thesame time. From the test result, this test method can distinguish not only the property of differenttype of lubricants rapidly, sensitively and effectively but also can reflect the friction reducingability , antiwear property and extreme-pressure property of various additive formula.
Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic Method of Friction Stir Weld Assessment Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project is demonstration of the feasibility of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) assessment by novel Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) method. Time...
Study on the testing methods of friction coefficient in metal sheet deep drawing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2001-01-01
A more suitable method is introduced about testing friction coefficient on deep drawingcondition. It is pointed out that many ways to mesture friction coefficient. However, if a study of thefriction and lubrication in sheet metal deep drawing process is made, the testing method recom-mended in this paper should be used. As it is identical with the actual working condition accordingto its testing principle and state of stress.
The metal-tool contact friction at the ultrasonic vibration drawing of ball-bearing steel wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susan, Mihai
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The friction reversion mechanism during the ultrasonic vibration drawing (UVD of wires has been detailed for the case when the die is located at the oscillation maxima of the waves and actuated parallel to the friction force direction. The decrease of the drawing force for the UVD technology as compared to classical drawing has been explained by means of the intermittent contact in the metal-die forming area. A relationship has been derived for the UVD friction coefficient, μ_{US} that allowed the analytical determination of the drawing force. In the case of the Romanian RUL 1V (AISI 52100 ball bearing steel wires, a good agreement has been found between the analytical and the experimental values of the drawing forces that have decreased, as compared to classical drawing, by more than 5 % for drawing rates lower than 0.66m/s.
Se hace un análisis pormenorizado del mecanismo de reversión de la fricción al estirado por vibraciones ultrasonoras (EVU de los alambres, para el caso en que la trefiladora está ubicada en los máximos de oscilación de las ondas y activada paralelamente a la dirección de estirado. La disminución de la fuerza de estirado para la tecnología EVU en comparación con el estirado clásico, se ha explicado a través del contacto intermitente en el área de deformación metal-herramienta. Se halló una relación para el coeficiente de fricción EVU, μ_{US} que permitió la determinación analítica de la fuerza de estirado. En el caso de los alambres de acero rumano de rodamientos RUL 1V (AISI 52100 se encontró una justa concordancia entre los valores analítico y experimental de la fuerza de estirado que, en comparación con los de estirado clásico, se encontraron disminuidos en más de un 5 % para velocidades de estirado menores de 0,66m/s.
Non-contact method for directing electrotaxis
Ahirwar, Dinesh K.; Nasser, Mohd W.; Jones, Travis H.; Sequin, Emily K.; West, Joseph D.; Henthorne, Timothy L.; Javor, Joshua; Kaushik, Aniruddha M.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; Subramaniam, Vish V.
2015-06-01
We present a method to induce electric fields and drive electrotaxis (galvanotaxis) without the need for electrodes to be in contact with the media containing the cell cultures. We report experimental results using a modification of the transmembrane assay, demonstrating the hindrance of migration of breast cancer cells (SCP2) when an induced a.c. electric field is present in the appropriate direction (i.e. in the direction of migration). Of significance is that migration of these cells is hindered at electric field strengths many orders of magnitude (5 to 6) below those previously reported for d.c. electrotaxis, and even in the presence of a chemokine (SDF-1α) or a growth factor (EGF). Induced a.c. electric fields applied in the direction of migration are also shown to hinder motility of non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) in the presence of the growth factor EGF. In addition, we also show how our method can be applied to other cell migration assays (scratch assay), and by changing the coil design and holder, that it is also compatible with commercially available multi-well culture plates.
Tribological synthesis method for producing low-friction surface film coating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Maria De La; Fenske, George R.
2016-10-25
An article of method of manufacture of a low friction tribological film on a substrate. The article includes a substrate of a steel or ceramic which has been tribologically processed with a lubricant containing selected additives and the additives, temperature, load and time of processing can be selectively controlled to bias formation of a film on the substrate where the film is an amorphous structure exhibiting highly advantageous low friction properties.
Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same
Erdemir, Ali; Urgen, Mustafa; Cakir, Ali Fuat; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Kazmanli, Kursat; Keles, Ozgul
2007-05-01
An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.
Study on friction behaviour of brake shoe materials for mining hoist
Ungureanu, M.; Ungureanu, N. S.; Crăciun, I.
2017-02-01
The friction coefficient in the brake linkages has an important influence on the braking efficiency and safety of machines. The paper presents a method for the study of the friction coefficient of the friction couple brake shoe-drum for mining hoist. In this context, it is interesting to define the friction coefficient, not just according to the materials in contact, but according to the entire ensemble of tribological factors of the friction couple.
Pfahl, V.; Phani, M. K.; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, M.; Kumar, A.; Moshnyaga, V.; Arnold, W.; Samwer, K.
2017-01-01
We report on friction measurements on a La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) thin film using atomic force microscopy cantilever contact-resonances. There is a contribution to the damping of the cantilever oscillations, which is caused by micro-sliding of the cantilever tip on the surface of the thin film. This frictional part decreases with temperature parallel to the increase in the resistivity of the thin film. The LSMO is well-known for a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition that occurs without changes in the rhombohedral (R-3c) crystalline structure. The magnetic transition at the Curie temperature TC ˜ 360 K is accompanied by a metal-to-metal transition with a large increase in electrical resistivity. The behavior of the cantilever damping constant demonstrates that there is a direct coupling between mechanical friction and the mobility of the electrons in the LSMO film.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Tsung Lin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Instead of obsessively emphasizing to reduce the number of time increments and reshape the models, a novel surface contact transformation to increase efficiency is presented in this study. Wear on the bearing surfaces was investigated following the coupled regions from the pressure distribution, computed by means of three-dimensional finite element method models; an approximate analytical model and formulation in three-dimensional frictional contact problems based on modified localized Lagrange multiplier method have also been developed and discussed. Understanding wear behavior patterns in mechanical components is a significant task in engineering design. The proposed approach provides a complete and effective solution to the wear problem in a quasi-dynamic manner. However, expensive computing time is needed in the incremental procedures. In this article, an alternative and efficient finite element approach is introduced to reduce the computation costs of wear prediction. Through the successful verification of wear depth and volume loss of the pin-on-plate, block-on-ring, and metal-on-plastic artificial hip joint wear behaviors, the numerical calculations are shown to be both valid and feasible. Furthermore, the results also show that the central processing unit time required by the proposed method is nearly half that of the previous methods without loss of accuracy.
Contact mechanics of pad of grasshopper (Insecta: ORTHOPTERA) by finite element methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI ZhenDong; GORB Stanislav
2009-01-01
During locomotion, insect feet endure dramatic impact force and generate adhesive force which is controlled by the architecture of the foot. The patterns of smooth attachment pads in insect feet vary widely among insect orders and families. The functional significance of the micro-structure and geo-metric design of insect feet remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a two-dimensional finite element model of a grasshopper's attachment pad. Realistic geometric microstructure and mate-rial properties are applied in the biomechanical analysis of the structural behavior during contact. Here we use scanning electronic microscopy to study the microstructure of the grasshopper's pad, and then use the finite element method to calculate the deformation vector fields, contact stiffness, contact area, function of the airbag and strain fields during the contact process. The results reveal that the geometric design and material topology of a grasshopper's pads are very effective in reducing contact stiffness, increasing contact area and generating high friction force during the contact procedure. The rod-containing structure supporting the soft exocuticle makes the pads highly adaptive to various surfaces and decreases the stress inside the pads.
Contact Stress Analysis for Gears of Different Helix Angle Using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patil Santosh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The gear contact stress problem has been a great point of interest for many years, but still an extensive research is required to understand the various parameters affecting this stress. Among such parameters, helix angle is one which has played a crucial role in variation of contact stress. Numerous studies have been carried out on spur gear for contact stress variation. Hence, the present work is an attempt to study the contact stresses among the helical gear pairs, under static conditions, by using a 3D finite element method. The helical gear pairs on which the analysis is carried are 0, 5, 15, 25 degree helical gear sets. The Lagrange multiplier algorithm has been used between the contacting pairs to determine the stresses. The helical gear contact stress is evaluated using FE model and results have also been found at different coefficient of friction, varying from 0.0 to 0.3. The FE results have been further compared with the analytical calculations. The analytical calculations are based upon Hertz and AGMA equations, which are modified to include helix angle. The commercial finite element software was used in the study and it was shown that this approach can be applied to gear design efficiently. The contact stress results have shown a decreasing trend, with increase in helix angle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debrégeas G.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress ﬁelds at the base of a rough elastomer ﬁlm in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured ﬁelds are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, signiﬁcant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the diﬀerence between the Amontons ﬁelds and the measured ones, in particular the eﬀect of the ﬁnite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakamura, T; Bay, Niels
1998-01-01
A new friction testing method based on combined forward conical can-backward straight can extrusion is proposed in order to evaluate friction characteristics in severe metal forming operations. By this method the friction coefficient along the conical punch surface is determined knowing...... the friction coefficient along the die wall. The latter is determined by a combined forward and backward can extrusion of straight cans. Calibration curves determining the relationship between punch travel, can heights, and friction coefficient for the two rests are calculated based on a rigid-plastic FEM...... analysis. Experimental friction tests are carried out in a mechanical press with aluminium alloy A6061 as the workpiece material and different kinds of lubricants. They confirm that the theoretical analysis results irt reasonable values for the friction coefficient....
Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K; Cottenden, D J; Farbrot, A
2008-07-01
A new method for measuring the coefficient of friction between nonwoven materials and the curved surface of the volar forearm has been developed and validated. The method was used to measure the coefficient of static friction for three different nonwoven materials on the normal (dry) and over-hydrated volar forearms of five female volunteers (ages 18-44). The method proved simple to run and had good repeatability: the coefficient of variation (standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean) for triplets of repeat measurements was usually (80 per cent of the time) less than 10 per cent. Measurements involving the geometrically simpler configuration of pulling a weighted fabric sample horizontally across a quasi-planar area of volar forearm skin proved experimentally more difficult and had poorer repeatability. However, correlations between values of coefficient of static friction derived using the two methods were good (R = 0.81 for normal (dry) skin, and 0.91 for over-hydrated skin). Measurements of the coefficient of static friction for the three nonwovens for normal (dry) and for over-hydrated skin varied in the ranges of about 0.3-0.5 and 0.9-1.3, respectively. In agreement with Amontons' law, coefficients of friction were invariant with normal pressure over the entire experimental range (0.1-8.2 kPa).
Salles, Loic; Gouskov, Alexandre; Jean, Pierrick; Thouverez, Fabrice
2014-01-01
Contact interfaces with dry friction are frequently used in turbomachinery. Dry friction damping produced by the sliding surfaces of these interfaces reduces the amplitude of bladed-disk vibration. The relative displacements at these interfaces lead to fretting-wear which reduces the average life expectancy of the structure. Frequency response functions are calculated numerically by using the multi-harmonic balance method (mHBM). The dynamic Lagrangian frequency-time method is used to calculate contact forces in the frequency domain. A new strategy for solving nonlinear systems based on dual time stepping is applied. This method is faster than using Newton solvers. It was used successfully for solving Nonlinear CFD equations in the frequency domain. This new approach allows identifying the steady state of worn systems by integrating wear rate equations a on dual time scale. The dual time equations are integrated by an implicit scheme. Of the different orders tested, the first order scheme provided the best re...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙凤艳; 黄璐; 汪林兵
2016-01-01
为了精确表征轮胎与路面微观摩擦接触特性及分子作用力效应，利用分子动力学模拟分析方法建立轮胎(聚异戊二烯)和集料(二氧化硅)三维单体模型和界面接触模型，在纳米尺度上研究轮胎和集料的微观构造和接触特性.模拟结果表明：链状聚异戊二烯分子链为螺旋状结构，分子间隙较大，易产生较大变形，而二氧化硅则为典型脆性材料，表面较为平整；界面接触模型以二氧化硅为固定基底，聚异戊二烯单链在其上匀速滑动，二者间距离为0.5 nm.接触界面摩擦特性模拟结果表明摩擦系数随着速度增加而变小，其变化趋势与实验结果相同，证明模拟结果有效.%To accurately capture micro frictional contact characteristics and intermolecular forces between tires and pavement, the three-dimensional monomer models and the interface contact model of tires represented by isoprene and aggregates represented by silica were established by the molecular dynamics method. The microscopic structure and tire-aggregate contact properties were studied in nanoscale. Simulation results show that polyisoprene molecular chain is in the spiral structure with big molecular gaps, and is easy to generate large deformation under external loading. Conversely, silica is brittle with relatively flat surfaces. In the tie-pavement contact model, silica is the fixed base, and the single-chain polyisoprene is sliding on the top of the silica base at a constant velocity. The surface distance between the silica base and the single-chain polyisoprene is 0. 5 nm. Simulation results of tire-pavement contact show that the friction coefficient decreases with the increase of sliding velocity, and the relationship between the friction coefficient and slid-ing velocity shows good agreement with test results, indicating that molecular dynamics simulation is capable to predict the tire-pavement frictional contact characteristics.
Development of a Contact Angle Measurement Method Based Upon Geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Su; Pyo, Na Young; Seo, Seung Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Woo Jin [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea); Kwon, Young Shik [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea)
1998-12-31
A new way of contact angle measurement is derived based on simple geometrical calculation. Without using complicated contact angle measurement instrument, just measuring the diameter and height of liquid lens made it possible to calculate the contact angle value with a reasonable reliability. To validate the contact angle value obtained by this method, contact angle of the same liquid lens is measured using conventional goniometer and it is verified that two values are nearly same within the limit of observational error. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU; Jiamei; LIU; Weimin; LIANG; Yongmin
2005-01-01
A series of novel metal halide-stabilized linear phosphazene derivatives were synthesized. The friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the resulting products as the lubricants for a steel-on-steel contact were comparatively investigated on an Optimol SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The morphology of the worn steel surface was observed on a scanning electron microscope, while the chemical states of some typical elements on the worn steel surface were examined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that both the side branch structures and central metals influenced the friction-reducing and antiwear behaviors of the synthetic derivatives as the lubricants, which was related to the different adsorption activities of the organic compounds composed of different organic ingredients and metallic ions on a nascent metal surface. All the synthetic lubricants except for the iron (III) derivative showed increased antiwear abilities with increasing metallic ionic radius. A protective layer originated from the tribochemical reaction together with the adsorbed boundary lubricating layer containing organic fluorine compounds, nitrogen oxide, and Fe3(PO4)2 plays an important role in improving the friction and wear behavior of the steel-on-steel system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Lei; ZHU Zhencai; CHEN Guoan; LI Yilei
2011-01-01
The tribological properties of newly developed friction material were evaluated by statistical analysis of the major affecting factors. The material for investigation was non-metallic friction material synergistically reinforced with aramid fibre and CaSO4 whisker, which was developed for hoisting applications in coal mine. The response surface method (RSM) was employed to analyze the material performances affected by the independent and interactive effect of the factors under the normal working condition and severe working condition, respectively. Results showed that under the normal working condition, the newly developed material exhibited stable tribological properties which were insensitive to the test conditions. While under the severe working condition, the sliding velocity was the most dominant factor affecting the friction coefficient.Additionally, compared to the commercially available material, the modified material showed superior wear resistance and thermal stability.
Friction performance optimization of electroless Ni P coatings using the Taguchi method
Sahoo, Prasanta
2008-05-01
This paper presents an experimental study of friction characteristics of electroless Ni-P (EN) coatings sliding against steel and optimization of coating process parameters based on the Taguchi method. Experiments are carried out by utilizing the combination of process parameters based on the L27 Taguchi orthogonal design with four process parameters, namely, bath temperature, concentration of nickel source solution, concentration of reducing agent and annealing temperature. It is observed that concentration of nickel source solution has the most significant influence in controlling friction characteristics of EN coating. The optimum combination of process parameters for minimum friction coefficient is obtained from the analysis. The surface morphology and composition of coatings are also studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis.
Friction performance optimization of electroless Ni-P coatings using the Taguchi method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, Prasanta [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)], E-mail: psahoo@vsnl.net
2008-05-07
This paper presents an experimental study of friction characteristics of electroless Ni-P (EN) coatings sliding against steel and optimization of coating process parameters based on the Taguchi method. Experiments are carried out by utilizing the combination of process parameters based on the L{sub 27} Taguchi orthogonal design with four process parameters, namely, bath temperature, concentration of nickel source solution, concentration of reducing agent and annealing temperature. It is observed that concentration of nickel source solution has the most significant influence in controlling friction characteristics of EN coating. The optimum combination of process parameters for minimum friction coefficient is obtained from the analysis. The surface morphology and composition of coatings are also studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis.
A NEW METHOD OF CHANNEL FRICTION INVERSION BASED ON KALMAN FILTER WITH UNKNOWN PARAMETER VECTOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Wei-ping; MAO Gen-hai; LIU Guo-hua
2005-01-01
Channel friction is an important parameter in hydraulic analysis.A channel friction parameter inversion method based on Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is proposed.Numerical simulations indicate that when the number of monitoring stations exceeds a critical value, the solution is hardly affected.In addition, Kalman Filter with unknown parameter vector is effective only at unsteady state.For the nonlinear equations, computations of sensitivity matrices are time-costly.Two simplified measures can reduce computing time, but not influence the results.One is to reduce sensitivity matrix analysis time, the other is to substitute for sensitivity matrix.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2011-01-01
1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition. 1.2 This test method does not purport to simulate all aspects of a fired engine’s operating environment, but is intended to serve as a means for preliminary screening for assessing the frictional characteristics of candidate piston ring and liner material combinations in the presence of fluids that behave as u...
Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material
Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus
2017-01-01
In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.
Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material
Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus
2016-06-01
In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.
Akay, Adnan
2002-04-01
This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of
A method for the determination of the coefficient of rolling friction using cycloidal pendulum
Ciornei, M. C.; Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Romanu, I. C.
2017-08-01
The paper presents a method for experimental finding of coefficient of rolling friction appropriate for biomedical applications based on the theory of cycloidal pendulum. When a mobile circle rolls over a fixed straight line, the points from the circle describe trajectories called normal cycloids. To materialize this model, it is sufficient that a small region from boundary surfaces of a moving rigid body is spherical. Assuming pure rolling motion, the equation of motion of the cycloidal pendulum is obtained - an ordinary nonlinear differential equation. The experimental device is composed by two interconnected balls rolling over the material to be studied. The inertial characteristics of the pendulum can be adjusted via weights placed on a rod. A laser spot oscillates together to the pendulum and provides the amplitude of oscillations. After finding the experimental parameters necessary in differential equation of motion, it can be integrated using the Runge-Kutta of fourth order method. The equation was integrated for several materials and found values of rolling friction coefficients. Two main conclusions are drawn: the coefficient of rolling friction influenced significantly the amplitude of oscillation but the effect upon the period of oscillation is practically imperceptible. A methodology is proposed for finding the rolling friction coefficient and the pure rolling condition is verified.
An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.
Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice
2013-01-15
We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sygut P.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical studies influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the feedstock length to the unit friction force working on the metal contact surface with the roll change during the round bars 70 mm in diameter continuous rolling process. This value is one of the major factors affecting the grooves wear during the rolling process. The studies were carried out based on the actual engineering data for 160 × 160 mm square cross-section feedstock of steel S355J0. Numerical modelling of the rolling process was performed using Forge2008®, a finite-element based computer program.
Stelt, van der A.A.; Bor, T.C.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Quak, W.; Akkerman, R.; Huetink, J.; Menary, G.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the material flow around the pin during friction stir welding (FSW) is simulated using a 2D plane strain model. A pin rotates without translation in a disc with elasto-viscoplastic material properties and the outer boundary of the disc is clamped. Two numerical methods are used to sol
Experimental Methods for Implementing Graphene Contacts to Finite Bandgap Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer-Holdt, Jakob
was a graphene-C60 monolayergraphene vertical transistor named the Carbon Burger. The fabrication of such device proved increasingly difficult to achieve and many experimental methods to handle graphene were implemented and improved in attempt to fabricate the Carbon Burger. In the end, a device platform...... contacts to semiconductor nanowires, more specifically, epitaxially grown InAs nanowires. First, we tried a top down method where CVD graphene was deposited on substrate supported InAs nanowires followed by selective graphene ashing to define graphene electrodes. While electrical contact between...... the nanowires and graphene was achieved, the contact resistance was higher (>100 kΩ) than what is achieved for optimum metal contacts (~5 kΩ). We therefore developed a method to directly grow InAs nanowires on graphitic flakes. This was achieved by using silver seed particles for epitaxial growth of In...
Pendota, Premchand
Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.
Microstructure analysis in friction welding of copper and aluminum
Wibowo, A. G. Wahyu; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.
2016-04-01
The Friction welding is a welding method with utilizing heat generated due to friction. Surfaces of two materials to be joined, one rotates the other being idle, is contacted by a pressure force. Friction on the second contact surface is done continuously so that the heat generated by the continuous friction will continue to rise. With the heat and the pressure force on the second surface to the second meeting of the material reaches its melting temperature then there is the process of welding. This paper examines the influence of the pressure force, rotational speed and contact time on friction welding of Aluminum (Al) and Copper (Cu) to the quality of welded joints. Friction welding process is performed on a friction welding machine that is equipped with the loading mechanism. The parameters used are the pressure force, rotational speed and friction time. Determination of the quality of welding is done by testing the tensile strength, hardness, and micro structure on the weld joint areas. The results showed that the friction welding quality is very good, this is evidenced by the results of a tensile strength test where the fault occurs outside the weld joint and increased violence in the weld joint. On the results visually cuts the welding area did not reveal any porosity so that it can be concluded that each metal contacts have melted perfectly and produce a connection with good quality.
A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a CMP process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Chi; Guo Dongming; Jin Zhuji; Kang Renke, E-mail: xuchi_dut@163.com [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2010-12-15
A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is presented. The signal process method uses the wavelet threshold denoising method to reduce the noise contained in the measured original signal, extracts the Kalman filter innovation from the denoised signal as the feature signal, and judges the CMP endpoint based on the feature of the Kalman filter innovation sequence during the CMP process. Applying the signal processing method, the endpoint detection experiments of the Cu CMP process were carried out. The results show that the signal processing method can judge the endpoint of the Cu CMP process. (semiconductor technology)
Deciphering viscous flow of frictional melts with the mini-AMS method
Ferré, Eric C.; Chou, Yu-Min; Kuo, Ruo Lin; Yeh, En-Chao; Leibovitz, Natalie R.; Meado, Andrea L.; Campbell, Lucy; Geissman, John W.
2016-09-01
The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is widely used to analyze magmatic flow in intrusive igneous bodies including plutons, sills and dikes. This method, owing its success to the rapid nature of measurements, provides a proxy for the orientation of markers with shape anisotropy that flow and align in a viscous medium. AMS specimens typically are 25 mm diameter right cylinders or 20 mm on-a-side cubes, representing a volume deemed statistically representative. Here, we present new AMS results, based on significantly smaller cubic specimens, which are 3.5 mm on a side, hence∼250 times volumetrically smaller than conventional specimens. We show that, in the case of frictional melts, which inherently have an extremely small grain size, this small volume is in most cases sufficient to characterize the pseudotachylyte fabric, particularly when magnetite is present. Further, we demonstrate that the mini-AMS method provides new opportunities to investigate the details of frictional melt flow in these coseismic miniature melt bodies. This new method offers significant potential to investigate frictional melt flow in pseudotachylyte veins including contributions to the lubrication of faults at shallow to moderate depths.
Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation
Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab
1999-01-01
A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.
A Novel Engine Mount with Semi-Active Dry Friction Damping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Lorenz
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a semi-active engine mount with a controllable friction damper. The normal force of the friction contact is applied by an electromagnetic actuator and can be varied dynamically. The nonlinear current-force-relation of the actuator is linearized. To account for wear and assembly tolerances, an initialization method is developed, that is based on indirect measurement of the actuators inductance. The friction contact is made up of industrial friction pads and a friction rod of steel. The friction model used is suitable especially for small oscillations of the friction damper. The control policy imitates viscous damping forces that exert a minimum of harmonics. Damping is activated only when necessary. Finally the friction mount is compared to the original mount in a row of test rack experiments and also in the car.
N. S. M. EL-TAYEB; B. F. Yousif; P. V. Brevern
2005-01-01
Nowadays, there is an increase interest in polymeric composite materials for high-performance in many industrial applications. In other words, the tribo-studies on polymeric materials are growing fast to enhance the polymeric products such as bearings, seals, ring and bushes. The current work presents an attempt to study the correlation between the type of counterface material and frictional heating at the interface surfaces for different, normal loads (23N, 49N and 72N), sliding velocities (...
Parameter tuning method for dither compensation of a pneumatic proportional valve with friction
Wang, Tao; Song, Yang; Huang, Leisheng; Fan, Wei
2016-05-01
In the practical application of pneumatic control devices, the nonlinearity of a pneumatic control valve become the main factor affecting the control effect, which comes mainly from the dynamic friction force. The dynamic friction inside the valve may cause hysteresis and a dead zone. In this paper, a dither compensation mechanism is proposed to reduce negative effects on the basis of analyzing the mechanism of friction force. The specific dither signal (using a sinusoidal signal) was superimposed on the control signal of the valve. Based on the relationship between the parameters of the dither signal and the inherent characteristics of the proportional servo valve, a parameter tuning method was proposed, which uses a displacement sensor to measure the maximum static friction inside the valve. According to the experimental results, the proper amplitude ranges are determined for different pressures. In order to get the optimal parameters of the dither signal, some dither compensation experiments have been carried out on different signal amplitude and gas pressure conditions. Optimal parameters are determined under two kinds of pressure conditions. Using tuning parameters the valve spool displacement experiment has been taken. From the experiment results, hysteresis of the proportional servo valve is significantly reduced. And through simulation and experiments, the cut-off frequency of the proportional valve has also been widened. Therefore after adding the dither signal, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proportional valve are both improved to a certain degree. This research proposes a parameter tuning method of dither signal, and the validity of the method is verified experimentally.
Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Clauido
2012-07-01
This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations
Mixed lubricated line contacts
Faraon, Irinel Cosmin
2005-01-01
The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is essential that an engineer is able to predict friction.
Robust Algorithms for Contact Problems with Constitutive Contact Laws
2016-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the solution of contact problems with advanced Coulomb friction in the 3D case using the finite element method. A Lagrange multiplier method modelling the contact traction is employed and the contact conditions are enforced in a weak sense leading to a surface-to-surface discretization. Here more precisely the dual mortar method is used allowing for a static condensation of the additional variables in the system before solving without loosing the optimality of...
Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun
2016-02-01
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8-29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3-19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper has investigated theoretically the influence of sliding speed and temperature on the hysteretic friction in case of a smooth, reciprocating steel ball sliding on smooth rubber plate by finite element method (FEM. Generalized Maxwell-models combined with Mooney-Rivlin model have been used to describe the material behaviour of the ethylenepropylene-diene-monomer (EPDM rubber studied. Additionally, the effect of the technique applied at the parameter identification of the material model and the number of Maxwell elements on the coefficient of friction (COF was also investigated. Finally, the open parameter of the Greenwood-Tabor analytical model has been determined from a fit to the FE results. By fitting, as usual, the Maxwell-model to the storage modulus master curve the predicted COF, in a broad frequency range, will be underestimated even in case of 40-term Maxwell-model. To obtain more accurate numerical prediction or to provide an upper limit for the hysteretic friction, in the interesting frequency range, the Maxwell parameters should be determined, as proposed, from a fit to the measured loss factor master curve. This conclusion can be generalized for all the FE simulations where the hysteresis plays an important role.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Sung Wook; Jang, Beom Seon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
A three-dimensional numerical model was constructed to analyze the heat transfer of friction stir welding using Fluent and ANSYS multi-physics. The analysis result was used to calculate welding deformation and residual stress. Before the numerical simulation, several simplifying assumptions were applied to the model. Three different methods of heat transfer analysis were employed, and several assumptions were applied to each heat source model. In this work, several parametric studies were performed for certain unspecified variables. The calculated temperature data were compared with experimental data from relevant studies. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of the three heat transfer analysis methods were compared.
A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.
Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei
2016-01-01
To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.
APPLICATION OF NONLOCAL FRICTION IN SEVERAL KINDS OF PLASTIC FORMING PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Xiao-qing; LUO Hai-bao; FU Ming-fu; JIANG Wu-gui
2005-01-01
The nonlocal friction law proposed by Oden et al. was adopted in order to consider the nonlocal friction effect of the asperities on the rough contact surface between the die and the workpiece in several kinds of metal plastic forming problems.The mechanical equilibrium equations with the integral-differential form were obtained by using the engineering method or slab method, and solved approximately by using the perturbation method. The normal stress distributions on the contact surfaces in metal forming problems with nonlocal friction were obtained, and the factors which affect the nonlocal friction effect were analyzed.
Yang, Yazhou; Jiang, Man; Xu, Jie; Ma, Yunhai; Tong, Jin
2012-04-01
In this work, the uniform design method was applied to arrange the experimental scheme for optimizing formulation of friction materials. The friction and wear of the friction materials based on the optimized formulation was carried out on a constant speed friction tester (JF150D-II), using pad-on-disc contact mode against gray cast iron disc. The worn surfaces of the friction materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (JSM5310) and the friction mechanism was discussed. The results showed that the uniform design method was appropriate for finding the optimum formulation of the friction materials with better properties. Compared with two conventional friction materials, the friction materials based on the optimized formulation possessed higher and stable friction coefficient and higher wear resistance, even at the disc temperature of 350°C. The adhesion, strain fatigue and abrasive wear were the main wear mechanisms of the friction materials. Tribo-chemical phenomenon and plastic deformation existed on the worn surface layer.
Wisander, D. W.
1978-01-01
Aluminum, titanium, beryllium, nickel, iron, copper, and several copper alloys were run in sliding contact with AISI 440C in liquid methane and natural gas. All of the metals run except copper and the copper alloys of tin and tin-lead showed severely galled wear scars. Friction coefficients varied from 0.2 to 1.0, the lowest being for copper, copper-17 wt. % tin, and copper-8 wt. % tin-22 wt. % lead. The wear rate for copper was two orders of magnitude lower than that of the other metals run. An additional order of magnitude of wear reduction was achieved by the addition of tin and/or lead to copper.
Optimization of method a load cell calibration for the measurement of coefficient of friction
Castro, R. M.; Pereira, M.; Sousa, A. R.; Curi, E. I. M.; Izidoro, C. L.; Correa, L. C.
2016-07-01
The instrumentation of equipment for mechanical testing is used to optimize the time to deliver a result, besides minimizing errors associated with manual measurements. Given this context, this work aims to present a calibration method for a load cell to determine the measurement results of force and friction coefficient, developed from on rotary pin-on-disk tribometer. The results indicate that the procedure provides measurements reliable for the tribological phenomena, resulting in with proximity the values provided by the ASTM G99-04.
An inversion method to extract basal friction law of granular flows and snow avalanches
Pulfer, Gaëtan; Thibert, Emmanuel; Naaim, Mohamed
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to develop an inversion method allowing to extract basal friction parameters from snow avalanches. To develop this method, granular flows on an incline covered by sand paper (typical roughness size is 500µm) are used. The granular material is composed of glass beads of 1.1 mm diameter. A controlled volume of granular material is released by retracting a gate of 35 mm height. On the upper and steepest part of the incline, the front velocity of the flow is measured by image capture (30 frames/s). At three locations, the flow height and the Lagrangian velocity are measured with infrared distance sensors and the Particle Image Velocimetry technics, respectively. On the lower and less steep part of the rough incline where granular flow decelerates and stops, the front velocity is also measured by image capture. The shape and the thickness of the deposit is determined with an accurate four fringe shifted Moiré method. A Saint-Venant code is used as a direct model to simulate the granular experiments. From the measurements and an optimization/inversion method, best estimates of basal friction parameters are extracted. In order to discuss and validate this inverse approach, an external determination of the rheology of the granular material is performed using Hstart and Hstop curves constructed under the same basal surface roughness.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李文良; 王黎钦; 常山
2013-01-01
Based on the calculation of time-varying contact line, the numerical algorithm is adopted to cal-culate the friction force of tooth surface and the friction torque with different helix angles. After analyzed Root Mean Square and fluctuation ratio of friction force of tooth surface and friction torque, the conclusions were obtained: the fluctuation ratio of time-varying contact line is the principal factor for the change of friction force of tooth surface and the friction torque. In the range of parameters selected, the fluctuations of tooth surface friction force and friction torque are the same as the volatility of time-varying contact line and show a change law between 10°-20° and 20°-30°, which provide a theoretical reference to reduce noise and vibration in engineering.% 文章在计算斜齿轮时变接触线基础上，采用数值编程快速计算主动轮齿面摩擦力和齿面摩擦扭矩。通过分析齿面摩擦力和齿面摩擦扭矩的均方根以及波动率后可知，时变接触线的波动是影响齿面摩擦力以及齿面摩擦扭矩的主要因素。在文中选定的参数范围内，齿面摩擦力的波动和齿面摩擦扭矩的波动与时变接触线的波动变化规律基本一致，呈现出一种10°-20°和20°-30°的变化规律，为工程减振降噪提供了理论参考。
Song, Bao-Jiang; Yan, Shao-Ze; Xiang, Wu-Wei-Kai
2015-01-01
An experimental method of measuring the real contact area of transparent blocks based on the principle of total internal reflection is presented, intending to support the investigation of friction characteristics, heat conduction, and energy dissipation at the contact interface. A laser sheet illuminates the contact interface, and the transmitted laser sheet is projected onto a screen. Then the contact information is acquired from the screen by a camera. An improved Otsu method is proposed to process the data of experimental images. It can compute the threshold of the overall image and filter out all the pixels one by one. Through analyzing the experimental results, we describe the relationship between the real contact area and the positive pressure during a continuous loading process, at different loading rates, with the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material. A hysteresis phenomenon in the relationship between the real contact area and the positive pressure is found and explained. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11272171), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 3132030), and the Education Ministry Doctoral Fund of China (Grant No. 20120002110070).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kartini
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contact area of the contact between a deformable rough surface (smooth and rough and a hard smooth sphere indenter using finite element method. A method was introduced to generate a three dimensional rough surfaces using Computer Aided Design (CAD software. The rough surface model was developed based on the surface measurement data, while the smooth surface model was generated from the CAD software. Contact area and contact deformation were analyzed. Results showed that the contact area between rough surface versus sphere and smooth surface versus sphere is different.
Torsional Vibrations of a Cantilever with Lateral Friction in a Resonance Friction Microscope
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jian-Song; GE Yun; ZHANG Hui
2012-01-01
A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method. The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold, the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever. When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude, the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude. If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product, the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions. The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever, and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.%A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method.The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold,the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever.When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude,the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude.If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product,the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions.The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever,and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.
Effect of boundary vibration on the frictional behavior of a dense sheared granular layer
Ferdowsi, B; Guyer, R A; Johnson, P A; Carmeliet, J
2014-01-01
We report results of 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations aiming at investigating the role of the boundary vibration in inducing frictional weakening in sheared granular layers. We study the role of different vibration amplitudes applied at various shear stress levels, for a granular layer in the stick-slip regime and in the steady-sliding regime. Results are reported in terms of friction drops and kinetic energy release associated with frictional weakening events. We find that larger vibration amplitude induces larger frictional weakening events. The results show evidence of a threshold below which no induced frictional weakening takes place. Friction drop size is found to be dependent on the shear stress at the time of vibration. A significant increase in the ratio between the number of slipping contacts to the number of sticking contacts in the granular layer is observed for large vibration amplitudes. These vibration-induced contact rearrangements enhance particle mobilization and induces a fricti...
Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Methods: Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Results: Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p < 0.001). Tukey test indicated that the highest frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. Conclusions: As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:27653262
Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.
2004-01-01
Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linjun, Xie, E-mail: linjunx@zjut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)
2016-08-01
friction coefficient f of the K1000 HDS are further calculated to be 0.336 by stress coefficient k{sub f}. It is very important that the research method of friction coefficient put forward by this paper for the first time. The method can provide an exact basis for HDS design and structure selection and can provide a guarantee for the safe operation of the reactor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E., E-mail: dekl2@cam.ac.uk [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)
2013-09-15
Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.
Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2004-12-01
When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full
Assessment of semi-active friction dampers
dos Santos, Marcelo Braga; Coelho, Humberto Tronconi; Lepore Neto, Francisco Paulo; Mafhoud, Jarir
2017-09-01
The use of friction dampers has been widely proposed for a variety of mechanical systems for which applying viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or other viscous dampers is impossible. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades' vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive manner, but significant improvements can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the contact region. The aim of this paper is to present and study five control strategies for friction dampers based on three different hysteresis cycles by using the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM), a numerical and experimental analysis. The first control strategy uses the friction force as a resistance when the system is deviating from its equilibrium position. The second control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle by calculating the optimal normal force based on the last displacement peak. The third control strategy combines the first strategy with the homogenous modulation of the friction force. Finally, the last two strategies attempt to predict the system's movement based on its velocity and acceleration and our knowledge of its physical properties. Numerical and experimental studies are performed with these five strategies, which define the performance metrics. The experimental testing rig is fully identified and its parameters are used for numerical simulations. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance of the friction damper and selected strategy and the suitable agreement between the numerical and experimental results.
Energy Balance of Friction and Friction Coefficient in Energetical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.V. Fedorov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Sliding friction energy model is proposed. In this model, generalized mechanism of transformation and dissipation of energy under friction the model of elastic-plastic deformation and fracture contact volumes is considered. Energy model of the process of plastic deformation and destruction of solid bodies is based on the concept of ergodynamic of deformable bodies. Equations of energy balance of friction within the structural and energetic interpretation of deformation are proposed. The energy interpretation of the coefficient of friction is showed. From this position the friction coefficient is the most informative characteristic of the process. Experimental friction curves have been generalized. As a result of the energy analysis of friction, the energy diagram of the structural evolution of the friction surfaces is suggested.
Non-contact electromagnetic exciter design with linear control method
Wang, Lin; Xiong, Xianzhi; Xu, Hua
2017-01-01
A non-contact type force actuator is necessary for studying the dynamic performance of a high-speed spindle system owing to its high-speed operating conditions. A non-contact electromagnetic exciter is designed for identifying the dynamic coefficients of journal bearings in high-speed grinding spindles. A linear force control method is developed based on PID controller. The influence of amplitude and frequency of current, misalignment and rotational speed on magnetic field and excitation force is investigated based on two-dimensional finite element analysis. The electromagnetic excitation force is measured with the auxiliary coils and calibrated by load cells. The design is validated by the experimental results. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that the proposed design can accurately generate linear excitation force with sufficiently large amplitude and higher signal to noise ratio. Moreover, the fluctuations in force amplitude are reduced to a greater extent with the designed linear control method even when the air gap changes due to the rotor vibration at high-speed conditions. Besides, it is possible to apply various types of excitations: constant, synchronous, and non-synchronous excitation forces based on the proposed linear control method. This exciter can be used as linear-force exciting and controlling system for dynamic performance study of different high-speed rotor-bearing systems.
Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN
2005-01-01
Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.
Zhan, Liwei; Li, Chengwei
2017-02-01
A hybrid PSO-SVM-based model is proposed to predict the friction coefficient between aircraft tire and coating. The presented hybrid model combines a support vector machine (SVM) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. SVM has been adopted to solve regression problems successfully. Its regression accuracy is greatly related to optimizing parameters such as the regularization constant C , the parameter gamma γ corresponding to RBF kernel and the epsilon parameter \\varepsilon in the SVM training procedure. However, the friction coefficient which is predicted based on SVM has yet to be explored between aircraft tire and coating. The experiment reveals that drop height and tire rotational speed are the factors affecting friction coefficient. Bearing in mind, the friction coefficient can been predicted using the hybrid PSO-SVM-based model by the measured friction coefficient between aircraft tire and coating. To compare regression accuracy, a grid search (GS) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) are used to optimize the relevant parameters (C , γ and \\varepsilon ), respectively. The regression accuracy could be reflected by the coefficient of determination ({{R}2} ). The result shows that the hybrid PSO-RBF-SVM-based model has better accuracy compared with the GS-RBF-SVM- and GA-RBF-SVM-based models. The agreement of this model (PSO-RBF-SVM) with experiment data confirms its good performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tevfik Küçükömeroğlu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study AA5754 and A6061 alloys have been butt welded to each other by using friction stir welding (FSW. At constant tool geometry and tool angle experiments were carried out, joints were performed using different welding speed, rotation speed and especially tool press force. The mechanical properties of the welded samples were determined by using tensile test, bending test and micro hardness. Generated microstructure and hardness profile was obtained in the welding zone. In this friction stir welding study the parameters which affect the joint structure are the tool press force, welding speed and tool rotation speed which were determined. At the end of study it is determined that AA5754 and AA6061 alloys can be successfully welded by using Friction Stir Welding method under different tool press forces at least 6kN.
Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Field in Automotive Dry Friction Clutch
O.I. Abdullah; J. Schlattmann
2012-01-01
The friction clutch design is strongly dependent upon the frictional heat generated between contact surfaces during the slipping at beginning of engagement. Because of that the frictional heat generated firstly will reduce the performance of clutch system and then will lead to premature failure in some cases. Finite element method was used to investigate aneffect of thermal load type on the temperature field of the clutch system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric model was used to study the tempe...
Stress intensity factor analysis of friction sliding at discontinuity interfaces and junctions
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Phan, AV
2003-12-01
Full Text Available A stress intensity factor (SIF) analysis for two dimensional fractures with frictional contact (crack friction) is presented. This analysis is carried out using the symmetric-Galerkin boundary element method, and a modified quarter-point crack tip...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolov Mitko
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A large part of machines (85–90 % (Garkunov, 2003 lose their efciency due to wear of parts, which disrupts their normal interaction, causes additional loading, shocks and vibrations, leads to seizures and jams and to accidents in many cases. This paper presents research methods for tribological properties of restorative and preventive coatings in diferent lubricating media at sliding friction.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Inoue, Tetsunori; Glud, Ronnie N.; Stahl, Henrik
2011-01-01
Three approaches, Eddy Correlation (EC), Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE), and Inertial Dissipation (ID) methods, were compared to evaluate their potential for estimation of friction velocity in a Scottish sea loch. As an independent assessment parameter, we used simultaneous O2 recordings of the d...
Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.
Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua
2015-09-01
Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.
Kovalyshyn, Stepan J.; Dadak, Viktor O.; Sokolyk, Vitalij V.; Grundas, Stanisław; Stasiak, Mateusz; Tys, Jerzy
2015-04-01
Many seed mixtures of herbs are difficult to separate. This is confirmed by studies determining the basic geometrical and friction properties of the seeds of perennial grasses and seeds of their weeds. The results show that in most cases the value of their geometrical parameters (length, thickness, and width) and friction properties (friction coefficients for different external surfaces of internal friction coefficients) are substantially similar and differ slightly among each other. This is the evidence that these properties are impractical to use in the process of separation as signs of divisibility. In the paper, a method for electro-separation of seed mixtures of herbs based on the use of complex physical, mechanical properties and electrical components in the separation are presented. The electric field that acts as an additional working body allows considering the surface conditions and biological status of seed mixtures of particles and significantly expands the functionality of the separators. Confirmation of the effectiveness of the proposed method for separation can be seen in the example of purification of red clover and sorrel seeds. By imposition of an electric field on an inclined moving separating plane, we can completely separate weed seeds from the main crop. The results confirm the effectiveness of the electro-separating method.
2015-11-20
defined as ˜̄s = 0 −s̄z s̄ys̄z 0 −s̄x −s̄y s̄x 0 . (6) 1.2. The Numerical Solution Scheme Eq. 1 through 4 are discretized to obtain an approximation...faceted pyramids , leading to a linear complementarity problem (LCP) which can be solved by pivoting or simplex methods [6]. However, these approaches in...cone is approximated by a pyramid . An alternative is to introduce a relaxation to the complementarity constraints, replacing 0 ≤ ( 1 hΦi ( q(l), t
Active partial eigenvalue assignment for friction-induced vibration using receptance method
Liang, Y.; Ouyang, H. J.; Yamaura, H.
2016-09-01
Generally, a mechanical system always has symmetric system matrices. Nevertheless, when some non-conservative forces are included, such as friction and aerodynamic force, the symmetry of the stiffness matrix or damping matrix or both violated. Moreover, such an asymmetric system is prone to dynamic instability. Distinct from the eigenvalue assignment for symmetric systems to reassign their natural frequencies, the main purpose of eigenvalue assignment for asymmetric systems is to shift the unstable eigenvalues to the stable region. In this research, only the unstable eigenvalues and eigenvalues which are close to the imaginary axis of the complex eigenvalue plane are assigned due to their predominant influence on the response of the system. The remaining eigenvalues remain unchanged. The state-feedback control gains are obtained by solving the constrained linear least-squares problems in which the linear system matrices are deduced based on the receptance method and the constraint is derived from the unobservability condition. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of partially assigning those targeted eigenvalues of the system for stabilisation.
Study of lubrication behavior of pure water for hydrophobic friction pair
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane molecular layer was self-assembled on glass plate. The tribological properties of the molecular layer in water were studied with the method of ball on disk. An interesting phenomenon was found that low friction coefficients of 0.02―0.08 were obtained when the friction pair was lubricated with only a water droplet. Whereas, when the friction pair was encircled with large amount of water or fully immersed in water, the friction coefficient was higher than that under a droplet lubrication. A mechanism of water droplet lubrication was proposed that the surface tension caused by the solid-liquid-air three-phase interface makes water molecules enter into the contact zone, which separates the two friction surfaces and provides a low friction coefficient. However, water film can hardly form when more water encircles the friction pair, due to the attraction between water molecules.
Experimental Methods for Implementing Graphene Contacts to Finite Bandgap Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer-Holdt, Jakob
for molecular electronics with parallel CVD graphene bottom electrodes with SiO2 passivation was successfully fabricated and electronically characterized. A functioning Carbon Burger was not achieved. Along the work on the Carbon Burger, the scope was broadened and focus was put on implementing graphene......Present Ph.D. thesis describes my work on implanting graphene as electrical contact to finite bandgap semiconductors. Different transistor architectures, types of graphene and finite bandgap semiconductors have been employed. The device planned from the beginning of my Ph.D. fellowship...... was a graphene-C60 monolayergraphene vertical transistor named the Carbon Burger. The fabrication of such device proved increasingly difficult to achieve and many experimental methods to handle graphene were implemented and improved in attempt to fabricate the Carbon Burger. In the end, a device platform...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Sun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A novel coupling scheme is presented to combine the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA and the interior penalty Galerkin (IPG method for the modeling of contacts. The simultaneous equilibrium equations are assembled in a mixed strategy, where the entries are derived from both discontinuous Galerkin variational formulations and the strain energies of DDA contact springs. The contact algorithms of the DDA are generalized for element contacts, including contact detection criteria, open-close iteration, and contact submatrices. Three representative numerical examples on contact problems are conducted. Comparative investigations on the results obtained by our coupling scheme, ANSYS, and analytical theories demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.
The behaviour of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate friction modifier additives
Graham, J C H
2001-01-01
In recent years there has been growing concern to produce energy-efficient lubricated components and modem engine oil specifications require lubricants to demonstrate fuel efficiency in standardised engine tests. One important method of producing low friction and thus fuel-efficient lubricants is to use oil-soluble, molybdenum-containing, friction modifier additives. In optimal conditions these additives are able to produce very low friction coefficients, in the range 0.045 to 0.075 in boundary lubrication conditions. Very little is known about the chemical and physical mechanisms by which oil soluble molybdenum additives form low friction films in tribological contacts. Information about their activity could lead to optimal use of these additives in lubricants and, therefore, more efficient engine running. The work outlined in this thesis investigated the behaviour of oil-soluble molybdenum additives and showed that these additives were able to effectively reduce friction in the absence of other additives su...
Friction damping of two-dimensional motion and its application in vibration control
Menq, C.-H.; Chidamparam, P.; Griffin, J. H.
1991-01-01
This paper presents an approximate method for analyzing the two-dimensional friction contact problem so as to compute the dynamic response of a structure constrained by friction interfaces. The friction force at the joint is formulated based on the Coulomb model. The single-term harmonic balance scheme, together with the receptance approach of decoupling the effect of the friction force on the structure from those of the external forces has been utilized to obtain the steady state response. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated by comparing the results with long-term time solutions.
Paleointensities From a Baked Contact: a Multi-Method Experiment
Bohnel, H.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Hill, M. J.; Yamamoto, Y.
2011-12-01
The baked contact test is traditionally used to prove the origin of a NRM in old rocks. It consists in the comparison of the NRM from an igneous rock with that of the rock which has been reheated by that igneous rock. In the vicinity of the City of Queretaro (Mexico) such a situation is given by an upper Tertiary lava flow which has reheated profoundly underlying lake/alluvial sediments. This situation was deemed to be ideal for testing different PI methods, as the lava flow and baked sediments are thought to have different rock magnetic properties, but should have recorded the same paleointensity. As the success of paleointensity experiments is often dependent on the rock magnetic properties, such a situation may provide information about the conditions that may be responsible for the success or failure in a particular PI method. The PI methods applied to the lava and sediment rocks are: Thellier-Coe, microwave, multi-specimen pTRM, LTD-DHT Shaw.
High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S. (Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI); Street, Mark D. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)
2004-10-01
The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Pattinasarany
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate effect of cement slurry consistency toward friction pressure during oil/gas cementing operation. Completion of an oil/gas well has become more important because the reserve has become harder to find. The oil/gas company cannot afford to lose million dollars they spent when locating, drilling and recovering the oil from the Earth if they failed it. The safety, health and environment also have become more important issue, because any completion problem can lead to prolong operation and creating more hazard and risk. Cementing operation plays a very important role during completion because it creates a secure conduit to bring the precious oil/gas to the surface and a place to install completion jewelry. During cementing operation lost circulation can be one of the serious problems that arise. Circulation is said to be lost when the cement slurry pumped flows into one or more geological formations instead of returning up casing annulus. This is due to sum of hydrostatic pressure and friction pressure is exceeding fracture gradient. Method that commonly used to calculate friction from American Petroleum Institute (API assumed the cement slurry will exhibit time independent nature. Cement slurry consistency was found to have significant effect to friction pressure.
Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Stojanovic
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.
Torsional friction damper optimization
Ye, Shaochun; Williams, Keith A.
2006-06-01
A new approach for the analysis of friction dampers is presented in this work. The exact form of the steady-state solution for a friction damper implemented on a primary system is developed and numerical solutions are used to determine the optimum friction in a friction damper applied to a specific primary system. When compared to classical results presented by earlier authors, the new approach provides a more optimal solution. In addition, viscous damping in the primary system may be included with the new analysis approach. The ability to optimize a friction damper when viscous damping is included in the primary system is a significant improvement over earlier methods and shows potential for serving as a guide to realizing a more accurate estimate of the optimal damping for friction dampers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐进元; 周炜; 陈思雨
2012-01-01
在弹性范围内对速度相关摩擦力条件下的曲面接触问题进行研究,给出有限元混合求解方法,用FORTRAN编制计算程序,并以直齿圆柱单齿对啮合模型为例在平面应力和准静态条件下进行求解,计算结果表明：速度对摩擦力的作用影响到接触力的分布与啮合节点对的接触状态,考虑速度对摩擦的影响对于接触的准确求解是必要的。用Ansys对所给算例进行验证,结果表明本文算法和编制程序的正确性。%The mixed finite element algorithm is used to solve contact problems coupling with friction decided by velocity for curved surface in elastic field.The computational procedure is designed with the aid of Fortran language,and the technique is employed to account for the contact problems of one pair of meshing teeth in the plane stress and quasi-static situation.The result indicates that the influence of velocity on friction affects the distribution of contact force as well as the meshing node pair’s contact status,and the consideration of the relation between velocity and friction is essential for the contact problem solutions.Ultimately the example is validated by the Ansys software.
Bižić, Milan B.; Petrović, Dragan Z.; Tomić, Miloš C.; Djinović, Zoran V.
2017-07-01
This paper presents the development of a unique method for experimental determination of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position by using the instrumented wheelset (IWS). Solutions of key problems in the development of IWS are proposed, such as the determination of optimal locations, layout, number and way of connecting strain gauges as well as the development of an inverse identification algorithm (IIA). The base for the solution of these problems is the wheel model and results of FEM calculations, while IIA is based on the method of blind source separation using independent component analysis. In the first phase, the developed method was tested on a wheel model and a high accuracy was obtained (deviations of parameters obtained with IIA and really applied parameters in the model are less than 2%). In the second phase, experimental tests on the real object or IWS were carried out. The signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the main influential parameter on the measurement accuracy. Тhе obtained results have shown that the developed method enables measurement of vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces Q and Y and their ratio Y/Q with estimated errors of less than 10%, while the estimated measurement error of contact point position is less than 15%. At flange contact and higher values of ratio Y/Q or Y force, the measurement errors are reduced, which is extremely important for the reliability and quality of experimental tests of safety against derailment of railway vehicles according to the standards UIC 518 and EN 14363. The obtained results have shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in solving the problem of high accuracy measurement of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position using IWS.
A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points
Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang
2015-11-01
Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.
Apparatus and method to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert; Delvaux, John McConnell
2016-11-22
An apparatus to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface, including a metal layer configured for insertion between a surface interface between a CMC component and a metal component. The surface interface of the metal layer is compliant relative to asperities of the surface interface of the CMC component. A coefficient of friction between the surface interface of the CMC component and the metal component is about 1.0 or less at an operating temperature between about 300.degree. C. to about 325.degree. C. and a limiting temperature of the metal component.
Chi, Xu; Dongming, Guo; Zhuji, Jin; Renke, Kang
2010-12-01
A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is presented. The signal process method uses the wavelet threshold denoising method to reduce the noise contained in the measured original signal, extracts the Kalman filter innovation from the denoised signal as the feature signal, and judges the CMP endpoint based on the feature of the Kalman filter innovation sequence during the CMP process. Applying the signal processing method, the endpoint detection experiments of the Cu CMP process were carried out. The results show that the signal processing method can judge the endpoint of the Cu CMP process.
Contact position controlling for two-dimensional motion bodies by the boundary element method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
An algorithm is presented for controlling two-dimensional motion contact bodies with conforming discretization. Since a kind of special boundary element is utilized in the algorithm, the displacement compatibility and traction equilibrium conditions at nodes can be satisfied simultaneously in arbitrary locations of the contact interface. In addition, a method is also proposed in which the contact boundary location can be moved flexibly on the possible contact boundary. This method is effective to deal with moving and rolling contact problems on a possible larger moving or rolling contact region. Numerical examples show effectiveness of the presented scheme.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王鹏; 倪红坚; 王瑞和; 沈忠厚; 李志娜
2015-01-01
Based on asperity contact deformation theory, an analysis and calculation model of the friction between drill-string and wellbore rock was established, and the mechanism of friction reduction via exciting drill-string vibration longitudinally was studied. The results show that the criteria for friction reduction by vibrating drill-string longitudinally is that the relative sliding velocity of the drill-string on the wellbore rock should be less than the amplitude of the velocity of drill-string vibra-tion. The friction reduction effect increases with the increase of the vibration frequency, and it increases firstly with the vibra-tion amplitude then decreases, and there is an optimal amplitude. The friction reduction effect decreases with the increase of the drill-string movement velocity, the penetration depth of the asperity and the friction coefficient. The results of orthogonal testing indicate that the influence on friction reduction of vibration frequency, amplitude, penetration depth of the asperity, friction coefficient and the velocity of drill-string weakens in sequence, of which the vibration frequency, amplitude, and the penetration depth of the asperity are the most significant factors.%基于微凸体接触变形理论，建立钻柱纵向振动条件下钻柱与岩石间摩擦力的分析计算模型，探索钻柱纵向振动减摩阻规律。结果表明：钻柱纵向振动减摩阻的条件是钻柱相对于岩石运动速度小于钻柱纵振速度幅值，且振动减阻效果随振动频率的增大而增强，随振幅的增大呈现先增强后减弱的趋势，存在最优振幅，而随着钻柱与岩石间相对运动速度、相对法向压入量和摩擦系数的增大，振动减摩阻效果趋于弱化；钻柱振动频率、振幅、相对法向压入量、摩擦系数和钻柱与岩石间相对运动速度对振动减阻的影响作用依次降低，其中振动频率、振幅和相对法向压入量为显著因子。
Wet Friction-Elements Boundary Friction Mechanism and Friction Coefficient Prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Yanzhong
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The friction mechanism for the boundary friction course of friction elements engagement was explicitly expressed. The boundary friction model was built up by the surface topography. The model contained the effect of boundary film, adhesion, plough and lubrication. Based on the model, a coefficient for weakening plough for the lubrication was proposed. The modified model could fit for the working condition of wet friction elements. The friction coefficient as a function curve of rotating speed could be finally obtained by the data k and s/sm. The method provides a well interpretation of friction condition and friction coefficient prediction and the agreement between theoretical and experimental friction coefficients is reasonably good.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The behavior of rare earth element Ce in 2090 Al-Li alloys was studied by the method of low frequency internal friction.The results showed that rare earth element Ce can increase the activation energy of grain boundary and improve the grain boundary strength of alloys.Rare earth element Ce can decrease the tendency of softening of elastic modulus of 2090 Al-Li alloys after heat cycle and keep high elastic modulus of initial state.
Sato, K.
2015-12-01
Friction coefficients along faults control the brittle strength of the earth's upper crust, although it is difficult to estimate them especially of ancient geological faults. Several previous studies tried to determine the friction coefficient of meso-scale faults from their orientation distribution as follows. Fault-slip analysis through stress tensor inversion techniques gives principal stress axes and a stress ratio, which allows us to draw a normalized Mohr's circle. Assuming that a faulting occurs when the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on it, i.e., the slip tendency, exceeds the friction coefficient, one can find a linear boundary of distribution of points corresponding to faults on Mohr diagram. The slope of the boundary (friction envelope) provides the friction coefficient. This method has a difficulty in graphically and manually recognizing the linear boundary of distribution on the Mohr diagram. This study automated the determination of friction coefficient by considering the fluctuations of fluid pressure and differential stress. These unknown factors are expected to make difference in density of points representing faults on the Mohr diagram. Since the density is controlled by the friction coefficient, we can optimize the friction coefficient so as to explain the density distribution. The method was applied to two examples of natural meso-scale faults. The first example is from the Pleistocene Kazusa Group, central Japan, which filled a forearc basin of the Sagami Trough. Stress inversion analysis showed WNW-ENE trending tensional stress with a low stress ratio. The friction coefficient was determined to be around 0.66, which is typical value for sandstone. The Second example is from an underplated tectonic mélange in the Cretaceous to Paleogene Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough. The stress condition was determined to be an axial compression perpendicular to the foliation of shale matrix. The friction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianmeng Huang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The study of the instantaneous frictional temperature, stress, and equivalent plastic strain generated when two surfaces are in frictional sliding process plays a significant role in understanding friction and wear mechanism. A thermomechanical coupling model between a rough body and a flat body is established. The model integrates the heat flux coupling between the sliding surfaces and considers the effects of the interaction among contact asperities and elastoplastic deformation of the rough body. The thermomechanical problem under this three-dimensional model is solved by the nonlinear finite element methods in ABAQUS software. The results show that the temperature, contact pressure, and stress are coupled. The results of the real contact area and the instantaneous frictional temperature, contact pressure, and VonMises equivalent stress on the local contact region fluctuate obviously due to the interaction among the adjacent contact asperities. The influence of asperity interaction is not constant but intermittent. Its time interval is related to the added interaction of a new adjacent contact asperity. The fluctuation of the VonMises equivalent stress makes the equivalent plastic strain of the frictional surface layer accumulate continually which might cause fatigue wear and plastic deformation wear of the material when the frictional rotating process was repeated.
Analysis of deep learning methods for blind protein contact prediction in CASP12.
Wang, Sheng; Sun, Siqi; Xu, Jinbo
2017-08-28
Here we present the results of protein contact prediction achieved in CASP12 by our RaptorX-Contact server, which is an early implementation of our deep learning method for contact prediction. On a set of 38 free-modeling target domains with a median family size of around 58 effective sequences, our server obtained an average top L/5 long- and medium-range contact accuracy of 47% and 44%, respectively (L = length). A complete implementation has an average accuracy of 59% and 57%, respectively. Our deep learning method formulates contact prediction as a pixel-level image labeling problem and simultaneously predicts all residue pairs of a protein using a combination of two deep residual neural networks, taking as input the residue conservation information, predicted secondary structure and solvent accessibility, contact potential, and coevolution information. Our approach differs from existing methods mainly in (1) formulating contact prediction as a pixel-level image labeling problem instead of an image-level classification problem; (2) simultaneously predicting all contacts of an individual protein to make effective use of contact occurrence patterns; and (3) integrating both one-dimensional and two-dimensional deep convolutional neural networks to effectively learn complex sequence-structure relationship including high-order residue correlation. This paper discusses the RaptorX-Contact pipeline, both contact prediction and contact-based folding results, and finally the strength and weakness of our method. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Iliotibial band friction syndrome.
Lavine, Ronald
2010-07-20
Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.
Contact connections in electronic printing circuit, performed using the foil puncture method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efimenko А. А.
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The results of theoretical and experimental researches of the unsoldered contact connections performed using the foil puncture method are demonstrated. The structural parameters of printing circuit boards and contacts of electronic components from positions of microminiatu-rization of electronic apparatus are determined. The contact connections are tested on climatic and mechanical factors influence, and the durability of contacts of electronic components is measured for ensuring of their pressing.
Dependence of friction on roughness, velocity, and temperature.
Sang, Yi; Dubé, Martin; Grant, Martin
2008-03-01
We study the dependence of friction on surface roughness, sliding velocity, and temperature. Expanding on the classic treatment of Greenwood and Williamson, we show that the fractal nature of a surface has little influence on the real area of contact and the static friction coefficient. A simple scaling argument shows that the static friction exhibits a weak anomaly mu ~ A(0)(-chi/4), where A0 is the apparent area and chi is the roughness exponent of the surface. We then develop a method to calculate atomic-scale friction between a microscopic asperity, such as the tip of a friction force microscope (FFM) and a solid substrate. This method, based on the thermal activation of the FFM tip, allows a quantitative extraction of all the relevant microscopic parameters and reveals a universal scaling behavior of atomic friction on velocity and temperature. This method is extended to include a soft atomic substrate in order to simulate FFM scans more realistically. The tip is connected with the support of the cantilever by an ideal spring and the substrate is simulated with a ball-spring model. The tip and substrate are coupled with repulsive potentials. Simulations are done at different temperatures and scanning velocities on substrates with different elastic moduli. Stick-slip motion of the tip is observed, and the numerical results of the friction force and distribution of force maxima match the theoretical framework.
Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts
Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.
2006-09-01
We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.
Solid friction between soft filaments
Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-01-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zezulinsky Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.
Wildlife contact analysis: Emerging methods, questions, and challenges
Cross, Paul C.; Creech, Tyler G.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Creel, Scott
2012-01-01
Recent technological advances, such as proximity loggers, allow researchers to collect complete interaction histories, day and night, among sampled individuals over several months to years. Social network analyses are an obvious approach to analyzing interaction data because of their flexibility for fitting many different social structures as well as the ability to assess both direct contacts and indirect associations via intermediaries. For many network properties, however, it is not clear whether estimates based upon a sample of the network are reflective of the entire network. In wildlife applications, networks may be poorly sampled and boundary effects will be common. We present an alternative approach that utilizes a hierarchical modeling framework to assess the individual, dyadic, and environmental factors contributing to variation in the interaction rates and allows us to estimate the underlying process variation in each. In a disease control context, this approach will allow managers to focus efforts on those types of individuals and environments that contribute the most toward super-spreading events. We account for the sampling distribution of proximity loggers and the non-independence of contacts among groups by only using contact data within a group during days when the group membership of proximity loggers was known. This allows us to separate the two mechanisms responsible for a pair not contacting one another: they were not in the same group or they were in the same group but did not come within the specified contact distance. We illustrate our approach with an example dataset of female elk from northwestern Wyoming and conclude with a number of important future research directions.
A method to measure internal contact angle in opaque systems by magnetic resonance imaging.
Zhu, Weiqin; Tian, Ye; Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei
2013-07-23
Internal contact angle is an important parameter for internal wettability characterization. However, due to the limitation of optical imaging, methods available for contact angle measurement are only suitable for transparent or open systems. For most of the practical situations that require contact angle measurement in opaque or enclosed systems, the traditional methods are not effective. Based upon the requirement, a method suitable for contact angle measurement in nontransparent systems is developed by employing MRI technology. In the Article, the method is demonstrated by measuring internal contact angles in opaque cylindrical tubes. It proves that the method also shows great feasibility in transparent situations and opaque capillary systems. By using the method, contact angle in opaque systems could be measured successfully, which is significant in understanding the wetting behaviors in nontransparent systems and calculating interfacial parameters in enclosed systems.
Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. GLIŠOVIĆ
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.
Sakuma, Hiroshi
2013-12-01
frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.
Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.
Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming
2015-09-01
Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李鹏阳; 陈欢; 王世军; 王权岱; 傅卫平
2015-01-01
The influence of surface contact friction heat on the failure and the life of the parts was studied .The thermal stress of elastic-plastic surface contact was calculated using Fortran language ,the contact surface temperature distribution and the influence of friction heat on the surface pressure distribution were analyzed ,and the subsurface of the Mises stress field and the influence of plastic strain of the contact surface were discussed .The results show :With the increase of surface friction heat flux , the surface maximum pressure is increased .The maximum stress under the surface is decreased and the maximum stress zone of subsurface is always moving gradually to the contact surface .The contact surface temperature increases with the increase of sliding speed .The location of highest temperature point slowly shifts ,with increase of sliding speed ,to the sliding velocity direction .%研究了降低表面接触摩擦热对材料失效和零件寿命的影响。应用Fortran编程语言对弹塑性表面接触中产生的热应力进行了计算，分析了接触表面温度分布及摩擦热对接触表面压力分布、表面下米塞斯应力场及塑性应变的影响。分析结果表明：随着表面摩擦热流的增加，表面上最大接触压力逐渐变大，而表面下最大应力值逐渐减小，最大应力区域逐渐向接触表面上移动。接触表面温度的大小随滑动速度的提高而升高，且最高温度点的位置随滑动速度的提高缓慢向滑动速度方向偏移。
THE CALCULATION METHOD ABOUT THE FRICTION ARM OF HYDRAULIC STEEL GATE ROLLER%水工钢闸门滚轮的滚动摩擦力臂计算方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高仕赵; 徐国宾
2013-01-01
In order to solve the problem of the calculation method about the rolling friction arm of a hydraulic steel gate roller,the contact problem between wheel and rail is reduced to the contact between the cylinder and the cylinder seat.Taking the contact line as the end of the semicircle,it assumes that the pressure of the contact line is proportional to the height at the point of this semicircle.The analytical solution of a rolling friction arm is derived according to the Boussinesq problem of an infinite half-plane solution.Finally,ANSYS is applied to computing the contact between rolling wheel and rail to verify the correctness of the analytical solution of the rolling friction arm.The results show that the rolling friction arm formula is reasonably simplified,and the calculation accuracy can meet the actual requirements.%为了解决水工钢闸门滚轮在受载荷作用时产生的滚动摩擦力臂的计算方法问题,将滚轮与钢轨的接触问题简化为圆柱与圆柱座之间的接触问题,并以接触线为底作半圆,假设接触线上各点的压力与此半圆在该点的高度成正比.同时根据无限半平面Boussinesq问题的解法推导出滚动摩擦力臂的解析解.最后采用ANSYS建立滚轮全模型与钢轨进行接触分析来验证滚动摩擦力臂解析解的正确性.结果表明该滚动摩擦力臂计算公式简化合理,计算精度能够满足实际要求.
Friction of atomically stepped surfaces
Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.
2017-03-01
The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.
Tocci, Gabriele; Joly, Laurent; Michaelides, Angelos
2014-12-10
Friction is one of the main sources of dissipation at liquid water/solid interfaces. Despite recent progress, a detailed understanding of water/solid friction in connection with the structure and energetics of the solid surface is lacking. Here, we show for the first time that ab initio molecular dynamics can be used to unravel the connection between the structure of nanoscale water and friction for liquid water in contact with graphene and with hexagonal boron nitride. We find that although the interface presents a very similar structure between the two sheets, the friction coefficient on boron nitride is ≈ 3 times larger than that on graphene. This comes about because of the greater corrugation of the energy landscape on boron nitride arising from specific electronic structure effects. We discuss how a subtle dependence of the friction on the atomistic details of a surface, which is not related to its wetting properties, may have a significant impact on the transport of water at the nanoscale, with implications for the development of membranes for desalination and for osmotic power harvesting.
Determination of contact parameters for discrete element method simulations of granular systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Both linear-spring-dashpot (LSD) and non-linear Hertzian-spring-dnshpot (HSD) contact models are commonly used for the calculation of contact forces in Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of granular systems.Despite the popularity of these models, determination of suitable values for the contact parameters of the simulated particles such as stiffness, damping coefficient, coefficient of restitution, and simulation time step,is not altogether obvious.In this work the relationships between these contact parameters for a model system where a particle impacts on a flat base are examined.Recommendations are made concerning the determination of these contact parameters for use in DEM simulations.
Tri-residue contact potential: a new knowledge-based energetic method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A new knowledge-based potential method, the tri-residue contact potential (TRICP), is proposed. This approach resembles the idea of environment-dependent residue contact energy reported by Zhang et al. We statistically study the 3-dimensional structure of proteins and calculate the knowledge-based contact potential of tri-residue clusters. These contact potentials are carefully compared to pairwise contact potentials (PCP). TRICP helps us to systematically examine the impact on the interactions of residue pairs by the third residue. Moreover, TRICP provides us with many clues to identify high frequency characteristic structural units in protein structures.
Porous media characterization by the two-liquid method: effect of dynamic contact angle and inertia.
Lavi, Becky; Marmur, Abraham; Bachmann, Joerg
2008-03-04
The validity of using the Lucas-Washburn (LW) equation for porous media characterization by the two-liquid capillary penetration method was tested numerically and experimentally. A cylindrical capillary of known radius and contact angle was used as a model system for the tests. It was found that using the LW equation (i.e., ignoring inertia and dynamic contact angle effects) may lead to very erroneous assessment of the capillary radius and the equilibrium contact angle, for a relatively wide range of capillary radii and equilibrium contact angles. A correct assessment requires the application of a penetration kinetics equation that considers inertia and the dynamic contact angle.
Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings
Ligterink, D.J.
1982-01-01
Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional torque increases to a maximum of 1.273 times the frictional torque at zero wear.
Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi
2012-01-31
Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard Jensen, Mads
frictions, a call option should never be exercised early, but only at expiration or just before the underlying stock pays a dividend. Chapter one of this thesis shows that suffciently severe frictions can make early exercise optimal. Short-sale costs especially represent an important driver of early...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang
2007-01-01
Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.
Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M
Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.
Transient 3d contact problems—NTS method: mixed methods and conserving integration
Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter
2011-10-01
The present work deals with a new formulation for transient large deformation contact problems. It is well known, that one-step implicit time integration schemes for highly non-linear systems fail to conserve the total energy of the system. To deal with this drawback, a mixed method is newly proposed in conjunction with the concept of a discrete gradient. In particular, we reformulate the well known and widely-used node-to-segment methods and establish an energy-momentum scheme. The advocated approach ensures robustness and enhanced numerical stability, demonstrated in several three-dimensional applications of the proposed algorithm.
A method for measuring skin friction drag on a flat plate in contaminated gas flows
Oetting, R. B.; Patterson, G. K.
1984-01-01
A technique for measuring friction drag in turbulent gas and gas/particle flows over flat plates is presented, and preliminary results are reported. A 0.25-in.-thick 72 x 6-in. Al plate is suspended by six horizontal support air bearings and four vertical alignment air bearings between fixed dummy plates and leading-edge and trailing-edge fairings in the 32-in.-high 48-in.-wide 11-ft-long test section of a closed-circuit atmospheric wind tunnel operating at 50-150 ft/sec. Particles of Fe and Al oxides of diameter 20-150 microns and density up to 0.3 lb particles per lb air are injected via a 6 x 0.167-in. nozzle; turbulence is induced by a roughened section of the leading-edge fairing; and friction drag is measured using a load-cell pressure transducer. Sample results are shown in a graph, demonstrating good agreement with theoretical drag calculations.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2008-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the use of an angled launch ramp to initiate rolling of a sphere or nearly spherical shape on a flat horizontal surface to determine the rolling friction characteristics of a given spherical shape on a given surface. 1.1.1 Steel balls on a surface plate were used in interlaboratory tests (see Appendix X1). Golf balls on a green, soccer and lacrosse balls on playing surfaces, bowling balls on an a lane, basketballs on hardwood, and marbles on composite surface were tested in the development of this test method, but the test applies to any sphere rolling on any flat horizontal surface. 1.1.2 The rolling friction of spheres on horizontal surfaces is affected by the spherical shape’s stiffness, radius of curvature, surface texture, films on the surface, the nature of the counterface surface; there are many factors to consider. This test method takes all of these factors into consideration. The spherical shape of interest is rolled on the surface of interest using a standard ramp to...
CALCULATION OF MILL RIGIDITY BY THREE DIMENSION CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Vertical rigidity of the space self-adaptive 530 high rigidity mill is calculated by applying the boundary element method (BEM) of three-dimension elastic contact problem,which can update the existed deforming separation calculating theory and corresponding methods of material mechanics,elastic mechanics and finite element method.The method has less hypotheses and stronger synthesis in contact-type calculating model.The advantages of the method are high calculating rate,high calculating accuracy,etc..
Indirect methods to measure wetting and contact angles on spherical convex and concave surfaces.
Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In
2012-05-22
In this work, a method was developed for indirectly estimating contact angles of sessile liquid drops on convex and concave surfaces. Assuming that drops were sufficiently small that no gravitational distortion occurred, equations were derived to compute intrinsic contact angles from the radius of curvature of the solid surface, the volume of the liquid drop, and its contact diameter. These expressions were tested against experimental data for various liquids on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polycarbonate (PC) in the form of flat surfaces, spheres, and concave cavities. Intrinsic contact angles estimated indirectly using dimensions and volumes generally agreed with the values measured directly from flat surfaces using the traditional tangent method.
Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method
Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.
2016-05-31
A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.
Screenable contact structure and method for semiconductor devices
Ross, Bernd
1980-08-26
An ink composition for deposition upon the surface of a semiconductor device to provide a contact area for connection to external circuitry is disclosed, the composition comprising an ink system containing a metal powder, a binder and vehicle, and a metal frit. The ink is screened onto the semiconductor surface in the desired pattern and is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal frit to become liquid. The metal frit dissolves some of the metal powder and densifies the structure by transporting the dissolved metal powder in a liquid sintering process. The sintering process typically may be carried out in any type of atmosphere. A small amount of dopant or semiconductor material may be added to the ink systems to achieve particular results if desired.
Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part II: analyses.
Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi
2008-09-01
The mechanics of the friction drive of a surface acoustic wave motor were investigated by means of contact mechanics theory. As a means to control the contact condition, the motor's slider had projections on its frictional surface. Assuming the projection was a rigid circular punch and the slider body was an elastic half-space allowed application of contact mechanics formulae to the analyses of the friction drive. Because the projection contacted the Rayleigh wave vibration, the projection's responses were considered dynamic; thus, the dynamics were also analyzed in the same framework of contact mechanics formulae. Moreover, the analyses were applied to measurements of the projection's displacement to examine the detailed mechanics during the friction drive. We calculated the contact/frictional forces based on the measurement and indicated the necessity of further investigation of the surface acoustic wave motor's friction drive, because the usual friction law was unable to explain the measurement.
A more reliable measurement method for metal/graphene contact resistance.
Wang, Shaoqing; Mao, Dacheng; Jin, Zhi; Peng, Songang; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan; Wang, Xuanyun
2015-10-09
The contact resistance of metal/graphene is becoming a major limiting factor for graphene devices. Among various kinds of contact resistance test methods, the transmission line model is the most common approach to extract contact resistance in graphene devices. However, experiments show that in some cases there exists large inaccuracy and instability using this method. In this study, we added a cross-bridge structure at the terminal of the transmission line as a supporting test. This modified transmission line measurement structure can easily compare not only the transmission line and Kelvin contact resistance, getting a more reliable value, but also the other contact-related parameters, such as specific contact resistivity, transfer length and the graphene sheet resistance under and outside contact metal at the same time. The new measurement test is very helpful in enabling us to study the contact property accurately. The specific contact resistivity in our experiment is in the range of 2.0 × 10(-6) Ω · cm(2) and 3.0 × 10(-6) Ω · cm(2) at room temperature. With the temperature decreasing from 290 K to 60 K, the transfer length fluctuates around 1.7 μm, and the specific contact resistivity reduces to less than 2.0 × 10(-6) Ω · cm(2).
Influence of WS2 Nanopowder Addition on Friction Characteristics of ta-C Coating by FCVA Method
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Si-Geun Choi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of nano-size WS2 powders on the tribological behavior of ta-C coatings by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA method under boundary lubrication conditions has been investigated. In order to characterize and understand tribological behaviors of nano-size WS2 powders added to the synthetic oil (poly-alpha-olefin 6, lubricants with different mixture ratios, ranging from 2 to 8 wt%, have been prepared. ta-C coatings fabricated by FCVA method showed that the G-peak in the obtained Raman spectrum was shifted from 1520 to 1586 cm−1, indicating the sp3 content increased for samples with the thickness of 156 nm. The average friction coefficient decreased proportionally as the nano-size WS2 compositions increased up to 4 wt% in PAO6. After the friction test, structures and particle sizes of WS2 phases were also precisely characterized by using XRD and SEM.
Comparison of different methods to measure contact angles of soil colloids.
Shang, Jianying; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L
2008-12-15
We compared five different methods, static sessile drop, dynamic sessile drop, Wilhelmy plate, thin-layer wicking, and column wicking, to determine the contact angle of colloids typical for soils and sediments. The colloids (smectite, kaolinite, illite, goethite, hematite) were chosen to represent 1:1 and 2:1 layered aluminosilicate clays and sesquioxides, and were either obtained in pure form or synthesized in our laboratory. Colloids were deposited as thin films on glass slides, and then used for contact angle measurements using three different test liquids (water, formamide, diiodomethane). The colloidal films could be categorized into three types: (1) films without pores and with polar-liquid interactions (smectite), (2) films with pores and with polar-liquid interactions (kaolinite, illite, goethite), and (3) films without pores and no polar-liquid interactions (hematite). The static and dynamic sessile drop methods yielded the most consistent contact angles. For porous films, the contact angles decreased with time, and we consider the initial contact angle to be the most accurate. The differences in contact angles among the different methods were large and varied considerably: the most consistent contact angles were obtained for kaolinite with water, and illite with diiodomethane (contact angles were within 3 degrees); but mostly the differences ranged from 10 degrees to 40 degrees among the different methods. The thin-layer and column wicking methods were the least consistent methods.
Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block
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Nándor Békési
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.
Multiple solutions of stick and separation type in the Signorini model with Coulomb friction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hild, P. [Univ. de Franche-Comte, 25 - Besancon (France). Lab. de Mathematiques
2005-09-01
This paper proves the existence of multiple solutions to the Coulomb friction problem with Signorini contact conditions in continuum linear elasticity. We consider a body lying on a rigid foundation and we propose a method in order to exhibit two solutions to the frictional contact problem when the friction coefficient is large enough: one solution which separates from the foundation and another one which remains stuck on the foundation. We apply the method to the simple class of problems with triangular bodies and linear displacement fields and we describe the cases in which such multiple solutions exist. Denoting by {mu} the friction coefficient, we come to the conclusion that such nonuniqueness cases may appear when {mu}>1. (orig.)
Soltanahmadi, Siavash; Morina, Ardian; van Eijk, Marcel C. P.; Nedelcu, Ileana; Neville, Anne
2016-12-01
The effect of N-tallow-1,3-diaminopropane (TDP) on friction, rolling wear and micropitting has been investigated with the ultimate objective of developing lubricants with no or minimal environmental impact. A mini traction machine (MTM-SLIM) has been utilised in order to generate tribofilms and observe the effect of TDP on anti-wear tribofilm formation and friction. Micropitting was induced on the surface of specimens using a micropitting rig (MPR). The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analytical technique has been employed to investigate the effect of TDP on the chemical composition of the tribofilm while atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to generate high resolution topographical images of the tribofilms formed on the MTM discs. Experimental and analytical results showed that TDP delays the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear tribofilm formation. TDP in combination with ZDDP induces a thinner and smoother anti-wear tribofilm with a modified chemical structure composed of mixed Fe/Zn (poly)phosphates. The sulphide contribution to the tribofilm and oxygen-to-phosphorous atomic concentration ratio are greater in the bulk of the tribofilm derived from a combination of TDP and ZDDP compared to a tribofilm derived from ZDDP alone. Surface analyses showed that utilising TDP effectively mitigates micropitting wear in the test conditions used in this study. Reduction of micropitting, relevant to rolling bearing applications, can be attributed to the improved running-in procedure, reduced friction, formation of a smoother tribofilm and modification of the tribofilm composition induced by TDP.
Charles, Alexandre; Ballard, Patrick
2016-08-01
The dynamics of mechanical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom (discrete mechanical systems) is governed by the Lagrange equation which is a second-order differential equation on a Riemannian manifold (the configuration manifold). The handling of perfect (frictionless) unilateral constraints in this framework (that of Lagrange's analytical dynamics) was undertaken by Schatzman and Moreau at the beginning of the 1980s. A mathematically sound and consistent evolution problem was obtained, paving the road for many subsequent theoretical investigations. In this general evolution problem, the only reaction force which is involved is a generalized reaction force, consistently with the virtual power philosophy of Lagrange. Surprisingly, such a general formulation was never derived in the case of frictional unilateral multibody dynamics. Instead, the paradigm of the Coulomb law applying to reaction forces in the real world is generally invoked. So far, this paradigm has only enabled to obtain a consistent evolution problem in only some very few specific examples and to suggest numerical algorithms to produce computational examples (numerical modeling). In particular, it is not clear what is the evolution problem underlying the computational examples. Moreover, some of the few specific cases in which this paradigm enables to write down a precise evolution problem are known to show paradoxes: the Painlevé paradox (indeterminacy) and the Kane paradox (increase in kinetic energy due to friction). In this paper, we follow Lagrange's philosophy and formulate the frictional unilateral multibody dynamics in terms of the generalized reaction force and not in terms of the real-world reaction force. A general evolution problem that governs the dynamics is obtained for the first time. We prove that all the solutions are dissipative; that is, this new formulation is free of Kane paradox. We also prove that some indeterminacy of the Painlevé paradox is fixed in this
Liang, Yao; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Ouyang, Huajiang
2017-06-01
As friction couples tangential and lateral degrees-of-freedom of a structure at contact interfaces, the resulting asymmetric dynamic system is prone to dynamic instability. Using state-feedback control, such a frictional asymmetric system can be stabilized through assigning the system desirable eigenvalues; but uncertainties in system parameters can cause assigned eigenvalues to deviate from desired locations and thus stability may be lost. This study presents a robust stabilization method that assigns both desirable eigenvalues and their sensitivities and thus render assigned eigenvalues stable and insensitive to perturbations in uncertain contact parameters (the friction coefficient, contact damping, and contact stiffness). This method utilizes receptances of the corresponding symmetric part of the asymmetric system. The optimal control input location is first determined by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the normalized eigen-sensitivity matrix. The normalized eigen-sensitivities indicate that the friction coefficient and contact stiffness intrinsically have similar crucial effects on the stability of the system. To demonstrate the application of the proposed control method, the eigen-sensitivities with respect to only the friction coefficient are assigned. A constrained over-determined least-squares problem is solved to assign both required eigenvalues and eigen-sensitivities. Numerical examples validate the effectiveness of the proposed robust control scheme by Monte Carlo simulations.
Method for manufacturing electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device
Carlson, David E.; Dickson, Charles R.; D'Aiello, Robert V.
1988-11-08
A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.
Friction and Shear Strength at the Nanowire–Substrate Interfaces
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Gu Yi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The friction and shear strength of nanowire (NW–substrate interfaces critically influences the electrical/mechanical performance and life time of NW-based nanodevices. Yet, very few reports on this subject are available in the literature because of the experimental challenges involved and, more specifically no studies have been reported to investigate the configuration of individual NW tip in contact with a substrate. In this letter, using a new experimental method, we report the friction measurement between a NW tip and a substrate for the first time. The measurement was based on NW buckling in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. The coefficients of friction between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were found to be 0.09–0.12 and 0.10–0.15, respectively. The adhesion between a NW and the substrate modified the true contact area, which affected the interfacial shear strength. Continuum mechanics calculation found that interfacial shear strengths between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were 134–139 MPa and 78.9–95.3 MPa, respectively. This method can be applied to measure friction parameters of other NW–substrate systems. Our results on interfacial friction and shear strength could have implication on the AFM three-point bending tests used for nanomechanical characterisation.
Numerical implementation of a state variable model for friction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korzekwa, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boyce, D.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1995-03-01
A general state variable model for friction has been incorporated into a finite element code for viscoplasticity. A contact area evolution model is used in a finite element model of a sheet forming friction test. The results show that a state variable model can be used to capture complex friction behavior in metal forming simulations. It is proposed that simulations can play an important role in the analysis of friction experiments and the development of friction models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmadi, H.; Arab, N. B. Mostafa; Ghasemi, F. Ashenai [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-01-15
Friction stir welding process parameters such as welding speed, rotational speed and tilt angle affect the strength of the weld joint. For maximizing the weld strength, these process parameters must therefore be properly selected and optimized. This study presents an application of Taguchi method to optimize process parameters like welding speed, rotational speed and tilt angle to maximize lap weld tensile-shear strength in 4 mm thick polypropylene composite sheets with 20 wt% carbon fiber. To this end, a L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method using three factors at three levels was used. Analysis of variance and confirmation tests were conducted. The results indicated that welding speed, rotational speed and tilt angle are respectively the significant parameters affecting the lap weld strength. Optimization results also showed that tensile-shear strength of 6.06 MPa was obtained when welding speed, rotational speed and tilt angle were 25 mm/min, 1250 rpm and 1 degree, respectively.
Method for characterizing the contact resistance of metal-vanadium dioxide thin film interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Percy, R.; Stan, M.; Weikle, R. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Kittiwatanakul, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)
2014-07-14
The standard method for determining the contact resistance of planar metal-semiconductor interfaces can underestimate the true contact resistance under normal operating conditions, as it relies on the resistivity of the semiconductor material remaining constant during measurement. However, the strong temperature dependence of the resistivity of VO{sub 2} requires a modified approach that maintains a constant power density dissipated within the film to account for Joule heating. We develop a method for measuring contact resistance in semiconductors with a high thermal coefficient of resistivity, demonstrate this method with an example, and compare the results with the standard technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T Nguyen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.
Corrosion effects on friction factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.
1996-03-01
This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宇燕; 黄协清; 宋凯
2011-01-01
从金属橡胶材料的干摩擦阻尼产生的机理人手,提出了一种全新的金属橡胶非线性干摩擦结构单元力学模型,该结构单元由一对带有轴向和径向两个方向的弹性元件构成,它们既表示了金属丝之间的摩擦特性,同时也表示了螺线卷线匝在受力变形时的弹性特征.以建立的金属橡胶材料力学模型为基础,采用多个摩擦副单元串联组成的结构,深入研究了线匝的摩擦接触,通过对结构单元组成系统的计算机模拟仿真,对金属橡胶元件在不同载荷作用下的滞迟回线进行了深入地分析和研究,在静态载荷作用下,研究了结构单元的摩擦系数、结构单元的摩擦角对金属橡胶结构摩擦耗能的影响,在动态载荷作用下,研究了载荷的幅值、载荷的频率、载荷的初始相位对摩擦耗能的影响,此项研究工作大大减少了静态和动态试验方面的工作.%From dry-friction damping mechanism of metallic rubber, a new mechanical model for nonlinear friction structure element of metallic rubber was put forward. The structural element was made up of axial and radial elastic elements. The two elements not only denoted friction characteristics among wires, but also elastic properties of spiral turns. Based on the mechanical model constructed, using a series connection structure with multiple friction pairs, friction contacts between turns were studied. Through simulation for the system with the structural elements, hysteresis loops were deeply analyzed and studied under different loading for metallic rubber elements. Under static loading, the effects of friction coefficient and friction angle on energy dissipation of metallic rubber were studied, and under dynamic loading the effects of force's amplitude, frequency and initial phase on energy dissipation were also studied, the studies largely reduced the efforts for static and dynamic experiments.
1986-03-31
friction force is the following ( Rabinowicz [1965]): (v) When tangential motion occurs, the friction force acts in the same direction of the relative...to Rabinowicz [1965], the fifth property above has been essentially confirmed by experiment: for surfaces without pronounced directional properties...gives an explanation for the Amontors laws of friction, but also allows for interpretations of the other classic laws. Following arguments of Rabinowicz
Friction and wear in polymer-based materials
Bely, V A; Petrokovets, M I
1982-01-01
Friction and Wear in Polymer-Based Materials discusses friction and wear problems in polymer-based materials. The book is organized into three parts. The chapters in Part I cover the basic laws of friction and wear in polymer-based materials. Topics covered include frictional interaction during metal-polymer contact and the influence of operating conditions on wear in polymers. The chapters in Part II discuss the structure and frictional properties of polymer-based materials; the mechanism of frictional transfer when a polymer comes into contact with polymers, metals, and other materials; and
Burger, Dale R. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A method is disclosed for scribing at least three grid contacts of a photovoltaic cell to electrically isolate them from the grid contact pattern used to collect solar current generated by the cell, and using the scribed segments for determining parameters of the cell by a combination of contact end resistance (CER) measurements using a minimum of three equally or unequally spaced lines, and transmission line modal (TLM) measurements using a minimum of four unequally spaced lines. TLM measurements may be used to determine sheet resistance under the contact, R.sub.sk, while CER measurements are used to determine contact resistivity, .rho..sub.c, from a nomograph of contact resistivity as a function of contact end resistance and sheet resistivity under the contact. In some cases, such as the case of silicon photovoltaic cells, sheet resistivity under the contact may be assumed to be equal to the known sheet resistance, R.sub.s, of the semiconductor material, thereby obviating the need for TLM measurements to determine R.sub.sk.
Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J
2015-08-05
Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arto Niskanen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.
Investigation of the Dynamic Contact Angle Using a Direct Numerical Simulation Method.
Zhu, Guangpu; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai; Li, Aifen; Shams, Bilal
2016-11-15
A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slugs under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model because of a negligible change in the meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small. Therefore, a critical capillary number should be introduced to judge whether the dynamic contact model should be incorporated into simulations. In this study, a direct numerical simulation method is employed to simulate the oil slug flow in a capillary tube at the pore scale. The position of the interface between water and the oil slug is determined using the phase-field method. The capacity and accuracy of the model are validated using a classical benchmark: a dynamic capillary filling process. Then, different dynamic contact angle models and the factors that affect the dynamic contact angle are analyzed. The meniscus displacements of oil slugs with a dynamic contact angle and a static contact angle (SCA) are obtained during simulations, and the relative error between them is calculated automatically. The relative error limit has been defined to be 5%, beyond which the dynamic contact angle model needs to be incorporated into the simulation to approach the realistic displacement. Thus, the desired critical capillary number can be determined. A three-dimensional universal chart of critical capillary number, which functions as static contact angle and viscosity ratio, is given to provide a guideline for oil slug simulation. Also, a fitting formula is presented for ease of use.
Method of manufacturing a hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung
2017-02-07
A method of manufacturing an all back contact solar cell which has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. A second emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The method further includes forming contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SAURABH KUMAR GUPTA
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The present research focus on optimization of Friction Stir Welding (FSW process parameters for joining of AA6061 aluminium alloy using hybrid approach. The FSW process parameters considered are tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. The quality characteristics considered are tensile strength (TS and percentage of tensile elongation (TE. Taguchi based experimental design L9 orthogonal array is used for determining the experimental results. The value of weights corresponding to each quality characteristic is determined by using the entropy measurement method so that their importance can be properly explained. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA is used to determine the contribution of FSW process parameters. The confirmation tests also have been done for verifying the results.
The efficiency of direct integration methods in elastic contact-impact problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ibrahim H. Guzelbey; Ahmet Erklig; Bahattin Kanber; Keren Wang
2005-01-01
A comparison of direct integration methods is made and their efficiency is investigated for impact problems. Newmark, Wilson-θ, Central Difference and Houbolt Methods are used as direct integration methods. Impact analysis includes that of elastic and large deformation based upon updated Lagrangian including buckling check. The results show that the direct integration methods give different results in different contact-impact cases.
Zimowski, Sławomir; Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Wendler, Bogdan; Kot, Marcin; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra
2014-08-01
In this paper, we show that duplex surface treatment, combining oxygen diffusion hardening with the subsequent deposition of thick, low-friction nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings to improve the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. We have synthesized, in a magnetron sputtering process, the nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings (where Me denotes W or Ti transition metal) consisting of two dissimilar materials (nanocrystallites of transition metal carbides MeC and an amorphous carbon matrix a-C). The nano and microstructure of the substrate material and coatings were examined with the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by X-ray diffractometry. It was found that different carbide nanocrystals of the same transition metal were embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix of both coatings. The HRTEM analysis indicated that the volume fraction of tungsten carbides in the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 13 pct, whereas in the nc-TiC/a-C one the volume fraction of the titanium carbides was equal to just 3 pct. The tribological properties, hardness, and scratch resistance of the coatings were investigated as well. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the coatings during dry sliding against 6 mm diameter alumina ball reached very low value, 0.05, in comparison with an oxygen-hardened alloy, whose COF was equal to 0.8. This low-friction effect of the coatings has been attributed to the formation of a self-lubricating film in sliding contact. The coatings exhibited similar failure morphology in the scratch tests. Even though the hardness was rather low, the coatings exhibited a very good wear resistance during sliding friction. The wear rate of the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 0.08 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 and for the nc-TiC/a-C one it was 0.28 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1.
Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.
2012-06-01
The anterior refracting surface of the eye when wearing a contact lens is the thin fluid layer that forms on the surface of the contact lens. Under normal conditions, this fluid layer is less than 10 μm thick. The fluid layer thickness and topography change over time and are affected by the material properties of the contact lens and may affect vision quality and comfort. An in vitro method of characterizing dynamic fluid layers applied to contact lenses mounted on mechanical substrates has been developed by use of a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the surface of the fluid layer, allowing precision analysis of the dynamic fluid layer. Movies showing this fluid layer behavior can be generated. Quantitative analysis beyond typical contact angle or visual inspection methods is provided. Different fluid and contact lens material combinations have been evaluated, and variations in fluid layer properties have been observed. This paper discusses the interferometer design and analysis methods used. Example measurement results of different contact lens are presented.
A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles
Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin; Wang, Qingjun
2014-03-01
In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.
Pacheco-Sanchez, Anibal; Claus, Martin; Mothes, Sven; Schröter, Michael
2016-11-01
Three different methods for the extraction of the contact resistance based on both the well-known transfer length method (TLM) and two variants of the Y-function method have been applied to simulation and experimental data of short- and long-channel CNTFETs. While for TLM special CNT test structures are mandatory, standard electrical device characteristics are sufficient for the Y-function methods. The methods have been applied to CNTFETs with low and high channel resistance. It turned out that the standard Y-function method fails to deliver the correct contact resistance in case of a relatively high channel resistance compared to the contact resistances. A physics-based validation is also given for the application of these methods based on applying traditional Si MOSFET theory to quasi-ballistic CNTFETs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijajlović Miroslav M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The friction coefficient in many friction stir welding researches is generally used as an effective, constant value without concern on the adaptable and changeable nature of the friction during welding sequence. This is understandable because the main problem in analyzing friction in friction stir welding are complex nature of the friction processes, case-dependent and time dependent contact between the bodies, influence of the temperature, sliding velocity, etc. This paper is presenting a complex experimental-numerical-analytical model for estimating the effective friction coefficient on contact of the bobbin tool and welding plates during welding, considering the temperature at the contact as the most influencing parameter on friction. The estimation criterion is the correspondence of the experimental temperature and temperature from the numerical model. The estimation procedure is iterative and parametric - the heat transport parameters and friction coefficient are adapted during the estimation procedure in a realistic manner to achieve relative difference between experimental and model’s temperature lower than 3%. The results show that friction coefficient varies from 0.01 to 0.21 for steel-aluminium alloy contact and temperature range from 406°C to 22°C.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PEI NianQiang; GUO KaiHua; LIU Jie; LI TingXun
2008-01-01
To measure contact angle between CO2 and solid surface,in this study a visual high-pressure vessel has been developed,with a corresponding well-controlled constant temperature system.Pendant drop method is applied to the investigation of the contact angles of CO2 on a stainless steel surface in its own vapor.The image of the pendant drop is recorded by a camera,and a B-Snake method is used to analyze the contour and the contact angle of the droplet.The experimental results have provided a set of well tested data,which show that CO2 has good infiltration into stainless steel surface and the de-veloped method can be used as a standard testing one for measuring the contact angle between high-pressure liquid and solid surface.
Reduced projection augmented Lagrange bi-conjugate gradient method for contact and impact problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Based on the numerical governing formulation and non-linear complementary conditions of contact and impact problems, a reduced projection augmented Lagrange biconjugate gradient method is proposed for contact and impact problems by translating non-linear complementary conditions into equivalent formulation of non-linear programming. For contact-impact problems, a larger time-step can be adopted arriving at numerical convergence compared with penalty method. By establishment of the impact-contact formulations which are equivalent with original non-linear complementary conditions, a reduced projection augmented Lagrange bi-conjugate gradient method is deduced to improve precision and efficiency of numerical solutions. A numerical example shows that the algorithm we suggested is valid and exact.
Friction and stick-slip in a telescope construction
Hammerschlag, R.H.
1986-01-01
Stick-slip in high resolution telescopes should be avoided. The contact places where stick-slip can occur are described. Some contact places require a high friction coefficient, others a low friction coefficient. Some experiments have been carried out to find lubricants for contact places which comb
A simple method for measuring the superhydrophobic contact angle with high accuracy
Hung, Yi-Lin; Chang, Yao-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Lin, Shi-Yow
2010-06-01
A modified selected-plane method for contact angle (θ) measurement is proposed in this study that avoids the difficulty of finding the real contact point and image-distortion effects adjacent to the contact point. This method is particularly suitable for superhydrophobic surfaces. The sessile-drop method coupled with the tangent line is the most popular method to find the contact angle in literature, but it entails unavoidable errors in determining the air-solid base line due to the smoothness problem and substrate tilting. In addition, the tangent-line technique requires finding the actual contact point. The measurement error due to the base line problem becomes more profound for superhydrophobic surfaces. A larger θ deviation results from a more superhydrophobic surface with a fixed base line error. The proposed modified selected-plane method requires only four data points (droplet apex, droplet height, and two interfacial loci close to the air-solid interface), avoiding the problem of the sessile-drop-tangent method in finding the contact point and saving the trouble of the sessile-drop-fitting method for best fitting of the numerous edge points with the theoretical profile. A careful error analysis was performed, and a user-friendly program was provided in this work. This method resulted in an accurate θ measurement and a method that was much improved over the classical selected plane and the sessile-drop-tangent methods. The θ difference between this method and the sessile-drop-fitting method was found to be less than three degrees.
Aid for electrical contacting of high-temperature fuel cells and method for production thereof
Becker, Ines; Schillig, Cora
2014-03-18
A double-sided adhesive metal-based tape for use as contacting aid for SOFC fuel cells is provided. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is suitable for simplifying the construction of cell bundles. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is used for electrical contacting of the cell connector with the anode and for electrical contacting of the interconnector of the fuel cells with the cell connector. A method for producing the double-sided adhesive metal-base tape is also provided.
Aid for electrical contacting of high-temperature fuel cells and method for production thereof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Ines; Schillig, Cora
2014-03-18
A double-sided adhesive metal-based tape for use as contacting aid for SOFC fuel cells is provided. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is suitable for simplifying the construction of cell bundles. The double-sided metal-based adhesive tape is used for electrical contacting of the cell connector with the anode and for electrical contacting of the interconnector of the fuel cells with the cell connector. A method for producing the double-sided adhesive metal-base tape is also provided.
The Interpretation of Dynamic Contact Angles Measured by the Wilhelmy Plate Method
Ramé
1997-01-01
We present an analysis for properly interpreting apparent dynamic contact angles measured using the Wilhelmy plate method at low capillary numbers, Ca. This analysis removes the ambiguity in current dynamic measurements which interpret data with the same formula as static measurements. We properly account for all forces, including viscous forces, acting on the plate as it moves into or out of a liquid bath. Our main result, valid at O(1) as Ca --> 0, relates the apparent dynamic contact angle to material-dependent, geometry-independent parameters necessary for describing dynamic wetting of a system. The special case of the apparent contact angle = pi/2 was solved to O(Ca). This O(Ca) solution can guide numerical work necessary for higher Ca's and arbitrary values of the apparent contact angle. These results make the Wilhelmy plate a viable method for determining material parameters for dynamic spreading.
A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2014-03-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.
Street, Kenneth (Inventor); Voronov, Oleg A (Inventor); Kear, Bernard H (Inventor)
2017-01-01
Systems, methods, and articles of manufacture related to composite materials are discussed herein. These materials can be based on a mixture of diamond particles with a matrix and fibers or fabrics. The matrix can be formed into the composite material through optional pressurization and via heat treatment. These materials display exceptionally low friction coefficient and superior wear resistance in extreme environments.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王云霞; 梁志杰; 张东兴; 崔涛; 史嵩; 李克鸿; 杨丽
2016-01-01
particles in surface shape and size, the actual physical parameters of corn seeds are not suitable for the EDEM (enhanced discrete element method). Particles models established in the EDEM are rougher than corn seeds, which leads to the distortion of simulation results. Therefore calibration works for particle parameters are essential. In this paper, a new method was proposed for actively seeking the target parameters based on regression analysis. It was estimated that repose angle was commonly influenced by static friction coefficient and rolling friction coefficient between corn seeds. All factors simulation experiments were conducted to obtain the regression equations, of which the tangent value of repose angle at different contact material was separately taken as the dependent variables, and the static friction coefficient and rolling friction coefficient between corn seeds were taken as independent variables. In order to decrease the measuring error, MATLAB software was used for images acquisition and analysis. The variance analysis showed that the static friction coefficient and rolling friction coefficient between corn seeds had significant influence on the repose angle and natural heaping angle separately at significance level of 5%. The tangent value of repose angle had an increase trend with the increase of static friction coefficient and rolling friction coefficient between corn seeds. For the first test with organic plate, it had a bigger increase when the static friction coefficient was at 0-0.2 and then increased slowly, at this time which was mainly influenced by the rolling friction coefficient. For the second test with aluminum plate, it also increased with the increase of static friction coefficient and rolling friction coefficient between corn seeds in a consistent state. By the simulation tests, 2 regression equations were obtained. For solving the independent variables, the actual tangent values of repose angle with different contact material were
Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel.
Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang
2016-09-01
Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.
Sakata, Yoshitaro; Terasaki, Nao; Nonaka, Kazuhiro
2017-05-01
Fine polishing techniques, such as a chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are important techniques in glass substrate manufacturing. However, these techniques may cause micro cracks under the surface of glass substrates because they used mechanical friction. A stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM), which was combined with light scattering method and mechanical stress effects, was proposed for inspecting surfaces to detect polishing-induced micro cracks. However, in the conventional SILSM, samples need to be loaded with physical contact, and the loading point is invisible in transparent materials. Here, we introduced a novel non-contact SILSM using a heating device. A glass substrate was heated first, and then the light scattering intensity of micro cracks was detected by a cooled charge-couple device camera during the natural cooling process. Results clearly showed during the decreasing surface temperature of a glass substrate, appropriate thermal stress is generated for detecting micro cracks by using the SILSM and light scattering intensity from micro cracks changes. We confirmed that non-contact thermal SILSM (T-SILSM) can detect micro cracks under the surface of transparent materials.
A Parallel Multigrid Method for the Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hales, J D; Parsons, I D
2002-03-21
A geometrical multigrid method for solving the linearized matrix equations arising from node-on-face three-dimensional finite element contact is described. The development of an efficient implementation of this combination that minimizes both the memory requirements and the computational cost requires careful construction and storage of the portion of the coarse mesh stiffness matrices that are associated with the contact stiffness on the fine mesh. The multigrid contact algorithm is parallelized in a manner suitable for distributed memory architectures: results are presented that demonstrates the scheme's scalability. The solution of a large contact problem derived from an analysis of the factory joints present in the Space Shuttle reusable solid rocket motor demonstrates the usefulness of the general approach.
Reusken, A; Zhang, L
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a finite element method (FEM) for two-phase incompressible flows with moving contact lines. We use a sharp interface Navier-Stokes model for the bulk phase fluid dynamics. Surface tension forces, including Marangoni forces and viscous interfacial effects, are modeled. For describing the moving contact we consider a class of continuum models which contains several special cases known from the literature. For the whole model, describing bulk fluid dynamics, surface tension forces and contact line forces, we derive a variational formulation and a corresponding energy estimate. For handling the evolving interface numerically the level-set technique is applied. The discontinuous pressure is accurately approximated by using a stabilized extended finite element space (XFEM). We apply a Nitsche technique to weakly impose the Navier slip conditions on the solid wall. A unified approach for discretization of the (different types of) surface tension forces and contact line forces is introduced. ...
A Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method for mortar-discretized thermomechanical contact problems
Hansen, Glen
2011-07-01
Multibody contact problems are common within the field of multiphysics simulation. Applications involving thermomechanical contact scenarios are also quite prevalent. Such problems can be challenging to solve due to the likelihood of thermal expansion affecting contact geometry which, in turn, can change the thermal behavior of the components being analyzed. This paper explores a simple model of a light water reactor nuclear fuel rod, which consists of cylindrical pellets of uranium dioxide (UO 2) fuel sealed within a Zircalloy cladding tube. The tube is initially filled with helium gas, which fills the gap between the pellets and cladding tube. The accurate modeling of heat transfer across the gap between fuel pellets and the protective cladding is essential to understanding fuel performance, including cladding stress and behavior under irradiated conditions, which are factors that affect the lifetime of the fuel. The thermomechanical contact approach developed here is based on the mortar finite element method, where Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce weak continuity constraints at participating interfaces. In this formulation, the heat equation couples to linear mechanics through a thermal expansion term. Lagrange multipliers are used to formulate the continuity constraints for both heat flux and interface traction at contact interfaces. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are cast in residual form for solution of the transient problem. A Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method is used to provide for fully-coupled solution of the coupled thermal contact and heat equations.
Yang, Kang; Shi, Xiaoliang; Huang, Yuchun; Zou, Jialiang; Shen, Qiao; Zhang, Qiaoxin
2017-02-01
The contact stresses of materials in moving mechanical assemblies are rather important for minimizing friction and decreasing machinery energy dissipation. In this study, the effect of contact stresses on the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-10 wt.%Ag was studied at 0-240 min using the united methods of experiment research, numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The results showed that the high contact stresses led to the plastic deformation of TiAl-10 wt.%Ag at 0-50 min. The friction coefficients and wear rates decreased rapidly with the lowering of contact stresses from 1034.28 to 710.52 MPa. At elastic deformation stage (50-240 min), the forming of lubricating film was beneficial to the decrease in friction coefficients and wear rates at 50-150 min, whereas the lower contact stresses caused the increasing of friction coefficients and wear rates. The competition between film lubrication and contact stresses caused the lowering of friction coefficients and wear rates at 50-150 min. At 150-240 min, the lubricating film maintained the equivalent lubricating behaviors, whereas the lowering of contact stresses led to the slight improving of friction coefficients and wear rates. This study was meaningful for optimizing applied loads to realize the excellent contact stress state and tribological behavior of mechanical parts.
Structural and phase transformations in Hadfield steel upon frictional loading in liquid nitrogen
Korshunov, L. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Chernenko, N. L.
2016-08-01
Structural transformations that occur in 110G13 steel (Hadfield) upon sliding friction in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) have been investigated by metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray diffraction methods. The frictional action was performed through the reciprocating sliding of a cylindrical indenter of quenched 110G13 steel over a plate of the studied steel. A like friction pair was immersed into a bath with liquid nitrogen. It has been shown that the Hadfield steel quenched from 1100°C under the given temperature conditions of frictional loading retains the austenitic structure completely. The frictional action forms in a surface layer up to 10 μm thick the nanocrystalline structure with austenite grains 10-50 nm in size and a hardness 6 GPa. Upon subsequent low-temperature friction, the tempering of steel at 400°C (3 h) and at 600°C (5 min and 5 h) brings about the formation of a large amount (tens of vol %) of ɛ (hcp) martensite in steel. The formation of this phase under friction is supposedly a consequence of the reduction in the stacking fault energy of Hadfield steel, which is achieved due to the combined action of the following factors: low-temperature cooling, a decrease in the carbon content in the austenite upon tempering, and the presence of high compressive stresses in the friction-contact zone.
Zhou, S.-S.; Gao, X.-L.; He, Q.-C.
2011-02-01
A unified treatment of axisymmetric adhesive contact problems is provided using the harmonic potential function method for axisymmetric elasticity problems advanced by Green, Keer, Barber and others. The harmonic function adopted in the current analysis is the one that was introduced by Jin et al. (2008) to solve an external crack problem. It is demonstrated that the harmonic potential function method offers a simpler and more consistent way to treat non-adhesive and adhesive contact problems. By using this method and the principle of superposition, a general solution is derived for the adhesive contact problem involving an axisymmetric rigid punch of arbitrary shape and an adhesive interaction force distribution of any profile. This solution provides analytical expressions for all non-zero displacement and stress components on the contact surface, unlike existing ones. In addition, the newly derived solution is able to link existing solutions/models for axisymmetric non-adhesive and adhesive contact problems and to reveal the connections and differences among these solutions/models individually obtained using different methods at various times. Specifically, it is shown that Sneddon's solution for the axisymmetric punch problem, Boussinesq's solution for the flat-ended cylindrical punch problem, the Hertz solution for the spherical punch problem, the JKR model, the DMT model, the M-D model, and the M-D- n model can all be explicitly recovered by the current general solution.
Method of separate determination of high-ohmic sample resistance and contact resistance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim A. Golubiatnikov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A method of separate determination of two-pole sample volume resistance and contact resistance is suggested. The method is applicable to high-ohmic semiconductor samples: semi-insulating gallium arsenide, detector cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT, etc. The method is based on near-contact region illumination by monochromatic radiation of variable intensity from light emitting diodes with quantum energies exceeding the band gap of the material. It is necessary to obtain sample photo-current dependence upon light emitting diode current and to find the linear portion of this dependence. Extrapolation of this linear portion to the Y-axis gives the cut-off current. As the bias voltage is known, it is easy to calculate sample volume resistance. Then, using dark current value, one can determine the total contact resistance. The method was tested for n-type semi-insulating GaAs. The contact resistance value was shown to be approximately equal to the sample volume resistance. Thus, the influence of contacts must be taken into account when electrophysical data are analyzed.
Liu, F.; Borja, R. I.
2009-12-01
Stress concentration induced by the heterogeneity in brittle geomaterials is generally considered as the driving force in the evolution of the microstructure (such as the crack and pore microstructure). Specifically, modeling heterogeneity is key to properly predicting the nucleation, coalescence and propagation of micro-cracks in brittle solids. In this paper, we propose a two-scale model for frictional cracks in fractured brittle media. The major crack in the study domain is modeled at a macro level, while the micro-cracks are modeled at a finer scale. The macro-scale behavior is described by a standard boundary value problem. The finer-scale problem is modeled using the notion of representative elementary volume (REV) consisting of a solid volume with distributed micro-cracks. Periodic boundary condition and small strain formulation are assumed in the finer-scale analysis. The scale bridging mechanism is borrowed from the standard homogenization technique. The proposed model is implemented with the extended finite element method. The macro stress at each Gauss point in the finite element formulation is computed as the volume average of finer-scale stresses in each corresponding REV. The macro tangent operator is computed using a perturbation method. For 3D problems, six independent linear perturbation analyses are carried out for each numerical integration point. Our numerical examples capture the nucleation and coalescence of micro-cracks, which can be used to infer the potential propagation direction of the major crack.
Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings
Ligterink, D.J.
1982-01-01
Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional t
A study of friction mechanisms between a surrogate skin (Lorica soft) and nonwoven fabrics.
Cottenden, David J; Cottenden, Alan M
2013-12-01
Hygiene products such as incontinence pads bring nonwoven fabrics into contact with users' skin, which can cause damage in various ways, including the nonwoven abrading the skin by friction. The aim of the work described here was to develop and use methods for understanding the origin of friction between nonwoven fabrics and skin by relating measured normal and friction forces to the nature and area of the contact (fibre footprint) between them. The method development work reported here used a skin surrogate (Lorica Soft) in place of skin for reproducibility. The work was primarily experimental in nature, and involved two separate approaches. In the first, a microscope with a shallow depth of field was used to determine the length of nonwoven fibre in contact with a facing surface as a function of pressure, from which the contact area could be inferred; and, in the second, friction between chosen nonwoven fabrics and Lorica Soft was measured at a variety of anatomically relevant pressures (0.25-32.1kPa) and speeds (0.05-5mms(-1)). Both techniques were extensively validated, and showed reproducibility of about 5% in length and force, respectively. Straightforward inspection of the data for Lorica Soft against the nonwovens showed that Amontons' law (with respect to load) was obeyed to high precision (R(2)>0.999 in all cases), though there was the suggestion of sub-linearity at low loads. More detailed consideration of the friction traces suggested that two different friction mechanisms are important, and comparison with the contact data suggests tentatively that they may correspond to adhesion between two different populations of contacts, one "rough" and one "smooth". This additional insight is a good illustration of how these techniques may prove valuable in studying other, similar interfaces. In particular, they could be used to investigate interfaces between nonwovens and skin, which was the primary motivation for developing them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd
How to teach friction: Experiments and models
Besson, Ugo; Borghi, Lidia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo
2007-12-01
Students generally have difficulty understanding friction and its associated phenomena. High school and introductory college-level physics courses usually do not give the topic the attention it deserves. We have designed a sequence for teaching about friction between solids based on a didactic reconstruction of the relevant physics, as well as research findings about student conceptions. The sequence begins with demonstrations that illustrate different types of friction. Experiments are subsequently performed to motivate students to obtain quantitative relations in the form of phenomenological laws. To help students understand the mechanisms producing friction, models illustrating the processes taking place on the surface of bodies in contact are proposed.
Friction in surface micromachined microengines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.
1996-03-01
Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.
Method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell and device thereof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Bo; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter
2016-08-02
Methods of fabricating back-contact solar cells and devices thereof are described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming an N-type dopant source layer and a P-type dopant source layer above a material layer disposed above a substrate. The N-type dopant source layer is spaced apart from the P-type dopant source layer. The N-type dopant source layer and the P-type dopant source layer are heated. Subsequently, a trench is formed in the material layer, between the N-type and P-type dopant source layers.
Contacting organic molecules by soft methods: towards molecule-based electronic devices.
Haick, Hossam; Cahen, David
2008-03-01
Can we put organic molecules to use as electronic components? The answer to this question is to no small degree limited by the ability to contact them electrically without damaging the molecules. In this Account, we present some of the methods for contacting molecules that do not or minimally damage them and that allow formation of electronic junctions that can become compatible with electronics from the submicrometer to the macroscale. In "Linnaean" fashion, we have grouped contacting methods according to the following main criteria: (a) is a chemical bond is required between contact and molecule, and (b) is the contact "ready-made", that is, preformed, or prepared in situ? Contacting methods that, so far, seem to require a chemical bond include spin-coating a conductive polymer and transfer printing. In the latter, a metallic pattern on an elastomeric polymer is mechanically transferred to molecules with an exposed terminal group that can react chemically with the metal. These methods allow one to define structures from several tens of nanometers size upwards and to fabricate devices on flexible substrates, which is very difficult by conventional techniques. However, the requirement for bifunctionality severely restricts the type of molecules that can be used and can complicate their self-assembly into monolayers. Methods that rely on prior formation of the contact pad are represented by two approaches: (a) use of a liquid metal as electrode (e.g., Hg, Ga, various alloys), where molecules can be adsorbed on the liquid metal and the molecularly modified drop is brought into contact with the second electrode, the molecules can be adsorbed on the second electrode and then the liquid metal brought into contact with them, or bilayers are used, with a layer on both the metal and the second electrode and (b) use of preformed metal pads from a solid substrate and subsequent pad deposition on the molecules with the help of a liquid. These methods allow formation of
A new method of making ohmic contacts to p-GaN
Hernández-Gutierrez, C. A.; Kudriavtsev, Yu.; Mota, Esteban; Hernández, A. G.; Escobosa-Echavarría, A.; Sánchez-Resendiz, V.; Casallas-Moreno, Y. L.; López-López, M.
2016-12-01
The structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics of In+ ion-implanted Au/Ni, Au/Nb and Au/W ohmic contacts to p-GaN were investigated. After the preparation of Ni, Nb and W electrode on the surface of p-GaN, the metal/p-GaN contact interface was implanted by 30 keV In+ ions with an implantation dose of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature to form a thin layer of InxGa1-xN located at the metal-semiconductor interface, achieved to reduce the specific contact resistance due to the improving quantum tunneling transport trough to the structure. The characterization was carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the formation of ternary alloy, re-crystallization by rapid thermal annealing process after In+ implantation, and the redistribution of elements. The specific contact resistance was extracted by current-voltage (I-V) curves using transmission line method; the lowest specific contact resistance of 2.5 × 10-4 Ωcm2 was achieved for Au/Ni/p-InxGa1-xN/p-GaN ohmic contacts.
New Method Developed to Measure Contact Angles of a Sessile Drop
Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli
2002-01-01
The spreading of an evaporating liquid on a solid surface occurs in many practical processes and is of importance in a number of practical situations such as painting, textile dyeing, coating, gluing, and thermal engineering. Typical processes involving heat transfer where the contact angle plays an important role are film cooling, boiling, and the heat transfer through heat pipes. The biological phenomenon of cell spreading also is analogous to a drop spreading (ref. 1). In the study of spreading, the dynamic contact angle describes the interfacial properties on solid substrates and, therefore, has been studied by physicists and fluid mechanics investigators. The dynamic contact angle of a spreading nonvolatile liquid drop provides a simple tool in the study of the free-boundary problem, but the study of the spreading of a volatile liquid drop is of more practical interest because the evaporation of common liquids is inevitable in practical processes. The most common method to measure the contact angle, the contact radius, and the height of a sessile drop on a solid surface is to view the drop from its edge through an optical microscope. However, this method gives only local information in the view direction. Zhang and Yang (ref. 2) developed a laser shadowgraphy method to investigate the evaporation of sessile drop on a glass plate. As described here, Zhang and Chao (refs. 3 and 4) improved the method and suggested a new optical arrangement to measure the dynamic contact angle and the instant evaporation rate of a sessile drop with much higher accuracy (less than 1 percent). With this method, any fluid motion in the evaporating drop can be visualized through shadowgraphy without using a tracer, which often affects the field under investigation.
Stresses and Deformations Analysis of a Dry Friction Clutch System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.I. Abdullah
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The friction clutch is considered the essential element in the torquetransmission process. In this paper, the finite element method is used to study the stresses and deformations for clutch system (pressure plate, clutch disc and flywheel due to the contact pressure of diaphragm spring and the centrifugal force during the full engagement of clutch disc (assuming no slipping between contact surfaces. The investigation covers the effect of the contact stiffness factor FKN on the pressure distribution between contact surfaces, stresses and deformations. The penalty and Augmented Lagrangian algorithms have been used to obtain the pressure distribution between contact surfaces. ANSYS13 software has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.
Method of calculation of a thermolysis and friction of a turbulent disperse flow in nozzles
Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Boyarkin, Mikhail S.
2017-07-01
The mathematical model and method of calculation of exchange processes in boundary layer of a carrying agent of a dispersible flow in nozzles which are adequately reflecting intensive aero mechanical and thermal influences of the condensed elements in the conditions of their directed cross movement in boundary layer and also effects of a laminarization of a current in a gradient stream.
Contact mechanics and wear simulations of hip resurfacing devices using computational methods.
Ali, Murat; Mao, Ken
2014-01-01
The development of computational and numerical methods provides the option to study the contact mechanics and wear of hip resurfacing devices. The importance of these techniques is justified by the extensive amount of testing and experimental work required to verify and improve current orthopaedic implant devices. As the demands for device longevity is increasing, it is as important as ever to study techniques for providing much needed orthopaedic hip implant solutions. Through the use of advanced computer aided design and the finite element method, contact analysis of hip resurfacing devices was carried out by developing both three-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric models whilst considering the effects of loading conditions and material properties on the contact stresses. Following on from this, the three-dimensional model was used in combination with a unique programme to develop wear simulations and obtain cumulative wear for both the acetabular cup and femoral head simultaneously.
Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Teschke, Ulf
2005-01-01
We present a comparison of two discretization methods for the shallow water equations, namely the finite volume method and the finite element scheme. A reliable model for practical interests includes terms modelling the bottom topography as well as the friction effects. The resulting equations belong to the class of systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations of first order with zero order source terms, the so-called balance laws. In order to approximate correctly steady equilibrium ...
A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.
Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R
2015-09-18
The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging
Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-08-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.
Friction rock stabilizer and method of installing same in an earth structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindeboom, H.
1982-06-15
The stabilizer comprises a generally tubular, metal body, the leading end of which has been hardened to rock-cutting strength in order that the stabilizer, according to the method of invention, can be impacted with a high frequency, low-blow actuator to cause the stabilizer to bore its own hole in the earth structure, this to eliminate a pre-boring, stabilizer installation step.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donald D. Anderson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that contact stress is a potent predictor of subsequent symptomatic osteoarthritis development in the knee. However, much larger numbers of knees (likely on the order of hundreds, if not thousands need to be reliably analyzed to achieve the statistical power necessary to clarify this relationship. This study assessed the reliability of new semiautomated computational methods for estimating contact stress in knees from large population-based cohorts. Ten knees of subjects from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study were included. Bone surfaces were manually segmented from sequential 1.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging slices by three individuals on two nonconsecutive days. Four individuals then registered the resulting bone surfaces to corresponding bone edges on weight-bearing radiographs, using a semi-automated algorithm. Discrete element analysis methods were used to estimate contact stress distributions for each knee. Segmentation and registration reliabilities (day-to-day and interrater for peak and mean medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact stress were assessed with Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The segmentation and registration steps of the modeling approach were found to have excellent day-to-day (ICC 0.93–0.99 and good inter-rater reliability (0.84–0.97. This approach for estimating compartment-specific tibiofemoral contact stress appears to be sufficiently reliable for use in large population-based cohorts.
Low-impact friction materials for brake pads
2016-01-01
State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...
Friction distribution at the base of a surging glacier inferred from an inverse method
Gagliardini, O.; Jay-Allemand, M.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.
2010-12-01
The main objectives of this study is to investigate the basal conditions of a surging glacier. For that, we apply the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundsson (Journal of Glaciology, 2010). This method is based on an iterative descent algorithm numerically implemented in the finite element code Elmer/Ice. Neumann and Dirichlet problems are solved successively in order to minimize the cost function constructed as the norm of the difference between the basal velocities solutions of both problems. The method is applied to the Variegated glacier, a surge type glacier located in Alaska. We use measurements on this glacier carried out by Raymond and Harrison (Journal of Glaciology, 1988) during the quiescent stage of 1966-81 and the surge of 1982-83. Data contain surface velocities as well as the bed and surface topography along the central flow-line. In a first step, for each set of data obtained at different dates, we run the model diagnostically to solve for the basal drag coefficient in order to match the modelled horizontal surface velocities and the observed velocities. In a second step, inferred basal drag coefficient are analysed and then integrated in a transient simulation which cover the whole period of the data set, i.e. both quiescent and surge stages. Results show the contribution of basal sliding in the surge phenomenon and the modification of the basal condition from the quiescent to the surge stages. These modifications can be interpreted in term of changes in sub-glacial water pressure and runoff.
Friction assisted solid state lap seam welding and additive manufacturing method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Prasad Rao KALVALA; Javed AKRAM; Mano MISRA
2016-01-01
This paper describes results of seam welding of relatively high temperature melting materials, AISI 304, C-Mn steels, Ni-based alloys, CP Cu, CP Ni, Ti6Al4V and relatively low temperature melting material, AA6061. It describes the seam welding of multi-layered similar and dissimilar metallic sheets. The method described and involved advancing a rotating non-consumable rod (CP Mo or AISI 304) toward the upper sheet of a metallic stack clamped under pressure. As soon as the distal end of the rod touched the top portion of the upper metallic sheet, an axial force was applied. After an initial dwell time, the metallic stack moved horizontally relative to the stationery non-consumable rod by a desired length, thereby forming a metallurgical bond between the metallic sheets. Multi-track and multi-metal seam welds of high temperature metallic sheets, AISI 304, C-Mn steel, Nickel-based alloys, Cp Cu, Ti6Al4V and low temperature metallic sheets, AA6061 were obtained. Optical and scanning electron microscopy examination and 180 degree U-bend test indicated that defect free seam welds could be obtained with this method. Tensile-shear testing showed that the seam welds of AISI 304, C-Mn steel, Nickel-based alloy were stronger than the starting base metal counterparts while AA6061 was weaker due to softening. The metallurgical bonding at the interface between the metallic sheets was attributed to localized stick and slip at the interface, dynamic recrystallization and diffusion. The method developed can be used as a means of welding, cladding and additive manufacturing.
Eulerian method for fluid-structure interaction and submerged solid-solid contact problems
Valkov, Boris; Kamrin, Ken
2014-01-01
We present a fully Eulerian, blurred-interface numerical method for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) with extension to the case of fluid-immersed solids interacting through contact. The method uses the Eulerian-frame Reference Map Technique (RMT) to represent the solid phase(s), permitting simulation of large-deformation constitutive behaviors. We demonstrate the method with multiple examples involving a compressible Navier-Stokes fluid coupled to a neo-Hookean solid. We verify the method's convergence. The algorithm is faster and more stable than previous methods based on RMT. It is easily appended with a contact subroutine for multiple solids interacting within fluid, which we introduce and demonstrate with two examples.
Tactile friction of topical formulations.
Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L
2016-02-01
The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhao, J.; Vollebregt, E.A.H.; Oosterlee, C.W.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a full multigrid (FMG) technique, which combines a multigrid method, an active set algorithm and a nested iteration technique, to solve a linear complementarity problem (LCP) modeling elastic normal contact problems. The governing system in this LCP is derived from a Fredholm int
Spur gears: Optimal geometry, methods for generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program
Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao
1988-01-01
The contents of this report include the following: (1) development of optimal geometry for crowned spur gears; (2) methods for their generation; and (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact on the crowned spur gears. The method developed for synthesis is used for the determination of the optimal geometry for crowned pinion surface and is directed to reduce the sensitivity of the gears to misalignment, localize the bearing contact, and guarantee the favorable shape and low level of the transmission errors. A new method for the generation of the crowned pinion surface has been proposed. This method is based on application of the tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The crowned pinion surface can also be generated by a generating plane whose motion is provided by an automatic grinding machine controlled by a computer. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined.
Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1992-01-01
Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p...
Kano, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Hiyoshi, Yoshihisa; Ito, Kosuke; Hirahara, Kazuro
2015-10-01
Data assimilation is a technique that optimizes the parameters used in a numerical model with a constraint of model dynamics achieving the better fit to observations. Optimized parameters can be utilized for the subsequent prediction with a numerical model and predicted physical variables are presumably closer to observations that will be available in the future, at least, comparing to those obtained without the optimization through data assimilation. In this work, an adjoint data assimilation system is developed for optimizing a relatively large number of spatially inhomogeneous frictional parameters during the afterslip period in which the physical constraints are a quasi-dynamic equation of motion and a laboratory derived rate and state dependent friction law that describe the temporal evolution of slip velocity at subduction zones. The observed variable is estimated slip velocity on the plate interface. Before applying this method to the real data assimilation for the afterslip of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, a synthetic data assimilation experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of optimizing the frictional parameters in the afterslip area. It is confirmed that the current system is capable of optimizing the frictional parameters A-B, A and L by adopting the physical constraint based on a numerical model if observations capture the acceleration and decaying phases of slip on the plate interface. On the other hand, it is unlikely to constrain the frictional parameters in the region where the amplitude of afterslip is less than 1.0 cm d-1. Next, real data assimilation for the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake is conducted to incorporate slip velocity data inferred from time dependent inversion of Global Navigation Satellite System time-series. The optimized values of A-B, A and L are O(10 kPa), O(102 kPa) and O(10 mm), respectively. The optimized frictional parameters yield the better fit to the observations and the better prediction skill of slip
In Vitro Urethra Model to Characterize The Frictional Properties of Urinary Catheters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røn, Troels; Lee, Seunghwan
2016-01-01
Surface lubricity is one of the most important properties required for biomaterials or biomedical devices where tribological contacts with biological tissues are expected. While standard tribological techniques can provide sufficiently meaningful pre-clinical screening of their surface slipperine...... of sliding contacts with the urethra model with unlubricated and lubricated catheters were determined. Impact of the improved bio-relevance of friction testing methods on the evaluation of various catheter materials and surface modification methods is discussed in detail.......Surface lubricity is one of the most important properties required for biomaterials or biomedical devices where tribological contacts with biological tissues are expected. While standard tribological techniques can provide sufficiently meaningful pre-clinical screening of their surface slipperiness...... conformal sliding contacts with the catheter and high relevance to clinical catherization. With the proposed urethra model assembled in texture analyzer, the lubricity of catheters lubricated in different modes was tested. In comparison with conventional pin-on-disk tribometry, the coefficients of friction...
Göncü, F.; Luding, S.
2013-01-01
The macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials inherently depends on the properties of particles that compose them. Using the discrete element method, the effect of particle contact friction and polydispersity on the macroscopic stress response of 3D sphere packings is studied. The analyt
Lu, Xianqing; Zhang, Jicai
2006-10-01
Based on the simulation of M2 tide in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data are assimilated into a 2D tidal model to study the spatially varying bottom friction coefficient (BFC) by using the adjoint method. In this study, the BFC at some grid points are selected as the independent BFC, while the BFC at other grid points can be obtained through linear interpolation with the independent BFC. Two strategies for selecting the independent BFC are discussed. In the first strategy, one independent BFC is uniformly selected from each 1°×1° area. In the second one, the independent BFC are selected based on the spatial distribution of water depth. Twin and practical experiments are carried out to compare the two strategies. In the twin experiments, the adjoint method has a strong ability of inverting the prescribed BFC distributions combined with the spatially varying BFC. In the practical experiments, reasonable simulation results can be obtained by optimizing the spatially varying independent BFC. In both twin and practical experiments, the simulation results with the second strategy are better than those with the first one. The BFC distribution obtained from the practical experiment indicates that the BFC in shallow water are larger than those in deep water in the Bohai Sea, the North Yellow Sea, the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea individually. However, the BFC in the East China Sea are larger than those in the other areas perhaps because of the large difference of water depth or bottom roughness. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the model results are more sensitive to the independent BFC near the land.
Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin
2010-03-01
Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Traberg, Marie Sand
2017-01-01
. The healthy bone in the femoral head of the Perthes’ hip carries additional loads as indicated by the increase of stress levels around the necrotic-healthy bone interface. Identifying the biomechanical changes, such as the location of stress and contact pressure concentrations, is a prerequisite......Perthes’ disease is a destructive hip joint disorder characterized by malformation of the femoral head in young children. While the morphological changes have been widely studied, the biomechanical effects of these changes still need to be further elucidated. The objective of this study...... was to develop a method to investigate the biomechanical alterations in Perthes’ disease by finite element (FE ) contact modeling using MRI. The MRI data of a unilateral Perthes’ case was obtained to develop the three-dimensional FE model of the hip joint. The stress and contact pressure patterns...
Scheme for contact angle and its hysteresis in a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method.
Wang, Lei; Huang, Hai-bo; Lu, Xi-Yun
2013-01-01
In this paper, a scheme for specifying contact angle and its hysteresis is incorporated into a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method. The scheme is validated through investigations of the dynamic behaviors of a droplet sliding along two kinds of walls: a smooth (ideal) wall and a rough or chemically inhomogeneous (nonideal) wall. For an ideal wall, the wettability of solid substrates is able to be prescribed. For a nonideal wall, arbitrary contact angle hysteresis can be obtained through adjusting advancing and receding angles. Significantly different phenomena can be recovered for the two kinds of walls. For instance, a droplet on an inclined ideal wall under gravity is impossible to stay stationary. However, the droplet on a nonideal wall may be pinned due to contact angle hysteresis. The steady interface shapes of the droplet on an inclined nonideal wall under gravity or in a shear flow quantitatively agree well with the previous numerical studies. Besides, the complex motion of a droplet creeping like an inchworm could be simulated. The scheme is found suitable for the study of contact line problems with and without contact angle hysteresis.
Non-contact SQUID-NDT method using a ferrite core for carbon-fibre composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsukade, Yoshimi [Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kasai, Naoko [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takashima, Hiroshi [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ishiyama, Atsushi [Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2002-12-01
Carbon-fibre composites (CFCs), such as carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are promising composite materials for aerospace structures. However, there is no reliable non-contact NDT method for the detection of deep-lying cracks in thick CFCs at the present time. In this study a non-contact eddy-current-based SQUID-NDT method for thick CFCs was developed. Because CFC is conductively low (electrically), and the target CFC is thick, an induction coil with a U-shaped ferrite core was employed to generate a strong induction field while supplying a low frequency current to the coil. This method was applied to 20 mm thick CFRP specimens with hidden slots at various depths. All signal responses due to the slots located at 5 mm up to 17.5 mm in depth were successfully detected while supplying 150 mA at 300 Hz. The peak amplitude of the response obtained by the method was the same as, or larger than, that of previous results on the same specimens by the current injection method. It shows that the developed method can efficiently induce a large eddy current in the conductively low specimen. It is concluded that this method has the potential to be applicable to the non-contact NDT on very thick CFCs.
Alart, P.; Barboteu, M.; Gril, J.
2004-09-01
In this paper a numerical modelling of non linear problems involving large deformations and frictional contact conditions is proposed. The motivation of this work comes from the study of the cellular materials (such as wood or foams) undergoing strong deformations. We restrict our study to a regular cellular network of hexagonal cells with thin walls. Strong loadings can generate at first buckling phenomena, then self-contact in the cell. Renouncing homogenization procedures, not always pertinent in this case, we have developed direct simulations. After giving the mechanical and mathematical formulations of the problem, we present two advanced numerical tools to solve large non linear frictional multicontact problems. This numerical modelling is based on an arc-length continuation method which permits to snap through singular points due to buckling phenomena and on an optimal domain decomposition method adapted to frictional contact problems. Finally, mechanical investigations of the contactless buckling and the post-buckling provide some pertinent parameters controlling the deformation process.
New developments in the theory of wheel/rail contact mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jakob Birkedal
1998-01-01
problems. When it comes to the modelling of the wheel/rail contact it is always a compromise between computational speed and accuracy. Many numerical methods provide a very good accuracy, but since most railway simulations necessitates the evaluation of many consecutive contact situations the relative slow...... of application. The model is applied on four different types of contact problems which cannot be treated with the most common contact models: - contact between corrugated surfaces - contact with velocity dependent friction coefficient - contact between rough surfaces - non-steady contact The calculations......Today many simulation routines concerning railway dynamics employ rather primitive contact models which are not necessarily suited for the specific wheel/rail contact problem. The objective of the present thesis is to derive a more flexible contact model which can be applied on a variety of contact...
New developments in the theory of wheel/rail contact mechanics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jakob Birkedal
1998-01-01
Today many simulation routines concerning railway dynamics employ rather primitive contact models which are not necessarily suited for the specific wheel/rail contact problem. The objective of the present thesis is to derive a more flexible contact model which can be applied on a variety of contact...... problems. When it comes to the modelling of the wheel/rail contact it is always a compromise between computational speed and accuracy. Many numerical methods provide a very good accuracy, but since most railway simulations necessitates the evaluation of many consecutive contact situations the relative slow...... of application. The model is applied on four different types of contact problems which cannot be treated with the most common contact models: - contact between corrugated surfaces - contact with velocity dependent friction coefficient - contact between rough surfaces - non-steady contact The calculations...
Novel method for the design and assessment of direct contact membrane distillation modules
Field, RW; Wu, HY; Tay, WZ
2016-01-01
An equivalent effectiveness-number of heat transfer units (ε-NTUMD) method was developed for direct contact membrane distillation. Efficient performance rating and design sizing for individual DCMD modules can be rapidly made based upon limited experimental data. Using this method, the construction of a specific finite element model and their associated costs, involving both time and expenditure, are avoided. Instead the module performance or sizing requirements can be estimated efficiently u...
Stochastic modeling of friction force and vibration analysis of a mechanical system using the model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Won Seok; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-09-15
The squeal noise generated from a disk brake or chatter occurred in a machine tool primarily results from friction-induced vibration. Since friction-induced vibration is usually accompanied by abrasion and lifespan reduction of mechanical parts, it is necessary to develop a reliable analysis model by which friction-induced vibration phenomena can be accurately analyzed. The original Coulomb's friction model or the modified Coulomb friction model employed in most commercial programs employs deterministic friction coefficients. However, observing friction phenomena between two contact surfaces, one may observe that friction coefficients keep changing due to the unevenness of contact surface, temperature, lubrication and humidity. Therefore, in this study, friction coefficients are modeled as random parameters that keep changing during the motion of a mechanical system undergoing friction force. The integrity of the proposed stochastic friction model was validated by comparing the analysis results obtained by the proposed model with experimental results.
Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Field in Automotive Dry Friction Clutch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.I. Abdullah
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The friction clutch design is strongly dependent upon the frictional heat generated between contact surfaces during the slipping at beginning of engagement. Because of that the frictional heat generated firstly will reduce the performance of clutch system and then will lead to premature failure in some cases. Finite element method was used to investigate aneffect of thermal load type on the temperature field of the clutch system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric model was used to study the temperature distribution for the clutch system (pressure plate, clutch disc and flywheel during heating phase (slipping period and in the cooling phase (full engagement period. Depending on basic friction clutch design two types of thermal loads were applied; load type A (uniform pressure and load type B (uniform wear. Repeated engagements made at regular interval wereconsidered in this work. ANSYS13 has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.
Simulation of granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian size distribution
Jia, Tao; Gao, Di
2016-09-01
The granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian distribution is investigated based on distinct element method. Different sliding frictional coefficients are considered in the simulation. Due to the inelastic collision between the particles, the agglomeration of the particles occurs and the packing structure is formed finally. The range of the diameter of the particle is between 50 and 100 μm, and the distribution of the particle diameter is Gaussian. The inelastic interaction is caused by the viscoelastic force and the frictional force. The internal structure of the granular matter is quantified by the coordination number, packing density, and the force distribution. It is found that the increase in the sliding frictional coefficient looses the packing structure, and the distribution range of the contact force is larger than that of the van der Waals force.
Rolling Friction in Loose Media and its Role in Mechanics Problems
Klishin, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.; Kazantsev, A. A.
2016-08-01
Rolling friction between particles is to be set in problems of granular material mechanics alongside with sliding friction. A classical problem of material passive lateral pressure on the retaining wall is submitted as a case in point. 3D method of discrete elements was employed for numerical analysis. Material is a universe of spherical particles with specified size distribution. Viscose-elastic properties of the material and surface friction are included, when choosing contact forces. Particles' resistance to rolling relative to other particles and to the boundary is set into the model. Kinetic patterns of medium deformations are given. It has been proved that rolling friction can significantly affect magnitude and nature of passive lateral pressure on the retaining wall.
Evaluation of the occlusal contact of crowns fabricated with the bite impression method.
Makino, Sachi; Okada, Daizo; Shin, Chiharu; Ogura, Reiko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki
2013-09-30
In prosthodontic treatment, reconstruction of a proper occlusal contact relationship is very important as well as reconstruction of a proper interproximal relationship and marginal fitness. Unfortunately, occlusal relationships are sometimes lost in the process of occlusal adjustment of crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal contacts of single crown fabricated by two different types of impression techniques. Nine subjects, whose molars required treatment with crown restoration, were enrolled in this study. Full cast crowns were fabricated using two types of impression techniques: the conventional impression method (CIM) and the bite impression method (BIM). The occlusal contacts of crowns were precisely evaluated at the following stages: after occlusal adjustment on the articulator (Step 0), before occlusal adjustment in the mouth (Step 1), after occlusal adjustment at the intercuspal position (Step 2), and after occlusal adjustment during lateral and protrusive excursions (Step 3). The number of occlusal contacts of the crowns on the functional cusps fabricated with BIM was significantly greater than that with CIM after occlusal adjustment. For this reason, the crowns fabricated with BIM might have a more functionally desirable occlusal surface compared to the crowns fabricated with CIM.
The Cold Contact Method as a Simple Drug Interaction Detection System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilma Nugrahani
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The physical interaction between 2 substances frequently occurs along the mixing and manufacturing of solid drug dosage forms. The physical interaction is generally based on coarrangement of crystal lattice of drug combination. The cold contact method has been developed as a simple technique to detect physical interaction between 2 drugs. This method is performed by observing new habits of cocrystal that appear on contact area of crystallization by polarization microscope and characterize this cocrystal behavior by melting point determination. Has been evaluated by DSC, this method is proved suitable to identify eutecticum interaction of pseudoephedrine HCl-acetaminophen, peritecticum interaction of methampyrone-phenylbutazon, and solid solution interaction of amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively.
The Reality of Casimir Friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimball A. Milton
2016-04-01
Full Text Available For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, which break time-reversal symmetry. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Partly because of the lack of contact with observations, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here, we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.
The Reality of Casimir Friction
Milton, K A; Brevik, I
2015-01-01
For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum fluctuations. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Because of the lack of contact with phenomena, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin J. M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Nous avons mis en oeuvre un test de frottement dans lequel les conditions tribologiques sont voisines de celles existant au niveau segment-chemise des moteurs à explosion. Nous avons éprouvé différentes huiles commerciales ainsi que des additifs purs. Ayant choisi la température comme paramètre variable au cours de ce test nous pouvons déterminer pour chaque lubrifiant une plage de température correspondant à une zone d'efficacité maximale de l'additif anti-usure qu'il contient. La température correspondant à la limite inférieure de cette plage est liée à la nature chimique de l'additif. De plus lorsqu'un gradient de température existe entre les deux pièces en frottement, on observe, dans la zone d'efficacité maximale du lubrifiant, un phénomène de pulsations verticales de la goutte d'huile placée dans le contact. Des éléments d'interprétation, expliquant ces deux phénomènes, sont proposés et conduisent à relier l'efficacité anti-usure d'un additif à ses propriétés d'adsorption à la surface des pièces frottantes. The tribological conditions in the test used were similar to these existing in the ringliner area. of explosion engines. Different commercial cils were tested along with pure additives. Since temperature was chosen as a variable parameter during these tests, it was possible to determine a temperature range for each lubricant, corresponding to the maximum efficiency zone for the antiwear additive it contained. The temperature corresponding to the lower limit of this range is linked to the chemical nature of the additive. Likewise, when a temperature gradient exists between two rubbing parts, a vertical pulsation phenomenon of the drop of cil n the contact area occurs in the maximum efficiency zone of the lubricant. Interpretation elements explaining these two phenomena are proposed and lead to linking the antiwear efficiency of an additive to its adsorption properties on the surface of rubbing parts.
Sliding without slipping under Coulomb friction: opening waves and inversion of frictional force
Yastrebov, Vladislav A
2015-01-01
An elastic layer slides on a rigid flat governed by Coulomb's friction law. We demonstrate that if the coefficient of friction is high enough, the sliding localizes within stick-slip pulses, which transform into opening waves propagating at intersonic speed in the direction of sliding or, for high Poisson's ratios, at supersonic speed in the opposite one. This sliding mode, characterized by small frictional dissipation, rapidly relaxes the shear elastic energy via stress waves and enables the contact surface slide ahead of the top one, resulting in inversion of the frictional force direction.
Non-linear friction in reciprocating hydraulic rod seals: Simulation and measurement
Bullock, A. K.; Tilley, D. G.; Johnston, D. N.; Bowen, C. R.; Keogh, P. S.
2009-08-01
Non-linear seal friction can impede the performance of hydraulic actuation systems designed for high precision positioning with favourable dynamic response. Methods for predicting seal friction are required to help develop sealing systems for this type of application. Recent simulation techniques have claimed progress, although have yet to be validated experimentally. A conventional reciprocating rod seal is analysed using established elastohydrodynamic theory and the mixed lubrication Greenwood-Williamson-average Reynolds model. A test rig was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation results for both instroke and outstroke. Inverse hydrodynamic theory is shown to predict a U0.5 power law between rod speed and friction. Comparison with experimental data shows the theory to be qualitatively inaccurate and to predict friction levels an order of magnitude lower than those measured. It was not possible to model the regions very close to the inlet and outlet due to the high pressure gradients at the edges of the contact. The mixed lubrication model produces friction levels within the correct order of magnitude, although incorrectly predicts higher friction during instroke than outstroke. Previous experiments have reported higher friction during instroke than outstroke for rectangular seals, suggesting that the mixed lubrication model used could possibly be suitable for symmetric seals, although not for seal tribology in general.
Low temperature friction force microscopy
Dunckle, Christopher Gregory
The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting of a diamond coated AFM tip and diamond-like carbon sample in a nominal sample temperature range of 90 to 275K. The results show that the coefficient of kinetic friction, mu k, has a linear dependence that is monotonically increasing with temperature varying from 0.28 to 0.38. To analyze this data it is necessary to correlate the sample temperature to the interface temperature. A detailed thermal model shows that the sample temperature measured by a macroscopic device can be very different from the temperature at the contact point. Temperature gradients intrinsic to the design of VT, UHV AFMs result in extreme, non-equilibrium conditions with heat fluxes on the order of gigawatts per squared meter through the interface, which produce a discontinuous step in the temperature profile due to thermal boundary impedance. The conclusion from this model is that measurements acquired by VT, UHV AFM, including those presented in this thesis, do not provide meaningful data on the temperature dependence of friction for single-asperities. Plans for future work developing an isothermal AFM capable of the same measurements without the introduction of temperature gradients are described. The experimental results and thermal analysis described in this thesis have been published in the Journal of Applied Physics, "Temperature dependence of single-asperity friction for a diamond on diamondlike carbon interface", J. App. Phys., 107(11):114903, 2010.
Efficient numerical methods for the large-scale, parallel solution of elastoplastic contact problems
Frohne, Jörg
2015-08-06
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Quasi-static elastoplastic contact problems are ubiquitous in many industrial processes and other contexts, and their numerical simulation is consequently of great interest in accurately describing and optimizing production processes. The key component in these simulations is the solution of a single load step of a time iteration. From a mathematical perspective, the problems to be solved in each time step are characterized by the difficulties of variational inequalities for both the plastic behavior and the contact problem. Computationally, they also often lead to very large problems. In this paper, we present and evaluate a complete set of methods that are (1) designed to work well together and (2) allow for the efficient solution of such problems. In particular, we use adaptive finite element meshes with linear and quadratic elements, a Newton linearization of the plasticity, active set methods for the contact problem, and multigrid-preconditioned linear solvers. Through a sequence of numerical experiments, we show the performance of these methods. This includes highly accurate solutions of a three-dimensional benchmark problem and scaling our methods in parallel to 1024 cores and more than a billion unknowns.
Method for analyzing the chemical composition of liquid effluent from a direct contact condenser
Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab
2001-01-01
A computational modeling method for predicting the chemical, physical, and thermodynamic performance of a condenser using calculations based on equations of physics for heat, momentum and mass transfer and equations of equilibrium thermodynamics to determine steady state profiles of parameters throughout the condenser. The method includes providing a set of input values relating to a condenser including liquid loading, vapor loading, and geometric characteristics of the contact medium in the condenser. The geometric and packing characteristics of the contact medium include the dimensions and orientation of a channel in the contact medium. The method further includes simulating performance of the condenser using the set of input values to determine a related set of output values such as outlet liquid temperature, outlet flow rates, pressures, and the concentration(s) of one or more dissolved noncondensable gas species in the outlet liquid. The method may also include iteratively performing the above computation steps using a plurality of sets of input values and then determining whether each of the resulting output values and performance profiles satisfies acceptance criteria.
Numerical simulation of friction stir welding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijajlović Miroslav
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermo-mechanical influence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting with monolith joint-weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, significant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. The paper describes the software for the numerical simulation of friction stir welding developed at Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Nis. Numerical solution for estimation of welding plates temperature is estimated using finite difference method-explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering influence of temperature on material's conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material flow around welding tool etc. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35034: The research of modern non-conventional technologies application in manufacturing companies with the aim of increase efficiency of use, product quality, reduce of costs and save energy and materials
A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient
Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar
2017-01-01
The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified “magic formula” tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. PMID:28178332
Partition method for impact dynamics of flexible multibody systems based on contact constraint
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
段玥晨; 章定国; 洪嘉振
2013-01-01
The impact dynamics of a flexible multibody system is investigated. By using a partition method, the system is divided into two parts, the local impact region and the region away from the impact. The two parts are connected by specific boundary conditions, and the system after partition is equivalent to the original system. According to the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic theory of multibody system, system’s rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equations without impact are derived. A local impulse method for establishing the initial impact conditions is proposed. It satisfies the compatibility con-ditions for contact constraints and the actual physical situation of the impact process of flexible bodies. Based on the contact constraint method, system’s impact dynamic equa-tions are derived in a differential-algebraic form. The contact/separation criterion and the algorithm are given. An impact dynamic simulation is given. The results show that system’s dynamic behaviors including the energy, the deformations, the displacements, and the impact force during the impact process change dramatically. The impact makes great effects on the global dynamics of the system during and after impact.
High friction and low wear properties of laser-textured ceramic surface under dry friction
Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Wu, Ze; Wu, Fengfang
2017-08-01
Two kinds of grooved textures with different spacing were fabricated on Al2O3/TiC ceramic surface by an Nd:YAG laser. The dry tribological properties of the textured samples were investigated by carrying out unidirectional rotary sliding friction and wear tests using a ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the laser textured samples exhibit higher friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance compared with the smooth sample under dry friction conditions. Furthermore, the texture morphology and spacing have a significant influence on the tribological properties. The sample with small texture spacing may be beneficial to increasing the friction coefficient, and the wavy-grooved sample exhibits the highest friction coefficient and shallowest wear depth. The increasing friction coefficient and anti-wear properties are attributed to the combined effects of the increased surface roughness, reduced real contact area, micro-cutting effect by the texture edges and entrapment of wear debris.
Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears
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Miguel Pleguezuelos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.
Computational Methods to Fatigue Stress of Stirring Head in Friction Stir Welding%搅拌摩擦焊接中搅拌头疲劳应力计算方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张昭; 吴奇
2015-01-01
采用计算流体动力学模型(CFD)模拟AA6061-T6搅拌摩擦焊接过程. 基于得到的流场压力分布,计算出搅拌头受力. 搅拌头受力分为轴肩下表面摩擦阻力、搅拌针阻力和搅拌针底部摩擦力,通过与试验结果的比较验证了方法的有效性. 进一步提出计算搅拌针根部疲劳应力的解析方法,并与有限元数值解对比验证了其正确性. 结果表明,搅拌头受力和搅拌针疲劳应力随焊接转速增大而减小,随焊速的增加而增加. 但较大的转速,导致较高的疲劳应力交变频率.%Computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the friction stir welding process. Based on the computed flu-id pressure, the forces on the welding tool can be obtained. The tool force consists of three components, the friction force on the shoulder contact region, the resistance force on the pin and the frictional force on the pin tip surface. The comparison to the experimental values can validate the proposed method. The fatigue stress on the tool pin can be then calculated by the pro-posed analytical method. The comparison of the analytical results and the finite element results can validate the proposed ana-lytical method. Results indicate that the fatigue stress can be increased with the increase of the transverse speed and can be decreased with the increase of the rotating speed. But higher rotating speed can lead to higher frequency of the alternative stress.
Guo, Ying; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou
2014-05-01
We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.
Transient effects in friction fractal asperity creep
Goedecke, Andreas
2013-01-01
Transient friction effects determine the behavior of a wide class of mechatronic systems. Classic examples are squealing brakes, stiction in robotic arms, or stick-slip in linear drives. To properly design and understand mechatronic systems of this type, good quantitative models of transient friction effects are of primary interest. The theory developed in this book approaches this problem bottom-up, by deriving the behavior of macroscopic friction surfaces from the microscopic surface physics. The model is based on two assumptions: First, rough surfaces are inherently fractal, exhibiting roughness on a wide range of scales. Second, transient friction effects are caused by creep enlargement of the real area of contact between two bodies. This work demonstrates the results of extensive Finite Element analyses of the creep behavior of surface asperities, and proposes a generalized multi-scale area iteration for calculating the time-dependent real contact between two bodies. The toolset is then demonstrated both...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Huang
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, friction between the Cube-Corner indenter and the sample surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG was analyzed and discussed by the experimental method, the theoretical method and the finite element simulation. Linear residua are observed on the surface of the indenter for the first time, which gives the direct evidence that strong interaction processes exist between the indenter surface and the sample surface because of strong friction and local high contact press. A simplified model was developed to correct the penetration load with the consideration of friction. Effects of friction on the penetration load-depth curves, plastic flow, surface deformation and residual stress distribution of the sample with different friction coefficients were investigated by the finite element simulation.
A novel method to study contact inhibition of locomotion using micropatterned substrates
Scarpa, Elena; Roycroft, Alice; Theveneau, Eric; Terriac, Emmanuel; Piel, Matthieu; Mayor, Roberto
2013-01-01
Summary The concept of contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) describes the ability of a cell to change the direction of its movement after contact with another cell. It has been shown to be responsible for physiological and developmental processes such as wound healing, macrophage dispersion and neural crest cell migration; whereas its loss facilitates cancer cell invasion and metastatic dissemination. Different assays have been developed to analyze CIL in tissue culture models. However, these methods have several caveats. Collisions happen at low frequency between freely migrating cells and the orientation of the cells at the time of contact is not predictable. Moreover, the computational analysis required by these assays is often complicated and it retains a certain degree of discretion. Here, we show that confinement of neural crest cell migration on a single dimension by using a micropatterned substrate allows standardized and predictable cell–cell collision. CIL can thus easily be quantified by direct measurement of simple cellular parameters such as the distance between nuclei after collision. We tested some of the signaling pathways previously identified as involved in CIL, such as small GTPases and non-canonical Wnt signaling, using this new method for CIL analysis. The restricted directionality of migration of cells in lines is a powerful strategy to obtain higher predictability and higher efficiency of the CIL response upon cell–cell collisions. PMID:24143276
A novel method to study contact inhibition of locomotion using micropatterned substrates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Scarpa
2013-07-01
The concept of contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL describes the ability of a cell to change the direction of its movement after contact with another cell. It has been shown to be responsible for physiological and developmental processes such as wound healing, macrophage dispersion and neural crest cell migration; whereas its loss facilitates cancer cell invasion and metastatic dissemination. Different assays have been developed to analyze CIL in tissue culture models. However, these methods have several caveats. Collisions happen at low frequency between freely migrating cells and the orientation of the cells at the time of contact is not predictable. Moreover, the computational analysis required by these assays is often complicated and it retains a certain degree of discretion. Here, we show that confinement of neural crest cell migration on a single dimension by using a micropatterned substrate allows standardized and predictable cell–cell collision. CIL can thus easily be quantified by direct measurement of simple cellular parameters such as the distance between nuclei after collision. We tested some of the signaling pathways previously identified as involved in CIL, such as small GTPases and non-canonical Wnt signaling, using this new method for CIL analysis. The restricted directionality of migration of cells in lines is a powerful strategy to obtain higher predictability and higher efficiency of the CIL response upon cell–cell collisions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Intae Ryoo
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.
REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ron Matthews
2005-05-01
This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston
Measurement of contact angle of copper-bearing shales using the captive bubble method
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Danuta Szyszka
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the measurement of contact angle of the natural surface of copper-bearing shales immersed in solutions of selected reagents of various concentrations using captive bubble method. It demonstrates that the copper-bearing shales coming from Legnicko-Głogwski Copper Region develop natural hydrophobic properties in surfactant (frother solutions and its hydrophobicity decreases from 82⁰ contact angle in distilled water, 78⁰ in C4E1 solutions, 76⁰ in C4E2 solutions, to 75⁰ in dodecylphenol solutions. These data show that the addition of frother causes a decrease of shale hydrophobicity but it can reduce stability of the thin film between the grain and air bubble. It means that flotation of copperbearing shales in the presence of frother will only be possible provided specific concentrations.
Investigation on Thermal Contact Conductance Based on Data Analysis Method of Reliability
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zongren; YANG Jun; YANG Mingyuan; ZHANG Weifang
2012-01-01
The method of reliability is proposed for the investigation of thermal contact conductance (TCC) in this study.A new definition is introduced,namely reliability thermal contact conductance (RTCC),which is defined as the TCC value that meets the reliability design requirement of the structural materials under consideration.An experimental apparatus with the compensation heater to test the TCC is introduced here.A practical engineering example is utilized to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.By using a statistical regression model along with experimental data obtained from the interfaces of the structural materials GH4169 and K417 used in aero-engine,the estimate values and the confidence level of TCC and RTCC values are studied and compared.The results show that the testing values of TCC increase with interface pressure and the proposed RTCC model matches the test results better at high interface pressure.
Direct Contact Sorptive Extraction: A Robust Method for Sampling Plant Volatiles in the Field.
Kfoury, Nicole; Scott, Eric; Orians, Colin; Robbat, Albert
2017-09-27
Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with diverse structures and functions, which change in response to environmental stimuli and have important consequences for interactions with other organisms. To understand these changes, in situ sampling is necessary. In contrast to dynamic headspace (DHS), which is the most often employed method, direct contact sampling employing a magnetic stir bar held in place by a magnet eliminates artifacts produced by enclosing plant materials in glass or plastic chambers. Direct-contact sorptive extraction (DCSE) using polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bars (Twisters) coated stir bars is more sensitive than DHS, captures a wider range of compounds, minimizes VOC collection from neighboring plants, and distinguishes the effects of herbivory in controlled and field conditions. Because DCSE is relatively inexpensive and simple to employ, scalability of field trials can be expanded concomitant with increased sample replication. The sensitivity of DCSE combined with the spectral deconvolution data analysis software makes the two ideal for comprehensive, in situ profiling of plant volatiles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ren-liang; DI Qin-feng; WANG Xin-liang; DING Wei-peng; GONG Wei
2012-01-01
The apparent slip between solid wall and liquid is studied by using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and the Shan-Chen multiphase model in this paper.With a no-slip bounce-back scheme applied to the interface,flow regimes under different wall wettabilities are investigated.Because of the wall wettability,liquid apparent slip is observed.Slip lengths for different wall wettabilities are found to collapse nearly onto a single curve as a function of the static contact angle,and thereby a relationship between apparent slip length and contact angle is suggested.Our results also show that the wall wettability leads to the formation of a low-density layer between solid wall and liquid,which produced apparent slip in the micro-scale.
Quantum tunneling with friction
Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.
2017-05-01
Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.
A non-contact mine pressure evaluation method by electromagnetic radiation
Wang, Enyuan; He, Xueqiu; Liu, Xiaofei; Li, Zhonghui; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Dong
2011-10-01
An electromagnetic radiation evaluation method for the relative stress state of coal bed under stress was proposed in this paper. The stress distribution of mine roadway or working face, as well as high stress zone or stress gradient zone, was analyzed by the method. The main advantages of the technique are its characteristics of non-contact, orientability, and regional monitoring. Correlation analysis of electromagnetic radiation with relative stress was carried out in coal mines and tunnels. The results indicate that the electromagnetic radiation technology has a wide application prospect in the evaluation of mine pressure.
Friction Effects in Pedestrian Headform Impacts with Engine Hoods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Qi; XIA Yong; ZHOU Qing
2009-01-01
In the pedestrian headform impact test mandated by the European pedestrian safety requirements, the contact friction between the headform and the engine hood affects the headform kinematics and head injury criterion (HIC) to some extent. This study shows that the friction effect is more significant with child headform impact than with adult headform impact and the relative angle between the headform impact di-rection and the hood surface greatly affects the headform impact sensitivity to the friction coefficient. The sensitivity of the headform kinematics to the friction coefficient is also analyzed. The results show that ac-curate friction coefficients are needed to improve predictions of pedestrian headform impacts with hoods.
Low friction wear resistant graphene films
Sumant, Anirudha V.; Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali
2017-02-07
A low friction wear surface with a coefficient of friction in the superlubric regime including graphene and nanoparticles on the wear surface is provided, and methods of producing the low friction wear surface are also provided. A long lifetime wear resistant surface including graphene exposed to hydrogen is provided, including methods of increasing the lifetime of graphene containing wear surfaces by providing hydrogen to the wear surface.
Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krengel Dominik
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.
Collisions of Constrained Rigid Body Systems with Friction
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Haijun Shen
1998-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach is developed for the general collision problem of two rigid body systems with constraints (e.g., articulated systems, such as massy linkages in which the relative tangential velocity at the point of contact and the associated friction force can change direction during the collision. This is beyond the framework of conventional methods, which can give significant and very obvious errors for this problem, and both extends and consolidates recent work. A new parameterization and theory characterize if, when and how the relative tangential velocity changes direction during contact. Elastic and dissipative phenomena and different values for static and kinetic friction coefficients are included. The method is based on the explicitly physical analysis of events at the point of contact. Using this method, Example 1 resolves (and corrects a paradox (in the literature of the collision of a double pendulum with the ground. The method fundamentally subsumes other recent models and the collision of rigid bodies; it yields the same results as conventional methods when they would apply (Example 2. The new method reformulates and extends recent approaches in a completely physical context.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexov Emil G
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting residues' contacts using primary amino acid sequence alone is an important task that can guide 3D structure modeling and can verify the quality of the predicted 3D structures. The correlated mutations (CM method serves as the most promising approach and it has been used to predict amino acids pairs that are distant in the primary sequence but form contacts in the native 3D structure of homologous proteins. Results Here we report a new implementation of the CM method with an added set of selection rules (filters. The parameters of the algorithm were optimized against fifteen high resolution crystal structures with optimization criterion that maximized the confidentiality of the predictions. The optimization resulted in a true positive ratio (TPR of 0.08 for the CM without filters and a TPR of 0.14 for the CM with filters. The protocol was further benchmarked against 65 high resolution structures that were not included in the optimization test. The benchmarking resulted in a TPR of 0.07 for the CM without filters and to a TPR of 0.09 for the CM with filters. Conclusion Thus, the inclusion of selection rules resulted to an overall improvement of 30%. In addition, the pair-wise comparison of TPR for each protein without and with filters resulted in an average improvement of 1.7. The methodology was implemented into a web server http://www.ces.clemson.edu/compbio/recon that is freely available to the public. The purpose of this implementation is to provide the 3D structure predictors with a tool that can help with ranking alternative models by satisfying the largest number of predicted contacts, as well as it can provide a confidence score for contacts in cases where structure is known.
Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.
Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie
2016-05-24
Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.
Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction
Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali
Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.
Linearization of friction effects in vibration of two rotating blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajžman M.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of friction effects in blade shrouding which are realized by means of friction elements placed between blades. In order to develop a methodology of modelling, two blades with one friction element in between are considered only. Flexible blades fixed to a rotating disc are discretized by FEM using 1D Rayleigh beam elements derived in rotating space as well as the friction element modelled as a rigid body. The blades and the friction element are connected through two concurrent friction planes, where the friction forces arise on the basis of centrifugal force acting on the friction element. The linearization of friction is performed using the harmonic balance method to determine equivalent damping coefficients in dependence on the amplitudes of relative slip motion between the blades and the friction element. The methodology is applied to a model of two real blades and will be extended for the whole bladed disc with shrouding.
Friction Phenomenon in Contact Stress Problems
1988-07-01
specimen. A virtual reference grating created by interference of two coherent beams A and B is superimposed on the specimen grating. The specimen and...where f is the frequency of the virtual reference grating, x is the wavelength of the light employed, a is the angle of incidence (Fig. 3), N is the...orders the test case was run again. This corresponds to a similar order of interpolation error which might occur with a virtual reference grating of 240
A frictional sliding algorithm for liquid droplets
Sauer, Roger A.
2016-12-01
This work presents a new frictional sliding algorithm for liquid menisci in contact with solid substrates. In contrast to solid-solid contact, the liquid-solid contact behavior is governed by the contact line, where a contact angle forms and undergoes hysteresis. The new algorithm admits arbitrary meniscus shapes and arbitrary substrate roughness, heterogeneity and compliance. It is discussed and analyzed in the context of droplet contact, but it also applies to liquid films and solids with surface tension. The droplet is modeled as a stabilized membrane enclosing an incompressible medium. The contact formulation is considered rate-independent such that hydrostatic conditions apply. Three distinct contact algorithms are needed to describe the cases of frictionless surface contact, frictionless line contact and frictional line contact. For the latter, a predictor-corrector algorithm is proposed in order to enforce the contact conditions at the contact line and thus distinguish between the cases of advancing, pinning and receding. The algorithms are discretized within a monolithic finite element formulation. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the numerical and physical behavior of sliding droplets.
1989-01-01
of contact between the surfaces; and 4) friction is independent of the sliding velocity. Rabinowicz (1965) argued that frictional force is independent...between them. This greater friction is due to the increased area of actual contact. Rabinowicz (1965) also described exceptions to these "laws" of... Rabinowicz , 1965). In the following discussion, however, the classical (Coulomb) frictional model that correlates increased normal force directly to
Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.P. Khairnar
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.
Arbatani, Siamak; Callejo, Alfonso; Kövecses, József; Kalantari, Masoud; Marchand, Nick R.; Dargahi, Javad
2016-06-01
Directional drilling is a popular technique for oil well drilling. Accurate prediction of the directional performance is critical in order to achieve the desired well profile. Simplified geometry methods are, to date, the industry standard for predicting directional performance. A comprehensive, high-fidelity method for the simulation of directional drilling is presented here. It consists of a detailed discretization of the actual geometry and a rigorous application of two modeling techniques: the finite element and the finite segment methods. By doing so, the dynamic problem is addressed from two different yet complementary perspectives: structural mechanics and rigid-body motion. Collision detection and contact dynamics algorithms are also presented. Results show that both methods agree in terms of the dynamic response, and that the build rate estimations are consistent with available experimental data. Owing to the framework efficiency and physics-based nature, the presented tools are very well-suited for design engineering and real-time simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doleschel, A.; Michaelis, K.; Hoehn, B.R.
2001-03-01
The frictional behaviour of synthetic lubricants was systematically investigated in a twin disc test rig and a back-to-back gear test rig. For 22 lubricants (mineral oil, polyalfaolefin (PAO), polyglycol (PG), ester and mixtures) the coefficient of friction was measured in the twin disc test rig, dependant on pressure, oil temperature, rolling and sliding velocity. In the gear test rig pressure and velocity was varied for 9 lubricants. The mineral oil shows an estimated coefficient of friction of about {mu} >> 0.045, the synthetic lubricants have a lower coefficient of friction. In the twin disc test rig the lowest coefficient of friction with PG as low as 20% of the coefficient of mineral oil was measured, depending on the mixture of EO:PO. In the gear test rig such low coefficients of friction were not measured, but still values of 60% compared to mineral oil were obtained. Esters show in the twin disc test rig a coefficient of friction in the range of 30% to 100% of the coefficient of friction of mineral oil, in the gear test rig in the range of 60% to 100%. From these investigations a calculation method for the coefficient of friction in disc and gear contacts was derived. With these equations the power loss and efficiency of transmissions in practice, lubricated with synthetic gear oils can be evaluated. (orig.)
Low friction MoS2TiW Coatings Manufactured on X38CrMoV5-1 Steel Using PVD Method
GOLABCZAK, Marcin; Jacquet, Philippe; Nouveau, Corinne; FLITI, Romain
2013-01-01
In this article the friction coefficients and the wear resistances of MoS2TiW protective coatings manufactured on X38CrMoV5-1 steel samples by using PVD technology are studied. The investi- gations based on tribometer tests which were carried out in different temperature conditions. The process of deposition of PVD coatings was realized by using multisource, hybrid factory- scale equipment of type URM 079. This equipment allows for deposition of coatings by the phys- ical method...
A study on high-speed rolling contact between a wheel and a contaminated rail
Zhao, Xin; Wen, Zefeng; Zhu, Minhao; Jin, Xuesong
2014-10-01
A 3-D explicit finite element model is developed to investigate the transient wheel-rail rolling contact in the presence of rail contamination or short low adhesion zones (LAZs). A transient analysis is required because the wheel passes by a short LAZ very quickly, especially at high speeds. A surface-to-surface contact algorithm (by the penalty method) is employed to solve the frictional rolling contact between the wheel and the rail meshed by solid elements. The LAZ is simulated by a varying coefficient of friction along the rail. Different traction efforts and action of the traction control system triggered by the LAZ are simulated by applying a time-dependent driving torque to the wheel axle. Structural flexibilities of the vehicle-track system are considered properly. Analysis focuses on the contact forces, creepage, contact stresses and the derived frictional work and plastic deformation. It is found that the longitudinal contact force and the maximum surface shear stress in the contact patch become obviously lower in the LAZ and much higher as the wheel re-enters the dry rail section. Consequently, a higher wear rate and larger plastic flow are expected at the location where the dry contact starts to be rebuilt. In other words, contact surface damages such as wheel flats and rail burns may come into being because of the LAZ. Length of the LAZ, the traction level, etc. are varied. The results also show that local contact surface damages may still occur as the traction control system acts.
Blacksberg, Jordana (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael Eugene (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method is provided for growing a back surface contact on an imaging detector used in conjunction with back illumination. In operation, an imaging detector is provided. Additionally, a back surface contact (e.g. a delta-doped layer, etc.) is grown on the imaging detector utilizing a process that is performed at a temperature less than 450 degrees Celsius.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈慧; 刘海岷; 杨群
2015-01-01
The paper outlines the structure of the ambient braking mechanism and describes the contact problems and charac-teristics of braking sleeve during braking process.The ANSYS Workbench finite element software is used to analyze the fric-tional contact problems, and then the contact result is obtained.The sliding friction occurred between contact surfaces is ex-plored, and the holding torque in consideration of the structural parameters is acquired.%简要说明了直驱转台环抱式制动结构，介绍了制动机构中制动套接触的问题和特点；用ANSYS Workbench软件对制动结构摩擦接触问题进行有限元分析，确定摩擦接触的分析结果，探索制动过程中产生滑动摩擦的接触面，结合制动套的结构参数，获得制动力矩的大小。
Taguchi, Keiichi; Ohnishi, Kouhei
In procedures that involve remote control, such as remote surgery, it is necessary to operate a robot in a remote location in a sensitive environment; the treatment of internal organs is an example of such a procedure. In this paper, we propose a method for autonomous hazard avoidance control that is based on information on the contact environment. The proposed method involves the use of bilateral control. During safe operations, systems are controlled by bilateral control. During dangerous operations, a slave system is controlled autonomously so as to avoid dangerous operations. In order to determine the degree of operation risk, fuzzy set theory is applied to the force exerted on the environment. Further, variable compliance control based on the force exerted on the environment is utilized to avoid the risk. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.
The method of contact angle measurements and estimation of work of adhesion in bioleaching of metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matlakowska Renata
1999-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present our method for the measurement of contact angles on the surface of minerals during the bioleaching process because the standard deviation obtained in our measurements achieved unexpectedly low error. Construction of a goniometer connected with a specially prepared computer program allowed us to repeat measurements several times over a short time course, yielding excellent results. After defining points on the outline of the image of a drop and its baseline as well of the first approximation of the outline of the drop, an iterative process is initiated that is aimed at fitting the model of the drop and baseline. In turn, after defining the medium for which measurements were made, the work of adhesion is determined according to Young-Dupré equation. Calculations were made with the use of two methods named the L-M and L-Q methods.
Child contact management in high tuberculosis burden countries: A mixed-methods systematic review
Du Plessis, Lienki; Du Preez, Karen; Carr, Catherine; Mandalakas, Anna M.
2017-01-01
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996–2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (studied and compared in HBCs, and d) outcomes: monitoring and evaluation of CCM outcomes reported in the literature for each CCM cascade step. We included any quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study design except for randomized-controlled trials, editorials or commentaries. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed. Child contact losses varied greatly for screening, isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, and completion. CCM challenges included: infrastructure, knowledge, attitudes, stigma, access, competing priorities, and treatment. CCM recommendations included: health system strengthening, health education, and improved preventive therapy. Identified predictors included: index case and clinic characteristics, perceptions of barriers and risk, costs, and treatment characteristics. CCM lacks standardization resulting in common challenges and losses throughout the CCM cascade. Prioritization of a CCM-friendly healthcare environment with improved CCM processes and tools; health education; and active, evidence-based strategies can decrease barriers. A focused approach toward every aspect of the CCM cascade will likely diminish losses throughout the CCM cascade and ultimately decrease TB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasikova Darina
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The development of industrial technology also brings with optimized surface quality, particularly where there is contact with food. Application ultra-hydrophobic surface significantly reduces the growth of bacteria and facilitates cleaning processes. Testing and evaluation of surface quality are used two methods: impinging droplet and inclined surface method optimized with high speed shadowgraphy, which give information about dynamic contact angle. This article presents the results of research into new methods of measuring ultra-hydrophobic patented technology.
CONTACT NOTCH STRESS ASSESSMENT WITHIN FRICTIONAL CONTACT JOINTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DARIUSZ SZWEDOWICZ
2012-01-01
Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan, por medio del método del elemento finito (FE, las concentraciones de esfuerzo en los límites de zonas de contacto nominales que incluyen deslizamiento con fricción. Los elementos mecánicos para el análisis numérico se consideran como una flecha acoplada a un cubo de rueda por medio de aros cónicos deformables. El proceso de refinamiento de malla usado en el modelo discreto garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de FE, los cuales muestran un pico de esfuerzo considerablemente mayor al obtenido de la solución analítica, que usualmente se recomienda en guías de diseño de uniones con fricción. Esos picos de esfuerzo resultan en fallas por fatiga de bajos ciclos (LCF durante el servicio de la unión flecha cubo, porque pueden rebasar el punto de cedencia del material en áreas particulares de la flecha. Además en el estudio se considera el efecto de claros y magnitudes de fricción, entre los componentes mecánicos, y su influencia en la variación del esfuerzo máximo de contacto. Los resultados y conclusiones obtenidos del artículo son aplicables a los procesos de diseño y manufactura de uniones cónicas con fricción, con relación a sus características y tolerancias de ensamble.
Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H Aghkhani
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Separation and grading of agricultural products from the production to supply, has notable importance. The separation can be done based on physical, electrical, magnetic, optical properties and etc. It is necessary for any development of new systems to study enough on the properties and behavior of agricultural products. Some characteristics for separation are size (length, width and thickness, hardness, shape, density, surface roughness, color, speed limit, aerodynamic properties, electrical conductivity, elasticity and coefficient of static friction point. So far, the friction properties of agricultural products used in the separating process, but the effect of electrostatic charging on static and dynamic coefficients of friction for separation had little attention. The aim of this study was to find out the interactions between electrostatic and friction properties to find a way to separate products that separation is not possible with conventional methods or not sufficiently accurate. In this paper, the separation of close and smiley pistachios by electrostatic charging was investigated. Materials and Methods: Kallehghoochi pistachio cultivar has the top rank in production in Iran. Therefore, it was used as a sample. The experimental design that used in this study, had moisture content at three levels (24.2, 14.5 and 8.1 percent, electric field intensity at three levels (zero, 4000 and 7000 V, speed of movement on the surface at three levels (1300, 2500 and 3300 mm per minute, friction surface (galvanized sheet iron, aluminum and flat rubber and pistachio type at two levels (filled splits and closed that was measured and analyzed in completely randomized factorial design. A friction measuring device (built in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad used to measure the friction force. It has a removable table that can move in two directions with adjustable speed. The test sample put into the vessel with internal dimensions of 300 × 150
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Seung Hee; Kim, Sung Jun; Shin, Eui Sup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
2012-03-15
A smart interfacing method based on domain/boundary decomposition is presented for the non-linear analysis of thermo-elastoviscoplastic damage and contact. The smart interfacing method provides adaptive reinterfacing of the subdomains and the interface as a result of changes in the viscoplasticity and damage level. Since the whole domain is divided into subdomains, interface, and contact interfaces, non-linear analyses of the problems can be localized within a few subdomains and on the contact interfaces. For the continuity constraints on the interface and the contact interfaces, a penalty method is applied to the variational formulations and finite element approximations. By applying suitable solution algorithms and adopting the smart interfacing method, the computational efficiency can be considerably improved. The important features of the proposed method were also evaluated through numerical experiments.
DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))
1991-08-01
US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.
Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi
2016-02-01
We introduce a piecewise-linear, volume-of-fluid method for reconstructing and advecting three-dimensional interfaces and contact lines formed by three materials. The new method employs a set of geometric constructs that can be used in conjunction with any volume-tracking scheme. In this work, we used the mass-conserving scheme of Youngs to handle two-material cells, perform interface reconstruction in three-material cells, and resolve the contact line. The only information required by the method is the available volume fraction field. Although the proposed method is order dependent and requires a priori information on material ordering, it is suitable for typical contact line applications, where the material representing the contact surface is always known. Following the reconstruction of the contact surface, to compute the interface orientation in a three-material cell, the proposed method minimizes an error function that is based on volume fraction distribution around that cell. As an option, the minimization procedure also allows the user to impose a contact angle. Performance of the proposed method is assessed via both static and advection test cases. The tests show that the new method preserves the accuracy and mass-conserving property of the Youngs method in volume-tracking three materials.
Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles
Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André
2016-07-01
The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡贇; 刘少军; 丁晟; 廖雅诗
2015-01-01
In order to consider the effects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) on contact fatigue reliability of spur gear, an accurate and efficient method that combines with response surface method (RSM) and first order second moment method (FOSM) was developed for estimating the contact fatigue reliability of spur gear under EHL. The mechanical model of contact stress analysis of spur gear under EHL was established, in which the oil film pressure was mapped into hertz contact zone. Considering the randomness of EHL, material properties and fatigue strength correction factors, the proposed method was used to analyze the contact fatigue reliability of spur gear under EHL. Compared with the results of 1.5×105 by traditional Monte-Carlo, the difference between the two failure probability results calculated by the above mentioned methods is 2.2×10−4,the relative error of the failure probability results is 26.8%, and time-consuming only accounts for 0.14% of the traditional Monte-Carlo method (MCM). Sensitivity analysis results are in very good agreement with practical cognition. Analysis results show that the proposed method is precise and efficient, and could correctly reflect the influence of EHL on contact fatigue reliability of spur gear.
Development of a Constitutive Friction Law based on the Frictional Interaction of Rough Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Beyer
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Friction has a considerable impact in metal forming. This is in particular true for sheet-bulk metal-forming (SBMF in which local highly varying contact loads occur. A constitutive friction law suited to the needs of SBMF is necessary, if numerical investigations in SBMF are performed. The identification of the friction due to adhesion and ploughing is carried out with an elasto-plastic half-space model. The normal contact is verified for a broad range of normal loads. In addition, the model is used for the characterization of the occurring shear stress. Ploughing is determined by the work which is necessary to plastically deform the surface asperities of the new area that gets into contact during sliding. Furthermore, the surface patches of common half-space models are aligned orthogonally to the direction in which the surfaces approach when normal contact occurs. For a better reflection of the original surfaces, the element patches become inclined. This leads to a geometric share of lateral forces which also contribute to friction. Based on these effects, a friction law is derived which is able to predict the contact conditions especially for SBMF.
Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion.
Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay
2014-05-08
Frictional processes entail the rupture of the ensemble of discrete contacts defining a frictional interface. There are a variety of views on how best to describe the onset of dry frictional motion. These range from modelling friction with a single degree of freedom, a 'friction coefficient', to theoretical treatments using dynamic fracture to account for spatial and temporal dynamics along the interface. We investigated the onset of dry frictional motion by performing simultaneous high-speed measurements of the real contact area and the strain fields in the region surrounding propagating rupture tips within the dry (nominally flat) rough interfaces formed by brittle polymer blocks. Here we show that the transition from 'static' to 'dynamic' friction is quantitatively described by classical singular solutions for the motion of a rapid shear crack. We find that these singular solutions, originally derived to describe brittle fracture, are in excellent agreement with the experiments for slow propagation, whereas some significant discrepancies arise as the rupture velocity approaches the Rayleigh wave speed. In addition, the energy dissipated in the fracture of the contacts remains nearly constant throughout the entire range in which the rupture velocity is less than the Rayleigh wave speed, whereas the size of the dissipative zone undergoes a Lorentz-like contraction as the rupture velocity approaches the Rayleigh wave speed. This coupling between friction and fracture is critical to our fundamental understanding of frictional motion and related processes, such as earthquake dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. V. Tikhmenev
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present findings of the optical contact for details made of СО-115Мglass-ceramics brand mark. The optical contact is the main method of joining parts made of CO-115M glass-ceramics brand mark in commercially available laser gyros. The existing technology has a number of unresolved issues related to the durability of the optical contact, that determine the tightness of the laser sensor internal volume. Method. Mechanical strength control of the optical contact consisted in the measurement of specific tear force of the connection. Mechanical strength tests of the optical contact were carried out with the use of RMI-250 tensile testing machine. The evenly increasing load of 50 N/s was applied to the samples in mechanical tests. The value with the occurence of the optical contact destruction was registered. Main Results. We have shown that one of the main factors determining the mechanical strength of the joint is cleanliness of the surfaces being connected. Comparison of the influence of different surface cleaning methods for optical elements on the optical contact durability has been given. The negative impact of even short-term storage of optical parts after washing on the assembly strength has been shown. The additional operation of mechanical polishing of surfaces of stored optical parts before connection enabled significantly reducing the scatter of the optical contact mechanical strength. We have also established experimentally that the heating of assembly of optical elements under vacuum at a temperature of 300°C leads to the twofold increase in the optical contact strength, while the optical contact remains separable. Practical Relevance. The carried out studies make it possible to improve the technical and operational characteristics of the laser gyroes. The use of additional mechanical cleaning of surfaces of optical parts and vacuum heating of the assembly in the process of laser sensor production may
Modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control in Aboriginal communities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victoria J. Cook
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The Aboriginal communities in Canada are challenged by a disproportionate burden of TB infection and disease. Contact investigation (CI guidelines exist but these strategies do not take into account the unique social structure of different populations. Because of the limitations of traditional CI, new approaches are under investigation and include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping to better understand TB transmission. Guidelines for the routine use of network methods and other novel methodologies for TB CI and outbreak investigation do not exist despite the gathering evidence that these approaches can positively impact TB control efforts, even in Aboriginal communities. The feasibility and efficacy of these novel approaches to CI in Aboriginal communities requires further investigation. The successful integration of these novel methodologies will require community involvement, capacity building and ongoing support at every level. The outcome will not only be the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of CI data in high-burden communities to assess transmission but the prioritization of contacts who are candidates for treatment of LTBI which will break the cycle of transmission. Ultimately, the measure of success will be a clear and sustained decline in TB incidence in Aboriginal communities.
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real co...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data.......An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik
2016-01-01
modulus. Three different approaches have been used and compared for calibrating the Burger's contact model. Values of the dynamic modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting DE simulation under dynamic strain control loading. The excellent agreement between the predicted......In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional discrete element method. Combined with Burger's model, three contact models were used for the construction of constitutive asphalt mixture model with viscoelastic properties...... in the commercial software PFC3D, including the slip model, linear stiffness-contact model, and contact bond model. A macro-scale Burger's model was first established and the input parameters of Burger's contact model were calibrated by adjusting them so that the model fitted the experimental data for the complex...
1989-03-31
Rabinowicz [60]) the frictional resistence depends on the strength of *I 13 I I I I I 1S S I IxnI I - 2 I1s" J I S 1II I I I Figure 2.3: Rate dependence...much smaller than before the initiation of sliding, which would explain3 ( Rabinowicz [60]) the occurrence of coefficients of kinetic friction smaller...velocity in the ranges 10-10 to 10-4 cr/s and 10-0 to 10-cm/s, re- spectively, were obtained by Burwell and Rabinowicz [19]. For the same metal combinations
Lee, Gyu-Sun; Shin, Yun-Ha; Kim, Ji-Man; Kim, Tae-Sung; Lee, Young-Ze
2009-12-01
The pores on the surface function as an outlet for wear particles and enhance the storage of lubricants, which improves lubrication effectiveness. Mesoporous SiO2 thin films were formed by the sol-gel and self-assembly methods to have a porous structure. One of the important issues in the manufacturing of the films involves the control of the porous structure to ensure proper mechanical properties. Mesoporous materials were manufactured with two surfactants, Pluronid Polyol (F127) and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTABr). The pores were then exposed on the surface by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and plasma-etching. Ball-on-disk tests with mesoporous SiO2 thin films on glass specimens were conducted. The results show that the friction coefficient and wear volume of a specimen with F127, which has a 8 nm pore size, are far lower than those of CTABr, which has a 3 nm pore size at both the dry condition and at boundary lubricated condition. This proves a significant dependency of friction and wear on pore size of mesoporous SiO2 thin films.
Inverse analysis of water profile in starch by non-contact photopyroelectric method
Frandas, A.; Duvaut, T.; Paris, D.
2000-07-01
The photopyroelectric (PPE) method in a non-contact configuration was proposed to study water migration in starch sheets used for biodegradable packaging. A 1-D theoretical model was developed, allowing the study of samples having a water profile characterized by an arbitrary continuous function. An experimental setup was designed or this purpose which included the choice of excitation source, detection of signals, signal and data processing, and cells for conditioning the samples. We report here the development of an inversion procedure allowing for the determination of the parameters that influence the PPE signal. This procedure led to the optimization of experimental conditions in order to identify the parameters related to the water profile in the sample, and to monitor the dynamics of the process.
Method for estimating interfacial tensions and contact angles from sessile and pendant drop shapes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, C.; Reed, R.L.
1983-02-01
Optimal estimation techniques were developed for measurement of interfacial tensions and contact angles for multiphase microemulsion systems of the following types: (1) lower-phase microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil, (2) upper-phase microemulsion in equilbrium with excess brine, and (3) middle-phase microemulsion in equilibrium with excess brine and excess oil. The surfactant was the monoethanol amine salt of dodecyl o-xylene sulfonate mixed with a cosolvent of t-amyl alcohol in the ratio 63/67 by vol. The oil was a mixture of 90% paraffinic oil (Isopar M) and 10% heavy aromatic naphtha (by volume), and the brine was various concentrations of NaCl in distilled water. The method is applied to sessile drops, bubbles, and pendant configurations. 21 referernces.
Adaptive method for real-time gait phase detection based on ground contact forces.
Yu, Lie; Zheng, Jianbin; Wang, Yang; Song, Zhengge; Zhan, Enqi
2015-01-01
A novel method is presented to detect real-time gait phases based on ground contact forces (GCFs) measured by force sensitive resistors (FSRs). The traditional threshold method (TM) sets a threshold to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. However, TM is neither an adaptive nor real-time method. The threshold setting is based on body weight or the maximum and minimum GCFs in the gait cycles, resulting in different thresholds needed for different walking conditions. Additionally, the maximum and minimum GCFs are only obtainable after data processing. Therefore, this paper proposes a proportion method (PM) that calculates the sums and proportions of GCFs wherein the GCFs are obtained from FSRs. A gait analysis is then implemented by the proposed gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA). Finally, the PM reliability is determined by comparing the detection results between PM and TM. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed PM is highly reliable in all walking conditions. In addition, PM could be utilized to analyze gait phases in real time. Finally, PM exhibits strong adaptability to different walking conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohamed, Mohamed Ackiel [University Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Institute, Bandar Baru Bangi (Malaysia); Manurung, Yupiter HP; Berhan, Mohamed Nor [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)
2015-06-15
This study presents the effect of the governing parameters in friction stir welding (FSW) on the mechanical properties and weld quality of a 6mm thick 6061 T651 Aluminum alloy butt joint. The main FSW parameters, the rotational and traverse speed were optimized based on multiple mechanical properties and quality features, which focus on the tensile strength, hardness and the weld quality class using the multi-objective Taguchi method (MTM). Multi signal to noise ratio (MSNR) was employed to determine the optimum welding parameters for MTM while further analysis concerning the significant level determination was accomplished via the well-established analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the first order model for predicting the mechanical properties and weld quality class is derived by applying response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can effectively estimate the mechanical properties and weld quality class which can be used to enhance the welding performance in FSW or other applications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2015-01-01
Abstratc:Based on the static elastic-contact theory , a model to describe the mechanical contact between the roller and the race is established under misalignment and skewing conditions , and the fast Fourier transform ( FFT) and the conjugate gradient method are employed to obtain the elastic deformation and the contact stress , respectively . Then, the influences of different parameters on the contact stress distribution are analyzed .The results show that (1) at a constant skewing angle , both the misaligned load effect and the edge effect remarkably improve with the increase of the misalignment angle; (2) at a constant misaligned angle , the skewing phenomenon becomes more obvious with the increase of the skewing angle , and the misalignment angle helps to weaken the edge effect caused by the contact between the roller and the inner race , while the misaligned load effect and the skewing phenomenon both become worse when the roller is contacted with the outer race; and (3) with the increase of the length-to-dia-meter ratio, both the misaligned load effect and the skewing phenomenon become more obvious .In addition, a crowning design method considering both the misalignment and the skewing of the roller is presented to improve the anti-misalignment and anti-skewing ability of roller bearings .%根据静弹性接触理论，建立滚子与滚道同时存在偏斜和歪斜工况下的力学模型，并利用快速傅里叶变换（ FFT）求解其弹性变形，用共轭梯度法求解接触应力。通过分析各种工况参数对接触应力分布的影响发现：歪斜角一定时，随着偏斜角的增大，“偏斜效应”和“边缘效应”均变得更加明显；偏斜角一定时，“歪斜效应”随着歪斜角的增大而逐渐明显，且偏斜角能减弱滚子与内滚道接触产生的“边缘效应”，滚子则与外滚道接触产生更加严重的“偏斜效应”和“歪斜效应”；随着滚子长径比的增加，滚子与滚
Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per
1996-01-01
Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied. Ki...
Broitman, Esteban
2014-01-01
The Triboindenter present many advantages for the measurement of friction and wear at the nanoscale. A reciprocating multi-cycle linear test can be programmed, from where it is possible to obtain simultaneously the friction force and wear rate from the lateral force and vertical displacement sensors, respectively. The friction values have high precision but the wear data is usually wrong in long duration tests because the drift rate is only measured just before the test start. Alternatively, ...
Solution of dynamic contact problems by implicit/explicit methods. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salveson, M.W.; Taylor, R.L. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
1996-10-14
The solution of dynamic contact problems within an explicit finite element program such as the LLNL DYNA programs is addressed in the report. The approach is to represent the solution for the deformation of bodies using the explicit algorithm but to solve the contact part of the problem using an implicit approach. Thus, the contact conditions at the next solution state are considered when computing the acceleration state for each explicit time step.
Effect of friction and cohesion on anisotropy in quasi-static granular materials under shear
Singh, A.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan; R. Yang A. Yu, K. Dong
2013-01-01
We study the effect of particle friction and cohesion on the steady-state shear stress and the contact anisotropy of a granular assembly sheared in a split-bottom ring shear cell. For non-cohesive frictional materials, the critical state shear stress first increases and then saturates with friction.
Experimental investigation of friction coefficient in tube hydroforming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hyae Kyung YI; Hong Sup YIM; Gun Yeop LEE; Sung Mun LEE; Gi Suk CHUNG; Young-Hoon MOON
2011-01-01
The friction coefficient between tube and die in guide zone of tube hydroforming was obtained. In hydroforming, the tube is expanded by an internal pressure against the tool wall. By pushing the tube through tool, a friction force at the contact surface between the tube and the tool occurs. In guiding zone, the friction coefficients between tube and die can be estimated from the measured axial feeding forces. In expansion zone, the friction coefficients between tube and die can be evaluated from the measured geometries of expanded tubes and FE analysis.
Surface topography and contact mechanics of dry and wet human skin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander E. Kovalev
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The surface topography of the human wrist skin is studied by using optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM methods. By using these techniques the surface roughness power spectrum is obtained. The Persson contact mechanics theory is used to calculate the contact area for different magnifications, for the dry and wet skin. The measured friction coefficient between a glass ball and dry and wet skin can be explained assuming that a frictional shear stress σf ≈ 13 MPa and σf ≈ 5 MPa, respectively, act in the area of real contact during sliding. These frictional shear stresses are typical for sliding on surfaces of elastic bodies. The big increase in friction, which has been observed for glass sliding on wet skin as the skin dries up, can be explained as result of the increase in the contact area arising from the attraction of capillary bridges. Finally, we demonstrated that the real contact area can be properly defined only when a combination of both AFM and optical methods is used for power spectrum calculation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colorado, H. A.; Ghilarducci, A. A.; Salva, H. R.
2006-07-01
Two new models are proposed to determine the adhesion energy be means of the internal friction technique (IF) in thin films layered materials. for the first method is necessary to determine enthalpy by means of the IF technique, for which the adhesion work has been determined with experimental data. In the second method are necessary to perform IF tests at constant temperature. (Author)
Design and manufacture of intelligent Cu-based wet friction materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁华东; 韩文政; 傅苏黎; 杜建华; 遇元宏
2004-01-01
The friction sheets working process was analyzed. It is found that its characteristic is microregion instantaneous high temperature and the current cooling method, making the sheets cooled by the lubricating oil flowing through the friction surface, is not very efficient. Then, intelligent materials concept was introduced, the component and microstructure of intelligent Cu-based friction materials were designed, and the intelligent Cu-based wet friction materials as well as sheets were manufactured. And the intelligent friction materials working principle, i.e. the materials cooling the friction microregion in real time or the friction sheets cutting the peak value of microregion instantaneous high temperature during friction process, was given depending on the characteristics of the materials' and friction sheets' working process. Finally, it is indicated that the intelligent friction sheets excell the currently used friction sheets in properties, including anti-heating property, anti-wearing property as well as friction characteristic.
A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries
Mahady, Kyle; Kondic, Lou
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach to model the fluid/solid interaction forces of a general van der Waals type in a direct solver of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the volume of fluid interface tracking method. The key ingredient of the model is the explicit inclusion of the fluid/solid interaction forces into the governing equations. We show that the interaction forces lead to a partial wetting condition and in particular to a natural definition of an equilibrium contact angle. We present two numerical approaches for the discretization of the interaction forces that enter the model. These two approaches are found to be complementary in terms of convergence properties and complexity. To validate the computational framework, we consider the application of these models to simulate two-dimensional drops at equilibrium, as well as drop spreading. We find that the proposed methods can accurately describe the physics of the considered problems. In general, the model allows for the accurate treatment o...
Friction self-locking of the clamping cutting taper hole method%摩擦式自锁装夹切削锥形孔件的方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何端
2014-01-01
[Abstract]Friction-type self-locking clamping cutting,is one for the wal thickness is thinner, tapered bore and larger aperture pieces to get the appearance of smooth,no knives traces of inner and outer coaxial high,no deformation of the workpiece without pinching,high-productivity manufacturing method.%摩擦式自锁装夹切削，是一种针对壁厚较薄，而孔径较大的锥形孔件能获得外观光洁，无接刀痕迹，内外径同轴度高，工件无变形无夹伤，生产效率高的制造方法。
A Novel Friction Compensation Method Using Positive Torque Load%使用主动阻力矩的摩擦补偿新方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庄文许; 杨必武; 马大为; 孟庆爱; 张秀维
2012-01-01
Aiming at phenomena of Vibrations and stick-slip motions caused by friction in the rotating servosystem, a novel friction compensation method using positive torque load was proposed. The principle of which was, while the servosystem operated at low speed, by giving an additional torque load to compensate the system and improving gain factor of the servosystem controller, the sensitivity was reduced between the regulated output and friction torque load of the servo system. By using sensitivity equations and the stability law, this method was proved to be efficient. Based on the method, a compensation system, which used a magnetorheological detent as a core was designed. And it was used in a typical position control system, and a simulation model was established. The simulation results show that the peak value of the tracking error undulation under a given disturbance is reduced from 0.45° to 0. 025° by increasing the value of the positive torque from zero to as big as eight times of the given disturbance. The method was high real-time, and the disadvantage of system vibrating when using a high gain controller was conquered. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the phenomena of friction stick-slip motions and vibrations are rejected significantly by the compensation system.%针对旋转伺服系统中摩擦造成低速爬行和振荡现象,提出使用主动阻力矩进行摩擦补偿的方法,其原理是当伺服系统低速运行时,通过补偿系统主动增加负载阻力矩,并提高伺服系统控制器增益系数来降低系统输出调节量对摩擦力矩的灵敏度,应用灵敏度方程和稳定性理论证明了该方法的有效性.基于该方法设计了以磁流变制动器为核心的补偿系统,并将其应用于典型位置控制系统,建立仿真模型,仿真结果显示,在给定干扰力矩作用下,从零增加主动阻力矩至与干扰力矩数值比达到8时,跟踪误差波动幅值从0.45°降低至0
A mixed finite element method for the unilateral contact problem in elasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, we provide a new mixed finite element approximation of the variational inequality resulting from the unilateral contact problem in elasticity. We use the continuous piecewise P2-P1 finite element to approximate the displacement field and the normal stress component on the contact region. Optimal convergence rates are obtained under the reasonable regularity hypotheses. Numerical example verifies our results.
Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.
2017-01-01
Contact angle measurements are a fast and simple way to measure surface properties and is therefore widely used to measure surface energy and quantify wetting of a solid surface by a liquid substance. In common praxis contact angle measurements are done with sessile drops on a horizontal surface ...
Modélisation du soudage d'alliages d'aluminium par friction et malaxage
Bastier, Arnaud
2006-01-01
The purpose of this work is to establish a reliable computational method for the simulation of friction stir welding. The numerical simulation consists of two successive steps.First, a thermohydrodynamic model based on a viscous incompressible non-Newtonian constitutive law is used to establish the temperature field and the material flow around the tool. To this end, two coefficients related to the contact description have been determined by an optimisation procedure using experimental data o...
A novel synthesis method for large-area MoS2 film with improved electrical contact
Song, Xiongfei; Zan, Wu; Xu, Hu; Ding, Shijin; Zhou, Peng; Bao, Wenzhong; Zhang, David Wei
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) are radically different from conventional bulk semiconductors, and major challenges in achieving practical 2DLM devices with good performance lie in the areas of improving the electrical contacts that connect 2DLMS with electrodes rather than in improving the quality of the channel material itself. To meet this challenge, we have devised a promising large-scale synthesis method for few-layer MoS2 film integrated with unique fabrication process that provides good contact. A thin layer of Mo was first deposited using sputtering evaporation and defined by a shadow mask, instead of immediate sulfurization in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Au contact electrodes were then deposited on Mo, followed by further sulfurization, which readily provides source-drain electrodes for synthesized MoS2. Top-gated transistors based on such MoS2 film show improved device performance compared to transistors fabricated using the traditional method. The transfer line method was further applied to verify that the proposed method could effectively decrease the contact resistance by more than 10 times, which can be attributed to the incomplete sulfurization of Mo atoms beneath the Au electrodes. It is envisioned that the proposed method could eventually be used to provide uniform and low contact resistance for CVD-grown 2DLM devices.
Friction Properties of Bio-mimetic Nano-fibrillar Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Shao-Hua; MI Chun-Hui
2009-01-01
Nano-fibrillar arrays are fabricated using polystyrene materials. The average diameter of each fiber is about 300 nm.Experiments show that such a fibrillar surface possesses a relatively hydrophobic feature with a water contact angle of 142°.Nanoscale friction properties are mainly focused on.It is found that the friction force of polystyrene nano-fibrillar surfaces is obviously enhanced in contrast to polystyrene smooth surfaces.The apparent coefficient of friction increases with the applied load, but is independent of the scanning speed.An interesting observation is that the friction force increases almost linearly with the real contact area, which abides by the fundamental Bowden-Tabor law of nano-scale friction.
Shu, Xuedao; Li, Lianpeng; Hu, Zhenghuan
2005-12-01
Contact surface of cross-wedge rolling is a complicated space surface and distribution rule of contact surface stress is very complicated. So far, its analyzed result was still based on slippery line method. Designing mould and actual production mainly depend on experiential factor. Application and development of cross-wedge rolling was baffled seriously. Based on the forming characteristics of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape, the ANSYS/DYNA software was developed secondly on the basis of itself, and the corresponding command program was compiled. Rolling process of cross-wedge rolling with flat wedge-shape was simulated successfully. Through simulation, space surface shape of contact surface was achieved, and distribution rule of contact surface stress was analyzed detailed and obtained. The results provide important theoretical foundation for avoiding appearing bug on surface of rolled part, instructing to design cross-wedge mould and confirming force and energy parameter.
Velocity tuning of friction with two trapped atoms
Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Jhe, Wonho; Vuletić, Vladan
2015-01-01
Friction is the basic, ubiquitous mechanical interaction between two surfaces that results in resistance to motion and energy dissipation. In spite of its technological and economic significance, our ability to control friction remains modest, and our understanding of the microscopic processes incomplete. At the atomic scale, mismatch between the two contacting crystal lattices can lead to a reduction of stick-slip friction (structural lubricity), while thermally activated atomic motion can give rise to a complex velocity dependence, and nearly vanishing friction at sufficiently low velocities (thermal lubricity). Atomic force microscopy has provided a wealth of experimental results, but limitations in the dynamic range, time resolution, and control at the single-atom level have hampered a full quantitative description from first principles. Here, using an ion-crystal friction emulator with single-atom, single substrate-site spatial resolution and single-slip temporal resolution, we measure the friction force...
Network-Configurations of Dynamic Friction Patterns
Ghaffari, H O
2012-01-01
The complex configurations of dynamic friction patterns-regarding real time contact areas- are transformed into appropriate networks. With this transformation of a system to network space, many properties can be inferred about the structure and dynamics of the system. Here, we analyze the dynamics of static friction, i.e. nucleation processes, with respect to "friction networks". We show that networks can successfully capture the crack-like shear ruptures and possible corresponding acoustic features. We found that the fraction of triangles remarkably scales with the detachment fronts. There is a universal power law between nodes' degree and motifs frequency (for triangles, it reads T(k)\\proptok{\\beta} ({\\beta} \\approx2\\pm0.4)). We confirmed the obtained universality in aperture-based friction networks. Based on the achieved results, we extracted a possible friction law in terms of network parameters and compared it with the rate and state friction laws. In particular, the evolutions of loops are scaled with p...