WorldWideScience

Sample records for frictional contact interfaces

  1. On the Modeling of Contact Interfaces with Frictional Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Munteanu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the contact interfaces between the scatterers and the matrix into the sonic composites, in the presence of the frictional slips. The sonic composite is a sonic liner designed in order to provide suppression of unwanted noise for jet engines, with emphases on the nacelle of turbofan engines for commercial aircraft.

  2. Friction Behavior on Contact Interface of Linear Ultrasonic Motor with Hard Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jinpeng; Zhou Hongping; Jin Jiamei; Zhao Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    How to improve the efficiency of the linear ultrasonic motor with hard contact materials (HLUSM ) or the precision motion stage driven by HLUSM ,becomes a hot issue .Analysis and testing of friction behavior on the contact interface of HLUSM is one of the key issues .Under the action of ultrasonic vibration and impact ,the fric-tion behavior on contact interface is very complex due to micro-amplitude and high frequency .Moreover ,it is diffi-cult to observe and test it .Focusing on the frictional behavior on the interface of HLUSM ,a new method ,through testing the vibration of the driving tips (scanning vibrometer PSV-400-3D) and the motion of the slider (displace-ment sensor LK-G30) ,respectively ,is proposed .Then ,take the HLUSM as an example ,theoretical analyses and experiments are carried out .Theoretical analysis shows that the average speed of the slider should be 600 mm/s when there is no slippage between the stator and slider during the contact process .Experimental results show that the average speed of the slider is about 390 mm/s .At the same time ,the tangential vibration speed of the driving tip of HLUSM is larger than 600 mm/s .Therefore ,there must be slippage between the stator and slider of HLUSM .Further experimental results show that the maximum efficiency is less than 10% .The slippage on the contact interface should be the main reason for the low efficiency of HLUSM .

  3. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John

    2003-01-01

    generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... a known contact condition at the contact interface, e.g. either as pure sliding or sticking. The present model uses Coulomb’s law of friction for the sliding condition and the material yield shear stress for the sticking condition to model the contact forces. The model includes heat generation...

  4. Modeling for thermal contact resistance of frictional interface under high temperature and high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛利华; 李晓谦; 胡仕成; 曹俊

    2002-01-01

    According to the thermodynamic characteristics in the work interface of the plastic forming of metals, a set of TCR (thermal contact resistance) experimental system under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure has been designed. The interrelations between the thermal contact resistance (TCR) and its influence factors such as contact pressure etc, are obtained. A modified coefficient E is introduced to consider the relative slide in the contact interface. Then the interfacial TCR calculating model, which suits to the special conditions of ‘high temperature+plastic rheology' and frictional contact such as continuous roll casting process, is established.

  5. Modelling of the Contact Condition at the Tool/Matrix Interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper; Wert, John

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the heat generation and contact condition during Friction Stir Welding (FSW). For this purpose, an analytical model is developed for the heat generation and this is combined with a Eulerian FE-analysis of the temperature field. The heat...... generation is closely related to the friction condition at the contact interface between the FSW tool and the weld piece material as well as the material flow in the weld matrix, since the mechanisms for heat generation by frictional and plastic dissipation are different. The heat generation from the tool...... is governed by the contact condition, i.e. whether there is sliding, sticking or partial sliding/sticking. The contact condition in FSW is complex (dependent on alloy, welding parameters, tool design etc.), and previous models (both analytical and numerical) for simulation of the heat generation assume...

  6. Influence of Friction Interface Contact on Ultrasonic Motor Efficiency Under Static Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yifeng; ZhangWu; XiaoAiwu; Zhu Meng; Pan Yunhua; Zhang Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    The friction interface matching plays a deterministic role in the motor efficiency ,and the microcosmic contact status of friction interface should be investigated to improve the ultrasonic motor performance .The main purpose is to improve the effective output power of ultrasonic motor .Hence ,one studies the contact condition of the friction interface of the ultrasonic motor ,analyzes the micro condition of contact interface through finite ele-ment analysis ,optimizes unreasonable structures ,and compares the two different-structure ultrasonic motors through experiments .The results reflect the necessity of optimization .After optimization ,the stator and rotor de-form after pre-pressure and the contact interface of them full contact theoretically .When reaching heat balance the effective output of the motor is 37% ,and the average effective output efficiency is 2 .384 times higher than that of the unoptimized .It can be seen that the total consumption of the ultrasonic motor system decreases significantly . Therefore ,when using in certain system the consumption taken from the system will decreases largely ,especially in the system with a strict consumption control .

  7. The Effects of Contact Interface on the Friction Characteristics of Self-assembly Monolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui-chen; GAOYu-zhou; YANLi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different contact interfaces on the friction characteristics of OTS self-assembled monolayers were investigated by a universal micro-tribometer in different sliding velocities. The results indicate that there exist lower friction coefficients between OTS SAMs and Ti, Ni and Cu films deposited on GCrl5 steel balls than those between OTS SAMs and GCr15 steel ball. The friction coefftcient between OTS SAMs and Ti film is the largest, and the friction coefficient between OTS SAMs and Cu film is the least in these three films, which depends the iatrinsic characteristics of the materials. The friction coefficients between OTS SAMs and GCrI5 steel balland three nanometer films increase with the sliding velachy increasing, which can be explained by the relaxationcharacteristics of OTS molecules.

  8. CONTACT FRICTION ANALYSIS AND STRESS OSCILLATION SUPPRESSION WITH A SIMPLE INTERFACE ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiaoyan

    2000-01-01

    A simple interface element for analyzing contact friction problems is developed. Taking nodal displacements and contact stresses as unknowns, this element can simulate frictional slippage, decoupling and re-bonding of two bodies initially mating or having gaps at a common interface. The method is based on the Finite Element Method and load incremental theory. The geometric and static constraint conditions on contact surfaces are treated as additional conditions and are included in stiffness equations. This simple element has the advantages of easy implementation into standard finite element programs and fast speed for conv ergence as well as high accuracy for stress distribution in interface. Undesirable stress oscillations are also investigated whenever large stress gradients exist over the contact surfaces. Exact integration or the conventional Gauss integration scheme used to evaluate the interpolation function matrix of the interface element is found to be the source of the oscillations. Eigenmode analysis demonstrates that the stress behavior of an interface element can be improved by using the Newton-Cotes integration scheme. Finally, the test example of a strip footing problem is presented.

  9. Dynamic contact with friction of an ultra-low flying head-disk interface with thermal protrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, A.I.; Lee, S.-C.; Polycarpou, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic two-degree-of-freedom contact with friction model of the head-disk interface (HDI) is presented accounting for slider thermal protrusion and its influence on the HDI dynamics. Using this model, which includes roughness, the applied power to the thermal protrusion is calculated that leads t

  10. Swing Friction Behavior of the Contact Interface Between CoCrMo and UHMWPE Under Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang; Qi, Jianwei

    2016-12-01

    CoCrMo alloy and UHMWPE have been widely used in knee joint prosthesis implantation materials. In this paper, swing friction behavior of the contact interface between CoCrMo alloy and UHMWPE is studied under dynamic loading. Swing friction characteristic and damage mechanism are discussed. The results show that swing friction coefficients increase with the rising of maximum normal load and swing angular amplitude. Unloading-standing could play alleviative roles in friction and wear to a large degree. As the cycle number gradually increases, the surface roughness of UHMWPE decreases, while the roughness of CoCrMo increases. During the swing friction, the main damage mechanism of CoCrMo is abrasive wear and the main damage mechanisms of UHMWPE are abrasive wear, fatigue wear and plastic deformation. Besides, it is easier to generate surface damages with small angle and heavy load.

  11. On the Effect of Counterface Materials on Interface Temperature and Friction Coefficient of GFRE Composite Under Dry Sliding Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S.M. El-Tayeb

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increase interest in polymeric composite materials for high-performance in many industrial applications. In other words, the tribo-studies on polymeric materials are growing fast to enhance the polymeric products such as bearings, seals, ring and bushes. The current work presents an attempt to study the correlation between the type of counterface material and frictional heating at the interface surfaces for different, normal loads (23N, 49N and 72N, sliding velocities (0.18, 1.3 and 5.2 m sˉ1 and interval time (0-720 sec. Sliding friction experiments are performed on a pin-on-ring (POR tribometer under dry contact condition. Interface temperature and friction force were measured simultaneously during sliding of glass fiber reinforced epoxy (GFRE composite against three different counter face materials, hardened steel (HS, cast iron (CI and Aluminum alloy (Al. Experimental results showed that the type of counterface material greatly influences both interface temperature and friction coefficient. Higher temperature and friction coefficient were evident when sliding took place against HS surface, compared to sliding against CI and Al under same condition. When sliding took place against HS, the friction coefficient of GFRE composite was about an order of magnitude higher than sliding the GFRE composite against the other counter face materials. Based on the optical microscope graphs, the friction and induced temperature results of GFRE composite are analyzed and discussed.

  12. Static friction in elastic adhesive MEMS contacts, models and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Gui, C.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    Static friction in shearing mode can be expressed as the product of the shear strength of the interface and the real contact area. The influence of roughness on friction in elastic adhesive contact is analyzed. Special attention is paid to low loading conditions, in which the number of contact

  13. On the Effect of Counterface Materials on Interface Temperature and Friction Coefficient of GFRE Composite Under Dry Sliding Contact

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. M. EL-TAYEB; B. F. Yousif; P. V. Brevern

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increase interest in polymeric composite materials for high-performance in many industrial applications. In other words, the tribo-studies on polymeric materials are growing fast to enhance the polymeric products such as bearings, seals, ring and bushes. The current work presents an attempt to study the correlation between the type of counterface material and frictional heating at the interface surfaces for different, normal loads (23N, 49N and 72N), sliding velocities (...

  14. Frictional heating of tribological contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johannes

    1995-01-01

    Wherever friction occurs, mechanical energy is transformed into heat. The tem­ perature rise associated with this heating can have an important influence on the tribological behaviour of the contacting components. Apart from determining per­ formance, thermal phenomena affect reliability and may cau

  15. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  16. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Li; Ken Mao

    2013-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented us...

  17. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented using finite element method. Nonlinear finite element model for gear tooth contact with rolling/sliding is then developed. The contact zones for multiple tooth pairs are identified and the associated integration situation is derived. The illustrated bending stress and transmission error results with static and dynamic boundary conditions indicate the significant effects due to the sliding friction between the surfaces of contacted gear teeth, and the friction effect can not be ignored. To understand the particular static and dynamic frictional effects on gear tooth contact analysis, some significant phenomena of gained results will also be discussed. The potentially significant contribution of tooth frictional shear stress is presented, particularly in the case of gear tooth contact analysis with both static and dynamic boundary conditions.

  18. Simulating frictional contact in smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jian; WU; Hao; GU; ChongShi; HUA; Hui

    2013-01-01

    Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a powerful tool for large deformation computation of soil flow. However, the method to simulate frictional contact in the framework of SPH is still absent and needs to be developed. This paper presents an algorithm to simulate frictional contact between soil and rigid or deformable structure in the framework of SPH. In this algo-rithm, the computational domain is divided into several sub-domains according to the existing contact boundaries, and contact forces are used as bridges of these sub-domains to fulfill problem solving. In the process of the SPH discretization for govern-ing equation of each sub-domain, the inherent problem of boundary deficiency of SPH is handled properly. Therefore, the par-ticles located at contact boundary can have precise acceleration, which is critical for contact detection. Then, based on the as-sumption that the SPH particle of soil can slightly penetrate into the structure, the contact forces along normal and tangential directions of the contact surface are computed by momentum principle, and the frictional force is modified if sliding occurs.Compared with previous methods, in which only particle-to-particle contact is considered or frictional sliding is just ignored,the method proposed in this study is more efficient and accurate, and is suitable for simulating interaction between soft materi-als and rigid or deformable structures, which are very common in geotechnical engineering. A number of numerical tests have been carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the proposed algorithm, and the results have been compared with ana-lytical solutions or FEM results. The consistency obtained from these comparisons indicates that the algorithm is robust and can enhance the computing capability of SPH.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Stiffness, Friction and Adhesion in Mechanical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    displacements in the plane is performed. Forces can then be calculated by multiplying by a precalculated Greens function for each wave vector q and...that contacts could advance through propagation of dislocations across the interface rather than uniform sliding. The Burgers vector of the...College London, Dec. 9, 2010 13) "Friction forces from atomic to macroscopic scales," XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Iguassu

  20. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  1. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  2. Friction and Shear Strength at the Nanowire–Substrate Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The friction and shear strength of nanowire (NW–substrate interfaces critically influences the electrical/mechanical performance and life time of NW-based nanodevices. Yet, very few reports on this subject are available in the literature because of the experimental challenges involved and, more specifically no studies have been reported to investigate the configuration of individual NW tip in contact with a substrate. In this letter, using a new experimental method, we report the friction measurement between a NW tip and a substrate for the first time. The measurement was based on NW buckling in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. The coefficients of friction between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were found to be 0.09–0.12 and 0.10–0.15, respectively. The adhesion between a NW and the substrate modified the true contact area, which affected the interfacial shear strength. Continuum mechanics calculation found that interfacial shear strengths between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were 134–139 MPa and 78.9–95.3 MPa, respectively. This method can be applied to measure friction parameters of other NW–substrate systems. Our results on interfacial friction and shear strength could have implication on the AFM three-point bending tests used for nanomechanical characterisation.

  3. PROGRAM-PATTERN MULTIPOLE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD FOR FRICTIONAL CONTACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chunxiao; Shen Guangxian; Liu Deyi

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical program is proposed for the highly nonlinear problem involving frictional contact. A program-pattern using the fast multipole boundary element method (FMBEM) is given for 3-D elastic contact with friction to replace the Monte Carlo method. A new optimized generalized minimal residual (GMRES) algorithm is presented. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the program-pattern optimization model for node-to-surface contact with friction. The GMRES algorithm greatly improves the computational efficiency.

  4. Mathematical Programming Solution for the Frictional Contact Multipole BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chunxiao; SHEN Guangxian; LIU Deyi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new mathematical model for the highly nonlinear problem of frictional contact. A programming model, multipole boundary element method (BEM), was developed for 3-D elastic contact with friction to replace the Monte Carlo method. A numerical example shows that the optimization programming model for the point-to-surface contact with friction and the fast optimization generalized minimal residual algorithm (GMRES(m)) significantly improve the analysis of such problems relative to the conventional BEM.

  5. Friction of viscoelastic elastomers with rough surfaces under torsional contact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Miguel; Fretigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    Frictional properties of contacts between a smooth viscoelastic rubber and rigid surfaces are investigated using a torsional contact configuration where a glass lens is continuously rotated on the rubber surface. From the inversion of the displacement field measured at the surface of the rubber, spatially resolved values of the steady state frictional shear stress are determined within the nonhomogeneous pressure and velocity fields of the contact. For contacts with a smooth lens, a velocity-dependent but pressure-independent local shear stress is retrieved from the inversion. On the other hand, the local shear stress is found to depend on both velocity and applied contact pressure when a randomly rough (sand-blasted) glass lens is rubbed against the rubber surface. As a result of changes in the density of microasperity contacts, the amount of light transmitted by the transparent multicontact interface is observed to vary locally as a function of both contact pressure and sliding velocity. Under the assumption that the intensity of light transmitted by the rough interface is proportional to the proportion of area into contact, it is found that the local frictional stress can be expressed experimentally as the product of a purely velocity-dependent term, k(v), by a term representing the pressure and velocity dependence of the actual contact area, A/A0. A comparison between k(v) and the frictional shear stress of smooth contacts suggests that nanometer scale dissipative processes occurring at the interface predominate over viscoelastic dissipation at microasperity scale.

  6. The friction behavior of semiconductors Si and GaAs in contact with pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, H.

    1984-01-01

    The friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals was studied. Five transition and two nontransition metals, titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, and silver, slid on a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Four metals, indium, nickel, copper and silver, slid on a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Experiments were conducted in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 7th power N/sq cm (10 to the minus 9th power torr). The results indicate that the sliding of silicon on the transition metals exhibits relatively higher friction than for the nontransition metals in contact with silicon. There is a clear correlation between friction and Schottky barrier height formed at the metal silicon interface for the transition metals. Transition metals with a higher barrier height on silicon had a lower friction. The same effect of barrier height was found for the friction of gallium arsenide in contact with metals.

  7. Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZengHui Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model was established based on the theoretical analysis, and influences of different preload pressures and elastic modulus Em of friction layer on output performance were analyzed. The results showed the simulation results had very good consistency with experimental results, and the model could well reflect the output characteristics of contact interface.

  8. Simulation of Strip Rolling Using Elastoplastic Contact BEM With Friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-gui; HUANG Qing-xue; SHEN Guang-xian; XIAO Hong; PANG Si-qin; WANG Jian-mei

    2008-01-01

    With rollers as elastic bodies and workpieces as elastoplastic bodies, the rolling problem can be viewed as a friction elastic-plastic contact problem. With fewer assumptions in the simulation of strip-rolling process, a boundary element method (BEM) for two-dimensional elastoplastic finite strain and finite deformation analysis of contact problems with friction was presented. All the equations for contact problems, which include multi-nonlinearities, were obtained. Incremental and iterative procedures were used to find contact pressure and friction stress. Moreover, initial strain rate algorithm and work-hardening material behavior can be assumed in the plastic analysis. Several examples were presented, and the results of contact pressure and friction stress were in excellent agreement with those of analysis.

  9. Contact mechanics, friction and adhesion with application to quasicrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Bo; Carbone, Giuseppe; Samoilov, Vladimir N.;

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the origin of friction and adhesion between hard solids such as quasicrystals. We emphasize the fundamental role of surface roughness in many contact mechanics problems, in particular for friction and adhesion between solid bodies. The most important property of rough surfaces is the s...

  10. Effects of water-vapor on friction and deformation of polymeric magnetic media in contact with a ceramic oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity (water-vapor) in nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite spherical pin were studied. The coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. In elastic contacts the coefficient of friction increased linearly with increasing humidity; it decreased linearly when humidity was lowered. This effect is the result of changes in the chemistry and interaction of tape materials such as degradation of the lubricant. In plastic contacts there was no effect of humidity on friction below 40 percent relative humidity. There is no effect on friction associated with the breakthrough of the adsorbed water-vapor film at the interface of the tape and Ni-Zn ferrite. The coefficient of friction, however, increased rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent in plastic contacts.

  11. Molecular dynamics investigation of the effect of copper nanoparticle on the solid contact between friction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengzhi; Bai, Minli; Lv, Jizu; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaojie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of copper (Cu) nanoparticles on the solid contact between friction surfaces by applying a molecular dynamics method to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the favorable friction properties of nanoparticles. Two models were built, which were named model A (without Cu) and model B (with Cu), respectively. The differences in the mechanical properties between these two models were compared. The simulation results demonstrated that the improvement in friction properties by Cu nanoparticles was more obvious at low velocity than at high velocity. At low velocity, a Cu nano-film was formed on the friction surface, which accommodated the velocity gradient and plastic deformation. Due to the good lubrication effect of the nano-film, the plastic deformation, defect structures and friction force of model B were improved compared with model A. Under high velocity conditions, a transfer layer appeared adjacent to the interface in both models. Because of this, the friction forces of the two models decreased with increased velocity. The fluid mechanics theory was used to explain why the friction force in model B was lower than that in model A at high velocity. The effect of the load on friction properties was also analyzed and the results showed that the mechanisms of anti-wear and friction reduction by Cu nanoparticles under a low load were the same as those under a high load.

  12. Dry frictional contact of metal asperities : A dislocation dynamics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Fengwei; van der Giessen, Erik; Nicola, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Discrete dislocation plasticity simulations are performed to investigate the static frictional behavior of a metal asperity on a large single crystal, in contact with a rigid platen. The focus of this study is on understanding the relative importance of contact slip opposed to plasticity in a single

  13. Solution procedure of dynamical contact problems with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2017-07-01

    Dynamical contact is one of the common research topics because of its wide applications in the engineering field. The main goal of this work is to develop a time-stepping algorithm for dynamic contact problems. We propose a finite element approach for elastodynamics contact problems [1]. Sticking, sliding and frictional contact can be taken into account. Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce non-penetration condition. For the time discretization, we propose a scheme equivalent to the explicit Newmark scheme. Each time step requires solving a nonlinear problem similar to a static friction problem. The nonlinearity of the system of equation needs an iterative solution procedure based on Uzawa's algorithm [2][3]. The applicability of the algorithm is illustrated by selected sample numerical solutions to static and dynamic contact problems. Results obtained with the model have been compared and verified with results from an independent numerical method.

  14. Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel-concrete interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Raous, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The interface behaviour between steel and concrete, during pull-out tests, is numerically investigated using an interface model coupling adhesion and Coulomb friction. This model, first developed by Raous, Cang\\'emi, Cocou and Monerie (RCCM), is based on the adhesion intensity variable, introduced by Fr\\'emond, which is a surface damage variable. The RCCM model is here completed by taking a variable friction coefficient to simulate the slip weakening of the interface when sliding occurs. Identification of the parameters and validation of the model are carried on pull out experiments conducted at the INSA of Toulouse on steel-concrete interface of reinforced concrete.

  15. Modelling thermomechanical conditions at the tool/matrix interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding the material flow is among others controlled by the contact condition at the tool interface, the thermomechanical state of the matrix and the welding parameters. The conditions under which the deposition process is successful are not fully understood and in most models...... presented previously in literature, the modelling of the material flow at the tool interface has been prescribed as boundary conditions, i.e. the material is forced to keep contact with the tool. The objective of the present work is to analyse the thermomechanical conditions under which a consolidated weld...... frictional and plastic dissipation. Of special interest is the contact condition along the shoulder/matrix and probe/matrix interfaces, as especially the latter affects the efficiency of the deposition process. The thermo-mechanical state in the workpiece is established by modelling both the dwell and weld...

  16. Modelling thermomechanical conditions at the tool/matrix interface in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In friction stir welding the material flow is among others controlled by the contact condition at the tool interface, the thermomechanical state of the matrix and the welding parameters. The conditions under which the deposition process is successful are not fully understood and in most models...... frictional and plastic dissipation. Of special interest is the contact condition along the shoulder/matrix and probe/matrix interfaces, as especially the latter affects the efficiency of the deposition process. The thermo-mechanical state in the workpiece is established by modelling both the dwell and weld...... presented previously in literature, the modelling of the material flow at the tool interface has been prescribed as boundary conditions, i.e. the material is forced to keep contact with the tool. The objective of the present work is to analyse the thermomechanical conditions under which a consolidated weld...

  17. Implicit frictional-contact model for soft particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamabadi, Saeid; Radjai, Farhang; Averseng, Julien; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a novel numerical approach for the simulation of soft particles interacting via frictional contacts. This approach is based on an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method, allowing for large particle deformations, combined with the Contact Dynamics method for the treatment of unilateral frictional contacts between particles. This approach is both precise due to the treatment of contacts with no regularization and artificial damping parameters, and robust due to implicit time integration of both bulk degrees of freedom and relative contact velocities at the nodes representing the contact points. By construction, our algorithm is capable of handling arbitrary particle shapes and deformations. We illustrate this approach by two simple 2D examples: a Hertz contact and a rolling particle on an inclined plane. We also investigate the compaction of a packing of circular particles up to a solid fraction well above the jamming limit of hard particles. We find that, for the same level of deformation, the solid fraction in a packing of frictional particles is above that of a packing of frictionless particles as a result of larger particle shape change.

  18. Frictional action at lower limb/prosthetic socket interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Turner-Smith, A R; Roberts, V C; Tanner, A

    1996-04-01

    The frictional action at stump/socket interface is discussed by a simplified model and finite element model analyses and clinical pressure measurements. The friction applied to the stump skin produces stresses within tissue and these stresses may damage the tissues and affect their normal functions. The combination of normal and shear stresses is considered to be a critical factor leading to amputee's discomfort and tissue damage. However, friction at the stump/socket interface has a beneficial action. A simplified residual limb model and a finite element model using real geometry have been developed to analyse the support action of friction. Both results show that the friction plays a critical role both in supporting the load of the amputee's body during the support phase of the gait cycle and in preventing the prosthesis from slipping off the limb during swing phase. Pressure at the below-knee socket during walking were measured with conditions of different friction. The results reveal that a larger pressures was produced at the lubricated interface than at the normal interface. A proper choice of coefficient of friction will balance the requirements of relief of load stress and reduction of slip with the general ability to support loads.

  19. Plasticity under rough surface contact and friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the plastic behavior of rough metal surfaces under contact loading. Attention in this thesis focuses on the study of single and multiple asperities with micrometer scale dimensions, a scale at which plasticity is known to be si

  20. Scale dependence of interface dislocation storage governing the frictional sliding of single asperities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yanfei

    2016-08-01

    Single-asperity friction tests have found a critical dependence of friction stress on the nanoscale contact size, as successfully explained by the nucleation of interface dislocations as opposed to concurrent sliding of all the interfacial atoms in contact. Modeling and simulation results, however, vary when the motion and interactions of multiple dislocations dominate at a larger scale regime. A Rice-Peierls framework is employed to investigate the multiplication and storage of interface dislocations, and the critical conditions for dislocation initiation and steady-state gliding are determined numerically. Our findings identify the key parameters that govern various friction mechanisms in the Hurtado-Kim and Deshpande-Needleman-van der Giessen models.

  1. Friction-induced vibrations and self-organization mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of sliding contact

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechani

  2. Static Coefficient of Rolling Friction at High Contact Temperatures and Various Contact Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tadić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically and experimentally analyzes the influence of increased temperature and load contact in the value of the coefficient of rolling friction. Theoretical analyzes show that at temperatures of the order of 200 0C, exist thermal potential necessary to narrow contact zone leads to a redistribution of the contact pressure and an increase in torque performance. Based on the measurement results, established the regression coefficient of friction depending on the temperature, normal load and geometry parameters of contact elements (radius of curvature of the contact elements. Material of examination contact pairs is steel ASTM A-295 hardness 64-66 HRC. The measurement results indicate a very significant impact on the temperature coefficient of friction, normal load and contact geometry (the radius of curvature of the contact elements. According to the authors future research should focus on optimizing the choice of materials that under the given conditions of mechanical and thermal load of contact to ensure a minimum value of the coefficient of rolling friction.

  3. Frictional behavior of carbon fiber tows: a contact mechanics model of tow–tow friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; Rooij, de Matthijn B.; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Composite-forming processes involve mechanical interactions at the ply, tow, and filament level. The deformations that occur during forming processes are governed by friction between the contacting tows on the mesoscopic level and consequently between filaments on the microscopic level. A thorough u

  4. Method of dimensionality reduction in contact mechanics and friction

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Valentin L

    2015-01-01

    This book describes for the first time a simulation method for the fast calculation of contact properties and friction between rough surfaces in a complete form. In contrast to existing simulation methods, the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR) is based on the exact mapping of various types of three-dimensional contact problems onto contacts of one-dimensional foundations. Within the confines of MDR, not only are three dimensional systems reduced to one-dimensional, but also the resulting degrees of freedom are independent from another. Therefore, MDR results in an enormous reduction of the development time for the numerical implementation of contact problems as well as the direct computation time and can ultimately assume a similar role in tribology as FEM has in structure mechanics or CFD methods, in hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it substantially simplifies analytical calculation and presents a sort of “pocket book edition” of the entirety contact mechanics. Measurements of the rheology of bodies in...

  5. Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Vahid

    The field of friction-induced self-organization and its practical importance remains unknown territory to many tribologists. Friction is usually thought of as irreversible dissipation of energy and deterioration; however, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in-situ tribofilms and various patterns at the interface. This thesis studies self-organization and instabilities at the frictional interface, including the instability due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction, the transient process of frictional running-in, frictional Turing systems, the stick-and-slip phenomenon, and, finally, contact angle (CA) hysteresis as an example of solid-liquid friction and dissipation. All these problems are chosen to bridge the gap between fundamental interest in understanding the conditions leading to self-organization and practical motivation. We study the relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization. Friction is usually thought of as a stabilizing factor; however, sometimes it leads to the instability of sliding, in particular when friction is coupled with another process. Instabilities constitute the main mechanism for pattern formation. At first, a stationary structure loses its stability; after that, vibrations with increasing amplitude occur, leading to a limit cycle corresponding to a periodic pattern. The self-organization is usually beneficial for friction and wear reduction because the tribological systems tend to enter a state with the lowest energy dissipation. The introductory chapter starts with basic definitions related to self-organization, instabilities and friction, literature review, and objectives. We discuss fundamental concepts that provide a methodological tool to investigate, understand and enhance beneficial processes in tribosystems which might lead to self-organization. These processes could result in the ability of a

  6. Contact mechanics and friction physical principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Valentin L

    2017-01-01

    This application-oriented book introduces readers to the associations and relationships between contact mechanics and friction, providing them with a deeper understanding of tribology. It addresses the related phenomena of contacts, adhesion, capillary forces, friction, lubrication, and wear from a consistent point of view. The author presents (1) methods for rough estimates of tribological quantities, (2) simple and general methods for analytical calculations, and (3) the crossover into numerical simulation methods, the goal being to convey a consistent view of tribological processes at various scales of magnitude (from nanotribology to earthquake research). The book also explores the system dynamic aspects of tribological systems, such as squeal and its suppression, as well as other types of instabilities and spatial patterns. It includes problems and worked-out solutions for the respective chapters, giving readers ample opportunity to apply the theory to practical situations and to deepen their understandi...

  7. Analysis of a Frictional Contact Problem with Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lerguet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the contact between a deformable body and an obstacle, the so-called foundation. The contact is frictional and is modelled with aversion of normal compliance condition and the associated Coulomb's law of dry friction in which the adhesion of contact surfaces is taken into account. The evolution of the bonding fieldis described by a first order differential equation and the material's behavior is modelled with a nonlinear elastic constitutive law. We derive a variational formulation of the problem then, under a smallness assumption on the coefficient of friction, we prove the existence of a unique weak solution for the model. The proof is based on arguments of time-dependent variational inequalities, differential equations and Banach'sfixed point theorem. Finally, we extend our results in the case when the piezoelectric effect is taken into account, i.e. in the case when the material's behavior is modelled with a nonlinear electro-elastic constitutive law.

  8. A formulation of contact with dry friction; computational application

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Jean-Jacques

    1986-01-01

    International audience; The usual law of dry friction is turned into a statement which does not involve splitting the contact force into its normal and tangential components. A numerical algorithm is derived for the dynamics of systems with unilateral contact; possible shocks are inelastic.; La loi usuelle du frottement sec est mise sous une forme évitant d'exhiber la composante normale et la composante tangentielle de la réaction. On en tire un algorithme numérique pour la dynamique de systè...

  9. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  10. Friction mechanisms and interfacial slip at fluid-solid interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, L

    2003-01-01

    We present series of experiments based on near field laser velocimetry, developed to characterize the friction mechanisms at fluid-solid interfaces. For polymers, entangled polymer melts are sheared against smooth solid surfaces, covered by surface attached polymer chains of the same chemical species, having a controlled surface density. Direct measurements of the interfacial velocity and of the shear force allow identification of the molecular mechanisms of friction. Depending on the value of the inverse of the shear rate experienced by the polymer compared to the reptation time, the transition between a regime of high and a regime of low friction observed when increasing the shear rate can be related to disentanglement or to the extraction of the surface chains from the bulk polymer. Surfaces with adjusted friction properties can thus be designed by choosing chain anchored length and surface density. For simple fluids, the direct measurements of the interfacial velocity show that, contrary to the usual hypo...

  11. Elastoplastic frictional contact problem study on interference fits of compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwu ZHANG; Aihua LIAO; Changhua WU

    2008-01-01

    The FE parametric quadratic programming (PQP) method developed from the parametric variational principle (PVP) was used for the analysis of the stress distribution of the 3D elastoplastic frictional contact of an impeller-shaft sleeve-shaft. A locomotive-type turbo-charger compressor with 24 blades under combined cen-trifugal and interference-fit loading was considered in the numerical analysis. The solution of elastoplastic frictional contact problems belongs to unspecified boundary pro-blems where the interaction between two kinds of nonli-nearities should occur. To save time in the numerical computation, a multi-substructure technique was adopted in the structural modeling. The effect of fit tolerance, wall thickness of the shaft sleeve, and rotational speed on the contact stress was discussed in detail in the numerical computation. To decrease the difficulty of the assembly process and ensure the safety of the working state, the amount of interference between the shaft sleeve and shaft by press-fitting should be controlled strictly to avoid the rapid increase of contact stress. The numerical results show that the algorithm has high accuracy and good con-vergence. The study can be referred to in deciding the proper fit tolerance and improving the design and man-ufacturing technology of compressor impellers.

  12. Microscopic contact area and friction between medical textiles and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derler, S; Rotaru, G-M; Ke, W; El Issawi-Frischknecht, L; Kellenberger, P; Scheel-Sailer, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical contact between medical textiles and skin is relevant in the health care for patients with vulnerable skin or chronic wounds. In order to gain new insights into the skin-textile contact on the microscopic level, the 3D surface topography of a normal and a new hospital bed sheet with a regular surface structure was measured using a digital microscope. The topographic data was analysed concerning material distribution and real contact area against smooth surfaces as a function of surface deformations. For contact conditions that are relevant for the skin of patients lying in a hospital bed it was found that the order of magnitude of the ratio of real and apparent contact area between textiles and skin or a mechanical skin model lies between 0.02 and 0.1 and that surface deformations, i.e. penetration of the textile surface asperities into skin or a mechanical skin model, range from 10 to 50µm. The performed analyses of textile 3D surface topographies and comparisons with previous friction measurement results provided information on the relationship between microscopic surface properties and macroscopic friction behaviour of medical textiles. In particular, the new bed sheet was found to be characterised by a trend towards a smaller microscopic contact area (up to a factor of two) and by a larger free interfacial volume (more than a factor of two) in addition to a 1.5 times lower shear strength when in contact with counter-surfaces. The applied methods can be useful to develop improved and skin-adapted materials and surfaces for medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Frictional Heat-Stress Coupled Field at Dynamic Contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一兵; 刘佐民

    2004-01-01

    A new analysis method was developed to simulate the dynamic process of a frictional heat-stress coupled field.The relationship between the frictional heat and the thermal stress was investigated for concave cylinder contact conditions.The results show that, as a nonlinear contact problem, the frictional heat at the contact areas changes with moving velocity in both value and distribution, and that the transient frictional heat at the dynamic condition has a peak within a cycle.The dynamic process of friction heat and thermal stresses affects diffusion of the frictional effects.The result can be helpful for dynamic simulation of diffusion lubrication of elements at elevated temperatures.

  14. Molecular-dynamics simulation of lateral friction in contact-mode atomic force microscopy of alkane films: The role of molecular flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soza, P.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations are used to investigate lateral friction in contact-mode atomic force microscopy of tetracosane (n-C24H50) films. We find larger friction coefficients on the surface of monolayer and bilayer films in which the long axis of the molecules is parallel to the interface ...

  15. Stick slip contact mechanics between dissimilar materials: effect of charging and large friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuiggan, Patricia M

    2008-04-15

    Measurements of the contact radius as a function of applied force between a mica surface and a silica surface (mica/silica) in air are reported. The load/unload results show that the contact radius generally increases with applied force. Because of the presence of charging due to contact electrification, both a short-range van der Waals adhesion force and longer-range electrostatic adhesive interaction contribute to the measured force. The results indicate that approximately 20% of the pull-off force is due to van der Waals forces. The contact radius versus applied force results can be fit to Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory by considering that only the short-range van der Waals forces contribute to the work of adhesion and subtracting a constant longer-range electrostatic force. Also, an additional and unexpected step function is superimposed on the contact radius versus applied force curve. Thus, the contact diameter increases in a stepped dependence with increasing force. The stepped contact behavior is seen only for increasing force and is not observed when symmetric mica/mica or silica/silica contacts are measured. In humid conditions, the contact diameter of the mica/silica contact increases monotonically with applied force. Friction forces between the surfaces are also measured and the shear stress of a mica/silica interface is 100 times greater than the shear stress of a mica/mica interface. This large shear stress retards the increase in contact area as the force is increased and leads to the observed stepped contact mechanics behavior.

  16. Numerical analysis of piezoelectric active repair in the presence of frictional contact conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Andrea; Milazzo, Alberto; Orlando, Calogero; Messineo, Antonio

    2013-04-02

    The increasing development of smart materials, such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloys, has opened new opportunities for improving repair techniques. Particularly, active repairs, based on the converse piezoelectric effect, can increase the life of a structure by reducing the crack opening. A deep characterization of the electromechanical behavior of delaminated composite structures, actively repaired by piezoelectric patches, can be achieved by considering the adhesive layer between the host structure and the repair and by taking into account the frictional contact between the crack surfaces. In this paper, Boundary Element (BE) analyses performed on delaminated composite structures repaired by active piezoelectric patches are presented. A two-dimensional boundary integral formulation for piezoelectric solids based on the multi-domain technique to model the composite host damaged structures and the bonded piezoelectric patches is employed. An interface spring model is also implemented to take into account the finite stiffness of the bonding layers and to model the frictional contact between the delamination surfaces, by means of an iterative procedure. The effect of the adhesive between the plies of piezoelectric bimorph devices on the electromechanical response is first pointed out for both sensing and actuating behavior. Then, the effect of the frictional contact condition on the fracture mechanics behavior of actively repaired delaminated composite structures is investigated.

  17. A flexible multi-body approach for frictional contact in spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundvall, O.; Strömberg, N.; Klarbring, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, a large rotational approach for dynamic contact problems with friction is proposed. The approach is used for modelling a spur gear pair with shafts and bearings. The model is obtained by superposing small displacement elasticity on rigid-body motions, and postulating tribological laws on the gear flanks. The finite element method is used to model the elastic properties of the gear pair. Shafts and bearings are represented by linear springs. The tribological laws of the contact interface are Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's law of friction. An important feature of the approach is that the difficulties of impacting mass nodes are avoided. The governing equations of the model are numerically treated by use of the augmented Lagrangian approach. In such manner the geometry of the gear flanks are well represented in the numerical simulations. It is possible to study accurately the consequences of different types of profile modifications as well as flank errors. In this work, the dynamic transmission error is studied. For instance, it turns out that the effect from profile modification is less significant for the transmission error when frictional effects are included.

  18. Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite—silicon wafer contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ende, D. A.; Fischer, H. R.; Groen, W. A.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-04-01

    The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and a silicon wafer counter surface rests solely on the matrix region of the piezocomposite surface. When actuated, the piezoelectric ceramic fibers protrude from the surface and the wafer rests solely on these protrusions. A threefold decrease in engineering static friction coefficient upon actuation of the piezocomposite was observed: from μ* = 1.65 to μ* = 0.50. These experimental results could be linked to the change in contact surface area and roughness using capillary adhesion theory, which relates the adhesive force to the number and size of the contacting asperities for the different surface states.

  19. Dynamic Model of Contact Interface between Stator and Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zenghui; Wang, Yuping; Yuan, YiKun; Zhao, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the equivalent principle, a linear spring contact model was established for the friction layer between stator and rotor. Different contact conditions were described by a distance index δ. Detailed analysis of the nonlinear contact behavior especially the static and dynamic slipping was carried on using a space-time equation. A contact deflection angle was proposed to quantitatively express the influence of friction force on the output performance. A more precision simulation model wa...

  20. Contact Pressure Effect on Frictional Characteristics of Steel Sheet for Autobody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. S.; Kim, D. J.

    2011-08-01

    The high strength steel (HSS) is widely used in auto body part due to its advantage of weight reduction. The usage of HSS extends the range of contact pressure than that of mild steel's and makes it is not disregardable fact that the effect of contact pressure on frictional characteristics of steel sheet. To investigate the influence of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet, the flat type friction test with high strength bare steel sheet was conducted under various contact pressures. According to the test result, the relationship between contact pressure and friction coefficient shows U shape. When the contact pressure is lower than 10 MPa, the friction coefficient was slightly decreased as contact pressure was increased. However the amount of decrement was very small. Above 10 MPa contact pressure the friction coefficient was increased as the contact pressure was increased and the amount of increment of friction coefficient was not negligible. This study shows that the effect of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet is very big, especially on HSS stamping which has the wide range of contact pressure.

  1. Stick-slip at soft adhesive interfaces mediated by slow frictional waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan K; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2016-06-28

    Stick-slip is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from squealing automobile brakes to earthquakes. At soft adhesive interfaces, this instability has long been attributed to Schallamach waves, which are a type of slow frictional wave. We use a contact configuration capable of isolating single wave events, coupled with high speed in situ imaging, to demonstrate the existence of two new stick-slip modes. It is shown that these modes also correspond to the passage of slow waves-separation pulse and slip pulse-with distinct nucleation and propagation characteristics. The slip pulse, characterized by a sharp stress front, propagates in the same direction as the Schallamach wave. In contrast, the separation pulse, involving local interface detachment and resembling a tensile neck, travels in exactly the opposite direction. A change in the stick-slip mode from the separation to the slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Taken together, the three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in low-velocity sliding. The detailed observations enable us to present a phase diagram delineating the domains of occurrence of these waves. We suggest a direct analogy between the observed slow frictional waves and well known muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied organisms. Our work answers basic questions about adhesive mechanisms of frictional instabilities in natural and engineered systems, with broader implications for slow surface wave phenomena.

  2. The metal to metal interface and its effect on adhesion and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers the interface between two bulk metals and the effect of this interface on adhesive bonding, resistance to tangential displacements, friction and the interfacial transport from one surface to another. Using Auger emission spectroscopy, field ion microscopy, and low energy electron diffraction techniques, the influence of surface orientation, lattice registry, crystal lattice structure and defects, metal surface chemistry and alloying on the characteristics of the interface was studied for noble, platinum, transition, and Group 4B metals. With dissimilar metals in contact, epitaxial transfer of the cohesively weaker to the cohesively stronger metal has been observed. Surface chemical activity of the noble and platinum metals is shown to affect interfacial behavior as does a valence bonding in the transition metals, and the degree of metallic nature in the Group 4B elements. Alloying elements, e.g., Si and Fe, can alter interfacial behavior by segregation to the surface of metals or by altering bulk properties such as crystal transformation kinetics.

  3. On the speed of fast and slow rupture fronts along frictional interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Scheibert, Julien; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The transition from stick to slip at a dry frictional interface occurs through the breaking of the junctions between the two contacting surfaces. Typically, interactions between the junctions through the bulk lead to rupture fronts propagating from weak and/or highly stressed regions, whose junctions break first. Experiments find rupture fronts ranging from quasi-static fronts with speeds proportional to external loading rates, via fronts much slower than the Rayleigh wave speed, and fronts that propagate near the Rayleigh wave speed, to fronts that travel faster than the shear wave speed. The mechanisms behind and selection between these fronts are still imperfectly understood. Here we perform simulations in an elastic 2D spring--block model where the frictional interaction between each interfacial block and the substrate arises from a set of junctions modeled explicitly. We find that a proportionality between material slip speed and rupture front speed, previously reported for slow fronts, actually holds ac...

  4. Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.

  5. DAE for Frictional Contact Modeling of Constrained Multi-Flexible Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray P.S.Han; S. G. Mao

    2004-01-01

    A general formulation for modeling frictional contact interactions in a constrained multi-flexible body system is outlined in this paper. The governing differential-algebraic equations (DAE) for the constrained motion contains not only a frictional term but also, the unknown contact conditions. These contact conditions are characterized by a set of nonlinear complementarity equations. To demonstrate the model, a falling-spinning beam impacting a rough elastic ground with damping is solved and comparison with Stewart-Trinkles' results provided.

  6. Transition from stick to slip in Hertzian contact with ``Griffith'' friction: The Cattaneo-Mindlin problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M.

    2015-11-01

    Classically, the transition from stick to slip is modelled with Amonton-Coulomb law, leading to the Cattaneo-Mindlin problem, which is amenable to quite general solutions using the idea of superposing normal contact pressure distributions - in particular superposing the full sliding component of shear with a corrective distribution in the stick region. However, faults model in geophysics and recent high-speed measurements of the real contact area and the strain fields in dry (nominally flat) rough interfaces at macroscopic but laboratory scale, all suggest that the transition from 'static' to 'dynamic' friction can be described, rather than by Coulomb law, by classical fracture mechanics singular solutions of shear cracks. Here, we introduce an 'adhesive' model for friction in a Hertzian spherical contact, maintaining the Hertzian solution for the normal pressures, but where the inception of slip is given by a Griffith condition. In the slip region, the standard Coulomb law continues to hold. This leads to a very simple solution for the Cattaneo-Mindlin problem, in which the "corrective" solution in the stick area is in fact similar to the mode II equivalent of a JKR singular solution for adhesive contact. The model departs from the standard Cattaneo-Mindlin solution, showing an increased size of the stick zone relative to the contact area, and a sudden transition to slip when the stick region reaches a critical size (the equivalent of the pull-off contact size of the JKR solution). The apparent static friction coefficient before sliding can be much higher than the sliding friction coefficient and, for a given friction fracture "energy", the process results in size and normal load dependence of the apparent static friction coefficient. Some qualitative agreement with Fineberg's group experiments for friction exists, namely the stick-slip boundary quasi-static prediction may correspond to the arrest of their slip "precursors", and the rapid collapse to global

  7. Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Fred E. (Inventor); Howell, Harold R. (Inventor); Winkler, Roger V. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is an interdigitated plate-type heat exchanger interface. The interface includes a modular interconnect to thermally connect a pair or pairs of plate-type heat exchangers to a second single or multiple plate-type heat exchanger. The modular interconnect comprises a series of parallel, plate-type heat exchangers arranged in pairs to form a slot therebetween. The plate-type heat exchangers of the second heat exchanger insert into the slots of the modular interconnect. Bellows are provided between the pairs of fins of the modular interconnect so that when the bellows are pressurized, they drive the plate-type heat exchangers of the modular interconnect toward one another, thus closing upon the second heat exchanger plates. Each end of the bellows has a part thereof a thin, membrane diaphragm which readily conforms to the contours of the heat exchanger plates of the modular interconnect when the bellows is pressurized. This ensures an even distribution of pressure on the heat exchangers of the modular interconnect thus creating substantially planar contact between the two heat exchangers. The effect of the interface of the present invention is to provide a dry connection between two heat exchangers whereby the rate of heat transfer can be varied by varying the pressure within the bellows.

  8. Finite element analysis of 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem for Cosserat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Xie, Z. Q.; Chen, B. S.; Zhang, H. W.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a finite element model for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problem of Cosserat materials. Because 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belong to the unspecified boundary problems with nonlinearities in both material and geometric forms, a large number of calculations are needed to obtain numerical results with high accuracy. Based on the parametric variational principle and the corresponding quadratic programming method for numerical simulation of frictional contact problems, a finite element model is developed for 3D elastic-plastic frictional contact analysis of Cosserat materials. The problems are finally reduced to linear complementarity problems (LCP). Numerical examples show the feasibility and importance of the developed model for analyzing the contact problems of structures with materials which have micro-polar characteristics.

  9. Fundamental considerations in adhesion, friction and wear for ceramic-metal contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental studies of friction, wear and adhesion of ceramics in contact with metals are evaluated. It is shown that friction and adhesion are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. The surface energy, friction, adhesion and hardness of a metal are related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. Generally, the greater the sheer modulus, the less metal transfer there is to the ceramic.

  10. Calculating frictional force with considering material microstructure and potential on contact surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhongming; HUANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    A method based on the energy dissipation mechanism of an Independent Oscillator model is used to calculate the frictional force and the friction coefficient of interfacial friction. The friction work is calculated with considering the potential change of contact surfaces during sliding. The potential change can be gained by a universal adhesive energy function. The relationships between frictional force and parameters of a tribo-system, such as surface energy and microstructure of interfacial material, are set up. The calculation results of the known experimental data denote that the frictional force is nearly proportional to the surface energy of the material, nearly inversely proportional to the scaling length, and independent of the lattice constant. The results agree with that of adhesion friction equations. They also agree with the experimental results performed with an atomic-force microscope under the ultra high vacuum condition.

  11. Effect of capillary-condensed water on the dynamic friction force at nanoasperity contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirghi, L.

    2003-05-01

    A single nanoasperity contact in ambient air is usually wetted by capillary condensation of water vapor and is surrounded by a water meniscus. This phenomenon strongly affects the contact friction, not only by the effect of meniscus loading force (superficial tension and capillary forces), but also by a friction force that accounts for the energy loss in the meniscus movement along with the sliding contact. Occurrence of the water-meniscus-generated friction is experimentally proved by atomic force microscopy measurements of the tip-sample friction force at minimum possible external load (before pull-off). A qualitative explanation for the observed dependence of the friction force on air humidity and solid surface wettability is proposed.

  12. Power optimization of ultrasonic friction-modulation tactile interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertlewski, Michael; Colgate, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic friction-modulation devices provide rich tactile sensation on flat surfaces and have the potential to restore tangibility to touchscreens. To date, their adoption into consumer electronics has been in part limited by relatively high power consumption, incompatible with the requirements of battery-powered devices. This paper introduces a method that optimizes the energy efficiency and performance of this class of devices. It considers optimal energy transfer to the impedance provided by the finger interacting with the surface. Constitutive equations are determined from the mode shape of the interface and the piezoelectric coupling of the actuator. The optimization procedure employs a lumped parameter model to simplify the treatment of the problem. Examples and an experimental study show the evolution of the optimal design as a function of the impedance of the finger.

  13. Experimental quantification of contact forces with impact, friction and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    During rotor-stator contact dry friction plays a significant role in terms of reversing the rotor precession. The frictional force causes an increase in the rotor's tangential velocity in the direction opposite to that of the angular velocity. This effect is crucial for defining ranges of dry whip...

  14. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  15. A Finite Element Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Coulomb Friction and Bilateral Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the plenty method, this paper describes a numerical method for 2D non-smooth contact problems with Coulomb friction and bilateral constraints and its application to the simulation of statics and dynamics for a frictional translational joint. Comparison is made with results obtained using a finite element program, ANSYS.

  16. The influence of bearing grease composition on friction in rolling/sliding concentrated contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laurentis, N.; Kadiric, A.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Cann, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results examining the relationship between bearing grease composition and rolling-sliding friction in lubricated contacts. Friction coefficient and lubricating film thickness of a series of commercially available bearing greases and their bled oils were measured in laboratory

  17. New Micro- and Macroscopic Models of Contact and Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    T., and Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the Coefficient of Friction," .Journ. Appl. Phys., 24, 2, pp. 136-139, 1953. 23. Bush, A. W., Gibson, R. D...Nonlinear Friction Laws," International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 1755-1768, 1986. 76. Rabinowicz , E., "The Nature of the...Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction," Journ. AppL. Physics, 11, 22, pp. 1373-1379, 1951. 77. Rabinowicz , E., "The Intrinsic Variables Affecting

  18. Modeling of contact mechanics and friction limit surfaces for soft fingers in robotics, with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydas, N.; Kao, I.

    1999-09-01

    A new theory in contact mechanics for modeling of soft fingers is proposed to define the relationship between the normal force and the radius of contact for soft fingers by considering general soft-finger materials, including linearly and nonlinearly elastic materials. The results show that the radius of contact is proportional to the normal force raised to the power of {gamma}, which ranges from 0 to 1/3. This new theory subsumes the Hertzian contact model for linear elastic materials, where {gamma} = 1/3. Experiments are conducted to validate the theory using artificial soft fingers made of various materials such as rubber and silicone. Results for human fingers are also compared. This theory provides a basis for numerically constructing friction limit surfaces. The numerical friction limit surface can be approximated by an ellipse, with the major and minor axes as the maximum friction force and the maximum moment with respect to the normal axis of contact, respectively. Combining the results of the contact-mechanics model with the contact-pressure distribution, the normalized friction limit surface can be derived for anthropomorphic soft fingers. The results of the contact-mechanics model and the pressure distribution for soft fingers facilitate the construction of numerical friction limit surfaces, and will enable us to analyze and simulate contact behaviors of grasping and manipulation in robotics.

  19. Transducer for measuring normal and friction stress in contact zone during rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Wanheim, Tarras; Arentoft, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    by the friction conditions. To achieve this important information, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are requested. The interface conditions are analyzed by several authors [1-8] The direction of the friction stress is changing during the rolling gap....... At the entrance of the deformation zone, the peripherical velocity of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll...

  20. THREE DIMENSIONAL ELASTO-PLASTIC CONTACT BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR ROLLING WITH CONSIDERATION OF FRICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The boundary element method in framework is given to evaluate three dimensional frictional contact problems. Elasto-plastic material behavior is taken into account by mean of an initial stress formulation and Von Mises yield criterion. The amount of tangential traction at contact surface is limited by Coulomb's friction law and constant shear rule. From some numerical results of a plate rolling problem, it is demonstrated here that the BEM can be used to efficiently and accurately analyze this class of forming problems.

  1. Anisotropic friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with manganese-zinc ferrite (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes in contact with themselves. Mating the highest-atomic-density directions, (110), of matched crystallographic planes resulted in the lowest coefficients of friction. Mating matched (same) high-atomic-density planes and matched (same)crystallographic directions resulted in low coefficients of friction. Mating dissimilar crystallographic planes, however, did not give significantly different friction results from those with matched planes. Sliding caused cracking and the formation of hexagonal- and rectangular-platelet wear debris on ferrite surfaces, primarily from cleavage of the (110) planes.

  2. Dust Emission Induced By Friction Modifications At Tool Chip Interface In Dry Machining In MMCp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Arnaud; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between dust emission and tribological conditions at the tool-chip interface when machining Metal Matrix composite reinforced with particles (MMCp) in dry mode. Machining generates aerosols that can easily be inhaled by workers. Aerosols may be composed of oil mist, tool material or alloying elements of workpiece material. Bar turning tests were conducted on a 2009 aluminum alloy reinforced with different level of Silicon Carbide particles (15, 25 and 35% of SiCp). Variety of PCD tools and nanostructured diamond coatings were used to analyze their performances on air pollution. A spectrometer was used to detect airborne aerosol particles in the size range between 0.3μm to 20 μm and to sort them in 15 size channels in real time. It was used to compare the effects of test parameters on dust emission. Observations of tool face and chip morphology reveal the importance of friction phenomena. It was demonstrated that level of friction modifies chip curvature and dust emission. The increase of level of reinforcement increase the chip segmentation and decrease the contact length and friction area. A "running in" phenomenon with important dust emission appeared with PCD tool due to the tool rake face flatness. In addition dust generation is more sensitive to edge integrity than power consumption.

  3. Ruptures along a frictional interface are described by Fracture Mechanics: Experiments in a "Laboratory Earthquake" along both dry and lubricated interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, J.; Svetlizky, I.; Bayart Schweizer, E.

    2014-12-01

    A dry frictional interface is composed of an ensemble of discrete contacts whose real contact area is orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal one. Slip is initiated when contacts are broken via propagating ruptures. Characterization of the dynamic fields that drive these ruptures and how they couple to the dissipative mechanisms on the interface are critical to our fundamental understanding of both frictional motion and earthquake dynamics. We experimentally investigate ruptures along rough spatially extended interfaces bounded by the same type of material. We perform simultaneous high-speed measurements (at μsec time scale) of the real contact area and the strain fields in the region surrounding propagating rupture tips. These measurements enable us to uncover the breakdown process near the tip of the slipping zone for rapidly propagating ruptures ranging from slow rupture fronts (~0.01CR) to nearly the Rayleigh wave speed, CR~1255m/s. These rupture fronts are quantitatively described by classical singular solutions for rapid shear cracks. These singular solutions, originally derived to describe brittle fracture, are in excellent agreement with the experiments for slow propagation, whereas some significant discrepancies arise as the rupture velocity approaches CR. The energy dissipated by the fracture of the contacts (fracture energy) is nearly constant throughout the entire rupture velocity range, while the size of the dissipative zone undergoes a 'Lorentz-like' contraction as the rupture velocity approaches CR. We then turn to both fully lubricated and partially lubricated interfaces and compare the dynamic strain fields measured to those of dry interfaces. The results of these studies are surprising. We will show that: Rapid rupture fronts still propagate in the stick-slip regime Although decreasing the overall friction coefficient along the interface, the addition of a lubricant significantly increases the fracture energy at the rupture tip In the fully

  4. Contact-line friction of liquid drops on self-assembled monolayers: chain-length effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voué, M; Rioboo, R; Adao, M H; Conti, J; Bondar, A I; Ivanov, D A; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J

    2007-04-24

    The static and dynamic wetting properties of self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers of increasing chain length were studied. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction on the microscopic scale. Although the surfaces had a similar static wettability, the coefficient of contact-line friction zeta0 increased linearly with alkyl chain length. This result supports the hypothesis of energy dissipation due to a local deformation of the nanometer-thick layer at the contact line.

  5. Adhesion and friction of single-crystal diamond in contact with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the adhesion and friction of single-crystal diamond in contact with various transition metals and the nature of metal transfer to diamond. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with diamond in sliding contact with the metals yttrium, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, iron, cobalt, nickel, tungsten, platinum, rhenium and rhodium. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.05 to 0.3 N, at a sliding velocity of 0.003 m per minute, in a vacuum of 10 to the -8th Pa, at room temperature, and on the (111) plane of diamond with sliding in the 110 line type direction. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction for diamond in contact with various metals is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals in high vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of diamond in sliding.

  6. Wear of Polished Steel Surfaces in Dry Friction Linear Contact on Polimer Composites with Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that the friction and wear between polymers and polished steel surfaces has a special character, the behaviour to friction and wear of a certain polymer might not be valid for a different polymer, moreover in dry friction conditions. In this paper, we study the reaction to wear of certain polymers with short glass fibres on different steel surfaces, considering the linear friction contact, observing the friction influence over the metallic surfaces wear. The paper includes also its analysis over the steel’s wear from different points of view: the reinforcement content influence and tribological parameters (load, contact pressure, sliding speed, contact temperature, etc.. Thus, we present our findings related to the fact that the abrasive component of the friction force is more significant than the adhesive component, which generally is specific to the polymers’ friction. Our detections also state that, in the case of the polyamide with 30% glass fibres, the steel surface linear wear rate order are of 10-4 mm/h, respectively the order of volumetric wear rate is of 10-6 cm3 /h. The resulting volumetric wear coefficients are of the order (10-11 – 10-12 cm3/cm and respectively linear wear coefficients of 10-9 mm/cm.

  7. Apparatus and method to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface, including a metal layer configured for insertion between a surface interface between a CMC component and a metal component. The surface interface of the metal layer is compliant relative to asperities of the surface interface of the CMC component. A coefficient of friction between the surface interface of the CMC component and the metal component is about 1.0 or less at an operating temperature between about 300.degree. C. to about 325.degree. C. and a limiting temperature of the metal component.

  8. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Selvadurai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within −7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa.

  9. Multigrid with FFT smoother for a simplified 2D frictional contact problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Vollebregt, E.A.H.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a fast multigrid (MG) solver for a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind, arising from the 2D elastic frictional contact problem. After discretization on a rectangular contact area, the integral equation gives rise to a linear system with the coefficient matrix bein

  10. Transducer for measuring normal and friction stress in contact zone during rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Wanheim, Tarras; Arentoft, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    For the cold rolling process, knowledge about interface conditions is important since it directly influences the maximum reduction ratio and thereby the number of steps required for a given reduction. The mechanical properties of the produced sheet and the surface quality are also influenced...... by the friction conditions. To achieve this important information, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are requested. The interface conditions are analyzed by several authors [1-8] The direction of the friction stress is changing during the rolling gap....... At the entrance of the deformation zone, the peripherical velocity of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll...

  11. Friction and wear of metals in contact with pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with gold, iron, and tantalum single crystals sliding on prismatic and basal orientations of pyrolytic graphite in various environments, including vacuum, oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen, and hydrogen bromide. Surfaces were examined in the clean state and with various adsorbates present on the graphite surfaces. Auger and LEED spectroscopy, SEM, and EDXA were used to characterize the graphite surfaces. Results indicate that the prismatic and basal orientations do not contain nor do they chemisorb oxygen, water vapor, acetylene, or hydrogen bromide. All three metals exhibited higher friction on the prismatic than on the basal orientation and these metals transferred to the atomically clean prismatic orientation of pyrolytic graphite. No metal transfer to the graphite was observed in the presence of adsorbates at 760 torr. Ion bombardment of the graphite surface with nitrogen ions resulted in the adherence of nitrogen to the surface.

  12. Symmetric-Galerkin BEM simulation of fracture with frictional contact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phan, AV

    2003-06-14

    Full Text Available by a contiguous covering of surface patches or line segments termed ?elements?. A straight- forward solution procedure can be implemented if no continuity requirements are imposed on the unknown surface variables at the junctions between adjacent... and normal components of the traction vector p66, imposed by sliding friction or by non-linear joint stiVTness relationships can be easily resolved. On the other hand, two major disadvantages are associated with the internal collocation scheme. Firstly...

  13. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  14. Adhesion and friction of iron and gold in contact with elemental semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Adhesion and friction experiments were conducted with single crystals of iron and gold in contact with single crystals of germanium and silicon. Surfaces were examined in the sputter cleaned state and in the presence of oxygen and a lubricant. All experiments were conducted at room temperature with loads of 1 to 50 grams, and sliding friction was at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the friction nature of metals in contact with semiconductors is sensitive to orientation, that strong adhesion of metals to both germanium and silicon occurs, and that friction is lower with silicon than with germanium for the same orientation. Surface effects are highly sensitive to environment. Silicon, for example, behaves in an entirely brittle manner in the clean state, but in the presence of a lubricant the surface deforms plastically.

  15. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  16. Friction and friction-generated temperature at a polymer-metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results of friction and thermal tests of molded polyimide and pyrrone polymers are presented. The coefficient of sliding friction up to surface velocities of 2 m/sec and the coefficient of thermal expansion from 300 to 500 K were measured. An apparatus was constructed to measure simultaneously the coefficient of sliding friction and the friction-generated temperature. Measurements were made at a nominal pressure-velocity product of 0.25 MN/msec and at temperatures between 300 and 500 K.

  17. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded and Bolted Cold Plates with Al/Cu Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Suresh, M.; Sibi Varshan, M.

    2015-05-01

    An attempt is made to design and fabricate a cold plate with aluminum-copper dissimilar interface joined by friction stir welding. Optimum welding conditions for obtaining sound-quality corner and T joints with an aluminum-copper interface were established. Welded cross sections of the friction stir welded cold plate were analyzed to understand the bonding characteristics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the fluid-flow characteristics and thermal resistance of friction stir welded cold plate and the resulted are compared with the conventional bolted cold plate configuration. For CFD modeling of a cold plate with a dissimilar interface, a new methodology is proposed. From the CFD analysis and experimental results, it is observed that friction stir welded cold plate offered better thermal performance compared to the bolted cold plate and it is due to the metallurgical bonding at the aluminum-copper interface with the dispersion of copper particles.

  18. Stress intensity factor analysis of friction sliding at discontinuity interfaces and junctions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phan, AV

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A stress intensity factor (SIF) analysis for two dimensional fractures with frictional contact (crack friction) is presented. This analysis is carried out using the symmetric-Galerkin boundary element method, and a modified quarter-point crack tip...

  19. SOLVING CONTACT PROBLEM WITH FRICTION BY A NEW FAST BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The formulation of boundary element method for handling contact problems with friction and the technique for high-speed contact analysis are presented. This formulation is based on the idea of modifying the length of contact elements without altering the total number of elements. The high precision of solution and high-speed analysis are verified according to the results of conventional method and analysis method.

  20. The role of frictional strength on plate coupling at the subduction interface

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Eh

    2012-10-01

    At a subduction zone the amount of friction between the incoming plate and the forearc is an important factor in controlling the dip angle of subduction and the structure of the forearc. In this paper, we investigate the role of the frictional strength of sediments and of the serpentinized peridotite on the evolution of convergent margins. In numerical models, we vary thickness of a serpentinized layer in the mantle wedge (15 to 25km) and the frictional strength of both the sediments and serpentinized mantle (friction angle 1 to 15, or static friction coefficient 0.017 to 0.27) to control the amount of frictional coupling between the plates. With plastic strain weakening in the lithosphere, our numerical models can attain stable subduction geometry over millions of years. We find that the frictional strength of the sediments and serpentinized peridotite exerts the largest control on the dip angle of the subduction interface at seismogenic depths. In the case of low sediment and serpentinite friction, the subduction interface has a shallow dip, while the subduction zone develops an accretionary prism, a broad forearc high, a deep forearc basin, and a shallow trench. In the high friction case, the subduction interface is steep, the trench is deeper, and the accretionary prism, forearc high and basin are all absent. The resultant free-air gravity and topographic signature of these subduction zone models are consistent with observations. We believe that the low-friction model produces a geometry and forearc structure similar to that of accretionary margins. Conversely, models with high friction angles in sediments and serpentinite develop characteristics of an erosional convergent margin. We find that the strength of the subduction interface is critical in controlling the amount of coupling at the seismogenic zone and perhaps ultimately the size of the largest earthquakes at subduction zones. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A new visco-elastic contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor with stator frictional layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) with a visco-elastic stator frictional layer was presented. In this model, the initial boundaries were revised, and the rotor revolution speed could be calculated iteratively. This model was compared with compliant slider and rigid stator model. The results of motor characteristics simulations showed that the motors based on this model would gain bigger stall torque. Then the friction and wear characteristics of two models were analyzed. The motors based on this model had lower coefficient of friction and better wear resistance.

  2. Interface Friction of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Investigated Using Molecular Dynamics †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Da Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The interface friction characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the Tersoff potential. The effects of the DWCNT type, outer shell diameter, and temperature are evaluated. The simulation results show that when an inner shell is being pulled out from a DWCNT, the friction force and normal force between shells increase with increasing the outer shell diameter. The noise of the friction force significantly increases with the increasing temperature. Zigzag@zigzag and armchair@armchair DWCNTs exhibit larger friction forces and smaller normal forces compared to those of chiral@chiral DWCNTs.

  3. Friction and transfer behavior of pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with various metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with pyrolytic boron nitride in sliding contact with itself and various metals. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor transfer of pyrolytic boron nitride to metals and metals to pyrolytic boron nitride. Results indicate that the friction coefficient for pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with metals can be related to the chemical activity of the metals and more particularly to the d valence bond character of the metal. Transfer was found to occur to all metals except silver and gold and the amount of transfer was less in the presence than in the absence of metal oxide. Friction was less for pyrolytic boron nitride in contact with a metal in air than in vacuum.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Frictional Stress in the Contact Zone of Direct Extrusion of Aluminum Alloys under Starved Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, P.; Pandey, R. K.; Nath, Y.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate numerically frictional stress in the contact zone at the die/billet interface in the direct extrusion of aluminum alloys considering starved lubricated conditions. In the modeling, both the inlet and work zones have been investigated by coupled solution of the governing equations. The influences of the billet material's strain hardening and its heating due to the plastic deformation are accounted for in the numerical computation. The frictional shear stress at the die/billet interface is computed using three different lubricating oils. Numerical results have been presented herein for the various operating parameters viz. starvation factor ( ψ = 0.2-0.6), lubricants' viscosities ( η 0 = 0.05 Pa s-0.2 Pa s), semi die angle ( β = 10°-20°), and material parameter ( G = 0.56-2.25). It has been observed that the frictional stress increases with an increase in the severity of the lubricant's starvation for the given values of semi-die angle, extrusion speed, and material parameter.

  5. Influence of the electrical sliding speed on friction and wear processes in an electrical contact copper stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, A.; Chekroud, S.; Paulmier, D.

    2004-02-01

    Among the various parameters that influence the friction and wear behaviour of a copper-stainless steel couple crossed by an electrical current and in a dry contact is the sliding speed. The tests were carried out under ambient environment and the sliding speed was in the range of 0.2-8 ms -1. The electrical current intensity was varied from 0 to 40 A and held constant during each experiment. The normal load was maintained constant corresponding to an average Hertzian stress of 10 7 Pa. It appears that the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase at first with the speed, reach their maximums, then slowly decrease and tend to constant values. Over the entire range of sliding speeds two types of wear are observed. These latters are essentially mild wear as long as hard debris do not appear at the interface and severe wear when debris consisting of oxides or oxide metal mixture become big enough, they are removed from the surface and have abrasive effect. The results are discussed in terms of observations of wear debris size and composition, wear track study, metallographic study of worn surfaces and friction and electrical contact resistance records.

  6. Modeling and Calculation of Impact Friction Caused by Corner Contact in Gear Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Changjiang; CHEN Siyu

    2014-01-01

    Corner contact in gear pair causes vibration and noise, which has attracted many attentions. However, teeth errors and deformation make it difficulty to determine the point situated at corner contact and study the mechanism of teeth impact friction in the current researches. Based on the mechanism of corner contact, the process of corner contact is divided into two stages of impact and scratch, and the calculation model including gear equivalent error-combined deformation is established along the line of action. According to the distributive law, gear equivalent error is synthesized by base pitch error, normal backlash and tooth profile modification on the line of action. The combined tooth compliance of the first point lying in corner contact before the normal path is inversed along the line of action, on basis of the theory of engagement and the curve of tooth synthetic compliance & load-history. Combined secondarily the equivalent error with the combined deflection, the position standard of the point situated at corner contact is probed. Then the impact positions and forces, from the beginning to the end during corner contact before the normal path, are calculated accurately. Due to the above results, the lash model during corner contact is founded, and the impact force and frictional coefficient are quantified. A numerical example is performed and the averaged impact friction coefficient based on the presented calculation method is validated. This research obtains the results which could be referenced to understand the complex mechanism of teeth impact friction and quantitative calculation of the friction force and coefficient, and to gear exact design for tribology.

  7. A NEW METHOD FOR SOLUTION OF 3D ELASTIC-PLASTIC FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪武; 钟万勰; 顾元宪

    2001-01-01

    The solution of 3 D elastic-plastic frictional contact problems belongs to the unspecified boundary problems where the interaction between two kinds of nonlinearities should occur. Considering the difficulties for the solution of 3 D frictional contact problems, the key part is the determination of the tangential slip states at the contact points, and a great amount of computing work is needed for a high accuracy result. A new method based on a combination of programming and iteration methods, which are respectively known as two main kinds of methods for contact analysis, was put forward to deal with 3 D elastic-plastic contact problems. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm illustrated here.

  8. A Mortar Segment-to-Segment Frictional Contact Method for Large Deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puso, M; Laursen, T

    2003-10-29

    Contact modeling is still one of the most difficult aspects of nonlinear implicit structural analysis. Most 3D contact algorithms employed today use node-on-segment approaches for contacting dissimilar meshes. Two pass node-on-segment contact approaches have the well known deficiency of locking due to over constraint. Furthermore, node-on-segment approaches suffer when individual nodes slide out of contact at contact surface boundaries or when contacting nodes slide from facet to facet. This causes jumps in the contact forces due to the discrete nature of the constraint enforcement and difficulties in convergence for implicit solution techniques. In a previous work, we developed a segment-to-segment contact approach based on the mortar method that was applicable to large deformation mechanics. The approach proved extremely robust since it eliminated the overconstraint which caused ''locking'' and provided smooth force variations in large sliding. Here, we extend this previous approach in to treat frictional contact problems. The proposed approach is then applied to several challenging frictional contact problems which demonstrate its effectiveness.

  9. Micro friction stir welding of copper electrical contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of micro friction stir welding (μFSW of electrolytic tough pitch copper (CuETP in a lap and butt joint. Experimental plan was done in order to investigate the influence of tool design and welding parameters on the formation of defect free joints. The experiments were done using universal milling machine where the tool rotation speed varied between 600 and 1 900 rpm, welding speed between 14 and 93 mm/min and tilt angle between 3° and 5°. From the welds samples for analysis of microstructure and samples for tensile tests were prepared. The grain size in the nugget zone was greatly reduced compared to the base metal and the joint tensile strength exceeded the strength of the base metal.

  10. Temperature dependence of contact resistance at metal/MWNT interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eui; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-07-01

    Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.

  11. Temperature dependence of contact resistance at metal/MWNT interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Eui; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Sohn, Yoonchul, E-mail: yoonchul.son@samsung.com [Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Suwon 443-803 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-11

    Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.

  12. Thermal fluctuations of an interface near a contact line

    CERN Document Server

    Belardinelli, D; Gross, M; Andreotti, B

    2016-01-01

    The effect of thermal fluctuations near a contact line of a liquid interface partially wetting an impenetrable substrate is studied analytically and numerically. Promoting both the interface profile and the contact line position to random variables, we explore the equilibrium properties of the corresponding fluctuating contact line problem based on an interfacial Hamiltonian involving a "contact" binding potential. To facilitate an analytical treatment we consider the case of a one-dimensional interface. The effective boundary condition at the contact line is determined by a dimensionless parameter that encodes the relative importance of thermal energy and substrate energy at the microscopic scale. We find that this parameter controls the transition from a partially wetting to a pseudo-partial wetting state, the latter being characterized by a thin prewetting film of fixed thickness. In the partial wetting regime, instead, the profile typically approaches the substrate via an exponentially thinning prewetting...

  13. Dynamic model for the wheel-rail contact friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyunWook; Sandu, Corina; Holton, Carvel

    2012-02-01

    Accurately estimating the coefficient of friction (CoF) is essential in modelling railroad dynamics, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing safety in rail operations. The typical assumption of a constant CoF is widely used in theoretical studies; however, it has been noticed that the CoF is not constant, but rather depends on various dynamic parameters and instantaneous conditions. In this paper, we present a newly developed three-dimensional nonlinear CoF model for the dry rail condition and test the CoF variation using this model with estimated dynamic parameters. The wheel-rail is modelled as a mass-spring-damper system to simulate the basic wheel-rail dynamics. Although relatively simple, this model is considered sufficient for the purpose of this study. Simulations are performed at a train speed of 20 m/s using rail roughness as an excitation source. The model captures the CoF extremes and illustrates its nonlinear behaviour and instantaneous dependence on several structural and dynamic parameters.

  14. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  15. Normal and friction stabilization techniques for interactive rigid body constraint-based contact force computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, yet simple, method for stabilization of normal forces. A normal stabilization term, carefully designed from hypotheses about interactive usability, is added to the contact force problem. Further, we propose friction stabilization as a completely new stabilization paradigm in i...

  16. Solving frictional contact problems by two aggregate-function-based algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suyan He; Hongwu Zhang; Xingsi Li; Ron Marshall

    2005-01-01

    Three dimensional frictional contact problems are formulated as linear complementarity problems based on the parametric variational principle. Two aggregate-functionbased algorithms for solving complementarity problems are proposed. One is called the self-adjusting interior point algorithm, the other is called the aggregate function smoothing algorithm. Numerical experiment shows the efficiency of the proposed two algorithms.

  17. A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, Julien; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2015-01-01

    In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the

  18. A review of fingerpad contact mechanics and friction and how this affects tactile perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilenburg, van J.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.

    2015-01-01

    In the sliding contact between the fingerpad and a rough surface when touching a product’s surface, friction plays a role in the perception of roughness, slipperiness and warmth. For product engineers who aim to control and optimize the sensorial properties of a product surface interacting with the

  19. Dual Time Stepping Algorithms With the High Order Harmonic Balance Method for Contact Interfaces With Fretting-Wear

    CERN Document Server

    Salles, Loic; Gouskov, Alexandre; Jean, Pierrick; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Contact interfaces with dry friction are frequently used in turbomachinery. Dry friction damping produced by the sliding surfaces of these interfaces reduces the amplitude of bladed-disk vibration. The relative displacements at these interfaces lead to fretting-wear which reduces the average life expectancy of the structure. Frequency response functions are calculated numerically by using the multi-harmonic balance method (mHBM). The dynamic Lagrangian frequency-time method is used to calculate contact forces in the frequency domain. A new strategy for solving nonlinear systems based on dual time stepping is applied. This method is faster than using Newton solvers. It was used successfully for solving Nonlinear CFD equations in the frequency domain. This new approach allows identifying the steady state of worn systems by integrating wear rate equations a on dual time scale. The dual time equations are integrated by an implicit scheme. Of the different orders tested, the first order scheme provided the best re...

  20. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons’ friction law in static and steady sliding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrégeas G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured fields are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, significant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the difference between the Amontons fields and the measured ones, in particular the effect of the finite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.

  1. Friction and morphology of magnetic tapes in sliding contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Bhushan, B.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and morphological studies were conducted with magnetic tapes containing a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in laboratory air at a relative humidity of 40 percent and at 23 C. The results indicate that the binder plays a significant role in the friction properties, morphology, and microstructure of the tape. Comparisons were made with four binders: nitrocellulose; poly (vinyledene) chloride; cellulose acetate; and hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester added to the base polymer, polyester-polyurethane. The coefficient of friction was lowest for the tape with the nitrocellulose binder and increased in the order hydroxylterminated, low molecular weight polyester resin; poly (vinyledene) chloride; and cellulose acetate. The degree of enclosure of the oxide particles by the binder was highest for hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester and decreased in the order cellulose acetate, poly (vinyledene) chloride, and nitrocellulose. The nature of deformation of the tape was a factor in controlling friction. The coefficient of friction under elastic contact conditions was considerably lower than under conditions that produced plastic contacts.

  2. Friction Reduction through Ultrasonic Vibration Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Intermittent Contact and Squeeze Film Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednaoui, Thomas; Vezzoli, Eric; Dzidek, Brygida; Lemaire-Semail, Betty; Chappaz, Cedrick; Adams, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In part 1 of the current study of haptic displays, a finite element (FE) model of a finger exploring a plate vibrating out-of-plane at ultrasonic frequencies was developed as well as a spring-frictional slider model. It was concluded that the reduction in friction induced by the vibrations could be ascribed to ratchet mechanism as a result of intermittent contact. The relative reduction in friction calculated using the FE model could be superimposed onto an exponential function of a dimensionless group defined from relevant parameters. The current paper presents measurements of the reduction in friction, involving real and artificial fingertips, as a function of the vibrational amplitude and frequency, the applied normal force and the exploration velocity. The results are reasonably similar to the calculated FE values and also could be superimposed using the exponential function provided that the intermittent contact was sufficiently well developed, which for the frequencies examined correspond to a minimum vibrational amplitude of  ∼ 1 µm P-P. It was observed that the reduction in friction depends on the exploration velocity and is independent of the applied normal force and ambient air pressure, which is not consistent with the squeeze film mechanism. However, the modelling did not incorporate the influence of air and the effect of ambient pressure was measured under a limited range of conditions, Thus squeeze film levitation may be synergistic with the mechanical interaction.

  3. CRITICAL VELOCITY OF CONTROLLABILITY OF SLIDING FRICTION BY NORMAL OSCILLATIONS IN VISCOELASTIC CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Popov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.

  4. Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z. B.; Peng, J. F.; Cao, B. B.; Jin, X. S.; Zhu, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe2O3, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe2O3 and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2-3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.

  5. Meshless shape design sensitivity analysis and optimization for contact problem with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N. H.; Choi, K. K.; Chen, J. S.; Park, Y. H.

    In this paper, a continuum-based shape design sensitivity formulation for a frictional contact problem with a rigid body is proposed using a meshless method. The contact condition is imposed using the penalty method that regularizes the solution of variational inequality. The shape dependency of the contact variational form with respect to the design velocity field is obtained. The dependency of the response with respect to the shape of the rigid body is also considered. It is shown that the sensitivity equation needs to be solved at the final converged load step for the frictionless contact problem, whereas for the frictional contact case the sensitivity solution is needed at the converged configuration of each load step because the sensitivity of the current load step depends on that of the previous load step. The continuum-based contact formulation and consistent linearization is critical for accurate shape design sensitivity results. The accuracy of the proposed method is compared with the finite difference result and excellent agreement is obtained for a door seal contact example. A design optimization problem is formulated and solved to reduce the contact gap opening successfully in a demonstration of the proposed method.

  6. Finite element analysis of the contact interface between trans-femoral stump and prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Ming; Shen, Ling; Zheng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Transfemoral amputees need prosthetic devices after amputation surgery, and the interface pressure between the residual limb and prosthetic socket has a significant effect on an amputee's satisfaction and comfort. The purpose of this study was to build a nonlinear finite element model to investigate the interface pressure between the above-knee residual limb and its prosthetic socket. The model was three-dimensional (3D) with consideration of nonlinear boundary conditions. Contact analysis was used to simulate the friction conditions between skin and the socket. The normal stresses up to 80.57 kPa at the distal end of the soft tissue. The longitudinal and circumferential shear stress distributions at the limb-socket interface were also simulated. This study explores the influences of load transfer between trans-femoral residual limb and its prosthetic socket.

  7. Thermal fluctuations of an interface near a contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, D.; Sbragaglia, M.; Gross, M.; Andreotti, B.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of thermal fluctuations near a contact line of a liquid interface partially wetting an impenetrable substrate is studied analytically and numerically. Promoting both the interface profile and the contact line position to random variables, we explore the equilibrium properties of the corresponding fluctuating contact line problem based on an interfacial Hamiltonian involving a "contact" binding potential. To facilitate an analytical treatment, we consider the case of a one-dimensional interface. The effective boundary condition at the contact line is determined by a dimensionless parameter that encodes the relative importance of thermal energy and substrate energy at the microscopic scale. We find that this parameter controls the transition from a partial wetting to a pseudopartial wetting state, the latter being characterized by a thin prewetting film of fixed thickness. In the partial wetting regime, instead, the profile typically approaches the substrate via an exponentially thinning prewetting film. We show that, independently of the physics at the microscopic scale, Young's angle is recovered sufficiently far from the substrate. The fluctuations of the interface and of the contact line give rise to an effective disjoining pressure, exponentially decreasing with height. Fluctuations therefore provide a regularization of the singular contact forces occurring in the corresponding deterministic problem.

  8. Frictional unilateral contact for hemitropic solids in micropolar elasticity and boundary element approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    This contribution deals with unilateral contact problems with Tresca friction (given friction model) in hemitropic mi-cropolar elasticity. Based on a boundary integral approach such problems can be reduced to boundary variational inequalities. This suggests the use of boundary element methods for their numerical treatment. With higher order approximation this leads to a nonconforming approximation what can numerically be realized by means of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature. The contribution is based on the recent papers [7, 8] of the author and on joint work [3] with A. Gachechiladze, R. Gachechi-ladze, and D. Natroshvili.

  9. The friction and wear of ceramic/ceramic and ceramic/metal combinations in sliding contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of ceramics sliding on ceramics are compared to those of ceramics sliding on a nickel-based turbine alloy. The friction and wear of oxide ceramics and silicon-based ceramics in air at temperatures from room ambient to 900 C (in a few cases to 1200 C) were measured for a hemispherically-tipped pin on a flat sliding contact geometry. In general, especially at high temperature, friction and wear were lower for ceramic/metal combinations than for ceramic/ceramic combinations. The better tribological performance for ceramic/metal combinations is attributed primarily to the lubricious nature of the oxidized surface of the metal.

  10. Effect of the Material Parameters on Layered Viscoelastic Frictional Contact Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin F. Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design process, one of the main targets is to reduce the peak values of the contact stresses. This can be attained by layering the contacting bodies by layers of different material characteristics. Viscoelastic materials are characterized by either a stress relaxation or a creep deformation; therefore, the contacting bodies can be layered with such materials to attain this target. This paper discusses effects of the material characteristics of viscoelastic layers upon the unbounded contact configuration. Three material parameters are considered: the layer/contact solids stiffness ratio, the delayed/instantaneous elasticity ratio, and the material relaxation time. The results are obtained by using a two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear computational model, developed by the authors, capable of analyzing quasistatic viscoelastic frictional contact problems.

  11. Analysis of 3-D Frictional Contact Mechanics Problems by a Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEUM Bangyong; LIU Yijun

    2005-01-01

    The development of two boundary element algorithms for solving 3-D, frictional, and linear elastostatic contact problems is reported in this paper. The algorithms employ nonconforming discretizations for solving 3-D boundary element models, which provide much needed flexibility in the boundary element modeling for 3-D contact problems. These algorithms are implemented in a new 3-D boundary element code and verified using several examples. For the numerical examples studied, the results using the new boundary element algorithms match very well with the results using a commercial finite element code, and clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the new boundary element approach for 3-D contact analysis.

  12. Self-organization at the frictional interface for green tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2010-10-28

    Despite the fact that self-organization during friction has received relatively little attention from tribologists so far, it has the potential for the creation of self-healing and self-lubricating materials, which are important for green or environment-friendly tribology. The principles of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and of the nonlinear theory of dynamical systems are used to investigate the formation of spatial and temporal structures during friction. The transition to the self-organized state with low friction and wear occurs through destabilization of steady-state (stationary) sliding. The criterion for destabilization is formulated and several examples are discussed: the formation of a protective film, microtopography evolution and slip waves. The pattern formation may involve self-organized criticality and reaction-diffusion systems. A special self-healing mechanism may be embedded into the material by coupling the corresponding required forces. The analysis provides the structure-property relationship, which can be applied for the design optimization of composite self-lubricating and self-healing materials for various ecologically friendly applications and green tribology.

  13. Survival of Heterogeneous Stress Distributions Created by Precursory Slip at Frictional Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiguet, Mathilde; Kammer, David S.; Gillet, Philippe; Molinari, Jean-François

    2013-10-01

    We study the dynamics of successive slip events at a frictional interface with finite-element simulations. Because of the viscous properties of the material, the stress concentrations created by the arrest of precursory slip are not erased by the propagation of the following rupture but reappear with the relaxation of the material. We show that the amplitude of the stress concentrations follows an exponential decay, which is controlled by the bulk material properties. These results highlight the importance of viscosity in the heterogeneous stress state of a frictional interface and reveal the “memory effect” that affects successive ruptures.

  14. Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with various metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals. Results indicate the coefficient of friction is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to silicon carbide. The chemical activity of the metal and its shear modulus may play important roles in metal-transfer, the form of the wear debris and the surface roughness of the metal wear scar. The more active the metal, and the less resistance to shear, the greater the transfer to silicon carbide and the rougher the wear scar on the surface of the metal. Hexagon-shaped cracking and fracturing formed by cleavage of both prismatic and basal planes is observed on the silicon carbide surface.

  15. Research of the indirect friction sensor for prediction of contact stress by improved inverse method in strip rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Wang, Zhigang; Ruan, Jinhua; Liu, Changming; Xu, Zengbing

    2017-10-01

    In order to avoid strip marks or perturbation of local lubricant flow at the interface between strip and work roll in strip rolling, an indirect friction sensor has been designed. This sensor is based on the inverse method improved by envelope fitting method, which utilizes strain gage to measure strains at one point inside the work roll to evaluate the contact stress in roll gap. Then several cold rolling tests have been performed at different reductions to demonstrate the rational and the validity of this indirect friction sensor. Comparing the results evaluated by finite element method with the results reconstructed by different inverse methods, it is found that the improved inverse method leads to a better solution to evaluation of the contact stress, in particular for prediction of shear stress. In addition, reasonable prediction is obtained for large reduction but not for small reduction (only the order of magnitude is obtained). It is believed that this research has a strategic importance for practical application.

  16. Contact angle distribution of particles at fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeyink, Craig; Barman, Sourav; Christopher, Gordon F

    2015-01-27

    Recent measurements have implied a distribution of interfacially adsorbed particles' contact angles; however, it has been impossible to measure statistically significant numbers for these contact angles noninvasively in situ. Using a new microscopy method that allows nanometer-scale resolution of particle's 3D positions on an interface, we have measured the contact angles for thousands of latex particles at an oil/water interface. Furthermore, these measurements are dynamic, allowing the observation of the particle contact angle with high temporal resolution, resulting in hundreds of thousands of individual contact angle measurements. The contact angle has been found to fit a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 19.3°, which is much larger than previously recorded. Furthermore, the technique used allows the effect of measurement error, constrained interfacial diffusion, and particle property variation on the contact angle distribution to be individually evaluated. Because of the ability to measure the contact angle noninvasively, the results provide previously unobtainable, unique data on the dynamics and distribution of the adsorbed particles' contact angle.

  17. Effect of Microscale Contact State of Polyurethane Surface on Adhesion and Friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Min; Ji Ai-hong; Dai Zhen-dong

    2006-01-01

    The effect of microscale contact of rough surfaces on the adhesion and friction under negative normal forces was experimentally investigated. The adhesive force of single point contact - sapphire ball to flat polyurethane did not vary with the normal force. With rough surface contact, which was assumed to be a great number of point contacts, the adhesive force increased logarithmically with the normal force. Under negative normal force adhesive state, the tangential force (more than hundred mN)were much larger than the negative normal force (several mN) and increased with the linear decrease of negative normal force.The results reveal why the gecko's toe must slide slightly on the target surface when it makes contact on a surface and suggest how a biomimetic gecko foot might be designed.

  18. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hoi, Steven C H

    2013-01-01

    Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β) atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  19. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  20. Acoustics of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  1. Diffuse interface simulation of ternary fluids in contact with solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Ding, Hang; Gao, Peng; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2016-03-01

    In this article we developed a geometrical wetting condition for diffuse-interface simulation of ternary fluid flows with moving contact lines. The wettability of the substrate in the presence of ternary fluid flows is represented by multiple contact angles, corresponding to the different material properties between the respective fluid and the substrate. Displacement of ternary fluid flows on the substrate leads to the occurrence of moving contact point, at which three moving contact lines meet. We proposed a weighted contact angle model, to replace the jump in contact angle at the contact point by a relatively smooth transition of contact angle over a region of 'diffuse contact point' of finite size. Based on this model, we extended the geometrical formulation of wetting condition for two-phase flows with moving contact lines to ternary flows with moving contact lines. Combining this wetting condition, a Navier-Stokes solver and a ternary-fluid model, we simulated two-dimensional spreading of a compound droplet on a substrate, and validated the numerical results of the drop shape at equilibrium by comparing against the analytical solution. We also checked the convergence rate of the simulation by investigating the axisymmetric drop spreading in a capillary tube. Finally, we applied the model to a variety of applications of practical importance, including impact of a circular cylinder into a pool of two layers of different fluids and sliding of a three-dimensional compound droplet in shear flows.

  2. Mixed Finite Element Method for Static and Dynamic Contact Problems with Friction and Initial Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed finite element method is proposed for static and dynamic contact problems with friction and initial gaps. Based on the characteristic of local nonlinearity for the problem, the system of forces acting on the contactor is divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in contact region under local coordinate system is selected as the iteration variable to confine the nonlinear iteration process in the potential contact surface which is more numerically efficient. In this way, the sophisticated contact nonlinearity is revealed by the variety of the contact forces which are determined by the external load and the contact state stick, slip, or separation. Moreover, in the case of multibody contact problem, the flexibility matrix is symmetric and sparse; thus, the iterative procedure becomes easily carried out and much more economical. In the paper, both the finite element formulations and the iteration process are given in detail for static and dynamic contact problems. Four examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

  3. Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Surface Roughness on Coefficient of Friction in Rolling Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ghalme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in silicon nitride- steel rolling contact. Two samples of silicon nitride with two different values of surface roughness were tested against steel counter face. The test was performed on four ball tester in presence of lubricant with two different values of viscosity. Taguchi technique a methodology in design of experiment implemented to plan the experimentation and same is utilized to evaluate the interacting effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity. Analysis of experimental results presents a strong interaction between surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in rolling contact.

  4. Poly(ethylene oxide) Mushrooms Adsorbed at Silica-Ionic Liquid Interfaces Reduce Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, James; Webber, Grant B; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The adsorbed layer conformation and lubricity of 35, 100, and 300 kDa PEO adsorbed to ionic liquid (IL)-silica interfaces from 0.01 wt % solutions have been investigated using colloid probe atomic force microscopy. The ILs used were propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), which are protic and aprotic ILs, respectively. Normal force curves reveal steric interactions consistent with adsorbed polymer layers which are best fit using the mushroom model. Friction measurements show that the adsorbed polymer layer markedly reduces friction compared to surfaces sliding in the pure ILs and that lubricity increases with polymer length. When polymer is adsorbed to the sliding surfaces, friction is controlled by the creation and disruption of intermolecular interactions between entangled chains and the dragging of polymer chains through the interpenetration region. These experiments show that added polymer can reduce friction while maintaining the useful properties of ILs as lubricants.

  5. Semi-Smooth Newton Method for Solving 2D Contact Problems with Tresca and Coulomb Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Motyckova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with contact problems for two elastic bodies with friction. After the description of the problem we present its discretization based on linear or bilinear finite elements. The semi--smooth Newton method is used to find the solution, from which we derive active sets algorithms. Finally, we arrive at the globally convergent dual implementation of the algorithms in terms of the Langrange multipliers for the Tresca problem. Numerical experiments conclude the paper.

  6. Conjugate gradient type algorithms for frictional multi-contact problems: applications to granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Renouf, Mathieu; Alart, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents gradient type algorithms to solve frictional multi contact problems written as quasi optimization problems. A single loop scheme formally close to the classical conjugate gradient method is proposed with some adap tations of the iterate corrections and gradient projections. Since the convergence is difficult to prove, various tests in the field of granular media are performed with comparison with the non linear Gauss Seidel scheme.

  7. Understanding the effects of inter-particle contact friction on the elastic moduli of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, K.; Kumar, N.; Magnanimo, V.; Luding, S.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanical stiffness of closely packed, dense granular systems is of interest in many fields, such as soil mechanics, material science and physics. The main difficulty arises due to discreteness and disorder in granular materials at the microscopic scale which requires a multi-scale approach. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is a powerful tool to inspect the influence of the microscopic contact properties of its individual constituents on the bulk behavior of granular assemblies. In this study, the isotropic deformation mode of polydisperse packings of frictionless and frictional spheres are modeled by using DEM, to investigate the effective stiffness of the granular assembly. At various volume fractions, for every sample, we determine the stress and fabric incremental response that result from the application of strain-probes. As we are interested first in the reversible, elastic response, the amplitude of the applied perturbations has to be small enough to avoid opening and closing of too many contacts, which would lead to irreversible rearrangements in the sample. Counterintuitively, with increasing inter-particle contact friction, the bulk modulus decreases systematically with the coefficient of friction for samples with the same volume fraction. We explain this by the difference in microstructure (isotropic fabric) the samples get when compressed to the same density.

  8. Computational Studies of Hard Disks: Contact Percolation, Fragility, Frictional Families and Basin Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianqi

    This thesis presents four computational and theoretical studies of the structural, mechanical, and vibrational properties of purely repulsive disks, dimer-, and ellipse-shaped particles with and without friction. The first study investigated the formation of interparticle contact networks below jamming onset at packing fraction φJ, where the pressure of the system becomes nonzero. We generated ensembles of static packings of frictionless disks over a range of packing fraction. We find that the network of interparticle contacts forms a system spanning cluster at a critical packing fraction φP missing contacts relative to the isostatic value N0c We show that the probability Pm(micro) to obtain a static packing with m missing contacts at micro can be expressed as a power series in micro. Using Pm(micro), we find that the average contact number versus micro agrees quantitatively with that from simulations of the Cundall-Strack model for frictional disks. In the final project, we performed calculations of the structure of the basin volumes of mechanically stable packings in configuration space as a function packing fraction. Using the basin volumes, we show that the probability to obtain a given MS packing depends strongly on the packing fraction of the initial configuration.

  9. Influence of the Tool Shoulder Contact Conditions on the Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doude, Haley R.; Schneider, Judy A.; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2014-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSWing) is a solid-state joining process of special interest in joining alloys that are traditionally difficult to fusion weld. In order to optimize the process, various numeric modeling approaches have been pursued. Of importance to furthering modeling efforts is a better understanding of the contact conditions between the workpiece and the weld tool. Both theoretical and experimental studies indicate the contact conditions between the workpiece and weld tool are unknown, possibly varying during the FSW process. To provide insight into the contact conditions, this study characterizes the material flow in the FSW nugget by embedding a lead (Pb) wire that melted at the FSWing temperature of aluminum alloy 2195. The Pb trace provided evidence of changes in material flow characteristics which were attributed to changes in the contact conditions between the weld tool and workpiece, as driven by temperature, as the tool travels the length of a weld seam.

  10. Ultrasonic Friction Reduction in Elastomer - Metal Contacts and Application to Pneumatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, The Minh; Twiefel, Jens

    Ultrasonic friction reduction is well known in metal-metal contacts. Due to the vibration, the stick phase in the contact phase vanishes and only sliding occurs. As long as the macroscopic relative velocity of the contact partners is much lower than vibration velocity, the necessary force to move the parts tends to (nearly) zero. If the effect also exists in material combinations with a significant difference in stiffness and damping characteristic has not been investigated in the past. This contribution shows the effect for various material combinations, which are typical for sealings in pneumatic actuators. Further, a novel integrated transducer design for a pneumatic actuator is presented. In this design the transducer also acts as moving part within the pneumatic actuator. The design challenges are the two contact areas on the moving part, where the friction reduction and consequently high vibration amplitudes are needed. The first area is fixed on the transducer geometry, the other is moving along the piston. This novel design has been implemented in the laboratory; detailed experimental results are presented in this contribution.

  11. Elastic contact conditions to optimize friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi Kurosawa, M; Takahashi, M; Higuchi, T

    1998-01-01

    The optimum pressing force, namely the preload, for a slider to obtain superior operation conditions in a surface acoustic wave motor have been examined. We used steel balls as sliders. The preload was controlled using a permanent magnet. The steel balls were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm diameter, with the differences in diameter making it possible to change contact conditions, such as the contact pressure, contact area, and deformation of the stator and the slider. The stator transducer was lithium niobate, 128 degrees rotated, y-cut x-propagation substrate. The driving frequency of the Rayleigh wave was about 10 MHz. Hence, the particle vibration amplitude at the surface is as small as 10 nm. For superior friction drive conditions, a high contact pressure was required. For example, in the case of the 1 mm diameter steel ball at the sinusoidal driving voltage of 180 V(peak), the slider speed was 43 cm/sec, the thrust output force was 1 mN, and the acceleration was 23 times as large as the gravitational acceleration at a contact pressure of 390 MPa. From the Hertz theory of contact stress, the contact area radius was only 3 microm. The estimation of the friction drive performance was carried out from the transient traveling distance of the slider in a 3 msec burst drive. As a result, the deformation of the stator and the slider by the preload should be half of the vibration amplitude. This condition was independent of the ball diameter and the vibration amplitude. The output thrust per square millimeter was 50 N, and the maximum speed was 0.7 m/sec. From these results, we conclude that it is possible for the surface acoustic wave motor to have a large output force, high speed, quick response, long traveling distance, and a thin micro linear actuator.

  12. Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Tailoring of Contact Area for Frictional and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rosenkranz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation of such surface patterns on technical surfaces in order to mimic these biological surfaces and effects. Friction optimization and antibacterial effects by DLIP are exemplarily described. Topographic surface patterns on the micro- and nano-scale demonstrated a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction and bacterial adhesion. It was shown that in both cases, the control of the contact area between surfaces or between surface and bacteria is of utmost importance.

  13. Friction of water on graphene and hexagonal boron nitride from ab initio methods: very different slippage despite very similar interface structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Gabriele; Joly, Laurent; Michaelides, Angelos

    2014-12-10

    Friction is one of the main sources of dissipation at liquid water/solid interfaces. Despite recent progress, a detailed understanding of water/solid friction in connection with the structure and energetics of the solid surface is lacking. Here, we show for the first time that ab initio molecular dynamics can be used to unravel the connection between the structure of nanoscale water and friction for liquid water in contact with graphene and with hexagonal boron nitride. We find that although the interface presents a very similar structure between the two sheets, the friction coefficient on boron nitride is ≈ 3 times larger than that on graphene. This comes about because of the greater corrugation of the energy landscape on boron nitride arising from specific electronic structure effects. We discuss how a subtle dependence of the friction on the atomistic details of a surface, which is not related to its wetting properties, may have a significant impact on the transport of water at the nanoscale, with implications for the development of membranes for desalination and for osmotic power harvesting.

  14. Contact Force Compensated Thermal Stimulators for Holistic Haptic Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-05-01

    We present a contact force compensated thermal stimulator that can provide a consistent tempera- ture sensation on the human skin independent of the contact force between the thermal stimulator and the skin. Previous passive thermal stimulators were not capable of providing a consistent tem- perature on the human skin even when using identical heat source voltage due to an inconsistency of the heat conduction, which changes due to the force-dependent thermal contact resistance. We propose a force-based feedback method that monitors the contact force and controls the heat source voltage according to this contact force, thus providing consistent temperature on the skin. We composed a heat circuit model equivalent to the skin heat-transfer rate as it is changed by the contact forces; we obtained the optimal voltage condition for the constant skin heat-transfer rate independent of the contact force using a numerical estimation simulation tool. Then, in the experiment, we heated real human skin at the obtained heat source voltage condition, and investigated the skin heat transfer-rate by measuring the skin temperature at various times at different levels of contact force. In the numerical estimation results, the skin heat-transfer rate for the contact forces showed a linear profile in the contact force range of 1-3 N; from this profile we obtained the voltage equation for heat source control. In the experimental study, we adjusted the heat source voltage according to the contact force based on the obtained equation. As a result, without the heat source voltage control for the contact forces, the coefficients of variation (CV) of the skin heat-transfer rate in the contact force range of 1-3 N was found to be 11.9%. On the other hand, with the heat source voltage control for the contact forces, the CV of the skin heat-transfer rate in the contact force range of 1-3 N was found to be barely 2.0%, which indicate an 83.2% improvement in consistency compared to the skin heat

  15. Lattice boltzmann study on the contact angle and contact line dynamics of liquid-vapor interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Kwok, Daniel Y

    2004-09-14

    The moving contact line problem of liquid-vapor interfaces was studied using a mean-field free-energy lattice Boltzmann method recently proposed [Phys. Rev. E 2004, 69, 032602]. We have examined the static and dynamic interfacial behaviors by means of the bubble and capillary wave tests and found that both the Laplace equation of capillarity and the dispersion relation were satisfied. Dynamic contact angles followed the general trend of contact line velocity observed experimentally and can be described by Blake's theory. The velocity fields near the interface were also obtained and are in good agreement with fluid mechanics and molecular dynamics studies. Our simulations demonstrated that incorporating interfacial effects into the lattice Boltzmann model can be a valuable and powerful alternative in interfacial studies.

  16. Studi Eksperimental Keausan Permukaan Material Akibat Adanya Multi-Directional Contact Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hasry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait keausan akibat gesekan satu arah dan gesekan dua arah sampai saat ini telah banyak dilakukan, tetapi hanya sedikit yang mengkaji keausan akibat gesekan banyak arah (multi-directional friction, padahal tidak sedikit suatu mekanisme mengakibatkan terjadinya multi-directional contact  friction, seperti pada kontak ban mobil terhadap jalan saat melakukan drifting ataupun pada sistem yang meggunakan ball joint. Data penelitian berupa data keausan merupakan hasil pengujian menggunakan tribometer tipe Pin-on-disk dengan material Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE sebagai pin uji dan material Stainless steel sebagai disk. Pada pengujian, masing-masing pin dan disk bergerak rotasi dan saling kontak permukaan sehingga pada permukaan material terjadi gesekan ke arah yang berubah-ubah sepanjang waktu. Secara garis besar penelitian dilakukan dalam 2 macam, yaitu penelitian keausan akibat gesekan tanpa pelumasan (dry sliding dan dengan pelumasan (wet sliding. Sebagai data pembanding, diambil juga data keausan akibat dari gesekan satu arah, yaitu dengan menggerakkan disk secara rotasi sedangkan pin hanya mengalami pembebanan dan tidak bergerak sama sekali. Permukaan spesimen yang telah diuji selanjutnya diamati struktur permukaannya menggunakan mikroskop optis dengan perbesaran 100 kali. Hasil dari penelitian menyebutkan bahwa gesekan banyak arah (Multi-Directional Friction akan menghasilkan keausan yang lebih besar dibanding gesekan satu arah (Uni-Directional Friction. Material yang mengalami gesekan banyak arah dengan pembebanan statis sebesar 39.2 N dan dengan kecepatan sesaat yang berubah-ubah mulai dari nol sampai 19.546 m/menit, akan mengalami keausan dengan mekanisme abrasi. Berdasarkan penelitian diketahui juga bahwa adanya pelumas memberi pengaruh yang besar dalam mengurangi keausan.

  17. Energy Partition During In-plane Dynamic Rupture on a Frictional Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, A.; Shi, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We study properties of dynamic ruptures and the partition of energy between radiation and dissipative mechanisms using two-dimensional in-plane calculations with the finite element method. The model consists of two identical isotropic elastic media separated by an interface governed by rate- and state-dependent friction. Rupture is initiated by gradually overstressing a localized nucleation zone. Our simulations with model parameters representative of Homalite-100 indicate that different values of parameters controlling the velocity dependence of friction, the strength excess parameter and the length of the nucleation zone, can lead to the following four rupture modes: supershear crack-like rupture, subshear crack-like rupture, subshear single pulse and supershear train of pulses. High initial shear stress and weak velocity dependence of friction favor crack-like ruptures, while the opposite conditions favor the pulse mode. The rupture mode can switch from a subshear single pulse to a supershear train of pulses when the width of the nucleation zone increases. The elastic strain energy released over the same propagation distance by the different rupture modes has the following order: supershear crack, subshear crack, supershear train of pulses and subshear single pulse. The same order applies also to the ratio of kinetic energy (radiation) to total change of elastic energy for the different rupture modes. Decreasing the dynamic coefficient of friction increases the fraction of stored energy that is converted to kinetic energy. In the current study we use model parameters representative of rocks instead of Homalite-100, by modeling recent results of Kilgore et al. (2007) who measured and estimated various energy components in laboratory friction experiments with granite. We are also incorporating into the code ingredients that will allow us to study rupture properties and energy partition for cases with a bimaterial interface and dynamic generation of plastic strain

  18. Measurement of thermal contact resistance at Cu-Cu interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Su; Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon,(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The thermal contact resistance (TCR) is one of the important components in the cryogenic systems. Especially, cryogenic measurement devices using a cryocooler can be affected by TCR because the systems have to consist of several metal components in contact with each other for heat transferring to the specimen without cryogen. Therefore, accurate measurement and understanding of TCR is necessary for the design of cryogenic measurement device using a cryocooler. The TCR occurs at the interface between metals and it can be affected by variable factors, such as roughness of metal surface, contact area and contact pressure. In this study, we designed TCR measurement system at various temperatures using a cryocooler as a heat sink and used steady state method to measure the TCR between metals. The copper is selected as a specimen in the experiment because it is widely used as a heat transfer medium in the cryogenic measurement devices. The TCR between Cu and Cu is measured for various temperatures and contact pressures. The effect of the interfacial materials on the TCR is also investigated.

  19. Study of adhesion and friction properties on a nanoparticle gradient surface: transition from JKR to DMT contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Nalam, Prathima C; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    We have previously investigated the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness by employing a roughness gradient. In this study, we correlate the obtained adhesion forces on nanometer-scale rough surfaces to their frictional properties. A roughness gradient with varying silica particle (diameter ≈ 12 nm) density was prepared, and adhesion and frictional forces were measured across the gradient surface in perfluorodecalin by means of atomic force microscopy with a polyethylene colloidal probe. Similarly to the pull-off measurements, the frictional forces initially showed a reduction with decreasing particle density and later an abrupt increase as the colloidal sphere began to touch the flat substrate beneath, at very low particle densities. The friction-load relation is found to depend on the real contact area (A(real)) between the colloid probe and the underlying particles. At high particle density, the colloidal sphere undergoes large deformations over several nanoparticles, and the contact adhesion (JKR type) dominates the frictional response. However, at low particle density (before the colloidal probe is in contact with the underlying surface), the colloidal sphere is suspended by a few particles only, resulting in local deformations of the colloid sphere, with the frictional response to the applied load being dominated by long-range, noncontact (DMT-type) interactions with the substrate beneath.

  20. The different facets of ice have different hydrophilicities: Friction at water / ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Louden, Patrick B

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that the prismatic and secondary prism facets of ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ crystals possess structural features that can reduce the effective hydrophilicity of the ice/water interface. The spreading dynamics of liquid water droplets on ice facets exhibits long-time behavior that differs for the prismatic $\\{10\\bar{1}0\\}$ and secondary prism $\\{11\\bar{2}0\\}$ facets when compared with the basal $\\{0001\\}$ and pyramidal $\\{20\\bar{2}1\\}$ facets. We also present the results of simulations of solid-liquid friction of the same four crystal facets being drawn through liquid water, and find that the two prismatic facets exhibit roughly half the solid-liquid friction of the basal and pyramidal facets. These simulations provide evidence that the two prismatic faces have a significantly smaller effective surface area in contact with the liquid water. The ice / water interfacial widths for all four crystal facets are similar (using both structural and dynamic measures), and were found to be independent of the...

  1. FRICTIONAL CONTACT MULTIPOLE-BEM AND 3-D ANALYSIS OF SCREWPAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiumin; Shen Guangxian; Liu Deyi

    2004-01-01

    The 3-D traction field in the pressure screw-pair of a 3 500 heavy and medium plate mill press down system is successfully calculated by applying the 3-D frictional contact multipole-BEM and the corresponding program that has been developed. The computing results show the medium diameter orientation is unreliable, especially under the interference of an outer force couple. Under such working conditions, the circumferential traction distribution on the screw teeth is extremely uneven, which is the main reason for the destruction and short life time of screw-pairs. When utilizing the same precision (the relative tolerance is 10×10-5),the mltipole-BEM uses almost the CPU time as used by the FEM,but the needed computer menory size is only one eighieth of that needed by the FEM(10 MB vs.800 MB).The multipole-BEM is well suited for computing large-scale engineering problems.

  2. Surface chemistry, friction, and wear of Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis were used in sliding friction experiments. These experiments were conducted with hot-pressed polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites, and single-crystal Mn-Zn ferrite in contact with various transition metals at room temperature in both vacuum and argon. The results indicate that Ni2O3 and Fe3O4 were present on the Ni-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents, while MnO2 and Fe3O4 were present on the Mn-Zn ferrite surface in addition to the nominal bulk constituents. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites in contact with metals were related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites were correlated with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite does strengthen the metal-ferrite contact and increase the friction. The ferrites exhibit local cracking and fracture with sliding under adhesive conditions. All the metals transferred to the surfaces of the ferrites in sliding. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19901

  3. Characteristics of dry friction backward whirl—A self-excited oscillation in rotor-to-stator contact systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the response characteristics of dry friction backward whirl of a general rotor/stator model,which accounts for both the dynamics of the rotor and the stator as well as the friction and the deformation at the contact surfaces,are investigated.The existence boundaries and the whirl frequencies of the dry friction backward whirl are determined analytically.It is found that there are two or three existence boundaries of the dry friction backward whirl that usually form two existence regions,either standing completely separately,or overlapping each other partly,or one containing the other completely,depending upon the system parameters.The whirl frequencies in the two existence regions are quite different and may jump between the lower and the higher values with the variation of the rotating speed.The results have been found to have good correspondence in the related rotor/stator rubbing experiments.

  4. Friction and wear of single-crystal and polycrystalline maganese-zinc ferrite in contact with various metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal (SCF) and hot-pressed polycrystalline (HPF) manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with various metals. Results indicate that the coefficients of friction for SCF and HPF are related to the relative chemical activity of those metals in high vacuum. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for both SCF and HPF were the same and much higher in vacuum than in argon at atmospheric pressure. All the metals tested transferred to the surface of both SCF and HPF in sliding. Both SCF and HPF exhibited cracking and fracture with sliding. Cracking in SCF is dependent on crystallographic characteristics. In HPF, cracking depends on the orientation of the individual crystallites.

  5. Contact resistance of ceramic interfaces between materials used for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, S.

    2002-01-01

    The contact resistance can be divided into two main contributions. The small area of contact between ceramic components results in resistance due to current constriction. Resistive phases or potential barriers at the interface result in an interface contribution to the contact resistance, which may be smaller or larger than the constriction resistance. The contact resistance between pairs of three different materials were analysed (strontium doped lanthanum manganite, yttria stabilised zirconia and strontium and nickel doped lanthanum cobaltite), and the effects of temperature, atmosphere, polarisation and mechanical load on the contact resistance were investigated. The investigations revealed that the mechanical load of a ceramic contact has a high influence on the contact resistance, and generally power law dependence between the contact resistance and the mechanical load was found. The influence of the mechanical load on the contact resistance was ascribed to an area effect. The contact resistance of the investigated materials was dominated by current constriction at high temperatures. The measured contact resistance was comparable to the resistance calculated on basis of the contact areas found by optical and electron microscopy. At low temperatures, the interface contribution to the contact resistance was dominating. The cobaltite interface could be described by one potential barrier at the contact interface, whereas the manganite interfaces required several consecutive potential barriers to model the observed behaviour. The current-voltage behaviour of the YSZ contact interfaces was only weakly non-linear, and could be described by 22{+-}1 barriers in series. Contact interfaces with sinterable contact layers were also investigated, and the measured contact resistance for these interfaces were more than 10 times less than for the other interfaces. (au)

  6. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of a Dynamic Viscoelastic Contact Problem with Normal Compliance, Normal Damped Response, and Nonmonotone Slip Rate Dependent Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Barboteu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.

  8. Effect of Interface Modified by Graphene on the Mechanical and Frictional Properties of Carbon/Graphene/Carbon Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Ruiying Luo; Zhenhua Hou

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we developed an interface modified by graphene to simultaneously improve the mechanical and frictional properties of carbon/graphene/carbon (C/G/C) composite. Results indicated that the C/G/C composite exhibits remarkably improved interfacial bonding mode, static and dynamic mechanical performance, thermal conductivity, and frictional properties in comparison with those of the C/C composite. The weight contents of carbon fibers, graphene and pyrolytic carbon are 31.6, 0.3 and 68...

  9. Analytical and experimental investigation of the static friction regime for rubber-rigid ball contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.; Rooij, de M.B.; Vries, de E.G; Schipper, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The static friction regime is of great importance for systems requiring accurate positioning. The parameters of the static friction regime in terms of static friction force and limiting displacement before gross sliding are investigated for a rubber ball/metal flat configuration. Single-asperity fri

  10. Analytical and experimental investigation of the static friction regime for rubber-rigid ball contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; de Vries, Erik G.; de Vries, E.G; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    The static friction regime is of great importance for systems requiring accurate positioning. The parameters of the static friction regime in terms of static friction force and limiting displacement before gross sliding are investigated for a rubber ball/metal flat configuration. Single-asperity fri

  11. The analysis of the influence of the material antifrictional layer frictional properties on the parameters of the spherical bearing contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskikh, A. A.; Trufanov, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents data on the influence of the frictional properties of a material antifrictional layer on the parameters of the spherical bearing contact zone. The dependences of the friction coefficient from the load were obtained as a result of the study. Series of numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the frictional properties of a materials contact pair in the work. Regularities of the relative contact pressure and relative contact tangential stress were obtained for seven variants of the load-friction coefficient for the spherical bearing with a layer of modified fluoroplastic. The study puts emphasis on the fact that that adhesion area of the contact surface is reduced and the load is increased taking into account the fact that the friction properties of the layer has been fixed in the study.

  12. Finite element modeling of the contact interface between trans-tibial residual limb and prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Xiaohong; Cheung, Jason T M

    2004-10-01

    Finite element method has been identified as a useful tool to understand the load transfer mechanics between a residual limb and its prosthetic socket. This paper proposed a new practical approach in modeling the contact interface with consideration of the friction/slip conditions and pre-stresses applied on the limb within a rectified socket. The residual limb and socket were modeled as two separate structures and their interactions were simulated using automated contact methods. Some regions of the limb penetrated into the socket because of socket modification. In the first step of the simulation, the penetrated limb surface was moved onto the inner surface of the socket and the pre-stresses were predicted. In the subsequent loading step, pre-stresses were kept and loadings were applied at the knee joint to simulate the loading during the stance phase of gait. Comparisons were made between the model using the proposed approach and the model having an assumption that the shape of the limb and the socket were the same which ignored pre-stress. It was found that peak normal and shear stresses over the regions where socket undercuts were made reduced and the stress values over other regions raised in the model having the simplifying assumption.

  13. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Rashed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  14. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gamal Rashed; Syd S. Peng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H) ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  15. Frictional behaviors of some nitrogen ceramics in conformal contact with tin coated Al-Si alloy, steel and MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Fine, M. E.

    1994-07-01

    The frictional behavior of certain nitrogen-containing ceramics, such as silicon nitride, alpha sialons, and beta sialons as journal materials were studied in conformal contact with a tin-coated Al-Si alloy (Al-Si/Sn), forged 1141 steel and a cast aluminum matrix composite with silicon carbide reinforcement (cast metal matrix composites (MMC)) as bearing materials while lubricated with SAE 10W30. A case-hardened 1016 steel was also tested with the Al-Si/Sn and cast MMC bearings under the same conditions. The friction values of the ceramic and the steel journal wear pairs were compared and their frictional behaviors were evaluated. Silicon nitride and one of the beta sialons exhibited higher load-supporting capacities than the others when they were in contact with the 1141 steel bearings. The journal surface roughness was found to be very important when the journals were in contact with the Al-Si/Sn bearings. The frictional behavior of the ceramics and cast MMC pairs and the steel and cast MMC pairs were controlled by different wear machanisms, namely for the former, hard particle pull-out and matrix plowing, and for the latter, iron transfer from the journal to the cast MMC bearing surface.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Frictional Contact between an Aircraft Tire Rubber and a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of an aircraft tire in contact with a rough surface using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and contact pressure. A sliding facility was used in order to evaluate this dependence of the friction coefficient. The temperature diffusion throughout the tire cross-section was measured by means of thermocouples. Both frictional heating and temperature diffusion were compared to numerical two- and three- dimensional simulations. An adequate temperature prediction could be obtained. In future simulations, wear should be taken into account in order to have a more accurate simulation especially in the case of high pressures and slipping velocities. A 3D finite element model for a rolling tire at a velocity of 37.79 knots (19.44 m/s and in a cornering phase was investigated using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and pressure. The numerical simulation tended to predict the temperature of the tire tread after a few seconds of rolling in skidding position, the temperature of the contact zone increases to 140 °C. Further investigations must be carried out in order to obtain the evolution of the temperature observed experimentally. The authors would like to point out that for confidentiality reasons, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  17. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Mbamara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-face surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. Both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.

  18. Friction and metal transfer for single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with transition metals (tungsten, iron, rhodium, nickel, titanium, and cobalt), copper, and aluminum. Results indicate the coefficient of friction for a silicon carbide-metal system is related to the d bond character and relative chemical activity of the metal. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of silicon carbide in sliding. The chemical activity of metal to silicon and carbon and shear modulus of the metal may play important roles in metal transfer and the form of the wear debris. The less active and greater resistance to shear the metal has, with the exception of rhodium and tungsten, the less transfer to silicon carbide.

  19. Friction and slip at solid/liquid interface in vibrational systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study frictional slip and its influence on energy dissipation and momentum transfer at atomically smooth solid/water interfaces. By modifying surface chemistry, we investigate the relationship between slip and the mechanical response of a vibrating solid for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. We discover physical phenomena that emerge at high frequencies and that have significant contributions to energy dissipation. A new analytical model is developed to describe mechanical response of the resonators in this high frequency regime, which is relevant in such applications as MEMS-based biosensors. We find a linear relationship between the slip length and the ratio of the damping rate shift to resonant frequency shift, which provides a new way to obtain information about slip length from experiments.

  20. Effect of Interface Modified by Graphene on the Mechanical and Frictional Properties of Carbon/Graphene/Carbon Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we developed an interface modified by graphene to simultaneously improve the mechanical and frictional properties of carbon/graphene/carbon (C/G/C composite. Results indicated that the C/G/C composite exhibits remarkably improved interfacial bonding mode, static and dynamic mechanical performance, thermal conductivity, and frictional properties in comparison with those of the C/C composite. The weight contents of carbon fibers, graphene and pyrolytic carbon are 31.6, 0.3 and 68.1 wt %, respectively. The matrix of the C/G/C composite was mainly composed of rough laminar (RL pyrocarbon. The average hardness by nanoindentation of the C/G/C and C/C composite matrices were 0.473 and 0.751 GPa, respectively. The flexural strength (three point bending, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS, interfacial debonding strength (IDS, internal friction and storage modulus of the C/C composite were 106, 10.3, 7.6, 0.038 and 12.7 GPa, respectively. Those properties of the C/G/C composite increased by 76.4%, 44.6%, 168.4% and 22.8%, respectively, and their internal friction decreased by 42.1% in comparison with those of the C/C composite. Owing to the lower hardness of the matrix, improved fiber/matrix interface bonding strength, and self-lubricating properties of graphene, a complete friction film was easily formed on the friction surface of the modified composite. Compared with the C/C composite, the C/G/C composite exhibited stable friction coefficients and lower wear losses at simulating air-plane normal landing (NL and rejected take-off (RTO. The method appears to be a competitive approach to improve the mechanical and frictional properties of C/C composites simultaneously.

  1. Determination of time-varying contact length, friction force, torque and forces at the bearings in a helical gear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Chinmaya; Mohanty, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with determining various time-varying parameters that are instrumental in introducing noise and vibration in a helical gear system. The most important parameter is the contact line variation, which subsequently induces friction force variation, frictional torque variation and variation in the forces at the bearings. The contact line variation will also give rise to gear mesh stiffness and damping variations. All these parameters are simulated for a defect-free and two defective cases of a helical gear system. The defective cases include one tooth missing and two teeth missing in the helical gear. The algorithm formulated in this paper is found to be simple and effective in determining the time-varying parameters.

  2. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-06-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  3. a Development of Multi Purpose Testing Machine for Friction, Wear and Rolling Contact Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gab-Su; Pyun, Young-Sik; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Kim, Hak-Doo; Tominaga, Yasutoshi; Darisuren, Shirmendagwa

    In this paper, the newly developed tribometer was introduced. Ball-on-disk, pin-on-disk, small-sized journal and thrust bearings tests on friction and wear were carried out using a newly developed tribometer which is built up according to the ASTM G99. Those friction and wear test results were compared with the friction results which were approved by Korean (KOLAS) and CSM Instruments. The comparison revealed that friction characteristics and trends of three different tribometers were similar to each other. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the newly developed tribometer. As a result, the newly developed tribometer is capable of performing friction tests using pin-on-disk, disk-on-disk, journal and thrust bearings configurations.

  4. Microscopic and Macroscopic Dynamic Interface Shapes and the Interpretation of Dynamic Contact Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramé; Garoff

    1996-01-15

    We have studied shapes of dynamic fluid interfaces at distances contact line at capillary numbers (Ca) ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-1). Near the moving contact line where viscous deformation is important, an analysis valid to O(1) in Ca describes the shape of the fluid interface. Static capillarity should describe the interface shape far from the contact line. We have quantitatively determined the extent of the regions described by the analysis with viscous deformation and by a static shape as a function of Ca. We observe a third portion of the interface between the two regions cited above, which is not described by either the analysis with viscous deformation or a static shape. In this third region the interface shape is controlled by viscous and gravitational forces of comparable magnitude. We detect significant viscous deformation even far from the contact line at Ca approximately > 0.01. Our measured dynamic contact angle parameter extracted by fitting the analysis with viscous deformation to the shape near the moving contact line coincides with the contact angle of the static-like shape far from the contact line. We measure and explain the discrepancy between this dynamic contact angle parameter and the apparent contact angles based on meniscus or apex heights. Our observations of viscous effects at large distances from the contact line have implications for dynamic contact angle measurements in capillary tubes.

  5. Wear mechanism of heavy load friction contact pairs in tracked vehicle by combined ferrography and surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHU You-li; HUANG Yuan-lin; XU Bin-shi; LI Xiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    Ferrography is deemed as one of the most effective methods for wear particle analysis and failure diagnosis. By analyzing the configuration, content and composition of wear particles in the lubricanting grease and the surface state of the worn surface with combined ferrography and surface analysis techniques, the wear mechanism of the ball groove of the master clutch's release device of a heavy load tracked vehicle was determined. Results show that the controlling wear mechanism is combined of abrasion, adhesion, contact fatigue and corrosion wear, which demonstrates the effectiveness of using combined ferrography and worn surface analysis for the study of wear mechanism of contact surface with friction.

  6. Evaluation of Contact Friction in Fracture of Rotationally Bent Nitinol Endodontic Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimed, Tariq Abu

    2011-12-01

    The high flexibility of rotary Nitinol (Ni-Ti) files has helped clinicians perform root canal treatments with fewer technical errors than seen with stainless steel files. However, intracanal file fracture can occur, compromising the outcome of the treatment. Ni-Ti file fracture incidence is roughly around 4% amongst specialists and higher amongst general practitioners. Therefore, eliminating or reducing this problem should improve patient care. The aim of this project was to isolate and examine the role of friction between files and the canal walls of the glass tube model, and bending-related maximum strain amplitudes, on Ni-Ti file lifetimes-tofracture in the presence of different irrigant solutions and file coatings. A specifically designed device was used to test over 300 electropolished EndoSequenceRTM Ni-Ti files for number of cycles to failure (NCF) in smooth, bent glass tube models at 45 and 60 degrees during dry, coated and liquid-lubricated rotation at 600rpm. Fractured files were examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) afterwards. Four different file sizes 25.04, 25.06, 35.04, 35.06 (diameter in mm/taper %) and six surface modification conditions were used independently. These conditions included, three solutions; (1) a surfactant-based solution, Surface-Active-Displacement-Solution (SADS), (2) a mouth wash proven to remove biofilms, Delmopinol 1%(DEL), and (3) Bleach 6% (vol.%), the most common antibacterial endodontic irrigant solution. The conditions also included two low-friction silane-based coating groups, 3-Hepta-fluoroisopropyl-propoxymethyl-dichlorosilane (3-HEPT) and Octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS), in addition to an as-received file control group (Dry). The coefficient of friction (CF) between the file and the canal walls for each condition was measured as well as the surface tension of the irrigant solutions and the critical surface tension of the coated and uncoated files by contact angle measurements. The radius of curvature and

  7. Rolling Friction Torque in Ball-Race Contacts Operating in Mixed Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rodica D. Bălan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a theoretical model and an experimental methodology for defining the friction torque for lubricated conditions in a modified thrust ball bearing having only three balls, the authors experimentally investigated the influence of the lubricant parameter Λ on friction torque for mixed IVR (isoviscous rigid and EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions. The experiments were conducted using ball diameters of 3 mm, 3.97 mm and 6.35 mm loaded at 0.125 N, 0.400 N and 0.633 N. Two oils of viscosity 0.08 Pa·s and 0.05 Pa·s were used and rotational speed was varied in the range 60–210 rpm to obtain a lubricant parameter Λ varying between 0.3 and 3.2. The experiments confirmed that the measured friction torque can be explained using hydrodynamic rolling force relationships respecting the transition from an IVR to an EHL lubrication regime.

  8. Friction of mixed and single-component aromatic monolayers in contacts of different adhesive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruths, M

    2006-02-09

    Friction force microscopy has been used to study single-component and mixed self-assembled monolayers of aminothiophenol and thiophenol on gold. The friction forces and transition pressures of mixed monolayers were intermediate to the ones of single-component monolayers, and varied systematically with composition. The strength of the adhesion was altered by working in dry N2 gas or in ethanol. In all systems studied, low adhesion (in ethanol) resulted in a linear dependence of the friction on load already at low loads, whereas high adhesion (in dry N2) gave an apparent area-dependence. However, for a given monolayer composition, similar transition pressures were observed in dry N2 and in ethanol, suggesting that the overall monolayer structure was not strongly altered by the presence of ethanol. Similar observations were made for very close-packed monolayers of octadecanethiol.

  9. Analysis of a class of thermal frictional contact problem for the Norton-Hoff fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Messelmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the static flow of aNorton-Hoff fluid whose viscosity depends on the temperature, and with mixedboundary conditions, including friction. The latter is modelled by ageneral velocity dependent dissipation functional and the temperature. We derive a weak formulation of the coupled system of the equation of motion and the energy equation, consisting of a variational inequality for the velocity field. We prove the existence of a weak solution of the model using compactness, monotonicity, $L^{1}$-Data theory and a fixed point argument. In the asymptotic limit case of a high thermal conductivity, the temperature becomes a constant solving an implicit total energy equation involving the viscosity function and the subdifferential friction. Finally, we describe a number of concrete thermal friction conditions.

  10. Experimental investigation of high temperature thermal contact resistance with interface material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Thermal contact resistance plays a very important role in heat transfer efficiency and thermomechanical coupling response between two materials,and a common method to reduce the thermal contact resistance is to fill a soft interface material between these two materials.A testing system of high temperature thermal contact resistance based on INSTRON 8874 is established in the present paper,which can achieve 600 C at the interface.Based on this system,the thermal contact resistance between superalloy GH600 ma...

  11. Rolling–Sliding Laboratory Tests of Friction Modifiers in Leaf Contaminated Wheel–Rail Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Arias-Cuevas, O.; Lewis, R.; Gallardo-Hernández, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf-related adhesion problems have been present in many railway networks all over the world in the last few decades. Since the early 1970s many measures have been undertaken in order to mitigate the problem. One of the measures adopted by many railway networks is the use of friction modifiers. Howe

  12. Enhanced Locomotion Efficiency of a Bio-inspired Walking Robot using Contact Surfaces with Frictional Anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged...

  13. Evaluation of sliding friction and contact mechanics of elastomers based on dynamic-mechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, André; Yang, Xin; Klüppel, Manfred

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents a combined experimental and theoretical approach to the understanding of hysteresis and adhesion contributions to rubber friction on dry and lubricated rough surfaces. Based on a proper analysis of the temperature- and frequency-dependent behaviors of nonlinear viscoelastic materials such as filler reinforced elastomer materials, master curves for the viscoelastic moduli are constructed. It is shown that the classical williams-Landel-Ferry equation cannot be applied in its simple form, but needs the introduction of an energy term describing the temperature dependency of glassy polymer bridges, which transmit the forces within flocculated filler clusters. The activation energy for carbon black and silica-filled elastomers is compared based on two different evaluation methods. The obtained dynamic data are shown to be related to a different friction behavior of elastomers regarding the two filler systems. Theoretical predictions of the stationary frictional behavior of the systems are in fair agreement with the experimental friction data at low sliding velocities. It is found that the formulated adhesion plays a dominant role on rough dry surfaces within this range of velocities.

  14. WEAR OF THE FRICTION SURFACES PARTS IN THE PRESENSE OF SOLID PARTICLES CONTACTING ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Musaibov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of intensity of wear of details of the cars working in the oil polluted by abrasive particles, depending on mechanical properties of material of details and abrasive particles, their sizes, a form and concentration, loading, temperature of a surface of friction, speed of sliding, quality of lubricant are considered. 

  15. Barrier inhomogeneities and interface states of metal/4H-SiC Schottky contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingqin; Geiod, Rechard; Wang, Dejun

    2016-12-01

    The barrier and interface states of Ti, Mo, Ni, and Pt contacts to 4H-SiC were investigated. It is found that the barrier heights for all the contacts are Gaussianly distributed and the barrier inhomogeneity varies with the contact metal type. However, the energy-averaged interface states density in the band gap is metal-insensitive. When considering Gaussian distribution, the interface states density extracted from the electrical properties is consistent with the average density of Gaussianly distributed 4H-SiC surface states, indicating that the barrier inhomogeneities at metal/SiC contacts mainly originate from the spatial variation of surface states on SiC surface. The barrier height and barrier inhomogeneity could be modulated by the contact metal, obeying the barrier height theory of Cowley and Sze.

  16. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMO-MECHANICAL FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪武; 韩炜; 陈金涛; 段庆林

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of variational principles for numerical simulation of heat transfer and contact analyses are respectively presented. A finite element model for numerical simulation of the thermal contact problems is developed with a pressure dependent heat transfer constitutive model across the contact surface. The numerical algorithm for the finite element analysis of the thermomechanical contact problems is thus developed. Numerical examples are computed and the results demonstrate the validity of the model and algorithm developed.

  17. A substitute model of two-dimensional dry friction exposed to dither generated by rolling contact of wheel and rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy

    2012-10-01

    Dither generated by rolling contact of wheel and rail smoothes dry friction damping provided by the primary suspension dampers of freight wagons and it should be taken into account in numerical simulations. But numerically the problem is non-smooth and this leads to long execution time during simulation, especially when the vehicle with friction dampers is modelled in the environment of an multi-body system simulation program, whose solver has to cope with many strong non-linearities. The other difficulty is the necessity of handling within the code a number of big volume files of recorded dither sampled with high frequency. To avoid these difficulties, a substitute model of two-dimensional dry friction exposed to dither is proposed that does not need application of dither during simulation, but it behaves as if dither were applied. Due to this property of the model, the excitation of the vehicle model by track irregularities may be supplied as low-frequency input, which allows fast execution and, the necessity of handling high-volume files of recorded dither is avoided. The substitute model is numerically effective. To identify parameters of the substitute model, a pre-processing employing a sample of the realistic dither is carried-out on a simple two-degrees-of-freedom system. The substitute model is anisotropic, describing anisotropic properties of the two-dimensional friction arising in the presence of one-dimensional dither. The model may be applied in other branches of engineering, for example, in mechatronics and robotics, where application of dither may improve the accuracy of positioning devices.

  18. Mixed Nonlinear Complementarity Problems via Nonlinear Optimization: Numerical Results on Multi-Rigid-Body Contact Problems with Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Roberto; Friedlander, Ana; Mello, Margarida P.; Santos, Sandra A.

    2005-06-01

    In this work we show that the mixed nonlinear complementarity problem may be formulated as an equivalent nonlinear bound-constrained optimization problem that preserves the smoothness of the original data. One may thus take advantage of existing codes for bound-constrained optimization. This approach is implemented and tested by means of an extensive set of numerical experiments, showing promising results. The mixed nonlinear complementarity problems considered in the tests arise from the discretization of a motion planning problem concerning a set of rigid 3D bodies in contact in the presence of friction. We solve the complementarity problem associated with a single time frame, thus calculating the contact forces and accelerations of the bodies involved.

  19. Sugary interfaces mitigate contact damage where stiff meets soft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee Young; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Huang, Jun; Hennebert, Elise; Kim, Sangsik; Rho, Sangchul; Foo, Mathias; Flammang, Patrick; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Daehee; Waite, J. Herbert; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-06-01

    The byssal threads of the fan shell Atrina pectinata are non-living functional materials intimately associated with living tissue, which provide an intriguing paradigm of bionic interface for robust load-bearing device. An interfacial load-bearing protein (A. pectinata foot protein-1, apfp-1) with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-containing and mannose-binding domains has been characterized from Atrina's foot. apfp-1 was localized at the interface between stiff byssus and the soft tissue by immunochemical staining and confocal Raman imaging, implying that apfp-1 is an interfacial linker between the byssus and soft tissue, that is, the DOPA-containing domain interacts with itself and other byssal proteins via Fe3+-DOPA complexes, and the mannose-binding domain interacts with the soft tissue and cell membranes. Both DOPA- and sugar-mediated bindings are reversible and robust under wet conditions. This work shows the combination of DOPA and sugar chemistry at asymmetric interfaces is unprecedented and highly relevant to bionic interface design for tissue engineering and bionic devices.

  20. Low friction slip-rolling contacts. Influences of alternative steels, high performance thin film coatings and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness worldwide, containment provisions for CO{sub 2} emissions in mobility systems and increasing performance requirements the demands on mechanical systems and their materials continuously rise. These high demands require the implementation of new technical approaches, for example of light-weight strategies in automotive powertrains, and directly raise questions about the suitability of the most promising technical solution. Two basic parameters, the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the core fatigue strength of the tooth root, illustrate exemplarily increasing demands on material grades used for gear wheels in automotive powertrains. In addition to light-weight strategies, a reduction in friction and an increase of the fatigue lifetime are two other major development directions to strive the mentioned targets. It is clear that any kind of solution must show an equal application profile, preferably an improvement, compared to the state-of-the-art solutions. For tribological systems, the following paths may offer lower friction and higher load carrying capabilities: 1. Alternative base oils and additives (such as esters, polyglycols), 2. Thin film coatings (e.g. DLC) and/or 3. Novel steel metallurgies. In previous investigations on the slip-rolling resistance of thin film coatings (a-C, ta-C, Zr(C,N)) the substrates were mainly made of the bearing steels 100Cr6H and Cronidur 30. Applying contact pressures of up to P{sub 0max} = 2.9 GPa (F{sub N} = 2,000 N), the samples were tested up to 10 million load cycles in endurance tests. The aim of the present work is to broaden the research by varying the input parameters. Newly developed engine oil mixtures, high performance thin film coatings and alternative steel solutions are intensively investigated in highly stressed slip-rolling contacts at lubricant temperatures of 120 C. Specifically, in using new steel metallurgies, i.e. the high toughness and high strength steels V300

  1. Interface Profiles near Three-Phase Contact Lines in Electric Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehrle, Juergen; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mugele, Frieder

    2003-01-01

    Long-range electrostatic fields deform the surface profile of a conductive liquid in the vicinity of the contact line. We have investigated the equilibrium profiles by balancing electrostatic and capillary forces locally at the liquid vapor interface. Numerical results show that the contact angle at

  2. Friction and wear characteristics of elastomers in lubricated contact with EALs

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Mohammad; Simmons, Gregory; Prakash, Braham

    2008-01-01

    The friction and wear characteristics of several elastomers have been studied during reciprocating sliding conditions when lubricated with uncontaminated environmentally adapted lubricants and the same lubricants contaminated with moisture. The elastomers studied are Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR), and Fluorocarbon Rubber (FKM). The lubricants used are complex ester and polyol ester as well as both aged and non-aged polyol esters with 5% water con...

  3. Friction Mapping as a Tool for Measuring the Elastohydrodynamic Contact Running-in Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Elastohydrodynamically...state friction coefficient and surface morphology , once the running-in process is complete, does not depend significantly on the ramp direction, nor... morphological changes may also be taking place.1–5 The running-in process has lasting consequences for the operation, efficiency, and failure conditions of the

  4. Interface Profiles near Three-Phase Contact Lines in Electric Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Buehrle, Juergen; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mugele, Frieder

    2003-01-01

    Long-range electrostatic fields deform the surface profile of a conductive liquid in the vicinity of the contact line. We have investigated the equilibrium profiles by balancing electrostatic and capillary forces locally at the liquid vapor interface. Numerical results show that the contact angle at the contact line approaches Young's angle. Simultaneously, the local curvature displays a weak algebraic divergence. Furthermore, we present an asymptotic analytical model, which confirms these re...

  5. The friction and wear of metals and binary alloys in contact with an abrasive grit of single-crystal silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various metals and iron-base binary alloys (alloying elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with single-crystal silicon carbide riders. Results indicate that the coefficient of friction and groove height (corresponding to the wear volume) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. The coefficient of friction and groove height generally decrease with an increase in solute content of binary alloys. A separate correlation exists between the solute to iron atomic radius ratio and the decreasing rates of change of coefficient of friction and groove height with increasing solute content. These rates of change are minimum at a solute to iron radius ratio of unity. They increase as the atomic ratio increases or decreases linearly from unity. The correlations indicate that atomic size is an important parameter in controlling friction and wear of alloys.

  6. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  7. Viscoelastic-damage interface model formulation with friction to simulate the delamination growth in mode II shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.

  8. On the moving contact line singularity: Asymptotics of a diffuse-interface model

    CERN Document Server

    Sibley, David N; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of a solid-liquid-gas system near the three-phase contact line is considered using a diffuse-interface model with no-slip at the solid and where the fluid phase is specified by a continuous density field. Relaxation of the classical approach of a sharp liquid-gas interface and careful examination of the asymptotic behaviour as the contact line is approached is shown to resolve the stress and pressure singularities associated with the moving contact line problem. Various features of the model are scrutinised, alongside extensions to incorporate slip, finite-time relaxation of the chemical potential, or a precursor film at the wall.

  9. Dilatational viscosity of dilute particle-laden fluid interface at different contact angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Sergey V.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a solid spherical particle adsorbed at a flat interface between two immiscible fluids and having arbitrary contact angle at the triple contact line. We derive analytically the flow field corresponding to dilatational surface flow in the case of a large ratio of dynamic shear viscosities of two fluids. Considering a dilute assembly of such particles we calculate numerically the dependence on the contact angle of the effective surface dilatational viscosity particle-laden fluid interface. The effective surface dilatational viscosity is proportional to the size and surface concentration of particles and monotonically increases with the increase in protrusion of particles into the fluid with larger shear viscosity.

  10. Improving the Friction Durability of Magnetic Head-Disk Interfaces by Thin Lubricant Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowear and viscoelasticity were evaluated to study the nanotribological properties of lubricant films of Z-tetraol, D-4OH, and A20H, including their retention and replenishment properties. For A20H and thick Z-tetraol-coated disks, the disk surface partially protrudes, and the phase lag (tan⁡δ increases with friction. This result is consistent with replenishment of the lubricant upon tip sliding. For the D-4OH-coated disk, the tan⁡δ value decreases with tip sliding, similar to the case for the unlubricated disk. The durability of the lubricant-coated magnetic disks was then evaluated by load increase and decrease friction tests. The friction force of the unlubricated disk rapidly increases after approximately 30 reciprocating cycles, regardless of the load. The lubrication state can be estimated by mapping the dependence of friction coefficient on the reciprocating cycle number and load. The friction coefficient can be classified into one of four areas. The lowest friction area constitutes fluid lubrication. The second area constitutes the transition to mixed lubrication. The third area constitutes boundary lubrication. The highest friction of the fourth area results from surface fracture. The boundary lubricating area of the A20H lubricant was wide, because of its good retention and replenishment properties.

  11. Physical ageing of the contact line on colloidal particles at liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz, David M; McGorty, Ryan; Mani, Madhav; Brenner, Michael P; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2011-12-04

    Young's law predicts that a colloidal sphere in equilibrium with a liquid interface will straddle the two fluids, its height above the interface defined by an equilibrium contact angle. This has been used to explain why colloids often bind to liquid interfaces, and has been exploited in emulsification, water purification, mineral recovery, encapsulation and the making of nanostructured materials. However, little is known about the dynamics of binding. Here we show that the adsorption of polystyrene microspheres to a water/oil interface is characterized by a sudden breach and an unexpectedly slow relaxation. The relaxation appears logarithmic in time, indicating that complete equilibration may take months. Surprisingly, viscous dissipation appears to play little role. Instead, the observed dynamics, which bear strong resemblance to ageing in glassy systems, agree well with a model describing activated hopping of the contact line over nanoscale surface heterogeneities. These results may provide clues to longstanding questions on colloidal interactions at an interface.

  12. Waveguide mechanism and design of thermal contact resistance at metal rheologic interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡仕成; 黄明辉; 李晓谦; 钟掘

    2003-01-01

    The main factors and their varied disciplines affecting the heat transfer at the metal rheologic interface were studied from the waveguide mechanism of heat transfer of electrons and phonons, guiding the design of thermal contact resistance through studying the microscale mechanism of heat transfer at the interface. The results show that electron has stronger quantum tunneling effect when the thickness of oxide film is smaller than de Broglie wavelength of electron and the heat conduction of oxide film produces microscale effect. The thickness and nature of oxide film dominate the heat transfer at the metal rheologic interface. The main means to design the interface contact conductance are to control the formation of oxide film as well as the process of machining of roller surface and lubrication of interface.

  13. Particle contact angles at fluid interfaces: pushing the boundary beyond hard uniform spherical colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Michele; Isa, Lucio

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanoparticles at fluid interfaces have been attracting increasing interest in the last few decades as building blocks for materials, as mechanical and structural probes for complex interfaces and as models for two-dimensional systems. The three-phase contact angle enters practically all aspects of the particle behavior at the interface: its thermodynamics (binding energy to the interface), dynamics (motion and drag at the interface) and interactions with the interface (adsorption and wetting). Moreover, many interactions among particles at the interface also strongly depend on the contact angle. These concepts have been extensively discussed for non-deformable, homogeneous and mostly spherical particles, but recent progress in particle synthesis and fabrication has instead moved in the direction of producing more complex micro and nanoscale objects, which can be responsive, deformable, heterogenous and/or anisotropic in shape, surface chemistry and material properties. These new particles have a much greater potential for applications and new science, and the study of their behavior at interfaces has only very recently started. In this paper, we critically review the current state of the art of the experimental methods available to measure the contact angle of micro and nanoparticles at fluid interfaces, indicating their strengths and limitations. We then comment on new particle systems that are currently attracting increasing interest in relation to their adsorption and assembly at fluid interfaces and discuss if and which ones of the current techniques are suited to investigate their properties at interfaces. Based on this discussion, we will finally try to indicate a direction in which new experimental methods should develop in the future to tackle the new challenges posed by the novel types of particles that more and more often are used at interfaces.

  14. Thermal transfer in graphene-interfaced materials: contact resistance and interface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxiong; Gong, Jixuan; Pei, Yongmao; Xu, Zhiping

    2013-04-10

    We investigate here heat transfer across interfaces consisting of single- and few-layer graphene sheets between silicon carbides by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The interfacial thermal conducitivity κI is calculated by considering graphene layers as an interfacial phase. The results indicate that κI decreases with its thickness and heat flux but increases with the environmental temperature. Interface engineering of κI is explored by intercalating molecules between graphene layers. These guest molecules decouple electronic states across the interface, but tune κI slightly, leading to a thermally transparent but electronically insulating interface. These results provide a fundamental understanding in thermal transport across weakly bound interfaces, and design recipes for multifunctional thermal interface materials, composites and thermal management in graphene-based devices.

  15. Interface contact profiles of a novel locking plate and its effect on fracture healing in goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Da-cheng; ZHAO Yu-feng; XING Shu-xing; WANG Ai-min

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interface characteristics of the new-designed locking plate (LP) and limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) and compare the fracture healing between LP and LC-DCP in a goat tibia fracture model.Methods: Eight-hole LP and LC-DCP were applied to fix flesh goat tibiae in a reproducible manner. The average pressure, force and interface contact area were calculated using Fuji prescale pressure sensitive film interposed among the plate and the bone and image analysis system. Eighthole LP and LC-DCP were applied to each tibia in a goat tibia fracture model. The fracture healing was evaluated by X-ray photography at postoperative 8 weeks. The goats were sacrificed at postoperative 12 weeks. Three-point bending test was conducted in the tibiae.Results: The interface contact of LP system was smaller than that ofLC-DCP (P<0.05), while interface contact force of LP system was higher than that of LC-DCP (P<0.05). Radiographs revealed that the fracture line disappeared in the LP group, while the fracture line was visible in DCP group at postoperative 8 weeks. At postoperative 12 weeks, the bending strength and bending load of fractured tibia were higher in LP group than in DCP group, respectively.Conclusion: The new-designed locking plate can significantly decrease the contact area on the bone interface,which further provides better fracture healing than conventional plates.

  16. Contact angle and detachment energy of shape anisotropic particles at fluid-fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, Thriveni G; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2016-09-15

    The three phase contact angle of particles, a measure of its wettability, is an important factor that greatly influences their behaviour at interfaces. It is one of the principal design parameters for potential applications of particles as emulsion/foam stabilizers, functional coatings and other novel materials. In the present work, the effect of size, shape and surface chemistry of particles on their contact angle is investigated using the gel trapping technique, which facilitates the direct visualization of the equilibrium position of particles at interfaces. The contact angle of hematite particles of spherocylindrical, peanut and cuboidal shapes, hematite-silica core-shell and silica shells is reported at a single particle level. The spherocylindrical and peanut shaped particles are always positioned with their major axis parallel to the interface. However, for cuboidal particles at air-water as well as decane-water interfaces, different orientations namely - face-up, edge-up and the vertex-up - are observed. The influence of gravity on the equilibrium position of the colloidal particles at the interface is studied using the hematite-silica core-shell particles and the silica shells. The measured contact angle values are utilized in the calculations of the detachment and surface energies of the hematite particles adsorbed at the interface.

  17. The contact line behaviour of solid-liquid-gas diffuse-interface models

    CERN Document Server

    Sibley, David N; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    A solid-liquid-gas moving contact line is considered through a diffuse-interface model with the classical boundary condition of no-slip at the solid surface. Examination of the asymptotic behaviour as the contact line is approached shows that the relaxation of the classical model of a sharp liquid-gas interface, whilst retaining the no-slip condition, resolves the stress and pressure singularities associated with the moving contact line problem while the fluid velocity is well defined (not multi-valued). The moving contact line behaviour is analysed for a general problem relevant for any density dependent dynamic viscosity and volume viscosity, and for general microscopic contact angle and double well free-energy forms. Away from the contact line, analysis of the diffuse-interface model shows that the Navier--Stokes equations and classical interfacial boundary conditions are obtained at leading order in the sharp-interface limit, justifying the creeping flow problem imposed in an intermediate region in the se...

  18. Heuristic Convergence Rate Improvements of the Projected Gauss-Seidel Method for Frictional Contact Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    In interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating and control slipping between bodies. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifact...... and a minimum map reformulation. The resulting model is called the Projected Gauss–Seidel method. Quantitative research results are presented and can be used as a taxonomy for selecting a suitable heuristic when using the Projected Gauss–Seidel method....

  19. Separation of contact in a sliding system with frictionally excited thermoelastic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voldřich J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The first phase of the thermoelastic instability, which is characterized by a full contact regime, can be modelled using Fourier decomposition and application of an analytical description. However, in case of further increase of instability, a separation of the contact occurs which is more difficult to cover by mathematical means. The contribution deals with numerical simulations of the separation. The problems are topical in connection with the disk brakes design, should we give an example.

  20. Heuristic convergence rate improvements of the projected Gauss-Seidel method for frictional contact problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    In interactive physical simulation, contact forces are applied to prevent rigid bodies from penetrating and control slipping between bodies. Accurate contact force determination is a computationally hard problem. Thus, in practice one trades accuracy for performance. The result is visual artifact...... and a minimum map reformulation. The resulting model is called the Projected Gauss–Seidel method. Quantitative research results are presented and can be used as a taxonomy for selecting a suitable heuristic when using the Projected Gauss–Seidel method....

  1. Universal Aging Mechanism for Static and Sliding Friction of Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Michael; Dietzel, Dirk; Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Grütter, Peter; Schirmeisen, André

    2016-07-01

    The term "contact aging" refers to the temporal evolution of the interface between a slider and a substrate usually resulting in increasing friction with time. Current phenomenological models for multiasperity contacts anticipate that such aging is not only the driving force behind the transition from static to sliding friction, but at the same time influences the general dynamics of the sliding friction process. To correlate static and sliding friction on the nanoscale, we show experimental evidence of stick-slip friction for nanoparticles sliding on graphite over a wide dynamic range. We can assign defined periods of aging to the stick phases of the particles, which agree with simulations explicitly including contact aging. Additional slide-hold-slide experiments for the same system allow linking the sliding friction results to static friction measurements, where both friction mechanisms can be universally described by a common aging formalism.

  2. Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay

    2014-05-08

    Frictional processes entail the rupture of the ensemble of discrete contacts defining a frictional interface. There are a variety of views on how best to describe the onset of dry frictional motion. These range from modelling friction with a single degree of freedom, a 'friction coefficient', to theoretical treatments using dynamic fracture to account for spatial and temporal dynamics along the interface. We investigated the onset of dry frictional motion by performing simultaneous high-speed measurements of the real contact area and the strain fields in the region surrounding propagating rupture tips within the dry (nominally flat) rough interfaces formed by brittle polymer blocks. Here we show that the transition from 'static' to 'dynamic' friction is quantitatively described by classical singular solutions for the motion of a rapid shear crack. We find that these singular solutions, originally derived to describe brittle fracture, are in excellent agreement with the experiments for slow propagation, whereas some significant discrepancies arise as the rupture velocity approaches the Rayleigh wave speed. In addition, the energy dissipated in the fracture of the contacts remains nearly constant throughout the entire range in which the rupture velocity is less than the Rayleigh wave speed, whereas the size of the dissipative zone undergoes a Lorentz-like contraction as the rupture velocity approaches the Rayleigh wave speed. This coupling between friction and fracture is critical to our fundamental understanding of frictional motion and related processes, such as earthquake dynamics.

  3. Micro-mechanical modeling of the cement-bone interface: the effect of friction morphology and material properties on the micromechanical response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the micro-mechanical behavior of the cement–bone interface, the effect of parametric variations of frictional, morphological and material properties on the mechanical response of the cement–bone interface were analyzed using a finite element approach. Finite element

  4. A smart interfacing method based on domain/boundary decomposition for efficient thermo-elasto-viscoplastic damage and contact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Hee; Kim, Sung Jun; Shin, Eui Sup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A smart interfacing method based on domain/boundary decomposition is presented for the non-linear analysis of thermo-elastoviscoplastic damage and contact. The smart interfacing method provides adaptive reinterfacing of the subdomains and the interface as a result of changes in the viscoplasticity and damage level. Since the whole domain is divided into subdomains, interface, and contact interfaces, non-linear analyses of the problems can be localized within a few subdomains and on the contact interfaces. For the continuity constraints on the interface and the contact interfaces, a penalty method is applied to the variational formulations and finite element approximations. By applying suitable solution algorithms and adopting the smart interfacing method, the computational efficiency can be considerably improved. The important features of the proposed method were also evaluated through numerical experiments.

  5. Low temperature friction force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckle, Christopher Gregory

    The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting of a diamond coated AFM tip and diamond-like carbon sample in a nominal sample temperature range of 90 to 275K. The results show that the coefficient of kinetic friction, mu k, has a linear dependence that is monotonically increasing with temperature varying from 0.28 to 0.38. To analyze this data it is necessary to correlate the sample temperature to the interface temperature. A detailed thermal model shows that the sample temperature measured by a macroscopic device can be very different from the temperature at the contact point. Temperature gradients intrinsic to the design of VT, UHV AFMs result in extreme, non-equilibrium conditions with heat fluxes on the order of gigawatts per squared meter through the interface, which produce a discontinuous step in the temperature profile due to thermal boundary impedance. The conclusion from this model is that measurements acquired by VT, UHV AFM, including those presented in this thesis, do not provide meaningful data on the temperature dependence of friction for single-asperities. Plans for future work developing an isothermal AFM capable of the same measurements without the introduction of temperature gradients are described. The experimental results and thermal analysis described in this thesis have been published in the Journal of Applied Physics, "Temperature dependence of single-asperity friction for a diamond on diamondlike carbon interface", J. App. Phys., 107(11):114903, 2010.

  6. Tribological Properties of Silicone Rubber-Based Ceramizable Composites Destined for Wire Covers. Part II. Studies of Ball-on-Plate, Plate-on-Plate and Ring-on-Plate Friction Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anyszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tribological properties of commercially available silicone-based ceramizable composites were studied. Friction forces of three different types of ceramizable composites were measured against three different-shape steel samples. Each friction pair contact was loaded with 15, 30, 45 or 60 N. Conducted studies reveal that tribological behavior of the composites vary considerably depending on the composite type and friction contact. However, friction force was increasing with an increase of the load, which mean that the composites behave accordingly to the classic friction theory.

  7. Analysis of the Thermo-Viscous Effect on Friction and Energy Dissipation in Oil Lubricated Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional thermo-elastohydrodynamic lubrication models of fluid power components. The computational efforts involved in simulation with such models entail that design optimization are to some extend impractical. However, such models are also pursued in theoretical tribology with the aim to study loss and wear...... investigations, due to computational effort, whereby analytical research in loss mechanisms still have certain advantages. In this paper, the thermo-viscous effect of a lubricant is included in an analytical study of the friction and energy dissipation of oil hydraulic thin-films. This analytical study is based...... an influence from the surface temperature gradient on the viscous friction, which id not revealed when applying classical isothermal analysis. The significance of the thermo-viscous effect on friction and energy dissipation is analyzed analytically in order to provide a qualitative insight to the relation...

  8. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  9. Effects of Contact-Line Pinning on the Adsorption of Nonspherical Colloids at Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anna; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of contact-line pinning are well known in macroscopic systems but are only just beginning to be explored at the microscale in colloidal suspensions. We use digital holography to capture the fast three-dimensional dynamics of micrometer-sized ellipsoids breaching an oil-water interface. We find that the particle angle varies approximately linearly with the height, in contrast to results from simulations based on the minimization of the interfacial energy. Using a simple model of the motion of the contact line, we show that the observed coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom is likely due to contact-line pinning. We conclude that the dynamics of colloidal particles adsorbing to a liquid interface are not determined by the minimization of interfacial energy and viscous dissipation alone; contact-line pinning dictates both the time scale and pathway to equilibrium.

  10. IMPROVED COHESIVE ZONE MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN INTERFACE CONTACT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Wang; J.Chen; H.B.Li

    2008-01-01

    An improved interface cohesive zone model is developed for the simulation of inter-face contact,under mixed-mode loading.A new debonding initiation criterion and propagation of debonding law,taking into account the pressure stress influence on contact shear strength,is proposed.The model is implemented in a finite-element program using subroutine VUINTER of ABA QUS Explicit.An edge-notch four-point bending process and laminated vibration damping steel sheet punch forming test are simulated with the improved model in ABAQUS Explicit.The numerical predictions agree satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results.

  11. Interface states, negative differential resistance, and rectification in molecular junctions with transition-metal contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Hugh; Kirczenow, George

    2006-06-01

    We present a theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in molecular junctions where single thiolated organic molecules bridge transition metal nanocontacts whose densities of states have strong d orbital components near the Fermi level. At moderate bias, we find electron transmission between the contacts to be mediated by interface states within the molecular highest-occupied-molecular-orbital-lowest-unoccupied-molecular-orbital gap that arise from hybridization between the thiol-terminated ends of the molecules and the d orbitals of the transition metals. Because these interface states are localized mainly within the metal electrodes, we find their energies to accurately track the electrochemical potentials of the contacts when a variable bias is applied across the junction. We predict resonant enhancement and reduction of the interface state transmission as the applied bias is varied, resulting in negative differential resistance (NDR) in molecular junctions with Pd nanocontacts. We show that these nonlinear phenomena can be tailored by suitably choosing the nanocontact materials: If a Rh electrode is substituted for one Pd contact, we predict enhancement of these NDR effects. The same mechanism is also predicted to give rise to rectification in Pd/molecule/Au junctions. The dependences of the interface state resonances on the orientation of the metal interface, the adsorption site of the molecule, and the separation between the thiolated ends of the molecule and the metal contacts are also discussed.

  12. Atomic Scale Interface Manipulation, Structural Engineering, and Their Impact on Ultrathin Carbon Films in Controlling Wear, Friction, and Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Yeo, Reuben J; Yak, Leonard J K; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Dhand, Chetna; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N; Zhang, Zheng; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Bhatia, Charanjit S

    2016-07-13

    Reducing friction, wear, and corrosion of diverse materials/devices using manipulation to engineer and control the friction, wear, corrosion, and structural characteristics of 0.7-1.7 nm carbon-based films on CoCrPt:oxide-based magnetic media. We demonstrate that when an atomically thin (∼0.5 nm) chromium nitride (CrNx) layer is sandwiched between the magnetic media and an ultrathin carbon overlayer (1.2 nm), it modifies the film-substrate interface, creates various types of interfacial bonding, increases the interfacial adhesion, and tunes the structure of carbon in terms of its sp(3) bonding. These contribute to its remarkable functional properties, such as stable and lowest coefficient of friction (∼0.15-0.2), highest wear resistance and better corrosion resistance despite being only ∼1.7 nm thick, surpassing those of ∼2.7 nm thick current commercial carbon overcoat (COC) and other overcoats in this work. While this approach has direct implications for advancing current magnetic storage technology with its ultralow thickness, it can also be applied to advance the protective and barrier capabilities of other ultrathin materials for associated technologies.

  13. SHEAR FLOQUET WAVES IN MAGNETO-ELECTRO-ELASTIC SOLID WITH PERIODIC INTERFACES OF IMPERFECT CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparyan D.K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the shear waves propagation in magneto-electro-elastic piezo active homogeneous solid of the one-dimensional periodic structure of imperfect contact interfaces. In the framework of the Floquet theory the dispersion equations are obtained defining shear wave frequency pass and gap band structure. For three kinds of imperfect contact conditions the analysis of dispersion relations is presented.

  14. Does p-type ohmic contact exist in WSe2-metal interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Yang, Ruo Xi; Quhe, Ruge; Zhong, Hongxia; Cong, Linxiao; Ye, Meng; Ni, Zeyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Shi, Junjie; Li, Ju; Lu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable metal electrodes in ML/BL WSe2 devices.Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for

  15. Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkhamer, J.F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact

  16. Understanding the fabric of protein crystals: computational classification of biological interfaces and crystal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Guido; Duarte, Jose M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Bliven, Spencer; Somody, Joseph C

    2016-02-15

    Modern structural biology still draws the vast majority of information from crystallography, a technique where the objects being investigated are embedded in a crystal lattice. Given the complexity and variety of those objects, it becomes fundamental to computationally assess which of the interfaces in the lattice are biologically relevant and which are simply crystal contacts. Since the mid-1990s, several approaches have been applied to obtain high-accuracy classification of crystal contacts and biological protein-protein interfaces. This review provides an overview of the concepts and main approaches to protein interface classification: thermodynamic estimation of interface stability, evolutionary approaches based on conservation of interface residues, and co-occurrence of the interface across different crystal forms. Among the three categories, evolutionary approaches offer the strongest promise for improvement, thanks to the incessant growth in sequence knowledge. Importantly, protein interface classification algorithms can also be used on multimeric structures obtained using other high-resolution techniques or for protein assembly design or validation purposes. A key issue linked to protein interface classification is the identification of the biological assembly of a crystal structure and the analysis of its symmetry. Here, we highlight the most important concepts and problems to be overcome in assembly prediction. Over the next few years, tools and concepts of interface classification will probably become more frequently used and integrated in several areas of structural biology and structural bioinformatics. Among the main challenges for the future are better addressing of weak interfaces and the application of interface classification concepts to prediction problems like protein-protein docking.

  17. Creep-Fatigue Cracking Near the Welded Interface in Friction Welding Dissimilar Superalloys INCONEL 718 and MAR-M247

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tra, Tran Hung; Okazaki, Masakazu

    2017-08-01

    A forged INCONEL 718 and a cast MAR-M247 alloy were joined by a friction welding process. The creep-fatigue strength of this joint was investigated. The life of the joint was significantly shorter than that of the base alloys. The joint failed near the interface of the INCONEL 718 side, although the life of INCONEL 718 was longer than that of MAR-M247. To understand this behavior, the stress field in the welding was numerically analyzed using a visco-elastic model. The results suggested that triaxiality in the stress state could be promoted near the welded interface and lead to an acceleration of creep-fatigue crack nucleation.

  18. 轮胎与沥青路面微观摩擦接触特性的分子动力学模拟%Molecular dynamics simulation of micro frictional contact characteristics between tires and asphalt pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤艳; 黄璐; 汪林兵

    2016-01-01

    为了精确表征轮胎与路面微观摩擦接触特性及分子作用力效应,利用分子动力学模拟分析方法建立轮胎(聚异戊二烯)和集料(二氧化硅)三维单体模型和界面接触模型,在纳米尺度上研究轮胎和集料的微观构造和接触特性.模拟结果表明:链状聚异戊二烯分子链为螺旋状结构,分子间隙较大,易产生较大变形,而二氧化硅则为典型脆性材料,表面较为平整;界面接触模型以二氧化硅为固定基底,聚异戊二烯单链在其上匀速滑动,二者间距离为0.5 nm.接触界面摩擦特性模拟结果表明摩擦系数随着速度增加而变小,其变化趋势与实验结果相同,证明模拟结果有效.%To accurately capture micro frictional contact characteristics and intermolecular forces between tires and pavement, the three-dimensional monomer models and the interface contact model of tires represented by isoprene and aggregates represented by silica were established by the molecular dynamics method. The microscopic structure and tire-aggregate contact properties were studied in nanoscale. Simulation results show that polyisoprene molecular chain is in the spiral structure with big molecular gaps, and is easy to generate large deformation under external loading. Conversely, silica is brittle with relatively flat surfaces. In the tie-pavement contact model, silica is the fixed base, and the single-chain polyisoprene is sliding on the top of the silica base at a constant velocity. The surface distance between the silica base and the single-chain polyisoprene is 0. 5 nm. Simulation results of tire-pavement contact show that the friction coefficient decreases with the increase of sliding velocity, and the relationship between the friction coefficient and slid-ing velocity shows good agreement with test results, indicating that molecular dynamics simulation is capable to predict the tire-pavement frictional contact characteristics.

  19. Enhanced Locomotion Efficiency of a Bio-inspired Walking Robot using Contact Surfaces with Frictional Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander; Wörgötter, Florentin; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Spinner, Marlene; Heepe, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Based on the principles of morphological computation, we propose a novel approach that exploits the interaction between a passive anisotropic scale-like material (e.g., shark skin) and a non-smooth substrate to enhance locomotion efficiency of a robot walking on inclines. Real robot experiments show that passive tribologically-enhanced surfaces of the robot belly or foot allow the robot to grip on specific surfaces and move effectively with reduced energy consumption. Supplementing the robot experiments, we investigated tribological properties of the shark skin as well as its mechanical stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged robot locomotion but also provides a better understanding of the functionalities and mechanical properties of anisotropic surfaces. That understanding will assist developing new types of material for other real-world applications.

  20. Enhanced Locomotion Efficiency of a Bio-inspired Walking Robot using Contact Surfaces with Frictional Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander; Wörgötter, Florentin; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Spinner, Marlene; Heepe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principles of morphological computation, we propose a novel approach that exploits the interaction between a passive anisotropic scale-like material (e.g., shark skin) and a non-smooth substrate to enhance locomotion efficiency of a robot walking on inclines. Real robot experiments show that passive tribologically-enhanced surfaces of the robot belly or foot allow the robot to grip on specific surfaces and move effectively with reduced energy consumption. Supplementing the robot experiments, we investigated tribological properties of the shark skin as well as its mechanical stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged robot locomotion but also provides a better understanding of the functionalities and mechanical properties of anisotropic surfaces. That understanding will assist developing new types of material for other real-world applications. PMID:28008936

  1. NUMERICAL MODELING AND INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT FRICTION INFLUENCE ON THERMAL FIELDS DISTRIBUTION AND DEFLECTED MODE IN STEEL WIRE AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vereshchagin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The appraisal of  character of  the temperature fields distribution in dies at their interactions in the processes of  wire drawing in dependence on contact friction in conditions of  the system wire-die is given.

  2. Method for characterizing the contact resistance of metal-vanadium dioxide thin film interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, R.; Stan, M.; Weikle, R. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Kittiwatanakul, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Wolf, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    The standard method for determining the contact resistance of planar metal-semiconductor interfaces can underestimate the true contact resistance under normal operating conditions, as it relies on the resistivity of the semiconductor material remaining constant during measurement. However, the strong temperature dependence of the resistivity of VO{sub 2} requires a modified approach that maintains a constant power density dissipated within the film to account for Joule heating. We develop a method for measuring contact resistance in semiconductors with a high thermal coefficient of resistivity, demonstrate this method with an example, and compare the results with the standard technique.

  3. Non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcations arising from impact-friction contact events in rotating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Karin; Budd, Chris; Glendinning, Paul; Keogh, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    We analyse the novel dynamics arising in a nonlinear rotor dynamic system by investigating the discontinuity-induced bifurcations corresponding to collisions with the rotor housing (touchdown bearing surface interactions). The simplified Föppl/Jeffcott rotor with clearance and mass unbalance is modelled by a two degree of freedom impact-friction oscillator, as appropriate for a rigid rotor levitated by magnetic bearings. Two types of motion observed in experiments are of interest in this paper: no contact and repeated instantaneous contact. We study how these are affected by damping and stiffness present in the system using analytical and numerical piecewise-smooth dynamical systems methods. By studying the impact map, we show that these types of motion arise at a novel non-smooth Hopf-type bifurcation from a boundary equilibrium bifurcation point for certain parameter values. A local analysis of this bifurcation point allows us a complete understanding of this behaviour in a general setting. The analysis identifies criteria for the existence of such smooth and non-smooth bifurcations, which is an essential step towards achieving reliable and robust controllers that can take compensating action.

  4. Achieving Low Contact Resistance by Engineering a Metal-Graphene Interface Simply with Optical Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qinghua; Wang, Xuanyun; Xia, Lishuang; Wu, Chenbo; Feng, Zhixin; Wang, Min; Zhao, Jing

    2017-06-28

    High-performance graphene-based transistors crucially depend on the creation of the high-quality graphene-metal contacts. Here we report an approach for achieving ultralow contact resistance simply with optical lithography by engineering a metal-graphene interface. Note that a significant improvement with optical lithography for the contact-treated graphene device leads to a contact resistance as low as 150 Ω·μm. The residue-free sacrificial film impedes the photoresist from further doping graphene, and all of the source and drain contact regions defined by optical lithography remain intact. This approach, being compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication processes regardless of the source of graphene, would hold promise for the large-scale production of graphene-based transistors with optical lithography.

  5. Improvement and evaluation of thermal, electrical, sealing and mechanical contacts, and their interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiangcheng

    Material contacts, including thermal, electrical, seating (fluid sealing and electromagnetic sealing) and mechanical (pressure) contacts, together with their interface materials, were, evaluated, and in some cases, improved beyond the state of the art. The evaluation involved the use of thermal, electrical and mechanical methods. For thermal contacts, this work evaluated and improved the heat transfer efficiency between two contacting components by developing various thermal interface pastes. Sodium silicate based thermal pastes (with boron nitride particles as the thermally conductive filler) as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) based thermal pastes were developed and evaluated. The optimum volume fractions of BN in sodium silicate based pastes and PEG based pastes were 16% and 18% respectively. The contribution of Li+ ions to the thermal contact conductance in the PEG-based paste was confirmed. For electrical contacts, the relationship between the mechanical reliability and electrical reliability of solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints was addressed. Mechanical pull-out testing was conducted on solder/copper and silver-epoxy/copper joints, while the contact electrical resistivity was measured. Cleansing of the copper surface was more effective for the reliability of silver-epoxy/copper joint than that of solder/copper joint. For sealing contacts, this work evaluated flexible graphite as an electromagnetic shielding gasket material. Flexible graphite was found to be at least comparable to conductive filled silicone (the state of the art) in terms of the shielding effectiveness. The conformability of flexible graphite with its mating metal surface under repeated compression was characterized by monitoring the contact electrical resistance, as the conformability is important to both electromagnetic scaling and fluid waling using flexible graphite. For mechanical contacts, this work focused on the correlation of the interface structure (such as elastic

  6. Mechanical Characterisation of Interface for Steel/Polymer Composite Using Pull-out Test: Shear-Lag and Frictional Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed KHARRAT; Maher DAMMAK; Amine CHARFI

    2006-01-01

    Fibre-matrix interface is known to have contribution to the mechanical performance of fibre-reinforced composite by its potential for load transfer between the fibre and the matrix. Such load transfer is of great importance in dentistry when a post is used for fixing a ceramic crown on the tooth. In this study, a pull-outtest was carried out to analyse the interfacial properties of a steel fibre embedded in a polyester and epoxy matrices.It was found that the fibre-matrix interface is debonded on the whole embedded length when the fibre stress reached the debonding stress. Then, the fibre stress fell down to the initial extraction stress required to pulling out the debonded fibre from the matrix. Both debonding stress and initial extraction stress initiated a linear increase with the implantation length after the debonding stress reached horizontal asymptotes. To analyse the fibre-matrix load transfer before debonding, an analytical shear-lag model was adopted to in this test conditions. Fitting the experimental results with the analytical model provided the interfacial shear strength. By considering the Coulomb friction at the fibre-matrix interface during the fibre extraction process, an analytical model which considers Poisson's effects on both fibre and matrix, was developed. In this model, knowledge of the initial extraction stress of the fibre provides the residual normal stress at the fibre-matrix interface.

  7. The metal-tool contact friction at the ultrasonic vibration drawing of ball-bearing steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan, Mihai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction reversion mechanism during the ultrasonic vibration drawing (UVD of wires has been detailed for the case when the die is located at the oscillation maxima of the waves and actuated parallel to the friction force direction. The decrease of the drawing force for the UVD technology as compared to classical drawing has been explained by means of the intermittent contact in the metal-die forming area. A relationship has been derived for the UVD friction coefficient, μUS that allowed the analytical determination of the drawing force. In the case of the Romanian RUL 1V (AISI 52100 ball bearing steel wires, a good agreement has been found between the analytical and the experimental values of the drawing forces that have decreased, as compared to classical drawing, by more than 5 % for drawing rates lower than 0.66m/s.

    Se hace un análisis pormenorizado del mecanismo de reversión de la fricción al estirado por vibraciones ultrasonoras (EVU de los alambres, para el caso en que la trefiladora está ubicada en los máximos de oscilación de las ondas y activada paralelamente a la dirección de estirado. La disminución de la fuerza de estirado para la tecnología EVU en comparación con el estirado clásico, se ha explicado a través del contacto intermitente en el área de deformación metal-herramienta. Se halló una relación para el coeficiente de fricción EVU, μUS que permitió la determinación analítica de la fuerza de estirado. En el caso de los alambres de acero rumano de rodamientos RUL 1V (AISI 52100 se encontró una justa concordancia entre los valores analítico y experimental de la fuerza de estirado que, en comparación con los de estirado clásico, se encontraron disminuidos en más de un 5 % para velocidades de estirado menores de 0,66m/s.

  8. Bismuth nanowire growth under low deposition rate and its ohmic contact free of interface damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High quality bismuth (Bi nanowire and its ohmic contact free of interface damage are quite desired for its research and application. In this paper, we propose one new way to prepare high-quality single crystal Bi nanowires at a low deposition rate, by magnetron sputtering method without the assistance of template or catalyst. The slow deposition growth mechanism of Bi nanowire is successfully explained by an anisotropic corner crossing effect, which is very different from existing explanations. A novel approach free of interface damage to ohmic contact of Bi nanowire is proposed and its good electrical conductivity is confirmed by I-V characteristic measurement. Our method provides a quick and convenient way to produce high-quality Bi nanowires and construct ohmic contact for desirable devices.

  9. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  10. Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per

    1996-01-01

    Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied. Ki...

  11. Strength distribution at interface of rotary-friction-welded aluminum to nodular cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yu-lai; LIU Yao-hui; ZHU Xian-yong; YU Si-rong; ZHANG Ying-bo

    2008-01-01

    The morphology, size and composition of intermetallic compound at the interface of Al 1050 and nodular cast iron were studied by electron microprobe analysis(EMPA) and scan electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The bond strength of the interface was measured by the tensile tests and the morphology of the fracture surface was observed by SEM. The observation of the interface reveals that there are two distinct morphologies: no intermetallic compound exists in the central area at the interface; while numbers of intermetallic compounds (FexAly) are formed in the peripheral area due to the overfull heat input. The tensile tests indicate that the distribution of strength in radial direction at the interface is inhomogeneous, and the central area of the interface performs greater bond strength than the peripheral area, which proves directly that the FexAly intermetallic compounds have a negative effect on the integration of interface. The morphology on the fracture surface shows that the facture in the central area at the interface has characteristic of the ductile micro-void facture. So it is important to restrain the form of the intermetallic compound to increase the bond strength of the Al 1050 and nodular cast iron by optimizing welding parameters and the geometry of components.

  12. Contact-angle hysteresis on periodic microtextured surfaces: Strongly corrugated liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    We study numerically the shapes of a liquid meniscus in contact with ultrahydrophobic pillar surfaces in Cassie's wetting regime, when the surface is covered with identical and periodically distributed micropillars. Using the full capillary model we obtain the advancing and the receding equilibrium meniscus shapes when the cross-sections of the pillars are both of square and circular shapes, for a broad interval of pillar concentrations. The bending of the liquid interface in the area between the pillars is studied in the framework of the full capillary model and compared to the results of the heterogeneous approximation model. The contact angle hysteresis is obtained when the three-phase contact line is located on one row (block case) or several rows (kink case) of pillars. It is found that the contact angle hysteresis is proportional to the line fraction of the contact line on pillars tops in the block case and to the surface fraction for pillar concentrations 0.1 -0.5 in the kink case. The contact angle hysteresis does not depend on the shape (circular or square) of the pillars cross-section. The expression for the proportionality of the receding contact angle to the line fraction [Raj et al., Langmuir 28, 15777 (2012), 10.1021/la303070s] in the case of block depinning is theoretically substantiated through the capillary force, acting on the solid plate at the meniscus contact line.

  13. Contact-angle hysteresis on periodic microtextured surfaces: Strongly corrugated liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    We study numerically the shapes of a liquid meniscus in contact with ultrahydrophobic pillar surfaces in Cassie's wetting regime, when the surface is covered with identical and periodically distributed micropillars. Using the full capillary model we obtain the advancing and the receding equilibrium meniscus shapes when the cross-sections of the pillars are both of square and circular shapes, for a broad interval of pillar concentrations. The bending of the liquid interface in the area between the pillars is studied in the framework of the full capillary model and compared to the results of the heterogeneous approximation model. The contact angle hysteresis is obtained when the three-phase contact line is located on one row (block case) or several rows (kink case) of pillars. It is found that the contact angle hysteresis is proportional to the line fraction of the contact line on pillars tops in the block case and to the surface fraction for pillar concentrations 0.1-0.5 in the kink case. The contact angle hysteresis does not depend on the shape (circular or square) of the pillars cross-section. The expression for the proportionality of the receding contact angle to the line fraction [Raj et al., Langmuir 28, 15777 (2012)LANGD50743-746310.1021/la303070s] in the case of block depinning is theoretically substantiated through the capillary force, acting on the solid plate at the meniscus contact line.

  14. Numerical simulations of the moving contact line problem using a diffuse-interface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzaal, Muhammad; Sibley, David; Duncan, Andrew; Yatsyshin, Petr; Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Nold, Andreas; Savva, Nikos; Schmuck, Markus; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Moving contact lines are a ubiquitous phenomenon both in nature and in many modern technologies. One prevalent way of numerically tackling the problem is with diffuse-interface (phase-field) models, where the classical sharp-interface model of continuum mechanics is relaxed to one with a finite thickness fluid-fluid interface, capturing physics from mesoscopic lengthscales. The present work is devoted to the study of the contact line between two fluids confined by two parallel plates, i.e. a dynamically moving meniscus. Our approach is based on a coupled Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model. This system of partial differential equations allows a tractable numerical solution to be computed, capturing diffusive and advective effects in a prototypical case study in a finite-element framework. Particular attention is paid to the static and dynamic contact angle of the meniscus advancing or receding between the plates. The results obtained from our approach are compared to the classical sharp-interface model to elicit the importance of considering diffusion and associated effects. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  15. Tuning back contact property via artificial interface dipoles in Si/organic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Chen, Shaojie; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2016-07-01

    Back contact property plays a key role in the charge collection efficiency of c-Si/poly(3,4-ethylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells (Si-HSCs), as an alternative for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic devices. In this letter, we utilize the water soluble poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) to modify the Al/Si interface to be an Ohmic contact via interface dipole tuning, decreasing the work function of the Al film. This Ohmic contact improves the electron collection efficiency of the rear electrode, increasing the short circuit current density (Jsc). Furthermore, the interface dipoles make the band bending downward to increase the total barrier height of built-in electric field of the solar cell, enhancing the open circuit voltage (Voc). The PEO solar cell exhibits an excellent performance, 12.29% power conversion efficiency, a 25.28% increase from the reference solar cell without a PEO interlayer. The simple and water soluble method as a promising alternative is used to develop the interfacial contact quality of the rear electrode for the high photovoltaic performance of Si-HSCs.

  16. Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

  17. Conduction electrons as dissipation channel in friction experiments at the metal-metal transition of LSMO measured by contact-resonance atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahl, V.; Phani, M. K.; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, M.; Kumar, A.; Moshnyaga, V.; Arnold, W.; Samwer, K.

    2017-01-01

    We report on friction measurements on a La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 (LSMO) thin film using atomic force microscopy cantilever contact-resonances. There is a contribution to the damping of the cantilever oscillations, which is caused by micro-sliding of the cantilever tip on the surface of the thin film. This frictional part decreases with temperature parallel to the increase in the resistivity of the thin film. The LSMO is well-known for a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition that occurs without changes in the rhombohedral (R-3c) crystalline structure. The magnetic transition at the Curie temperature TC ˜ 360 K is accompanied by a metal-to-metal transition with a large increase in electrical resistivity. The behavior of the cantilever damping constant demonstrates that there is a direct coupling between mechanical friction and the mobility of the electrons in the LSMO film.

  18. "Phantom ion effect" and the contact potential of the water-vapor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan

    2008-09-28

    The contact (junction) potential between water-vapor and water-oil interfaces is studied theoretically. Unlike the previous studies, we show that ionic contribution to the contact potential vanishes when the concentration of aqueous electrolyte goes to zero. The incorrect prediction of a large ionic contribution to the junction potential in the infinite dilution limit, obtained in the earlier studies, is traced back to the inappropriate use of the grand-canonical ensemble for strongly inhomogeneous Coulomb systems. It is shown that for these systems, the thermodynamic limit is not reached even when the number of particles is astronomically large, on the order of 10(24). There is, therefore, no equivalence between statistical ensembles. For realistic, finite size systems, canonical calculation predicts a vanishing ionic contribution to the junction potentials of water-vapor and water-oil interfaces even for very concentrated electrolyte solutions.

  19. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Miyata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs.

  20. Improvement of the electrical contact resistance at rough interfaces using two dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianchen; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nanoscience and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Heng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); CAPT, HEDPS and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Panpan; Sun, Hui; Duan, Huiling [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, CAPT, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-07

    Reducing the electronic contact resistance at the interfaces of nanostructured materials is a major goal for many kinds of planar and three dimensional devices. In this work, we develop a method to enhance the electronic transport at rough interfaces by inserting a two dimensional flexible and conductive graphene sheet. We observe that an ultra-thin graphene layer with a thickness of 0.35 nm can remarkably reduce the roughness of a sample in a factor of 40%, avoiding the use of thick coatings, leading to a more homogeneous current flow, and extraordinarily increasing the total current compared to the graphene-free counterpart. Due to its simplicity and performance enhancement, this methodology can be of interest to many interface and device designers.

  1. Quantification of the Contact Area at the Head-Stem Taper Interface of Modular Hip Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Witt

    Full Text Available Corrosion of modular taper junctions of hip implants may be associated with clinical failure. Taper design parameters, as well as the intraoperatively applied assembly forces, have been proposed to affect corrosion. Fretting corrosion is related to relative interface shear motion and fluid ingress, which may vary with contact force and area. It was hypothesised in this study that assembly forces modify the extent and distribution of the surface contact area at the taper interface between a cobalt chrome head and titanium stem taper with a standard threaded surface profile. Local abrasion of a thin gold coating applied to the stem taper prior to assembly was used to determine the contact area after disassembly. Profilometry was then used to assess permanent deformation of the stem taper surface profile. With increasing assembly force (500 N, 2000 N, 4000 N and 8000 N the number of stem taper surface profile ridges in contact with the head taper was found to increase (9.2±9.3%, 65.4±10.8%, 92.8±6.0% and 100% and the overall taper area in contact was also found to increase (0.6±0.7%, 5.5±1.0%, 9.9±1.1% and 16.1±0.9%. Contact was inconsistently distributed over the length of the taper. An increase in plastic radial deformation of the surface ridges (-0.05±0.14 μm, 0.1±0.14 μm, 0.21±0.22 μm and 0.96±0.25 μm was also observed with increasing assembly force. The limited contact of the taper surface ridges at lower assembly forces may influence corrosion rates, suggesting that the magnitude of the assembly force may affect clinical outcome. The method presented provides a simple and practical assessment of the contact area at the taper interface.

  2. Dynamic Response of a Simplified Turbine Blade Model with Under-Platform Dry Friction Dampers Considering Normal Load Variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bingbing He; Huajiang Ouyang; Xingmin Ren; Shangwen He

    2017-01-01

    ... with the blade platform in the vertical direction. The horizontal and vertical vibrations of the two dampers, and the horizontal and transverse platform vibrations are coupled by friction at the contact interfaces which is assumed to follow...

  3. In situ assessment of the contact angles of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid interfaces by multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Antonio; Su, Ge; Nobili, Maurizio; In, Martin; Wang, Dayang

    2014-09-28

    Here multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry was successfully applied to in situ assess the contact angle and surface coverage of gold nanoparticles as small as 18 nm, coated with stimuli-responsive polymers, at water-oil and water-air interfaces in the presence of NaCl and NaOH, respectively. The interfacial adsorption of the nanoparticles was found to be very slow and took days to reach a fairly low surface coverage. For water-oil interfaces, in situ nanoparticle contact angles agree with the macroscopic equilibrium contact angles of planar gold surfaces with the same polymer coatings, whilst for water-air interfaces, significant differences have been observed.

  4. A Lagrange multiplier-based formulation to model sliding and rolling friction problems in ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Rahul A.

    Friction is a very complex phenomenon that occurs between bodies in contact. Friction and its effects have been studied by researchers for hundreds of years. Most mechanical systems look to reduce friction because it hampers system performance. However, friction is desired in certain important applications such as turbine blades, built-up structures and transportation systems. Dry friction is used in such cases as a damping or isolation technique. The inexpensive, environmentally robust nature of friction make it a popular choice as a passive damping technique. However, due to its inherently complex nature, friction modeling presents considerable challenges to designers. This dissertation presents a Lagrange multiplier-based approach called the Microslip Superelement (MSE) approach to model partial slip at the interface. The formulation has been implemented in the ANSYS framework and studies sliding and rolling contact problems. A particular application to turbine blade clamping is presented and comparisons are made with experimental benchmark data.

  5. Influence of shear velocity on frictional characteristics of rock surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Singh; A K Verma; Tanmay Kumar; Avi Dutt

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the fundamental issues related with the effect of shear velocity on frictional characteristics at the interface of rock surfaces is an important issue. In this paper, strain-rate dependence on friction is investigated in relation to sliding behaviour under normal load. The phenomenon of stick-slip of granite and shaly sandstone with a tribometer at constant rate of strain under normal loads was observed. Friction at the interface of the rock samples was developed by increasing shear strain at a constant rate by applying constant velocity using the tribometer. For shaly sandstone, state parameters ( and ) played a major role in determining the friction values and roughness of the contact surfaces as well. Higher values of for shaly sandstone may be attributed to the fact that its surface had a greater number of pronounced asperities. Rubbing between the surfaces does not mean that surface becomes smoother. This is because of variation of friction between surfaces.

  6. High resolution steady-state measurements of thermal contact resistance across thermal interface material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzoha, Ronald J.; Donovan, Brian F.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are meant to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance (RT) across bare metal contacts in commercial electronics packaging systems. However, there is little scientific consensus governing material design for optimized thermal performance. This is principally due to the inability to separate the effects of the intrinsic material thermal properties from the magnitude of heat flow crossing the TIM-substrate junction (RC). To date, efforts to isolate these effects using standard thermal interface material characterization techniques have not been successful. In this work, we develop an infrared thermography-based steady-state heat meter bar apparatus with a novel in situ thickness measurement system having 0.5 nm sensitivity. These in situ thickness measurements allow us to simultaneously determine RT and RC independently across current state-of-the-art TIMs with ±5% uncertainty. In this work, thermal pastes with bond line thicknesses ranging between 5 and 50 μ m are used to illustrate the capability of the apparatus to measure extremely thin materials that are expected to achieve relatively low values of RT. Results suggest that the contribution of the thermal contact resistance to the total thermal resistance can range from 5% to 80% for these materials. This finding highlights the need for appropriate metrology and independent measurements of RC and RT to better optimize thermal interface materials for a number of important electronics applications.

  7. Torsional Vibrations of a Cantilever with Lateral Friction in a Resonance Friction Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Song; GE Yun; ZHANG Hui

    2012-01-01

    A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method. The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold, the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever. When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude, the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude. If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product, the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions. The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever, and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.%A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method.The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold,the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever.When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude,the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude.If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product,the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions.The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever,and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.

  8. Friction-reducing and antiwear behavior of metal halide-stabilized linear phosphazene derivatives as lubricants for a steel-on-steel contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Jiamei; LIU; Weimin; LIANG; Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel metal halide-stabilized linear phosphazene derivatives were synthesized. The friction-reducing and antiwear abilities of the resulting products as the lubricants for a steel-on-steel contact were comparatively investigated on an Optimol SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The morphology of the worn steel surface was observed on a scanning electron microscope, while the chemical states of some typical elements on the worn steel surface were examined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that both the side branch structures and central metals influenced the friction-reducing and antiwear behaviors of the synthetic derivatives as the lubricants, which was related to the different adsorption activities of the organic compounds composed of different organic ingredients and metallic ions on a nascent metal surface. All the synthetic lubricants except for the iron (III) derivative showed increased antiwear abilities with increasing metallic ionic radius. A protective layer originated from the tribochemical reaction together with the adsorbed boundary lubricating layer containing organic fluorine compounds, nitrogen oxide, and Fe3(PO4)2 plays an important role in improving the friction and wear behavior of the steel-on-steel system.

  9. An investigation of sliding electrical contact in rail guns and the development of grooved-rail liquid-metal interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adamy, Mark T.

    2001-01-01

    The barrel life of a solid armature rail gun is a critical issue. Arcing along the barrel pathway at the interfaces between the armature and the rails produces severe damage. The ability to protect the rails and yet provide sufficient electrical contact to sustain arc-free high-current flow is desirable. This thesis investigates the use of liquid metal as an interface material between the sliding electrical contact surfaces of the armature and the barrel rails. Experiments were conducted with...

  10. Metastable nanobubbles at the solid-liquid interface due to contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takashi; Yamada, Yutaka; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-27

    Nanobubbles exist at solid-liquid interfaces between pure water and hydrophobic surfaces with very high stability, lasting in certain cases up to several days. Not only semispherical but also other shapes, such as micropancakes, are known to exist at such interfaces. However, doubt has been raised as to whether or not the nanobubbles are gas-phase entities. In this study, surface nanobubbles at a pure water-highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface were investigated by peak force quantitative nanomechanics (PF-QNM). Multiple isolated nanobubbles generated by the solvent-exchange method were present on the terraced areas, avoiding the steps of the HOPG surface. Adjacent nanobubbles coalesced and formed metastable nanobubbles. Coalescence was enhanced by the PF-QNM measurement. We determined that nanobubbles can exist for a long time because of nanoscale contact angle hysteresis at the water-HOPG interface. Moreover, the hydrophilic steps of HOPG were avoided during coalescence, providing evidence that the nanobubbles are truly gas phase.

  11. Interface Characterization of Cobalt Contacts on Bismuth Selenium Telluride for Thermoelectric Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, R. P.

    2009-08-13

    Sputtered Co is investigated as a suitable contact metal for bulk Bi2 (Te,Se) 3, and the results are compared to sputtered Ni. The coefficient of thermal expansion of Co matches that of bulk Bi 2 (Te,Se) 3 used in our study, and the compatible interface favors the selection of Co as a contact metal. Significant Ni diffusion into Bi2 (Te,Se) 3 was observed. In contrast, Co on Bi2 (Te,Se) 3 shows significantly less diffusion, even at anneal temperatures as high as 200°C. CoTe2 is the preferred phase that is formed. First principles calculations for Bi2 Te 3 support the experimental observation. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  12. Decrease of contact resistance at the interface of carbon nanotube/electrode by nanowelding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Yafei

    2017-03-01

    Reliable interconnection between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and external circuit is one of the prerequisite in CNT electronics. In this work, ultrasonic nanowelding was used to bond CNTs with metal electrodes. By exerting ultrasonic energy at the interface of CNT/electrode, a reliable joint with negligible contact resistance was obtained between CNTs and electrodes. The performance of welding is susceptible to the ultrasonic parameters such as ultrasonic power and clamping force, as well as the metal type. It is found that the metals with good ductility or low melting point are easier to achieve effective joints. Moreover, interfacial compounds are formed at the welded surface of metal Al and Fe, which is resulted from the interacting and chemical bonding of carbon and metal atoms. After nanowelding, the contact resistance between CNTs and electrode is decreased dramatically, and the two-terminal resistance of the sample approximates to the intrinsic resistance of the CNT itself.

  13. Thermal impedance at the interface of contacting bodies: 1-D examples solved by semi-derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple 1-D semi-infinite heat conduction problems enable to demonstrate the potential of the fractional calculus in determination of transient thermal impedances of two bodies with different initial temperatures contacting at the interface ( x = 0 at t = 0 . The approach is purely analytic and uses only semi-derivatives (half-time and semi-integrals in the Riemann-Liouville sense. The example solved clearly reveals that the fractional calculus is more effective in calculation the thermal resistances than the entire domain solutions.

  14. Experimental study on fragmentation behaviors of molten LBE and water contact interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄望哩; 洒荣园; 周丹娜; 姜华磊; 黄群英

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design of CLEAR (China LEAd-based Reactor), it is important to study the molten LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic)/water interaction following an incidental steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident. Experiments were carried out to investigate the fragmentation behavior of the molten LBE/water contacting interface, with a high-speed video camera to record the fragmentation behavior of 300–600◦C LBE at 20◦C and 80◦C of water temperature. Violent explosion phenomenon occurred at water temperature of 20◦C, while no explosion occurred at 80◦C. Shapes of the LBE debris became round at 80◦C of water temperature, whereas the debris was of the needle-like shape at 20◦C. For all the molten LBE and water temperatures in the present study, the debris sized at 2.8–5.0 mm had the largest mass fraction. The results indicate that the dominant physical mechanism of the molten LBE fragmentation was the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability between LBE/water direct contact interface.

  15. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  16. Impact of semiconductor/metal interfaces on contact resistance and operating speed of organic thin film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.

    2010-09-24

    The contact resistance of field effect transistors based on pentacene and parylene has been investigated by experimental and numerical analysis. The device simulation was performed using finite element two-dimensional drift-diffusion simulation taking into account field-dependent mobility, interface/bulk trap states and fixed charge density at the organic/insulator interface. The width-normalized contact resistance extracted from simulation which included an interface dipole layer between the gold source/drain electrodes and pentacene was 91 kΩcm. However, contact resistance extracted from the simulation, without consideration of interface dipole was 52.4 kΩcm, which is about half of the experimentally extracted 108 kΩcm. This indicates that interface dipoles are critical effects which degrade performances of organic field effect transistors by increasing the contact resistance. Using numerical calculations and circuit simulations, we have predicted a 1 MHz switching frequency for a 1 μm channel length transistor without dipole interface between gold and pentacene. The transistor with dipole interface is predicted, via the same methods, to exhibit an operating frequency of less than 0.5 MHz. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media LLC.

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Unit Friction Force Working on the Metal Contact Surface with the Roll Change during Feedstock with Non-Uniform Temperature Distribution Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygut P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical studies influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the feedstock length to the unit friction force working on the metal contact surface with the roll change during the round bars 70 mm in diameter continuous rolling process. This value is one of the major factors affecting the grooves wear during the rolling process. The studies were carried out based on the actual engineering data for 160 × 160 mm square cross-section feedstock of steel S355J0. Numerical modelling of the rolling process was performed using Forge2008®, a finite-element based computer program.

  18. DAE-LCP MIXED METHOD FOR MULTIBODY SYSTEM DYNAMICS WITH FRICTIONAL CONTACTS%多体系统摩擦接触问题的DAE-LCP方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富立; 岳凤桐

    2011-01-01

    当多体系统的约束全部是摩擦接触时,其动力学问题可归结为一个常微分方程(ordinary differential equation,ODE)与线性互补问题(linear complementarity problem,LCP)的混合动力学问题.如果除了摩擦接触之外还增加了光滑的双边约束,则需要将ODE-LCP混合动力学模型推广为微分代数方程(differential algebra equation,DAE)与LCP的混合动力学模型.该文采用DAE与LCP混合动力学方法求解不考虑碰撞但同时含有持续摩擦接触及光滑等式约束的多体系统动力学问题.在建立系统动力学模型时,首先将含摩擦的约束从系统中移去得到基本动力学系统.由于基本系统中带有等式约束,所以基本系统的动力学方程为一组DAE.结合基本系统的DAE与约束的互补条件便可以得到DAE-LCP混合动力学模型.数值计算采用基于DAE与LCP的步进(time-stepping)算法,将系统动力学方程及其约束离散化并转化为一个混合LCP进行求解.该算法无需进行滞-滑状态检测,避免了事件检测导致的繁复计算.利用所提方法对典型机构的非光滑非线性特征进行了数值分析,验证了该文方法的正确有效性.%Presently, dynamics of nonsmooth multibody systems is a hot research topic. The usual approach in treating such systems is to derive basic system from the original system by removing the nonsmooth constraints firstly. The Lagrange equations of the second kind of basic system combine with the complementarity condition of the nonsmooth constraints to set up at each discrete moment in time a Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP).This article focuses on the problem of dynamic modeling and numerical simulating of multibody systems with friction contacts. By neglecting the clearance and the effect of impact between rigid bodies and constraints,the state variables in the differential equations are continuous. Due to the set-value mapping characteristic of dry friction forces, the

  19. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110 line type) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  20. Molecular structure of an alkyl-side-chain polymer-water interface: origins of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwalla, Hasnain; Schwab, Alexander D; Yurdumakan, Betül; Yablon, Dalia G; Yeganeh, Mohsen S; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2004-09-28

    A new and direct approach to verify surface heterogeneity as the microscopic origin of contact-angle hysteresis is demonstrated. IR-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy (SFG) was used to selectively probe the molecules at the interface of an alkyl-side-chain polymer [poly(vinyl n-octadecyl carbamate-co-vinyl acetate)] with water. The spectra indicate that in contact with water, the polymer surface is heterogeneous (having areas of differing surface energies). This evidence of surface heterogeneity supports the hysteresis observed in the advancing and receding contact angles of the polymer surface with water. The same measurements made for the chemically and structurally similar surface of an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer indicates a homogeneous surface at the water interface. In this case, contact-angle hysteresis measurements implicate surface roughness as the cause of hysteresis. Atomic force microscopy measurements of roughness for these surfaces further support our conclusions. The polymer-water interface was probed using SFG at above-ambient temperatures, and an order-to-disorder transition (ODT) of alkyl side chains at the interface was observed, which closely follows the melting of crystalline side chains in the bulk. This transition explains the increased wettability of the polymer, by water, when the temperature is raised above the bulk melting temperature. Furthermore, the irreversibility of this ODT suggests that the disordered polymer-water interface is the thermodynamic equilibrium state, whereas the before-heating structure of this interface is a kinetically hindered metastable state.

  1. Quantifying the Frictional Forces between Skin and Nonwoven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, Kavinda; Ovenden, Nicholas C.; Cottenden, Alan

    2017-01-01

    When a compliant sheet of material is dragged over a curved surface of a body, the frictional forces generated can be many times greater than they would be for a planar interface. This phenomenon is known to contribute to the abrasion damage to skin often suffered by wearers of incontinence pads and bed/chairbound people susceptible to pressure sores. Experiments that attempt to quantify these forces often use a simple capstan-type equation to obtain a characteristic coefficient of friction. In general, the capstan approach assumes the ratio of applied tensions depends only on the arc of contact and the coefficient of friction, and ignores other geometric and physical considerations; this approach makes it straightforward to obtain explicitly a coefficient of friction from the tensions measured. In this paper, two mathematical models are presented that compute the material displacements and surface forces generated by, firstly, a membrane under tension in moving contact with a rigid obstacle and, secondly, a shell-membrane under tension in contact with a deformable substrate. The results show that, while the use of a capstan equation remains fairly robust in some cases, effects such as the curvature and flaccidness of the underlying body, and the mass density of the fabric can lead to significant variations in stresses generated in the contact region. Thus, the coefficient of friction determined by a capstan model may not be an accurate reflection of the true frictional behavior of the contact region. PMID:28321192

  2. Propagation of slip pulse along frictionless contact interface with local separation between two piezoelectric solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Stroh formalism of piezoelectric materials, Fourier analysis and singular integral equation technique were used to investigate the existence of a pu lse at the frictionless interface in presence of local separation between two contact piezoelectric solids.The two solids were combined together by uniaxial tractions and laid in the electric field.The problem was cast into a set of Cauchy singular integral equations, from which the closed-form solutions were derived.The numerical discussion on the existence of such a slip pulse was presented.The results show that such a slip pulse, which has square root singularities at both ends of the local separation zone, can propagate in most material combinations.And the existence of such a slip pulse will not be affected by the applied mechanical and electric fields in some special material combinations.

  3. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; van der Giessen, E.

    2016-01-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent

  4. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  5. Study of lubrication behavior of pure water for hydrophobic friction pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane molecular layer was self-assembled on glass plate. The tribological properties of the molecular layer in water were studied with the method of ball on disk. An interesting phenomenon was found that low friction coefficients of 0.02―0.08 were obtained when the friction pair was lubricated with only a water droplet. Whereas, when the friction pair was encircled with large amount of water or fully immersed in water, the friction coefficient was higher than that under a droplet lubrication. A mechanism of water droplet lubrication was proposed that the surface tension caused by the solid-liquid-air three-phase interface makes water molecules enter into the contact zone, which separates the two friction surfaces and provides a low friction coefficient. However, water film can hardly form when more water encircles the friction pair, due to the attraction between water molecules.

  6. Aftershocks in a frictional earthquake model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Tosatti, Erio

    2014-09-01

    Inspired by spring-block models, we elaborate a "minimal" physical model of earthquakes which reproduces two main empirical seismological laws, the Gutenberg-Richter law and the Omori aftershock law. Our point is to demonstrate that the simultaneous incorporation of aging of contacts in the sliding interface and of elasticity of the sliding plates constitutes the minimal ingredients to account for both laws within the same frictional model.

  7. A numerical parametric study of mechanical behavior of dry contact slipping on the disc–pads interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhocine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to present a study based on the determination and the visualization of the structural deformations due to the contact of slipping between the disc and the pads. The results of the calculations of the contact described in this work relate to displacements, Von Mises stress on the disc, and contact pressures on the inner and outer pad at various moments of simulation. We first proceed to view the meshed models and predicting variations of tensile or compressive stress normal to the plane and shear stress in rotating disc and ring bodies. One precedes then the influence of some parameters on the computation results such as rotation of the disc, the smoothness of the mesh, the material of the brake pads and the friction coefficient entering the disc and the pads, the number of revolutions and the material of the disc, the pad groove.

  8. Contact angle and adsorption energies of nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface determined by neutron reflectivity and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Javier; Ponomarev, Evgeniy; Geue, Thomas; Stellacci, Francesco; Bresme, Fernando; Moglianetti, Mauro

    2015-03-19

    Understanding how nanomaterials interact with interfaces is essential to control their self-assembly as well as their optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. We present here an experimental approach based on neutron reflectivity (NR) that allows the in situ measurement of the contact angles of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid interfaces. Because our method provides a route to quantify the adsorption and interfacial energies of the nanoparticles in situ, it circumvents problems associated with existing indirect methods, which rely on the transport of the monolayers to substrates for further analysis. We illustrate the method by measuring the contact angle of hydrophilic and hydrophobic gold nanoparticles, coated with perdeuterated octanethiol (d-OT) and with a mixture of d-OT and mercaptohexanol (MHol), respectively. The contact angles were also calculated via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) computations, showing excellent agreement with the experimental data. Our method opens the route to quantify the adsorption of complex nanoparticle structures adsorbed at fluid interfaces featuring different chemical compositions.

  9. Characterization of Protein-Protein Interfaces through a Protein Contact Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Luisa; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Oliva, Gabriele; Setola, Roberto; Pascucci, Federica; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax toxin comprises three different proteins, jointly acting to exert toxic activity: a non-toxic protective agent (PA), toxic edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). Binding of PA to anthrax receptors promotes oligomerization of PA, binding of EF and LF, and then endocytosis of the complex. Homomeric forms of PA, complexes of PA bound to LF and to the endogenous receptor capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) were analyzed. In this work, we characterized protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) and identified key residues at PPIs of complexes, by means of a protein contact network (PCN) approach. Flexibility and global and local topological properties of each PCN were computed. The vulnerability of each PCN was calculated using different node removal strategies, with reference to specific PCN topological descriptors, such as participation coefficient, contact order, and degree. The participation coefficient P, the topological descriptor of the node's ability to intervene in protein inter-module communication, was the key descriptor of PCN vulnerability of all structures. High P residues were localized both at PPIs and other regions of complexes, so that we argued an allosteric mechanism in protein-protein interactions. The identification of residues, with key role in the stability of PPIs, has a huge potential in the development of new drugs, which would be designed to target not only PPIs but also residues localized in allosteric regions of supramolecular complexes.

  10. Friction damping of two-dimensional motion and its application in vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menq, C.-H.; Chidamparam, P.; Griffin, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an approximate method for analyzing the two-dimensional friction contact problem so as to compute the dynamic response of a structure constrained by friction interfaces. The friction force at the joint is formulated based on the Coulomb model. The single-term harmonic balance scheme, together with the receptance approach of decoupling the effect of the friction force on the structure from those of the external forces has been utilized to obtain the steady state response. The computational efficiency and accuracy of the method are demonstrated by comparing the results with long-term time solutions.

  11. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen M.; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-08-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed.

  12. Mixed lubricated line contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Faraon, Irinel Cosmin

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is essential that an engineer is able to predict friction.

  13. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C., Santosh; Longo, Roberto C.; Addou, Rafik; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-01-01

    In an electronic device based on two dimensional (2D) transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), finding a low resistance metal contact is critical in order to achieve the desired performance. However, due to the unusual Fermi level pinning in metal/2D TMD interface, the performance is limited. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of TMDs and transition metal oxide (TMO) interfaces (MoS2/MoO3) using density functional theory (DFT). Our results demonstrate that, due to the large work function of MoO3 and the relative band alignment with MoS2, together with small energy gap, the MoS2/MoO3 interface is a good candidate for a tunnel field effect (TFET)-type device. Moreover, if the interface is not stoichiometric because of the presence of oxygen vacancies in MoO3, the heterostructure is more suitable for p-type (hole) contacts, exhibiting an Ohmic electrical behavior as experimentally demonstrated for different TMO/TMD interfaces. Our results reveal that the defect state induced by an oxygen vacancy in the MoO3 aligns with the valance band of MoS2, showing an insignificant impact on the band gap of the TMD. This result highlights the role of oxygen vacancies in oxides on facilitating appropriate contacts at the MoS2 and MoOx (x < 3) interface, which consistently explains the available experimental observations. PMID:27666523

  14. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Chermak, Edrisse; Vangone, Anna; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  15. A three-dimensional volume-of-fluid method for reconstructing and advecting three-material interfaces forming contact lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a piecewise-linear, volume-of-fluid method for reconstructing and advecting three-dimensional interfaces and contact lines formed by three materials. The new method employs a set of geometric constructs that can be used in conjunction with any volume-tracking scheme. In this work, we used the mass-conserving scheme of Youngs to handle two-material cells, perform interface reconstruction in three-material cells, and resolve the contact line. The only information required by the method is the available volume fraction field. Although the proposed method is order dependent and requires a priori information on material ordering, it is suitable for typical contact line applications, where the material representing the contact surface is always known. Following the reconstruction of the contact surface, to compute the interface orientation in a three-material cell, the proposed method minimizes an error function that is based on volume fraction distribution around that cell. As an option, the minimization procedure also allows the user to impose a contact angle. Performance of the proposed method is assessed via both static and advection test cases. The tests show that the new method preserves the accuracy and mass-conserving property of the Youngs method in volume-tracking three materials.

  16. Non-Contact to Contact Transition: Direct Measurements of Interaction Forces between a Solid Probe and a Planar Air-Water Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; WANG Yi-Zhen; ZHANG Jin-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    The interaction force between a solid probe and a planar air-water interface is measured by using an atomic force microscope. It is demonstrated that during the approach of the probe to the air-water interface, the force curves decline all the time due to the van der Waals attraction and induces a stable profile of water surface raised. When the tip approaches very close to the water surface, force curves jump suddenly, reflecting the complex behaviour of the unstable water surface. With a theoretical analysis we conclude that before the tip touches water surface,two water profiles appear, one stable and the other unstable. Then, with further approaching, the tip touches water surface and the non-contact to contact transition occurs.

  17. Bio-inspired enhancement of friction and adhesion at the polydimethylsiloxane-intestine interface and biocompatibility characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Yi; Vasilescu, Steven; Gu, Zhibin; Sun, Tao

    2017-05-01

    An active navigation of self-propelled miniaturized robot along the intestinal tract without injuring the soft tissue remains a challenge as yet. Particularly in this case an effective control of the interfacial friction and adhesion between the material used and the soft tissue is crucial. In the present study, we investigated the frictional and adhesive properties between polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, microscopically patterned with micro-pillar arrays and non-patterned with a flat surface) and rabbit small intestinal tract using a universal material tester. The friction coefficient-time plot and adhesive force-time plot were recorded during the friction test (sliding speed: 0.25mm/s; normal loading: 0.4N) and adhesion test (preloading: 0.5N; hoisting speed: 2.5×10(-3)mm/s). In addition, biocompatibility of the PDMS samples was characterized in terms of cell morphology (scanning electron microscope) and cell cytotoxicity (alamarBlue assay) using human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results demonstrated that the interfacial friction (0.27 vs 0.19) and adhesion (34.9mN vs 26.7mN) were greatly increased using microscopically patterned PDMS, in comparison with non-patterned PDMS. HUVECs adhered to and proliferated on non-patterned/microscopically patterned PDMS very well, with a relative cell viability of about 90% following seeding at 1d, 3d, and 5d. The favorable enhancement of the frictional and adhesive properties, along with the excellent biocompatibility of the microscopically patterned PDMS, makes it a propitious choice for clinical application of self-propelled miniaturized robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  19. Friction and wear of selected metals and alloys in sliding contact with AISI 440 C stainless steel in liquid methane and in liquid natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisander, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Aluminum, titanium, beryllium, nickel, iron, copper, and several copper alloys were run in sliding contact with AISI 440C in liquid methane and natural gas. All of the metals run except copper and the copper alloys of tin and tin-lead showed severely galled wear scars. Friction coefficients varied from 0.2 to 1.0, the lowest being for copper, copper-17 wt. % tin, and copper-8 wt. % tin-22 wt. % lead. The wear rate for copper was two orders of magnitude lower than that of the other metals run. An additional order of magnitude of wear reduction was achieved by the addition of tin and/or lead to copper.

  20. A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mahady, Kyle; Kondic, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to model the fluid/solid interaction forces of a general van der Waals type in a direct solver of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the volume of fluid interface tracking method. The key ingredient of the model is the explicit inclusion of the fluid/solid interaction forces into the governing equations. We show that the interaction forces lead to a partial wetting condition and in particular to a natural definition of an equilibrium contact angle. We present two numerical approaches for the discretization of the interaction forces that enter the model. These two approaches are found to be complementary in terms of convergence properties and complexity. To validate the computational framework, we consider the application of these models to simulate two-dimensional drops at equilibrium, as well as drop spreading. We find that the proposed methods can accurately describe the physics of the considered problems. In general, the model allows for the accurate treatment o...

  1. 船用斜齿轮时变接触线对齿面摩擦力及摩擦扭矩的影响研究%Study on the impact of time-varying contact line on tooth surface friction force and friction torque of helical gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文良; 王黎钦; 常山

    2013-01-01

    Based on the calculation of time-varying contact line, the numerical algorithm is adopted to cal-culate the friction force of tooth surface and the friction torque with different helix angles. After analyzed Root Mean Square and fluctuation ratio of friction force of tooth surface and friction torque, the conclusions were obtained: the fluctuation ratio of time-varying contact line is the principal factor for the change of friction force of tooth surface and the friction torque. In the range of parameters selected, the fluctuations of tooth surface friction force and friction torque are the same as the volatility of time-varying contact line and show a change law between 10°-20° and 20°-30°, which provide a theoretical reference to reduce noise and vibration in engineering.%  文章在计算斜齿轮时变接触线基础上,采用数值编程快速计算主动轮齿面摩擦力和齿面摩擦扭矩。通过分析齿面摩擦力和齿面摩擦扭矩的均方根以及波动率后可知,时变接触线的波动是影响齿面摩擦力以及齿面摩擦扭矩的主要因素。在文中选定的参数范围内,齿面摩擦力的波动和齿面摩擦扭矩的波动与时变接触线的波动变化规律基本一致,呈现出一种10°-20°和20°-30°的变化规律,为工程减振降噪提供了理论参考。

  2. Au nanoparticles embedded at the interface of Al/4H-SiC Schottky contacts for current density enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Saleh; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured contacts, comprised of nanoparticles (NPs) embedded at the interface of contact/semiconductor, offer a viable solution in modification of Schottky barrier height (SBH) in Schottky contacts. The successful performance of devices with such nanostructured contacts requires a feasible selection of NPs/contact material based on theoretical calculations and a cost effective and reproducible route for NPs deposition. Acidification of commercially available colloidal Au NPs solution by HF has been selected here as a simple bench-top technique for deposition of Au NPs on n- and p-type 4H-SiC substrates. Theoretical calculations based on the model of inhomogeneity in SBH (ISBH) were used to make a more appropriate selection of NPs type (Au) and size (5 and 10 nm, diameter) with respect to contact metal (Al). Al/Au NPs/SiC Schottky barrier diodes were then fabricated, and their electrical characteristics exhibited current density enhancement due to the SBH lowering. The source of SBH lowering was determined to be the local electric field enhancement due to NPs effect, which was further investigated using the models of ISBH and tunneling enhancement at triple interface.

  3. Experimental estimation of an opportunity of use of steel interfaces in worm pairs at non-adhesion friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.У. Стельмах

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  In article the brief review of problems of Ukraine manufactures of reductors and the description of opportunities of increasing of the twisting moment of worm gears in result of by using steels as materials of worm pair and the phenomenon of non-adhesion friction.

  4. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2016-08-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent on the size of the contact, but also on the rate of deformation. Moreover, depending on its physical origin, adhesion can also be size and rate dependent, albeit different from plasticity. We present a two-dimensional model that incorporates both discrete dislocation plasticity inside a face-centred cubic crystal and adhesion in the interface to understand the rate dependence of friction caused by micrometre-size asperities. The friction strength is the outcome of the competition between adhesion and discrete dislocation plasticity. As a function of contact size, the friction strength contains two plateaus: at small contact length (≲0.6 μ m), the onset of sliding is fully controlled by adhesion while for large contact length (≳10 μ m), the friction strength approaches the size-independent plastic shear yield strength. The transition regime at intermediate contact size is a result of partial de-cohesion and size-dependent dislocation plasticity, and is determined by dislocation properties, interfacial properties as well as by the loading rate.

  5. Development and Integration of Single-Asperity Nanotribology Experiments & Nanoscale Interface Finite Element Modeling for Prediction and Control of Friction and Damage in Micro- and Nano-mechnical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Carpick; M.E. Plesha

    2007-03-03

    This report describes the accomplishments of the DOE BES grant entitled "Development and Integration of Single-Asperity Nanotribology Experiments & Nanoscale Interface Finite Element Modeling for Prediction and Control of Friction and Damage in Micro- and Nano-mechnical Systems". Key results are: the determination of nanoscale frictional properties of MEMS surfaces, self-assembled monolayers, and novel carbon-based films, as well as the development of models to describe this behavior.

  6. 解三维摩擦接触问题的一个二阶锥线性互补法%A SECOND-ORDER CONE LINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY APPROACH FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建宇; 潘少华; 张洪武

    2009-01-01

    Frictional contact problems frequently arise in various engineering applications, but their solutions, especially the solutions of three dimensional (3D) frictional contact problems, are challenging since the conditions for contact and friction are highly nonlinear and non-smooth. The 3D frictional contact problem is nonlinear and non-differentiable at least in three aspects: (1) The unilateral contact law, combining a geometric condition of impenetrability, a static condition of no-tension and an energy condition of complementarity, is represented by a multi-valued force-displacement relation. (2) The friction law, governed by a relation between reaction force and local relative velocity, is also multi-valued. (3) The Coulomb friction law in 3D space is expressed as a nonlinear inequality that is non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. In this paper, we propose a new linear second-order cone complementarity formulation for the numerical finite element analysis of 3D frictional contact problem by using the parametric variational principle. Specifically, we develop a regularization technique to resolve the multi-valued difficulty involved in the unilateral contact law, and utilize a second-order cone complementarity condition to handle the regularized Coulomb friction law in contact analysis. We reformulate the governing equations of the 3D frictional contact problem as a linear second-order cone complementarity problem (SOCCP) via the parametric variational principle and the finite element method. Compared with the linear complementarity formulation of 3D frictional contact problems, the proposal SOCCP formulation avoids the polyhedral approximation to the Coulomb friction cone so that the problem to be solved has much smaller size and the solution has better accuracy. A semismooth Newton method is used to solve the obtained linear SOCCP. Numerical examples are computed and the results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the SOCCP formulation developed.%

  7. Schottky barrier heights at the interfaces between pure-phase InAs nanowires and metal contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Boyong; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Jiyin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianghua [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid-State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-02-07

    Understanding of the Schottky barriers formed at metal contact-InAs nanowire interfaces is of great importance for the development of high-performance InAs nanowire nanoelectronic and quantum devices. Here, we report a systematical study of InAs nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the Schottky barrier heights formed at the contact-nanowire interfaces. The InAs nanowires employed are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are high material quality single crystals, and the devices are made by directly contacting the nanowires with a series of metals of different work functions. The fabricated InAs nanowire FET devices are characterized by electrical measurements at different temperatures and the Schottky barrier heights are extracted from the measured temperature and gate-voltage dependences of the channel current. We show that although the work functions of the contact metals are widely spread, the Schottky barrier heights are determined to be distributed over 35–55 meV, showing a weak but not negligible dependence on the metals. The deduced Fermi level in the InAs nanowire channels is found to be in the band gap and very close to the conduction band. The physical origin of the results is discussed in terms of Fermi level pinning by the surface states of the InAs nanowires and a shift in pinned Fermi level induced by the metal-related interface states.

  8. Vps13-Mcp1 interact at vacuole-mitochondria interfaces and bypass ER-mitochondria contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Peter, Arun T; Herrmann, Beatrice; Antunes, Diana; Rapaport, Doron; Dimmer, Kai Stefan; Kornmann, Benoît

    2017-10-02

    Membrane contact sites between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, mediated by the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex, are critical for mitochondrial homeostasis and cell growth. Defects in ERMES can, however, be bypassed by point mutations in the endosomal protein Vps13 or by overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Mcp1. How this bypass operates remains unclear. Here we show that the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mcp1 functions in the same pathway as Vps13 by recruiting it to mitochondria and promoting its association to vacuole-mitochondria contacts. Our findings support a model in which Mcp1 and Vps13 work as functional effectors of vacuole-mitochondria contact sites, while tethering is mediated by other factors, including Vps39. Tethered and functionally active vacuole-mitochondria interfaces then compensate for the loss of ERMES-mediated ER-mitochondria contact sites. © 2017 John Peter et al.

  9. Nondestructive imaging of buried interfaces in SiC and GaN Schottky contacts using scanning internal photoemission microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojima, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shingo; Kihara, Yuhei; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a nondestructive characterization of buried interfaces in metal/wide-bandgap semiconductor contacts by using scanning internal photoemission microscopy. For Ni/n-SiC contacts annealed at temperatures above 400 °C, a reduction of the Schottky barrier height owing to partial interfacial reaction was visualized. In Au/Ni/n-GaN contacts, upon annealing at 400 °C, thermal degradation from a scratch on the dot was observed. Forward current-voltage curves were reproduced by lowering the Schottky barrier height and the area of the reacted regions by using this method. The present imaging method exploits its nondestructive highly sensitive extinction for characterizing the contacts formed on wide-gap materials.

  10. Contact angle and adsorption energies of nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface determined by neutron reflectivity and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Javier; Ponomarev, Evgeniy; Geue, Thomas; Stellacci, Francesco; Bresme, Fernando; Moglianetti, Mauro

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how nanomaterials interact with interfaces is essential to control their self-assembly as well as their optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. We present here an experimental approach based on neutron reflectivity (NR) that allows the in situ measurement of the contact angles of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid interfaces. Because our method provides a route to quantify the adsorption and interfacial energies of the nanoparticles in situ, it circumvents problems associated with existing indirect methods, which rely on the transport of the monolayers to substrates for further analysis. We illustrate the method by measuring the contact angle of hydrophilic and hydrophobic gold nanoparticles, coated with perdeuterated octanethiol (d-OT) and with a mixture of d-OT and mercaptohexanol (MHol), respectively. The contact angles were also calculated via atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) computations, showing excellent agreement with the experimental data. Our method opens the route to quantify the adsorption of complex nanoparticle structures adsorbed at fluid interfaces featuring different chemical compositions.Understanding how nanomaterials interact with interfaces is essential to control their self-assembly as well as their optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. We present here an experimental approach based on neutron reflectivity (NR) that allows the in situ measurement of the contact angles of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid interfaces. Because our method provides a route to quantify the adsorption and interfacial energies of the nanoparticles in situ, it circumvents problems associated with existing indirect methods, which rely on the transport of the monolayers to substrates for further analysis. We illustrate the method by measuring the contact angle of hydrophilic and hydrophobic gold nanoparticles, coated with perdeuterated octanethiol (d-OT) and with a mixture of d-OT and mercaptohexanol (MHol), respectively. The contact angles were

  11. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-05-06

    Background: Molecular Dynamics ( MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. Results: On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. Conclusions: MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  12. Friction and hardness of gold films deposited by ion plating and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with ion-plated and vapor-deposited gold films on various substrates in contact with a 0.025-mm-radius spherical silicon carbide rider in mineral oil. Hardness measurements were also made to examine the hardness depth profile of the coated gold on the substrate. The results indicate that the hardness is influenced by the depth of the gold coating from the surface. The hardness increases with an increase in the depth. The hardness is also related to the composition gradient in the graded interface between the gold coating and the substrate. The graded interface exhibited the highest hardness resulting from an alloy hardening effect. The coefficient of friction is inversely related to the hardness, namely, the load carrying capacity of the surface. The greater the hardness that the metal surface possesses, the lower is the coefficient of friction. The graded interface exhibited the lowest coefficient of friction.

  13. Contact resistance at ceramic interfaces and its dependence on mechanical load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    Low contact resistance between individual components is important for solid oxide fuel cell stacks if high performance is to be achieved. Several mechanisms may result in high contact resistance, e.g., current constriction due to low area of contact and formation of resistive phases between...

  14. The adhesion and hysteresis effect in friction skin with artificial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, K. A.; Tudor, A.; Hussein, E. K.; Wahad, H. S.

    2017-02-01

    Human skin is a soft biomaterial with a complex anatomical structure and it has a complex material behavior during the mechanical contact with objects and surfaces. The friction adhesion component is defined by means of the theories of Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR), Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) and Maugis – Dugdale (MD). We shall consider the human skin entering into contact with a rigid surface. The deformation (hysteresis) component of the skin friction is evaluated with Voigt rheological model for the spherical contact, with the original model, developed in MATHCAD software. The adhesive component of the skin friction is greater than the hysteresis component for all friction parameters (load, velocity, the strength of interface between skin and the artificial material).

  15. In search of quantum-limited contact resistance: understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the graphene-metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anindya; Currie, Marc; Boyd, Anthony K.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Sridhara, Karthik; Hernandez, Sandra C.; Wollmershauser, James A.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its two-dimensional structure, graphene is extremely sensitive to surface contamination. Conventional processing techniques inevitably modify graphene’s intrinsic properties by introducing adsorbents and/or defects which limit device performance and understanding the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here we demonstrate femtosecond laser direct patterning of graphene microstructures, without the aid of resists or other chemicals, that enables us to study both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the graphene-metal interface. The pulsed femtosecond laser was configured to ablate epitaxial graphene (EG) on a sub-micrometer scale and form a precisely defined region without damaging the surrounding material or substrate. The ablated area was sufficient to electrically isolate transfer length measurement structures and Hall devices for subsequent transport measurements. Using pristine and systematically contaminated surfaces, we found that Ni does not form bonds to EG synthesized on SiC in contrast to the well-known C-Ni bond formation for graphene synthesized on metals; known as end-contacting. Without end-contacting, the contact resistance (R C) of Ni to pristine and resist-contaminated EG are one and two orders of magnitude larger, respectively, than the intrinsic quantum limited contact resistance. The range of reported R C values is explained using carrier transmission probability, as exemplified by the Landauer-Büttiker model, which is dependent on the presence or absence of end-contacts and dopant/work-function mediated conduction. The model predicts the need for both end-contacts and a clean graphene-metal interface as necessary conditions to approach quantum limited contact resistance.

  16. Elastic model of dry friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E., E-mail: dekl2@cam.ac.uk [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

  17. Effect of Interface Curvature on Turbulent Skin-Friction Drag Reduction with Super-Hydrophobic Micro-Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Rayhaneh; Rastegari, Amirreza

    2016-11-01

    Effect of interface curvature on Drag Reduction (DR) with Super-Hydrophobic (SH) Micro-Grooves (MGs) was investigated by DNS with lattice Boltzmann methods. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH MGs were modeled as curved, stationary, shear-free boundaries, with the interface shape determined from the Young-Laplace equation. The full range of interface protrusion angles, ranging from 0° to -90o , were investigated. DRs of 35% to 63% were realized in DNS, in turbulent channel flows at a Rebulk = 7200 (Reτ0 222) with longitudinal MGs of size 14 <=g+0 <= 56 & g+0 /w+0 = 7 on both walls, where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths and spacings of the MGs, in wall units of the base flow, respectively. The presence of interface curvature led to increases of 2.3% to 4.5% in the magnitude of DR, and drops of -3.5% to -13.5% in the slip velocity, at low protrusion angles, and drops of -2.2% to -12.5% in the magnitude of DR, and either drops of up to -16.5% or increases of up to 6% in the slip velocity, at high protrusion angles, compared to flat interfaces. In addition, the instantaneous pressure fluctuations on curved SH interfaces at low protrusion angles were significantly lower (by a factor of 2) than those on flat interfaces.

  18. Development of in-situ observation system of dynamic contact interface between dies and materials during microforming operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Tetsuhide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of diamond like carbon (DLC films are reported in several microforming processes, in view of its great tribological performance owe to the low friction and the high chemical stability. However, due to its high internal residual stress, the film properties with the low adhesion strength and the high wear rate under severe tribological conditions are still remain as technical issues. However, since the dynamic variation of the contact state cannot be observed during the forming operation, it is difficult to recognize the origin and the influential tribological factors of tool life for DLC coated microforming die. Therefore, the appropriate DLC film properties for the contact state in microforming operation have not been clarified. To observe the dynamic variation of the contact state during the microforming operation, present study developed a novel microforming die assembly installed the in-situ observation system with silica glass die and high speed recording camera. By using this system, the dynamic delamination behaviour of DLC films during the progressive micro-bending process was successfully demonstrated. The influential factors for the durability of DLC coated microdies were discussed.

  19. Interfacial closure of contacting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieutord, F.; Rauer, C.; Moriceau, H.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the contact between solid surfaces is a long-standing problem which has a strong impact on the physics of many processes such as adhesion, friction, lubrication and wear. Experimentally, the investigation of solid/solid interfaces remains challenging today, due to the lack of experimental techniques able to provide sub-nanometer scale information on interfaces buried between millimeters of materials. Yet, a strong interest exists improving the modeling of contact mechanics of materials in order to adjust their interface properties (e.g., thermal transport, friction). We show here that the essential features of the residual gap between contacting surfaces can be measured using high energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity. The presence of this nano-gap is general to the contact of solids. In some special case however, it can be removed when attractive forces take over repulsive contributions, depending on both height and wavelength of asperity distributions (roughness). A criterion for this instability is established in the standard case of van der Waals attractive forces and elastic asperity compression repulsive forces (Hertz model). This collapse instability is confirmed experimentally in the case of silicon direct bonding, using high-energy X-ray synchrotron reflectivity and adhesion energy measurements. The possibility to achieve fully closed interfaces at room temperature opens interesting perspectives to build stronger assemblies with smaller thermal budgets.

  20. An Alternative Frictional Boundary Condition for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaoqiang; Feng, Zhili; Zhu, Yucan; Shi, Qingyu

    2016-09-01

    For better application of numerical simulation in optimization and design of friction stir welding (FSW), this paper presents a new frictional boundary condition at the tool/workpiece interface for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of FSW. The proposed boundary condition is based on an implementation of the Coulomb friction model. Using the new boundary condition, the CFD simulation yields non-uniform distribution of contact state over the tool/workpiece interface, as validated by the experimental weld macrostructure. It is found that interfacial sticking state is present over large area at the tool-workpiece interface, while significant interfacial sliding occurs at the shoulder periphery, the lower part of pin side, and the periphery of pin bottom. Due to the interfacial sticking, a rotating flow zone is found under the shoulder, in which fast circular motion occurs. The diameter of the rotating flow zone is smaller than the shoulder diameter, which is attributed to the presence of the interfacial sliding at the shoulder periphery. For the simulated welding condition, the heat generation due to friction and plastic deformation makes up 54.4 and 45.6% of the total heat generation rate, respectively. The simulated temperature field is validated by the good agreement to the experimental measurements.

  1. Competitive adsorption of surfactants and hydrophilic silica particles at the oil-water interface: interfacial tension and contact angle studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2012-07-01

    The effect of surfactants' type and concentration on the interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of hydrophilic silica particles was investigated. Silica particles have been shown to have an antagonistic effect on interfacial tension and contact angle in the presence of both W/O and O/W surfactants. Silica particles, combined with W/O surfactant, have no effect on interfacial tension, which is only dictated by the surfactant concentration, while they strongly affect interfacial tension when combined with O/W surfactants. At low O/W surfactant, both particles and surfactant are adsorbed at the interface, modifying the interface structure. At higher concentration, interfacial tension is only dictated by the surfactant. By increasing the surfactant concentration, the contact angle that a drop of aqueous phase assumes on a glass substrate placed in oil media decreases or increases depending on whether the surfactant is of W/O or O/W type, respectively. This is due to the modification of the wettability of the glass by the oil or water induced by the surfactants. Regardless of the surfactant's type, the contact angle profile was dictated by both particles and surfactant at low surfactant concentration, whereas it is dictated by the surfactant only at high concentration.

  2. GCL与黏土接触面摩擦特性试验研究%Test and Analysis on Factors Influencing GCL-clay Interface Frictional Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪宁; 田正宏; 孟思宇

    2011-01-01

    Frictional parameters of interface for GCL-different underlayer were measured by using tilting table device,which could simulate stress state of slope liner system in low stress condition.Test results indicated that frictional behavior was influenced by water ratio, compaction rate of soil underlayer, and hydration condition of GCL.Beneficial proposals were given to design and construction of slope liner system in practical project according to analyzing test results.%采用自制斜板仪,模拟低应力条件下边坡衬垫系统受力状态,测量了GCL与不同下垫层接触面的摩擦特性参数.试验结果表明,下垫层土体含水率、密实程度及GCL水化条件等因素对接触面摩擦特性均产生一定影响.通过分析试验结果,对实际工程中边坡衬垫系统的设计和施工提出建议.

  3. Contact variables for exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, P; Perdue, M; Mumford, E

    2010-06-01

    Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the published literature revealed five analytical studies and 15 case reports describing avian influenza transmission from animals to humans for further review. Risk factors identified in analytical studies were compared, and World Health Organization-confirmed cases, identified in case reports, were classified according to type of contact reported using a standardized algorithm. Although cases were primarily associated with direct contact with sick/unexpectedly dead birds, some cases reported only indirect contact with birds or contaminated environments or contact with apparently healthy birds. Specific types of contacts or activities leading to exposure could not be determined from data available in the publications reviewed. These results support previous reports that direct contact with sick birds is not the only means of human exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus. To target public health measures and disease awareness messaging for reducing the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus, the specific types of contacts and activities leading to transmission need to be further understood. The role of environmental virus persistence, shedding of virus by asymptomatic poultry and disease pathophysiology in different avian species relative to human zoonotic risk, as well as specific modes of zoonotic transmission, should be determined.

  4. Energy Balance of Friction and Friction Coefficient in Energetical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Fedorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction energy model is proposed. In this model, generalized mechanism of transformation and dissipation of energy under friction the model of elastic-plastic deformation and fracture contact volumes is considered. Energy model of the process of plastic deformation and destruction of solid bodies is based on the concept of ergodynamic of deformable bodies. Equations of energy balance of friction within the structural and energetic interpretation of deformation are proposed. The energy interpretation of the coefficient of friction is showed. From this position the friction coefficient is the most informative characteristic of the process. Experimental friction curves have been generalized. As a result of the energy analysis of friction, the energy diagram of the structural evolution of the friction surfaces is suggested.

  5. Load and Time Dependence of Interfacial Chemical Bond-Induced Friction at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Gosvami, Nitya N.; Goldsby, David L.; Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela; Carpick, Robert W.

    2017-02-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe the macroscale frictional behavior of a broad range of materials, including rocks found in the seismogenic zone of Earth's crust. A fundamental aspect of the RSF laws is frictional "aging," where friction increases with the time of stationary contact due to asperity creep and/or interfacial strengthening. Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale silica contacts exhibit aging due to the progressive formation of interfacial chemical bonds. The role of normal load (and, thus, normal stress) on this interfacial chemical bond-induced (ICBI) friction is predicted to be significant but has not been examined experimentally. Here, we show using AFM that, for nanoscale ICBI friction of silica-silica interfaces, aging (the difference between the maximum static friction and the kinetic friction) increases approximately linearly with the product of the normal load and the log of the hold time. This behavior is attributed to the approximately linear dependence of the contact area on the load in the positive load regime before significant wear occurs, as inferred from sliding friction measurements. This implies that the average pressure, and thus the average bond formation rate, is load independent within the accessible load range. We also consider a more accurate nonlinear model for the contact area, from which we extract the activation volume and the average stress-free energy barrier to the aging process. Our work provides an approach for studying the load and time dependence of contact aging at the nanoscale and further establishes RSF laws for nanoscale asperity contacts.

  6. Partial squeeze film levitation modulates fingertip friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertlewski, Michaël; Fenton Friesen, Rebecca; Colgate, J Edward

    2016-08-16

    When touched, a glass plate excited with ultrasonic transverse waves feels notably more slippery than it does at rest. To study this phenomenon, we use frustrated total internal reflection to image the asperities of the skin that are in intimate contact with a glass plate. We observed that the load at the interface is shared between the elastic compression of the asperities of the skin and a squeeze film of air. Stroboscopic investigation reveals that the time evolution of the interfacial gap is partially out of phase with the plate vibration. Taken together, these results suggest that the skin bounces against the vibrating plate but that the bounces are cushioned by a squeeze film of air that does not have time to escape the interfacial separation. This behavior results in dynamic levitation, in which the average number of asperities in intimate contact is reduced, thereby reducing friction. This improved understanding of the physics of friction reduction provides key guidelines for designing interfaces that can dynamically modulate friction with soft materials and biological tissues, such as human fingertips.

  7. Friction in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873

  8. The influence of fault geometry and frictional contact properties on slip surface behavior and off-fault damage: insights from quasi-static modeling of small strike-slip faults from the Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E.; Pollard, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and geophysical investigations demonstrate that faults are geometrically complex structures, and that the nature and intensity of off-fault damage is spatially correlated with geometric irregularities of the slip surfaces. Geologic observations of exhumed meter-scale strike-slip faults in the Bear Creek drainage, central Sierra Nevada, CA, provide insight into the relationship between non-planar fault geometry and frictional slip at depth. We investigate natural fault geometries in an otherwise homogeneous and isotropic elastic material with a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (DDM). Although the DDM is a powerful tool, frictional contact problems are beyond the scope of the elementary implementation because it allows interpenetration of the crack surfaces. By incorporating a complementarity algorithm, we are able to enforce appropriate contact boundary conditions along the model faults and include variable friction and frictional strength. This tool allows us to model quasi-static slip on non-planar faults and the resulting deformation of the surrounding rock. Both field observations and numerical investigations indicate that sliding along geometrically discontinuous or irregular faults may lead to opening of the fault and the formation of new fractures, affecting permeability in the nearby rock mass and consequently impacting pore fluid pressure. Numerical simulations of natural fault geometries provide local stress fields that are correlated to the style and spatial distribution of off-fault damage. We also show how varying the friction and frictional strength along the model faults affects slip surface behavior and consequently influences the stress distributions in the adjacent material.

  9. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  10. Research on the relation between the contact angle and the interface curvature radius of electrowetting liquid zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunhua; Liang, Huiqin; Cui, Dongqing; Hong, Xinhua; Wei, Daling; Gao, Changliu

    2011-08-01

    In the ultralight or ultrathin applied domain of zoom lens, the traditional glass / plastic lens is limited for manufacture technology or cost. Therefore, a liquid lens was put forward to solve the problems. The liquid zoom lens has the merits of lower cost, smaller volume, quicker response, lower energy consumption, continuous zoom and higher accuracy. In liquid zoom lens the precise focal length is obtained by the contact angle changing to affect the curvature radius of interface. In our works, the relations of the exerted voltage, the contact angle, the curvature radius and the focal length were researched and accurately calculated. The calculation of the focal length provides an important theoretical basis for instructing the design of liquid zoom lens.

  11. A study on electrical contact at the PEDOT:PSS electrode/molecule interface in large-area molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inho; Song, Hyunwook

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of the PEDOT:PSS electrode/molecule contact on the charge transport characteristics of large-area molecular junctions. We incorporated two different benzenethiolate molecules into the molecular junctions: 4-methylbenzenethiol (MBT) and benzene- 1,4-dithiol (BDT). They have an identical backbone structure but different top end-groups. From statistical analysis, we found that the tunneling transport behavior showed a significant difference between the two prototype conjugated molecules, which was attributed to their distinct electrical contacts at the PEDOT:PSS electrode/molecule interface. We also observed an enhancement of the junction conductance at elevated temperatures, which would be caused by the increased grain size of the conducting PEDOT-rich cores and the removal of residual solvents or water in the junctions.

  12. Dynamic mortar finite element method for modeling of shear rupture on frictional rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mortar-based finite element formulation for modeling the dynamics of shear rupture on rough interfaces governed by slip-weakening and rate and state (RS) friction laws, focusing on the dynamics of earthquakes. The method utilizes the dual Lagrange multipliers and the primal-dual active set strategy concepts, together with a consistent discretization and linearization of the contact forces and constraints, and the friction laws to obtain a semi-smooth Newton method. The discretization of the RS friction law involves a procedure to condense out the state variables, thus eliminating the addition of another set of unknowns into the system. Several numerical examples of shear rupture on frictional rough interfaces demonstrate the efficiency of the method and examine the effects of the different time discretization schemes on the convergence, energy conservation, and the time evolution of shear traction and slip rate.

  13. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of a passive and friction fit implant abutment interface and the influence of occlusal table dimension on the stress distribution pattern on the implant and surrounding bone

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfaraz, Hasan; Paulose, Anoopa; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth; Hussain, Akhter

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the stress distribution pattern in the implant and the surrounding bone for a passive and a friction fit implant abutment interface and to analyze the influence of occlusal table dimension on the stress generated. Materials and Methods: CAD models of two different types of implant abutment connections, the passive fit or the slip-fit represented by the Nobel Replace Tri-lobe connection and the friction fit or active fit represented by the Nobel activ...

  14. Stress-in-motion (SIM) - tyre/road interface contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tyre or road interface stresses are those induced by vehicular traffic running on roads, and are the primary cause of surfacing problems. The cost of asphalt layers is often the most significant in road construction and maintenance work...

  15. Organic transistors fabricated by contact coating at liquid-solid interface for nano-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A contact coating method is developed to cover the nano-channels with 100 nm or 200 nm diameter and 400 nm depth with a poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP. In such coating the nano-channels faces downwards and its vertical position is controlled by a motor. The surface is first lowered to be in immediate contact with the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY water solution with concentration from 1 to 5 wt%, then pulled at the speed of 0.004 to 0.4 mm/s. By tuning the pulling speed and concentration we can realize conformal, filled, top-only, as well as floating film morphology. For a reproducible liquid detachment from the solid, the sample has a small tilt angle of 3 degree. Contact coating is used to cover the Al grid base of the vertical space-charge-limited transistor with PVPY. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT as the semiconductor. The transistor breakdown voltage is raised due to base coverage achieved by contact coating.

  16. Network Theory, Cracking and Frictional Sliding

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O

    2012-01-01

    We have developed different network approaches to complex patterns of frictional interfaces (contact areas developments). Here, we analyze the dynamics of static friction. We found, under the correlation measure, the fraction of triangles correlates with the detachment fronts. Also, for all types of the loops (such as triangles), there is a universal power law between nodes' degree and motifs where motifs frequency follow a power law. This shows high energy localization is characterized by fast variation of the loops fraction. Also, this proves that the congestion of loops occurs around hubs. Furthermore, the motif distributions and modularity space of networks -in terms of within-module degree and participation coefficient- show universal trends, indicating an in common aspect of energy flow in shear ruptures. Moreover, we confirmed that slow ruptures generally hold small localization, while regular ruptures carry a high level of energy localization. We proposed that assortativity, as an index to correlation...

  17. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  18. Quantitative Contact Resonance Force Microscopy for Viscoelastic Measurement of Soft Materials at the Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, Allison B; Tung, Ryan C; Killgore, Jason P

    2015-10-13

    Viscoelastic property measurements made at the solid-liquid interface are key to characterizing materials for a variety of biological and industrial applications. Further, nanostructured materials require nanoscale measurements. Here, material loss tangents (tan δ) were extracted from confounding liquid effects in nanoscale contact resonance force microscopy (CR-FM), an atomic force microscope based technique for observing mechanical properties of surfaces. Obtaining reliable CR-FM viscoelastic measurements in liquid is complicated by two effects. First, in liquid, spurious signals arise during cantilever excitation. Second, it is challenging to separate changes to cantilever behavior due to the sample from changes due to environmental damping and added mass effects. We overcame these challenges by applying photothermal cantilever excitation in multiple resonance modes and a predictive model for the hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrated quantitative, nanoscale viscoelastic CR-FM measurements of polymers at the solid-liquid interface. The technique is demonstrated on a point-by-point basis on polymer samples and while imaging in contact mode on a fixed plant cell wall. Values of tan δ for measurements made in water agreed with the values for measurements in air for some experimental conditions on polystyrene and for all examined conditions on polypropylene.

  19. Analysis of frictional contact problem for curved surface coupling with velocity using finite element algorithm%速度相关摩擦力条件下曲面接触问题有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐进元; 周炜; 陈思雨

    2012-01-01

    在弹性范围内对速度相关摩擦力条件下的曲面接触问题进行研究,给出有限元混合求解方法,用FORTRAN编制计算程序,并以直齿圆柱单齿对啮合模型为例在平面应力和准静态条件下进行求解,计算结果表明:速度对摩擦力的作用影响到接触力的分布与啮合节点对的接触状态,考虑速度对摩擦的影响对于接触的准确求解是必要的。用Ansys对所给算例进行验证,结果表明本文算法和编制程序的正确性。%The mixed finite element algorithm is used to solve contact problems coupling with friction decided by velocity for curved surface in elastic field.The computational procedure is designed with the aid of Fortran language,and the technique is employed to account for the contact problems of one pair of meshing teeth in the plane stress and quasi-static situation.The result indicates that the influence of velocity on friction affects the distribution of contact force as well as the meshing node pair’s contact status,and the consideration of the relation between velocity and friction is essential for the contact problem solutions.Ultimately the example is validated by the Ansys software.

  20. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications.

  1. Friction reduction research of drill-string longitudinal vibration based on asperity contact%基于微凸体接触的钻柱纵向振动减摩阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 倪红坚; 王瑞和; 沈忠厚; 李志娜

    2015-01-01

    Based on asperity contact deformation theory, an analysis and calculation model of the friction between drill-string and wellbore rock was established, and the mechanism of friction reduction via exciting drill-string vibration longitudinally was studied. The results show that the criteria for friction reduction by vibrating drill-string longitudinally is that the relative sliding velocity of the drill-string on the wellbore rock should be less than the amplitude of the velocity of drill-string vibra-tion. The friction reduction effect increases with the increase of the vibration frequency, and it increases firstly with the vibra-tion amplitude then decreases, and there is an optimal amplitude. The friction reduction effect decreases with the increase of the drill-string movement velocity, the penetration depth of the asperity and the friction coefficient. The results of orthogonal testing indicate that the influence on friction reduction of vibration frequency, amplitude, penetration depth of the asperity, friction coefficient and the velocity of drill-string weakens in sequence, of which the vibration frequency, amplitude, and the penetration depth of the asperity are the most significant factors.%基于微凸体接触变形理论,建立钻柱纵向振动条件下钻柱与岩石间摩擦力的分析计算模型,探索钻柱纵向振动减摩阻规律。结果表明:钻柱纵向振动减摩阻的条件是钻柱相对于岩石运动速度小于钻柱纵振速度幅值,且振动减阻效果随振动频率的增大而增强,随振幅的增大呈现先增强后减弱的趋势,存在最优振幅,而随着钻柱与岩石间相对运动速度、相对法向压入量和摩擦系数的增大,振动减摩阻效果趋于弱化;钻柱振动频率、振幅、相对法向压入量、摩擦系数和钻柱与岩石间相对运动速度对振动减阻的影响作用依次降低,其中振动频率、振幅和相对法向压入量为显著因子。

  2. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  3. Formation process of liquid in interface of Ti/Cu contact reaction couple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-fang; YU Chun; YU Zhi-shi; LI Rui-feng

    2005-01-01

    By using the Ti/Cu contact reaction couples,the dissolution behavior of Ti and Cu in the eutectic reaction process was investigated under different conditions.The results show that the formation of eutectic liquid phase has a directional property,I.e.the eutectic liquid phase forms first at the Cu side and then spreads along the depth direction of Cu.The width of the eutectic liquid zone when Ti is placed on Cu is wider than that when Ti is placed under Cu.The shape of the upside liquid zone is wave-like.This phenomenon indicates that the formation process and spreading behavior in the upside are different from those in the underside,and there exists void effect in the Cu side of underside liquid zone,this will result in the delaying phenomenon of the contact reaction between Ti and Cu,and distinctly different shapes of the both liquid zones.The formation process of Ti/Cu eutectic liquid zone is similar to that of the traditional solid-state diffusion layer,and the relationship between the width of liquid zone and holding time obeys a square root law.

  4. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  5. Active assignment of eigenvalues and eigen-sensitivities for robust stabilization of friction-induced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2017-06-01

    As friction couples tangential and lateral degrees-of-freedom of a structure at contact interfaces, the resulting asymmetric dynamic system is prone to dynamic instability. Using state-feedback control, such a frictional asymmetric system can be stabilized through assigning the system desirable eigenvalues; but uncertainties in system parameters can cause assigned eigenvalues to deviate from desired locations and thus stability may be lost. This study presents a robust stabilization method that assigns both desirable eigenvalues and their sensitivities and thus render assigned eigenvalues stable and insensitive to perturbations in uncertain contact parameters (the friction coefficient, contact damping, and contact stiffness). This method utilizes receptances of the corresponding symmetric part of the asymmetric system. The optimal control input location is first determined by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the normalized eigen-sensitivity matrix. The normalized eigen-sensitivities indicate that the friction coefficient and contact stiffness intrinsically have similar crucial effects on the stability of the system. To demonstrate the application of the proposed control method, the eigen-sensitivities with respect to only the friction coefficient are assigned. A constrained over-determined least-squares problem is solved to assign both required eigenvalues and eigen-sensitivities. Numerical examples validate the effectiveness of the proposed robust control scheme by Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. A study of friction mechanisms between a surrogate skin (Lorica soft) and nonwoven fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottenden, David J; Cottenden, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    Hygiene products such as incontinence pads bring nonwoven fabrics into contact with users' skin, which can cause damage in various ways, including the nonwoven abrading the skin by friction. The aim of the work described here was to develop and use methods for understanding the origin of friction between nonwoven fabrics and skin by relating measured normal and friction forces to the nature and area of the contact (fibre footprint) between them. The method development work reported here used a skin surrogate (Lorica Soft) in place of skin for reproducibility. The work was primarily experimental in nature, and involved two separate approaches. In the first, a microscope with a shallow depth of field was used to determine the length of nonwoven fibre in contact with a facing surface as a function of pressure, from which the contact area could be inferred; and, in the second, friction between chosen nonwoven fabrics and Lorica Soft was measured at a variety of anatomically relevant pressures (0.25-32.1kPa) and speeds (0.05-5mms(-1)). Both techniques were extensively validated, and showed reproducibility of about 5% in length and force, respectively. Straightforward inspection of the data for Lorica Soft against the nonwovens showed that Amontons' law (with respect to load) was obeyed to high precision (R(2)>0.999 in all cases), though there was the suggestion of sub-linearity at low loads. More detailed consideration of the friction traces suggested that two different friction mechanisms are important, and comparison with the contact data suggests tentatively that they may correspond to adhesion between two different populations of contacts, one "rough" and one "smooth". This additional insight is a good illustration of how these techniques may prove valuable in studying other, similar interfaces. In particular, they could be used to investigate interfaces between nonwovens and skin, which was the primary motivation for developing them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Polymer brushes interfacing blood as a route toward high performance blood contacting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Kostina, Nina Yu; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, well-defined polymer brushes are shown as an effective surface modification to resist the adhesion of whole blood and its components. Poly[oligo(ethylene glycol)methylether methacrylate] (poly(MeOEGMA)), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (poly(HPMA)), and poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (poly(CBAA)) brushes were grown by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequently characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. All brushes decreased the fouling from blood plasma over 95% and prevented the adhesion of platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes as evidenced by SPR and SEM measurements.

  8. Research on Dynamic Modeling and Application of Kinetic Contact Interface in Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented which is a kind of combining theoretic analysis and experiment to obtain the equivalent dynamic parameters of linear guideway through four steps in detail. From statics analysis, vibration model analysis, dynamic experiment, and parameter identification, the dynamic modeling of linear guideway is synthetically studied. Based on contact mechanics and elastic mechanics, the mathematic vibration model and the expressions of basic mode frequency are deduced. Then, equivalent stiffness and damping of guideway are obtained in virtue of single-freedom-degree mode fitting method. Moreover, the investigation above is applied in a certain gantry-type machining center; and through comparing with simulation model and experiment results, both availability and correctness are validated.

  9. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digita...

  10. Development and analysis of Cu-doped ZnTe for use as a back contact interface for CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, T. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1994-06-01

    It is well known that the losses associated with the back contact of typical CdS/CdTe solar cell devices can be a substantial part of the total external loss. Previous modeling has indicated that these losses will be significant, unless the value of specific contact resistance (rc) at this interface is reduced to ˜0.10 Ω-cm2 or less. Although several studies have inferred values of rc near this level, few have attempted to measure directly the value of rc as a function of various processing conditions. One reason for this situation is the difficulty in fabricating the appropriate patterns for direct analysis of rc. In the following paper, initial characterization studies of sputter-deposited, Cu-doped ZnTe are documented. Additionally, recent attempts to measure directly the contact resistance associated with the two interfaces of the Ni/ZnTe/CdTe contact stack, are presented and discussed. Preliminary testing of these processes has been conducted using sputter-deposited test structures representing the individual interfaces of a typical Ni/ZnTe/CdTe contact stack. Contact resistance analysis of these structures has allowed for the estimation of rc suggesting that, for the conditions studied, the contact stack appears to meet the criterion of yielding an rc value <0.1 Ω-cm2.

  11. 摩擦接触问题的比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法%ANALYSIS OF FRICTIONAL CONTACT PROBLEMS BY SBIGA-BDE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛冰寒; 林皋; 胡志强; 庞林

    2016-01-01

    摩擦接触问题是计算力学领域最具挑战性的问题之一,接触系统的泛函具有非线性、非光滑的特点,导致接触算法的收敛性与精确性难以保证。因此将比例边界等几何分析(scaled boundary isogeometric analysis, SBIGA)与B可微方程组(B differential equation, BDE)相结合,提出了求解二维摩擦接触问题的比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法。在比例边界等几何坐标变换的基础上,通过虚功原理推导了关于边界控制点变量的接触平衡方程,表示成B可微方程组形式的接触条件可被严格满足,求解B可微方程组的算法的收敛性有理论保证。此比例边界等几何B可微方程组方法(SBIGA-BDE)只需在接触体边界进行等几何离散,使问题降低一维,能精确描述接触边界,并可通过节点插入算法进行真实接触区域的识别。此外,由于几何建模和数值分析使用相同的基函数,节约了划分网格的时间。以赫兹接触问题和悬臂梁摩擦接触问题为例,通过与解析解及数值计算软件ANSYS计算结果进行对比,验证了该方法求解二维摩擦接触问题的有效性及高精度等特点。%Frictional contact analysis is one of the most challenging problems in computational mechanics. The functional system of the contact problem is not only nonlinear, but also non-smooth, so in general the convergence and accuracy of contact algorithms are difficult to be guaranteed. For 2D elastic frictional contact problem, the scaled boundary isogeo-metric analysis combined with B differential equation method (SBIGA-BDE method) is developed. Based on the scaled boundary isogeometric transformation, the contact equilibrium equation is derived by using virtual principle. The contact conditions are formulated as B differential equation and satisfied rigorously. The convergence of the algorithm to solve the B differential equation is guaranteed by the theory of

  12. Research on torsional friction behavior and fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Dekun; Yang, Xuehui; Cui, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qingliang

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogels have been extensively studied for use as synthetic articular cartilage. This study aimed to investigate (1) the torsional friction contact state and the transformation mechanism of PVA/HA composite hydrogel against CoCrMo femoral head and (2) effects of load and torsional angle on torsional friction behavior. The finite element method was used to study fluid load support of PVA/HA composite hydrogel. Results show fluid loss increases gradually of PVA/HA composite hydrogel with torsional friction time, leading to fluid load support decreases. The contact state changes from full slip state to stick-slip mixed state. As the load increases, friction coefficient and adhesion zone increase gradually. As the torsional angle increases, friction coefficient and slip trend of the contact interface increase, resulting in the increase of the slip zone and the reduction of the adhesion zone. Fluid loss increases of PVA/HA composite hydrogel as the load and the torsional angle increase, which causes the decrease of fluid load support and the increase of friction coefficient.

  13. Exploring of protein - protein interactions at the solid - aqueous interface by means of contact angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, I; Dehaen, W; Radecka, H; Radecki, J

    2016-05-01

    In this article we present the results of the studies on interactions between the VC1 domain of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and its ligand, the S100B protein, performed by contact angle measurements. Histidine-tagged (His6) VC1-RAGE domain was covalently bonded to Cu(II) or Ni(II) complexes with dipyrromethene (DPM) self-assembled on gold surface. The method based on the theory of van Oss was used for the purpose of determining the Lifshitz-van der Waals (γ(LW)) component as well as the electron acceptor-electron donor (the Lewis acid-base, γ(+)-γ(-)) parameters of the VC1-RAGE-S100B complex. Moreover, the surface free energies of the interactions between the VC1 domain attached to the surface and the ligand present in the aqueous phase were determined. The specificity of the VC1- RAGE interactions with the ligand studied was also proved.

  14. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  15. Solid friction between soft filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

  16. Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computerens interface eller grænseflade har spredt sig overalt. Mobiltelefoner, spilkonsoller, pc'er og storskærme indeholder computere – men computere indbygges også i tøj og andre hverdagslige genstande, så vi konstant har adgang til digitale data. Interface retter fokus mod, hvordan den digitale...... kunst og kultur skabes, spredes og opleves igennem interfaces. Forfatterne undersøger og diskuterer interfacets æstetik, ideologi og kultur – og analyserer aktuel interfacekunst på tværs af musik, kunst, litteratur og film. Bogen belyser interfacets oprindelse i den kolde krigs laboratorier og dets...

  17. Quantitative lateral force microscopy study of the dolomite (104)-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven R; Hu, Xiaoming; Fenter, Paul

    2007-08-14

    The friction and lateral stiffness of the contact between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and an atomically flat dolomite (104) surface were investigated in contact with two aqueous solutions that were in equilibrium and supersaturated with respect to dolomite, respectively. The two aqueous solutions yielded negligible differences in friction at the native dolomite-water interface. However, the growth of a Ca-rich film from the supersaturated solution, revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurements, altered the probe-dolomite contact region sufficiently to observe distinct friction forces on the native dolomite and the film-covered surface regions. Quantitative friction-load relationships demonstrated three physically distinct load regimes for applied loads up to 200 nN. Similar friction forces were observed on both surfaces below 50 nN load and above 100 nN load. The friction forces on the two surfaces diverged at intermediate loads. Quantitative measurements of dynamic friction forces at low load were consistent with the estimated energy necessary to dehydrate the surface ions, whereas differences in mechanical properties of the Ca-rich film and dolomite surfaces were evidently important above 50 nN load. Attempts to fit the quantitative stiffness-load data using a Hertzian contact mechanical model based on bulk material properties yielded physically unrealistic fitting coefficients, suggesting that the interfacial contact region must be explicitly considered in describing the static and dynamic contact mechanics of this and similar systems.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Friction Contact Master Belt with the Gun Mount Barrel During the Process of High-Speed Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezulinsky Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.

  19. Theory of wetting-induced fluid entrainment by advancing contact lines on dry surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Aguilar, R; Hernández-Machado, A; Pagonabarraga, I

    2013-06-28

    We report on the onset of fluid entrainment when a contact line is forced to advance over a dry solid of arbitrary wettability. We show that entrainment occurs at a critical advancing speed beyond which the balance between capillary, viscous, and contact-line forces sustaining the shape of the interface is no longer satisfied. Wetting couples to the hydrodynamics by setting both the morphology of the interface at small scales and the viscous friction of the front. We find that the critical deformation that the interface can sustain is controlled by the friction at the contact line and the viscosity contrast between the displacing and displaced fluids, leading to a rich variety of wetting-entrainment regimes. We discuss the potential use of our theory to measure contact-line forces using atomic force microscopy and to study entrainment under microfluidic conditions exploiting colloid-polymer fluids of ultralow surface tension.

  20. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  1. The effect of interlayers on dissimilar friction weld properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Zepeda, Cuauhtemoc

    The influence of silver interlayers on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminium alloy/stainless steel friction welds are investigated. An elastic contact model is proposed that explains the conditions at and close to the contact surface, which produce Al2O3 particle fracture in dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds. Intermixed (IM) and particle dispersed (PD) regions are formed in Ag-containing dissimilar friction welds. These regions form very early in the joining operation and both contain Ag3Al. Therefore, an interlayer (Ag) introduced with the specific aim of preventing FexAly compound formation in MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds promotes the formation of another intermetallic phase at the bondline. Since IM and PD regions are progressively removed as the friction welding operation proceeds thinner intermetallic layers are produced when long friction welding times are applied. This type of behavior is quite different from that observed in silver-free dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel welds. Nanoparticles of silver are formed in dissimilar MMC/Ag/AISI 304 stainless steel welds produced using low friction pressures. Nanoparticle formation in dissimilar friction welds has never been previously observed or investigated. The introduction of silver interlayers decreases heat generation during welding, produces narrower softened zone regions and improved notch tensile strength properties. All research to-date has assumed per se that joint mechanical properties wholly depend on the mechanical properties and width of the intermetallic layer formed at the dissimilar joint interface. However, it is shown in this thesis that the mechanical properties of MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel joints are determined by the combined effects of intermetallic formation at the bondline and softened zone formation in MMC base material immediately adjacent to the joint interface. A methodology for calculating the notch tensile

  2. 考虑摩擦热的弹塑性平面接触应力及塑性应变分析%Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Plane Contact Stress and Plastic Strain Considering Frictional Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏阳; 陈欢; 王世军; 王权岱; 傅卫平

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface contact friction heat on the failure and the life of the parts was studied .The thermal stress of elastic-plastic surface contact was calculated using Fortran language ,the contact surface temperature distribution and the influence of friction heat on the surface pressure distribution were analyzed ,and the subsurface of the Mises stress field and the influence of plastic strain of the contact surface were discussed .The results show :With the increase of surface friction heat flux , the surface maximum pressure is increased .The maximum stress under the surface is decreased and the maximum stress zone of subsurface is always moving gradually to the contact surface .The contact surface temperature increases with the increase of sliding speed .The location of highest temperature point slowly shifts ,with increase of sliding speed ,to the sliding velocity direction .%研究了降低表面接触摩擦热对材料失效和零件寿命的影响。应用Fortran编程语言对弹塑性表面接触中产生的热应力进行了计算,分析了接触表面温度分布及摩擦热对接触表面压力分布、表面下米塞斯应力场及塑性应变的影响。分析结果表明:随着表面摩擦热流的增加,表面上最大接触压力逐渐变大,而表面下最大应力值逐渐减小,最大应力区域逐渐向接触表面上移动。接触表面温度的大小随滑动速度的提高而升高,且最高温度点的位置随滑动速度的提高缓慢向滑动速度方向偏移。

  3. DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF PLANE WAVES WITH A UNILATERALLY FRICTIONALLY CONSTRAINED INCLUSION-TIME DOMAIN BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengYangde; WangYuesheng; ZhangZimao; CuiJunzhi

    2003-01-01

    A 2D time domain boundary element method (BEM) is developed to solve the transient scattering of plane waves by a unilaterally frictionally constrained inclusion. Coulomb friction is assumed along the contact interface. The incident wave is assumed strong enough so that localized slip and separation take place along the interface. The present problem is in effect a nonlinear boundary value problem since the mixed boundary conditions involve unknown intervals (slip, separation and stick regions). In order to determine the unknown intervals, an iterative technique is developed. As an example, we consider the scattering of a circular cylinder embeddedin an infinite solid.

  4. Comparative Study on Interface Elements, Thin-Layer Elements, and Contact Analysis Methods in the Analysis of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiang Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.

  5. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-03-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.

  6. Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional torque increases to a maximum of 1.273 times the frictional torque at zero wear.

  7. Financial Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Jensen, Mads

    frictions, a call option should never be exercised early, but only at expiration or just before the underlying stock pays a dividend. Chapter one of this thesis shows that suffciently severe frictions can make early exercise optimal. Short-sale costs especially represent an important driver of early...

  8. Preparation and investigation of burried metal/molecule contact interfaces with surface sensitive methods; Praeparation und Untersuchung verborgener Metall/Molekuel-Kontaktgrenzflaechen mit oberflaechensensitiven Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, Pavo

    2011-05-13

    The present thesis establishes an optimised concept of a delamination technique suitable for ultra high vacuum (UHV) with which model systems of buried interfaces were made accessible for surface sensitive methods which were applied to investigate their electronic and topographical properties. A primary focus of this work is on the question how buried interfaces could be accessed successfully for surface sensitive methods using buried metal/NTCDA and metal/PTCDA interfaces as model systems. Contacts of approximately 10 x 15 mm{sup 2} in size were accessed. The second focus of the thesis is on the investigation of the electronical and topographical properties of the buried interfaces, for which some similarities between delaminated metal (Au,Ag)/ PTCDA- and Ag/NTCDA interfaces were found: After the delamination of top-contacts there were inhomogeneous layers of molecules on the metal contacts. Whereas PTCDA covered metal contacts had thicker molecular layers (4-5 ML PTCDA on Ag), NTCDA covered contacts showed only one monolayer coverage over large areas of at least 2 mm in diameter. Regions with multilayer coverage showed smooth surfaces whereas metal surfaces showed a fissured, meander-like and rough surface. Both contact systems also had in common that the adhesive made PES investigations of valence states very difficult. Furthermore, it was possible to thin out the molecular layers thermally but afterwards no valence states could be measured. Investigating in-situ delaminated buried interfaces, the focus was on metal (Au,Ag)/PTCDA interfaces first. The molecular layers could be successfully desorbed thermally at 260 C to 1-3 monolayers so that valence states were investigated. The spectra of the in-situ delaminated and thermally desorbed Ag/PTCDA contact were noticeably broadened so that the positions of HOMO and FLUMO could only be estimated at 1.9 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively. Additionally, interfaces of Ag/NTCDA contacts were investigated. With UPS it was found

  9. A phase-plane analysis of localized frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Dawes, J. H. P.; Champneys, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Sliding frictional interfaces at a range of length scales are observed to generate travelling waves; these are considered relevant, for example, to both earthquake ground surface movements and the performance of mechanical brakes and dampers. We propose an explanation of the origins of these waves through the study of an idealized mechanical model: a thin elastic plate subject to uniform shear stress held in frictional contact with a rigid flat surface. We construct a nonlinear wave equation for the deformation of the plate, and couple it to a spinodal rate-and-state friction law which leads to a mathematically well-posed problem that is capable of capturing many effects not accessible in a Coulomb friction model. Our model sustains a rich variety of solutions, including periodic stick-slip wave trains, isolated slip and stick pulses, and detachment and attachment fronts. Analytical and numerical bifurcation analysis is used to show how these states are organized in a two-parameter state diagram. We discuss briefly the possible physical interpretation of each of these states, and remark also that our spinodal friction law, though more complicated than other classical rate-and-state laws, is required in order to capture the full richness of wave types.

  10. Collective behavior of asperities as a model for friction and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikal, Srivatsan

    Understanding friction and adhesion in static and sliding contact of surfaces is important in numerous physical phenomena and technological applications. Most surfaces are rough at the microscale, and thus the real area of contact is only a fraction of the nominal area. The macroscopic frictional and adhesive response is determined by the collective behavior of the population of evolving and interacting microscopic contacts. This collective behavior can be very different from the behavior of individual contacts. It is thus important to understand how the macroscopic response emerges from the microscopic one. In this thesis, we develop a theoretical and computational framework to study the collective behavior. Our philosophy is to assume a simple behavior of a single asperity and study the collective response of an ensemble. Our work bridges the existing well-developed studies of single asperities with phenomenological laws that describe macroscopic rate-and-state behavior of frictional interfaces. We find that many aspects of the macroscopic behavior are robust with respect to the microscopic response. This explains why qualitatively similar frictional features are seen for a diverse range of materials. We first show that the collective response of an ensemble of one-dimensional independent viscoelastic elements interacting through a mean field reproduces many qualitative features of static and sliding friction evolution. The resulting macroscopic behavior is different from the microscopic one: for example, even if each contact is velocity-strengthening, the macroscopic behavior can be velocity-weakening. The framework is then extended to incorporate three-dimensional rough surfaces, long- range elastic interactions between contacts, and time-dependent material behaviors such as viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity. Interestingly, the mean field behavior dominates and the elastic interactions, though important from a quantitative perspective, do not change the

  11. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part II: analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-09-01

    The mechanics of the friction drive of a surface acoustic wave motor were investigated by means of contact mechanics theory. As a means to control the contact condition, the motor's slider had projections on its frictional surface. Assuming the projection was a rigid circular punch and the slider body was an elastic half-space allowed application of contact mechanics formulae to the analyses of the friction drive. Because the projection contacted the Rayleigh wave vibration, the projection's responses were considered dynamic; thus, the dynamics were also analyzed in the same framework of contact mechanics formulae. Moreover, the analyses were applied to measurements of the projection's displacement to examine the detailed mechanics during the friction drive. We calculated the contact/frictional forces based on the measurement and indicated the necessity of further investigation of the surface acoustic wave motor's friction drive, because the usual friction law was unable to explain the measurement.

  12. SURFACE DYNAMIC FRICTION OF POLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Gong; G.Kagata; Y.Iwasaki; Y.Osada

    2000-01-01

    The sliding friction of various kinds of hydrogels has been studied and it was found that the frictional behaviors of the hydrogels do not conform to Amonton's law F =μW which well describes the friction of solids. The frictional force and its dependence on the load are quite different depending on the chemical structures of the gels, surface properties of the opposing substrates, and the measurement condition. The gel friction is explained in terms of interfacial interaction, either attractive or repulsive, between the polymer chain and the solid surface. According to this model, the friction is ascribed to the viscous flow of solvent at the interface in the repulsive case. In the attractive case, the force to detach the adsorbing chain from the substrate appears as friction. The surface adhesion between glass particles and gels measured by AFM showed a good correlation with the friction, which supported the repulsion-adsorption model proposed by the authors.

  13. interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Sanyal

    2005-01-01

    macroscopic conservation equations with an order parameter which can account for the solid, liquid, and the mushy zones with the help of a phase function defined on the basis of the liquid fraction, the Gibbs relation, and the phase diagram with local approximations. Using the above formalism for alloy solidification, the width of the diffuse interface (mushy zone was computed rather accurately for iron-carbon and ammonium chloride-water binary alloys and validated against experimental data from literature.

  14. Direct measurement of acid-base interaction energy at solid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Anish; Prasad, Shishir; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2010-12-07

    We have studied acid-base interactions at solid-liquid and solid-solid interfaces using interface-sensitive sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. The shift of the sapphire hydroxyl peak in contact with several polar and nonpolar liquids and polymers was used to determine the interaction energy. The trend in the interaction energies cannot be explained by measuring only water contact angles. Molecular rearrangements at the sapphire interface, to maximize the interaction of the acid-base groups, play a dominant role, and these effects are not accounted for in the current theoretical models. These results provide important insights into understanding adhesion, friction, and wetting on solid interfaces.

  15. An empirical model for friction in cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    With a system of simulative tribology tests for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reductions in cold forward rod extrusion. KEY WORDS: empirical friction model, cold forging, simulative friction tests....

  16. Bifurcations in Systems with Friction : Basic Models and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Examples of irregular behavior of dynamical systems with dry friction are discussed. A classification of frictional contacts with respect to their dimensionality, associativity, and the possibility of interruptions is proposed and basic models showing typical features are stated. In particular,

  17. Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.

  18. Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...... to measure friction in rolling in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs that can now be used to measure friction both in production situations and for research purposes....

  19. Investigation of the effect of a diamine-based friction modifier on micropitting and the properties of tribofilms in rolling-sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanahmadi, Siavash; Morina, Ardian; van Eijk, Marcel C. P.; Nedelcu, Ileana; Neville, Anne

    2016-12-01

    The effect of N-tallow-1,3-diaminopropane (TDP) on friction, rolling wear and micropitting has been investigated with the ultimate objective of developing lubricants with no or minimal environmental impact. A mini traction machine (MTM-SLIM) has been utilised in order to generate tribofilms and observe the effect of TDP on anti-wear tribofilm formation and friction. Micropitting was induced on the surface of specimens using a micropitting rig (MPR). The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analytical technique has been employed to investigate the effect of TDP on the chemical composition of the tribofilm while atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to generate high resolution topographical images of the tribofilms formed on the MTM discs. Experimental and analytical results showed that TDP delays the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear tribofilm formation. TDP in combination with ZDDP induces a thinner and smoother anti-wear tribofilm with a modified chemical structure composed of mixed Fe/Zn (poly)phosphates. The sulphide contribution to the tribofilm and oxygen-to-phosphorous atomic concentration ratio are greater in the bulk of the tribofilm derived from a combination of TDP and ZDDP compared to a tribofilm derived from ZDDP alone. Surface analyses showed that utilising TDP effectively mitigates micropitting wear in the test conditions used in this study. Reduction of micropitting, relevant to rolling bearing applications, can be attributed to the improved running-in procedure, reduced friction, formation of a smoother tribofilm and modification of the tribofilm composition induced by TDP.

  20. The formulation of dynamical contact problems with friction in the case of systems of rigid bodies and general discrete mechanical systems—Painlevé and Kane paradoxes revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Alexandre; Ballard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of mechanical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom (discrete mechanical systems) is governed by the Lagrange equation which is a second-order differential equation on a Riemannian manifold (the configuration manifold). The handling of perfect (frictionless) unilateral constraints in this framework (that of Lagrange's analytical dynamics) was undertaken by Schatzman and Moreau at the beginning of the 1980s. A mathematically sound and consistent evolution problem was obtained, paving the road for many subsequent theoretical investigations. In this general evolution problem, the only reaction force which is involved is a generalized reaction force, consistently with the virtual power philosophy of Lagrange. Surprisingly, such a general formulation was never derived in the case of frictional unilateral multibody dynamics. Instead, the paradigm of the Coulomb law applying to reaction forces in the real world is generally invoked. So far, this paradigm has only enabled to obtain a consistent evolution problem in only some very few specific examples and to suggest numerical algorithms to produce computational examples (numerical modeling). In particular, it is not clear what is the evolution problem underlying the computational examples. Moreover, some of the few specific cases in which this paradigm enables to write down a precise evolution problem are known to show paradoxes: the Painlevé paradox (indeterminacy) and the Kane paradox (increase in kinetic energy due to friction). In this paper, we follow Lagrange's philosophy and formulate the frictional unilateral multibody dynamics in terms of the generalized reaction force and not in terms of the real-world reaction force. A general evolution problem that governs the dynamics is obtained for the first time. We prove that all the solutions are dissipative; that is, this new formulation is free of Kane paradox. We also prove that some indeterminacy of the Painlevé paradox is fixed in this

  1. Numerical implementation of a state variable model for friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boyce, D.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A general state variable model for friction has been incorporated into a finite element code for viscoplasticity. A contact area evolution model is used in a finite element model of a sheet forming friction test. The results show that a state variable model can be used to capture complex friction behavior in metal forming simulations. It is proposed that simulations can play an important role in the analysis of friction experiments and the development of friction models.

  2. Frictional transfer and the self-organization phenomenon in the friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, I. V.; Manturov, D. S.

    2017-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface structures formation in the process of metal-polymer frictional contact. IR spectroscopy methods have showed that the formation kinetics of a frictionally transferred film is determined by the adhesion of the composite components and the direction of the electric field at the contact.

  3. A Factorial Design to Numerically Study the Effects of Brake Pad Properties on Friction and Wear Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Wahlström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne particulate emissions originating from the wear of pads and rotors of disc brakes contribute up to 50% of the total road emissions in Europe. The wear process that takes place on a mesoscopic length scale in the contact interfaces between the pads and rotors can be explained by the creation and destruction of contact plateaus. Due to this complex contact situation, it is hard to predict how changes in the wear and material parameters of the pad friction material will affect the friction and wear emissions. This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of different parameters of the pad friction material on the coefficient of friction and wear emissions. A full factorial design is developed using a simplified version of a previously developed cellular automaton approach to investigate the effect of four factors on the coefficient of friction and wear emission. The simulated result indicates that a stable third body, a high specific wear, and a relatively high amount of metal fibres yield a high and stable mean coefficient of friction, while a stable third body, a low specific wear, a stable resin, and a relatively high amount of metal fibres give low wear emissions.

  4. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  5. 金属橡胶非线性干摩擦副的接触作用机理及其仿真结果分析%Contacting mechanism of nonlinear friction pair for metallic rubber and its simulation results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇燕; 黄协清; 宋凯

    2011-01-01

    从金属橡胶材料的干摩擦阻尼产生的机理人手,提出了一种全新的金属橡胶非线性干摩擦结构单元力学模型,该结构单元由一对带有轴向和径向两个方向的弹性元件构成,它们既表示了金属丝之间的摩擦特性,同时也表示了螺线卷线匝在受力变形时的弹性特征.以建立的金属橡胶材料力学模型为基础,采用多个摩擦副单元串联组成的结构,深入研究了线匝的摩擦接触,通过对结构单元组成系统的计算机模拟仿真,对金属橡胶元件在不同载荷作用下的滞迟回线进行了深入地分析和研究,在静态载荷作用下,研究了结构单元的摩擦系数、结构单元的摩擦角对金属橡胶结构摩擦耗能的影响,在动态载荷作用下,研究了载荷的幅值、载荷的频率、载荷的初始相位对摩擦耗能的影响,此项研究工作大大减少了静态和动态试验方面的工作.%From dry-friction damping mechanism of metallic rubber, a new mechanical model for nonlinear friction structure element of metallic rubber was put forward. The structural element was made up of axial and radial elastic elements. The two elements not only denoted friction characteristics among wires, but also elastic properties of spiral turns. Based on the mechanical model constructed, using a series connection structure with multiple friction pairs, friction contacts between turns were studied. Through simulation for the system with the structural elements, hysteresis loops were deeply analyzed and studied under different loading for metallic rubber elements. Under static loading, the effects of friction coefficient and friction angle on energy dissipation of metallic rubber were studied, and under dynamic loading the effects of force's amplitude, frequency and initial phase on energy dissipation were also studied, the studies largely reduced the efforts for static and dynamic experiments.

  6. Friction and wear in polymer-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bely, V A; Petrokovets, M I

    1982-01-01

    Friction and Wear in Polymer-Based Materials discusses friction and wear problems in polymer-based materials. The book is organized into three parts. The chapters in Part I cover the basic laws of friction and wear in polymer-based materials. Topics covered include frictional interaction during metal-polymer contact and the influence of operating conditions on wear in polymers. The chapters in Part II discuss the structure and frictional properties of polymer-based materials; the mechanism of frictional transfer when a polymer comes into contact with polymers, metals, and other materials; and

  7. Deformation behaviors of 21-6-9 stainless steel tube numerical control bending under different friction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方军; 鲁世强; 王克鲁; 姚正军

    2015-01-01

    For contact dominated numerical control (NC) bending process of tube, the effect of friction on bending deformation behaviors should be focused on to achieve precision bending forming. A three dimensional (3D) elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model of NC bending process was established under ABAQUS/Explicit platform, and its reliability was validated by the experiment. Then, numerical study on bending deformation behaviors under different frictions between tube and various dies was explored from multiple aspects such as wrinkling, wall thickness change and cross section deformation. The results show that the large friction of wiper die−tube reduces the wrinkling wave ratioη and cross section deformation degreeΔD and increases the wall thinning degreeΔt. The large friction of mandrel−tube causes largeη,Δt andΔD, and the onset of wrinkling near clamp die. The large friction of pressure die−tube reducesΔt andΔD, and the friction on this interface has little effect onη. The large friction of bending die−tube reducesη andΔD, and the friction on this interface has little effect onΔt. The reasonable friction coefficients on wiper die−tube, mandrel−tube, pressure die−tube and bending die−tube of 21-6-9 (0Cr21Ni6Mn9N) stainless steel tube in NC bending are 0.05−0.15, 0.05−0.15, 0.25−0.35 and 0.25−0.35, respectively. The results can provide a guideline for applying the friction conditions to establish the robust bending environment for stable and precise bending deformation of tube bending.

  8. How the charge-neutrality level of interface states controls energy level alignment in cathode contacts of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Marchesi, Luís F; Boix, Pablo P; Ruiz-Raga, Sonia; Ripolles-Sanchis, Teresa; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bisquert, Juan

    2012-04-24

    Electronic equilibration at the metal-organic interface, leading to equalization of the Fermi levels, is a key process in organic optoelectronic devices. How the energy levels are set across the interface determines carrier extraction at the contact and also limits the achievable open-circuit voltage under illumination. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the cathode energy equilibration of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that the potential to balance the mismatch between the cathode metal and the organic layer Fermi levels is divided into two contributions: spatially extended band bending in the organic bulk and voltage drop at the interface dipole layer caused by a net charge transfer. We scan the operation of the cathode under a varied set of conditions, using metals of different work functions in the range of ∼2 eV, different fullerene acceptors, and several cathode interlayers. The measurements allow us to locate the charge-neutrality level within the interface density of sates and calculate the corresponding dipole layer strength. The dipole layer withstands a large part of the total Fermi level mismatch when the polymer:fullerene blend ratio approaches ∼1:1, producing the practical alignment between the metal Fermi level and the charge-neutrality level. Origin of the interface states is linked with fullerene reduced molecules covering the metal contact. The dipole contribution, and consequently the band bending, is highly sensitive to the nature and amount of fullerene molecules forming the interface density of states. Our analysis provides a detailed picture of the evolution of the potentials in the bulk and the interface of the solar cell when forward voltage is applied or when photogeneration takes place.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations on the frictional behavior of a perfluoropolyether film sandwiched between diamond-like-carbon coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L; Sorkin, V; Sha, Z D; Pei, Q X; Branicio, P S; Zhang, Y W

    2014-02-18

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the nanoscale frictional behavior of a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) film sandwiched between two diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings. We show that the PFPE films behave like a solid and can perform either a motion-station movement or a continuous motion with fluctuating velocities. The former movement is caused by the alternating stick and slip at the two individual interfaces, while the latter is due to the dynamic sliding motions simultaneously occurring at both interfaces. We reveal that these motion characteristics are governed by the competition between the two interfacial adhesion energies, which are strongly affected by the thermal vibrations and interface roughness fluctuations. We also find that the Amonton's law modified by incorporating the adhesion effect can be used to describe the mean friction traction vs normal pressure relation, but large fluctuations are present at low contact pressures. The magnitude of atomic level friction forces at the interface is found to be highly nonuniform. The directions of atomic level friction forces can even be opposite. With increasing the normal pressure, the nonuniformity of atomic level friction forces decreases first and then increases again. This change can be explained by the concurrent effects from the large difference in material stiffness and the changes in surface roughness under normal pressure. The present work reveals interesting insights into the sliding mechanisms in sandwiched structures and provides useful guidelines for the design of nanoscale lubricant systems.

  10. Slow frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  11. Interface resistance of YBa2Cu3O7−δ/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ramp-type contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, van M.; Brinkman, A.; Aarts, J.; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2010-01-01

    We fabricated and characterized YBa2Cu3O7−δ/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (YBCO/LSMO) ramp-type contacts and junctions. An interlayer technique was applied to repair the ramp stoichiometry after etching. It was found that, typically, the resistance of the YBCO/LSMO interface is high compared to the resistances o

  12. The role of friction in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco; Wellington Corrêa Jansen; Dauro Douglas de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of this mechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desired orthodontic movement obtained. Due to the application and great acceptance of this type of mechanics, the role of friction in Orthodontics has been of interest for both clinicians and scientists. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this article discussed how friction affects orthodontic too...

  13. Thick Low-Friction nc-MeC/a-C Nanocomposite Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Microstructure and Tribological Properties in Sliding Contact with a Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimowski, Sławomir; Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Wendler, Bogdan; Kot, Marcin; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that duplex surface treatment, combining oxygen diffusion hardening with the subsequent deposition of thick, low-friction nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings to improve the tribological properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. We have synthesized, in a magnetron sputtering process, the nanocomposite nc-MeC/a-C coatings (where Me denotes W or Ti transition metal) consisting of two dissimilar materials (nanocrystallites of transition metal carbides MeC and an amorphous carbon matrix a-C). The nano and microstructure of the substrate material and coatings were examined with the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by X-ray diffractometry. It was found that different carbide nanocrystals of the same transition metal were embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix of both coatings. The HRTEM analysis indicated that the volume fraction of tungsten carbides in the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 13 pct, whereas in the nc-TiC/a-C one the volume fraction of the titanium carbides was equal to just 3 pct. The tribological properties, hardness, and scratch resistance of the coatings were investigated as well. The coefficient of friction (COF) of the coatings during dry sliding against 6 mm diameter alumina ball reached very low value, 0.05, in comparison with an oxygen-hardened alloy, whose COF was equal to 0.8. This low-friction effect of the coatings has been attributed to the formation of a self-lubricating film in sliding contact. The coatings exhibited similar failure morphology in the scratch tests. Even though the hardness was rather low, the coatings exhibited a very good wear resistance during sliding friction. The wear rate of the nc-WC/a-C coating was equal to 0.08 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 and for the nc-TiC/a-C one it was 0.28 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1.

  14. 假肢材料与人体下肢皮肤界面的摩擦特性%Frictional Properties on Human Skin of Lower Limb/prosthetic Material Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萍; 石磊; 庞强; 李炜

    2015-01-01

    By using an UMT-II tribometer to simulate prosthetic socket/residual limb skin interface under a reciprocating sliding wear mode, the terminological behavior between four kinds of prosthetic silicone material with different surface structure and limb skin is investigated. The results show that the relative sliding occurred on the both silicone material/skin interface and prosthetic socket/silicone material interface at the beginning of the reciprocating wear mode, consequently, the friction coefficient is relatively high. Then it decreased and gradually reached steady with the adhesion appearing on the interfaces. The coarse micro convex body on the back of silicone material increased the adhesion with skin, which resulted in less friction consumption energy. The knitting structure on the front of silicone material not only increased the relative sliding and friction consumption energy with prosthetic socket, but also decreased the accommodation of skin elastic deformation between the back of silicone material and skin during reciprocating friction process. Thereby, the friction coefficient and the energy consumption on the interface reduce. In conclusion, the silicone material with the coarse micro convex body on the back and the knitting structure on the reverse side would lower the risk of skin damage and eventually improves the wearing comfort of amputees.%采用UMT-II多功能摩擦磨损试验机,在往复摩擦模式下模拟假肢接收腔/残肢皮肤界面,研究了4种不同表面结构的硅胶内衬套材料与皮肤的摩擦学行为。结果表明:硅胶材料/皮肤界面、接收腔/硅胶材料界面在往复摩擦模式初期均会产生相对滑动,摩擦因数较大;随着界面间产生黏着,摩擦因数减小,逐渐趋于稳态。硅胶材料反面上的粗大微凸体,增加了与皮肤的粘结性,摩擦能耗减少;正面上的针织结构不但增加了往复摩擦过程中与接受腔之间的相对滑动量及摩

  15. Temperature dependent effective friction coefficient estimation in friction stir welding with the bobbin tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction coefficient in many friction stir welding researches is generally used as an effective, constant value without concern on the adaptable and changeable nature of the friction during welding sequence. This is understandable because the main problem in analyzing friction in friction stir welding are complex nature of the friction processes, case-dependent and time dependent contact between the bodies, influence of the temperature, sliding velocity, etc. This paper is presenting a complex experimental-numerical-analytical model for estimating the effective friction coefficient on contact of the bobbin tool and welding plates during welding, considering the temperature at the contact as the most influencing parameter on friction. The estimation criterion is the correspondence of the experimental temperature and temperature from the numerical model. The estimation procedure is iterative and parametric - the heat transport parameters and friction coefficient are adapted during the estimation procedure in a realistic manner to achieve relative difference between experimental and model’s temperature lower than 3%. The results show that friction coefficient varies from 0.01 to 0.21 for steel-aluminium alloy contact and temperature range from 406°C to 22°C.

  16. Friction and stick-slip in a telescope construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschlag, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Stick-slip in high resolution telescopes should be avoided. The contact places where stick-slip can occur are described. Some contact places require a high friction coefficient, others a low friction coefficient. Some experiments have been carried out to find lubricants for contact places which comb

  17. Improving the electrical contact at a Pt/TiO2 nanowire interface by selective application of focused femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Songling; Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Peng, Peng; Wu, Aiping; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we show that tightly focused femtosecond laser irradiation is effective in improving nanojoining of an oxide nanowire (NW) (TiO2) to a metal electrode (Pt), and how this process can be used to modify contact states. Enhanced chemical bondings are created due to localized plasmonically enhanced optical absorption at the Pt/TiO2 interface as confirmed by finite element simulations of the localized field distribution during irradiation. Nano Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the resulting heterojunction is depleted in oxygen, suggesting that a TiO2–x layer is formed between the Pt electrode and the TiO2 NW. The presence of this redox layer at the metal/oxide interface plays an important role in decreasing the Schottky barrier height and in facilitating chemical bonding. After laser irradiation at the cathode for 10 s at a fluence of 5.02 mJ cm‑2, the Pt/TiO2 NW/Pt structure displays different electrical properties under forward and reverse bias voltage, respectively. The creation of this asymmetric electrical characteristic shows the way in which modification of the electronic interface by laser engineering can replace the electroforming process in resistive switching devices and how it can be used to control contact states in a metal/oxide interface.

  18. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  19. Contacts between domestic livestock and wildlife at the Kruger National Park Interface of the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Dipa P; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Dyason, Edwin; Budke, Christine M; Gummow, Bruce; Jori, Ferran; Ward, Michael P; Srinivasan, R

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) in the southern African region is foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In this region, a pathway for spread of FMD virus is contacts between cattle and certain species of wildlife. The objective of this study was to evaluate contacts between cattle and wildlife in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the adjacent Limpopo province for the time periods October 2006 to March 2007 and April to September 2007. In this study, 87 livestock owners and 57 KNP field rangers were interviewed. Fifteen (17%) livestock owners reported contacts between wildlife and cattle. More livestock owners reported observing contacts between cattle and all wildlife species during October-March than April-September (p=0.012). However, no difference was found between these periods for contacts between cattle and individual wildlife species. A total of 18 (32%) field rangers reported contacts between cattle and wildlife. The most common species-specific contacts were between cattle and buffalo (63/year), cattle and impala (17/year) and cattle and lion (10/year). There were no significant differences in rangers reporting observed contacts between cattle and wildlife during October-March versus April-September or between rangers reporting observed contacts outside versus within the KNP. Overall, there was no evidence of higher contact rates between cattle and wildlife in the study area during October-March compared to April-September. Contact data collected in this study can be used to better understand the transmission of FMD virus in this region.

  20. Frictional Sliding without Geometrical Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldam, Michael; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Svetlizky, Ilya; Brener, Efim A.; Fineberg, Jay; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of frictional interfaces plays an important role in many physical systems spanning a broad range of scales. It is well known that frictional interfaces separating two dissimilar materials couple interfacial slip and normal stress variations, a coupling that has major implications on their stability, failure mechanism, and rupture directionality. In contrast, it is traditionally assumed that interfaces separating identical materials do not feature such a coupling because of symmetry considerations. We show, combining theory and experiments, that interfaces that separate bodies made of macroscopically identical materials but lack geometrical reflection symmetry generically feature such a coupling. We discuss two applications of this novel feature. First, we show that it accounts for a distinct, and previously unexplained, experimentally observed weakening effect in frictional cracks. Second, we demonstrate that it can destabilize frictional sliding, which is otherwise stable. The emerging framework is expected to find applications in a broad range of systems.

  1. Frictional sliding with geometrically broken reflection symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aldam, Michael; Svetlizky, Ilya; Brener, Efim A; Fineberg, Jay; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of frictional interfaces play an important role in many physical systems spanning a broad range of scales. It is well-known that frictional interfaces separating two dissimilar materials couple interfacial slip and normal stress variations, a coupling that has major implications on their stability, failure mechanism and rupture directionality. In contrast, interfaces separating identical materials are traditionally assumed not to feature such a coupling due to symmetry considerations. We show, combining theory and experiments, that interfaces which separate bodies made of identical materials, but lack geometric reflection symmetry, generically feature such a coupling. We discuss two applications of this novel feature. First, we show that it accounts for a distinct and previously unexplained weakening effect in frictional cracks observed experimentally. Second, we demonstrate that it can destabilize frictional sliding which is otherwise stable. The emerging framework is expected to find applicatio...

  2. Tribofilm Formation As a Result of Complex Interaction at the Tool/Chip Interface during Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S. Fox-Rabinovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tribofilms are dynamic structures that form at the interface during frictional sliding. These films play a significant role in friction control, particularly under heavy loaded/high temperature conditions, such as those found at the cutting tool/chip interface. The thermodynamic aspects of tribofilm formation are discussed here. Thermodynamic analysis of entropy production during friction shows that there are two types of tribofilms that affect the wear behavior of a cutting tool: (1 tribofilms forming as a result of the surface modification of the cutting tools with further tribo-oxidation; and (2 tribofilms that form as a result of material transfer from the contacting frictional body (the workpiece during the tool/chip interaction. Experimental examples are presented, outlining the beneficial role of both types of tribofilms.

  3. Evidence of contact epitaxy in the self-assembly of HgSe nanocrystals formed at a liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Santanu; Sanyal, Milan K; Jana, Manoj K; Runge, Benjamin; Murphy, Bridget M; Biswas, Kanishka; Rao, C N R

    2017-03-08

    The grazing incidence x-ray scattering results presented here show that the self-assembly process of HgSe nanocrystals formed at a liquid-liquid interface is quite different along the in-plane direction and across the interface. In situ x-ray reflectivity and ex situ microscopy measurements suggest quantized out-of-plane growth for HgSe nanoparticles of a size of about [Formula: see text] nm initially. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering measurements for films transferred from the water-toluene interface at various stages of reaction show that these nanoparticles first form random clusters with an average radius of 2.2 nm, giving rise to equally spaced rings of several orders. Finally, these clusters self-organize into face-centered cubic superstructures, giving sharp x-ray diffraction peaks oriented normal to the liquid-liquid interface with more than 100 nm-coherent domains. We also observed the x-ray diffraction pattern of the HgSe crystalline phase, with the superlattice peaks in these grazing incidence measurements of the transferred films. The electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results support the x-ray observation of the self-organization of HgSe nanocrystals into close-packed superlattices. These results show that capillary wave fluctuation promotes the oriented attachment of clusters at the liquid-liquid interface, giving direct experimental evidence of contact epitaxy.

  4. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  5. Elastic contact mechanics: percolation of the contact area and fluid squeeze-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J; Prodanov, N; Krick, B A; Rodriguez, N; Mulakaluri, N; Sawyer, W G; Mangiagalli, P

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of fluid flow at the interface between elastic solids with rough surfaces depends sensitively on the area of real contact, in particular close to the percolation threshold, where an irregular network of narrow flow channels prevails. In this paper, numerical simulation and experimental results for the contact between elastic solids with isotropic and anisotropic surface roughness are compared with the predictions of a theory based on the Persson contact mechanics theory and the Bruggeman effective medium theory. The theory predictions are in good agreement with the experimental and numerical simulation results and the (small) deviation can be understood as a finite-size effect. The fluid squeeze-out at the interface between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces is studied. We present results for such high contact pressures that the area of real contact percolates, giving rise to sealed-off domains with pressurized fluid at the interface. The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data for a simple model system (a rubber block squeezed against a flat glass plate), and for prefilled syringes, where the rubber plunger stopper is lubricated by a high-viscosity silicon oil to ensure functionality of the delivery device. For the latter system we compare the breakloose (or static) friction, as a function of the time of stationary contact, to the theory prediction.

  6. 尾矿土工织物编织袋层间界面摩擦强度特性研究%Study on the Layer Interface Friction Strength Characteristics of Tailings Geotextiles Woven Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱君星; 张默; 曹作忠; 李东

    2013-01-01

    尾矿干式堆存技术近年来逐渐被推广应用,与传统的尾矿库堆存技术相比,尾矿干式堆存能够降低尾矿含水量,增强尾矿的力学性能,提高尾矿库的整体稳定性.在利用土工织物大型编织袋充灌尾矿干堆新技术中,土工织物编制袋层间界面的摩擦强度是影响和决定整个尾矿干堆场稳定性的主要指标.根据制作加工简易的大型土工“似直剪仪”,进行不同含水率和法向压力下的尾矿土工织物编织袋摩擦抗剪强度试验,得出尾矿土工织物编织袋层间界面摩擦系数和抗剪强度关系曲线,同时用一阶线性拟合的摩擦抗剪强度方程较符合摩尔-库伦强度准则.该抗剪强度方程能够反映土工织物层间界面摩擦的物理力学参数及变形特征,为尾矿土工织物编织袋干式堆存筑坝的稳定性计算提供依据.%In recent years,the tailings dry stockpiling technology was gradually popularized and applied.Compared with the traditional tailings stockpiling technology,the dry stockpiling technique can reduce water content in tailings,increase the mechanical parameters of tailings,and improve the overall stability of tailings pond.In the new technology of tailings dry stockpiling with filling of large geotextile woven bag,the interface frictional strength between layers of geotextile woven bag is the main indicator which influences and determines the stability of the entire tailings dry stockpiling.According to the easy production processing of large-scale geotechnical "resembling direct shear apparatus",tailings geotextile woven friction shear strength test under different moisture content and normal pressure is carried out,drawing the relationship curve between interface friction coefficient and shear strength of the tailings layer of geotextile fabric woven bags,simultaneously the linear fitting friction and shear strength equation is in line with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion.The shear strength equation

  7. Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional t

  8. How to teach friction: Experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; Borghi, Lidia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Students generally have difficulty understanding friction and its associated phenomena. High school and introductory college-level physics courses usually do not give the topic the attention it deserves. We have designed a sequence for teaching about friction between solids based on a didactic reconstruction of the relevant physics, as well as research findings about student conceptions. The sequence begins with demonstrations that illustrate different types of friction. Experiments are subsequently performed to motivate students to obtain quantitative relations in the form of phenomenological laws. To help students understand the mechanisms producing friction, models illustrating the processes taking place on the surface of bodies in contact are proposed.

  9. Methods and Devices used to Measure Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, Jack; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    The physical condition at the work-piece/die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals, yet it remains the least understood. Hence the need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms....... To gain a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure friction-stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods, which have...

  10. Friction and Slip at Simple Fluid-Solid Interfaces: The Roles of the Molecular Shape and the Solid-Liquid Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatko, Tatiana; Hervet, Hubert; Leger, Liliane

    2005-06-01

    Using total internal reflection-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, the local velocity, averaged over distances of 50 nm from the solid wall, has been measured for two different simple liquids, squalane and hexadecane, sheared on three smooth surfaces with similar roughness but with gradually decreasing fluid-solid interactions. We show that not only the strength of the fluid-solid interactions, but also the shape of the molecules of the fluid deeply affect the friction and the degree of slip at the wall.

  11. Annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN probed using a monoenergetic positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira, E-mail: uedono.akira.gb@u.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yoshihara, Nakaaki [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Fujishima, Tatsuya; Piedra, Daniel; Palacios, Tomás [Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Ishibashi, Shoji [Nanosystem Research Institute “RICS,” National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Sumiya, Masatomo [Wide Bandgap Material Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Laboutin, Oleg; Johnson, Wayne [IQE, 200 John Hancock Road, Taunton, Massachusetts 01581 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Vacancy-type defects near interfaces between metal contacts and GaN grown on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements of Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation for Ti-deposited GaN showed that optically active vacancy-type defects were introduced below the Ti/GaN interface after annealing at 800 °C. Charge transition of those defects due to electron capture was observed and was found to correlate with a yellow band in the photoluminescence spectrum. The major defect species was identified as vacancy clusters such as three to five Ga-vacancies coupled with multiple nitrogen-vacancies. The annealing behaviors of vacancy-type defects in Ti-, Ni-, and Pt-deposited GaN were also examined.

  12. Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J. (University of Minnesota); Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

    2006-12-01

    Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the

  13. Contact Analysis and Modeling of Standing Wave Linear Ultrasonic Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yunlai; ZHAO Chunsheng; ZHANG Jianhui

    2011-01-01

    A contact model for describing the contact mechanics between the stator and slider of the standing wave linear ultrasonic motor was presented.The proposed model starts from the assumption that the vibration characteristics of the stator is not affected by the contact process.A modified friction models was used to analyze the contact problems.Firstly,the dynamic normal contact force,interface friction force,and steady-state characteristics were analyzed.Secondly,the influences of the contact layer material,the dynamic characteristics of the stator,and the pre-load on motor performance were simulated.Finally,to validate the contact model,a linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane modes was used as an example.The corresponding results show that a set of simulation of motor performances based on the proposed contact mechanism is in good agreement with experimental results.This model is helpful to understanding the operation principle of the standing wave linear motor and thus contributes to the design of these tvpes of motor.

  14. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  15. Resonance reflection of elastic waves at the interface between two crystals with sliding contact: I. Plane waves in structures with arbitrary anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshits, V.I.; Darinskii, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Radovich, A. [Kielce Technological Univ., Kielce (Poland)

    1995-05-01

    The theory of resonance reflection is formulated for elastic waves at the interface between two anisotropic media under conditions of sliding contact. The phenomenon under study arises in the close vicinity of a certain incidence angle for which the tangential wave vector component of the bulk wave is equal to the real part of the wave vector for the leaky mode. The relations presenting the behavior of wave-response parameters near the leaky mode resonance are derived for arbitrary crystal anisotropy. In particular, the behavior of reflection, transmission, and transformation of the bulk mode to the nonuniform one is discussed. 18 refs.

  16. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  17. Towards an Accurate Measurement of Thermal Contact Resistance at Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Graphene/SiO2 Interface Through Null Point Scanning Thermal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaehun; Hwang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Yang, Wooseok; Kwon, Ohmyoung

    2015-11-01

    In the development of graphene-based electronic devices, it is crucial to characterize the thermal contact resistance between the graphene and the substrate precisely. In this study, we demonstrate that the thermal contact resistance between CVD-grown graphene and SiO2 substrate can be obtained by measuring the temperature drop occurring at the graphene/SiO2 interface with null point scanning thermal microscopy (NP SThM), which profiles the temperature distribution quantitatively with nanoscale spatial resolution (-50 nm) without the shortcomings of the conventional SThM. The thermal contact resistance between the CVD-grown graphene and SiO2 substrate is measured as (1.7 ± 0.27) x 10(-6) M2K/W. This abnormally large thermal contact resistance seems to be caused by extrinsic factors such as ripples and metal-based contamination, which inevitably form in CVD-grown graphene during the production and transfer processes.

  18. Low-impact friction materials for brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...

  19. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  20. Model of the Frictional Heating of Inconel 718 and Titanium (ti-6al-4v) in Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowlund, Christopher T.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model of the frictional heating of metals in an inert environment has been developed. The model incorporates the effects of the heat loss from the samples due to conduction, radiation, and convection to the surroundings. This model allows the measured temperatures to be used to determine the amount of heat produced at the interface during the experiment by the sliding contact of two different metallic samples. The results of the simulation for an experiment run at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) show that for the same heat production at the interface the heat losses have a significant effect on the temperatures in the samples. But, the heat losses do not significantly affect the different calculated heat flows (or friction coefficients), at the interface, that are necessary to correlate the measured temperatures.

  1. System dynamic instabilities induced by sliding contact: A numerical analysis with experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, J.; Massi, F.; Saulot, A.; Renouf, M.; D`Ambrogio, W.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical systems present several contact surfaces between deformable bodies. The contact interface can be either static (joints) or in sliding (active interfaces). The sliding interfaces can have several roles and according to their application they can be developed either for maximizing the friction coefficient and the energy dissipation (e.g. brakes) or rather to allow the relative displacement at joints with a maximum efficiency. In both cases the coupling between system and local contact dynamics can bring to system dynamics instabilities (e.g. brake squeal or squeaking of hip prostheses). This results in unstable vibrations of the system, induced by the oscillation of the contact forces. In the literature, a large number of works deal with such kind of instabilities and are mainly focused on applied problems such as brake squeal noise. This paper shows a more general numerical analysis of a simple system constituted by two bodies in sliding contact: a rigid cylinder rotating inside a deformable one. The parametrical Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and the transient numerical simulations show how the friction forces can give rise to in-plane dynamic instabilities due to the interaction between two system modes, even for such a simple system characterized by one deformable body. Results from transient simulations highlight the key role of realistic values of the material damping to have convergence of the model and, consequently, reliable physical results. To this aim an experimental estimation of the material damping has been carried out. Moreover, the simplicity of the system allows for a deeper analysis of the contact instability and a balance of the energy flux among friction, system vibrations and damping. The numerical results have been validated by comparison with experimental ones, obtained by a specific test bench developed to reproduce and analyze the contact friction instabilities.

  2. 土工布加筋土界面摩擦特性试验研究%Experimental research on interface frictional behaviors of the geotextile-reinforced soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏; 李宁; 刘新星; 刘乃飞; 苏立海

    2016-01-01

    Based on the loess filled embankment in Yan'an new airport,and with the geotextile used in engineering practice as reinforcement material,the geotextile synthetic material testing machine jointly developed by Xi'an Yaxing Civil Engineering Instrument Co.Ltd.is adopted to carry out the direct shear tests and pull tests of geotextiles-loess interface so that the direct shear and pull strengths and friction coefficients between geotentile soil interfaces in the case of differ-ent compactness are tested.The test results indicate:①The curves of shear displacement and shear stress is hardening type and the curves of drawing displacement and tensile stress is soften-ing type;②The interface strength of geotextiles-loess conforms with the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory.The friction behaviors of the geotextile-loess interface is very good.But the friction coef-ficient of direct shear is greater than that of pull test in the same condition;③In the shearing conditions,the interface strength of geotextiles-loess is not sensitive to the compaction degree, but in the drawing conditions,the compaction degree has a significant effect on interfacial cohe-sive force.%以延安新机场黄土高填方为依托,以工程实际使用的土工布作为筋材,采用与西安亚星土木仪器有限公司共同研制的土工合成材料试验机,进行了黄土加筋土的直剪试验和拉拔试验,测试了不同压实度条件下筋土界面间的直剪和拉拔强度以及摩擦系数.试验结果表明:①剪切位移与剪应力关系曲线为硬化型,而拉拔位移与拉应力关系曲线为软化型;②土工布与黄土的界面强度在直剪和拉拔条件下均符合莫尔库仑强度理论,土工布与黄土间具有较好的摩擦特性,但相同条件下直剪摩擦系数大于拉拔摩擦系数;③剪切条件下筋土界面强度参数对压实度不敏感,而拉拔条件下压实度对界面粘聚力影响显著.

  3. Adsorption at the solid-liquid interface as the source of contact angle dependence on the curvature of the three-phase line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C A; Sefiane, K

    2010-12-15

    We review the thermodynamic approach to determining the surface tension of solid-fluid interfaces. If the pressure is in the narrow range where the contact angle, θ, can exist, then for isothermal systems, adsorption at the solid-liquid interface affects γ(SL) or θ, but γ(SV) is very nearly equal γ(LV), the surface tension of the adsorbing fluid. For a liquid partially filling a cylinder, the pressure in the liquid phase at the three-phase line, x(3)(L), depends on the curvature of the three-phase line, C(cl), but the line tension can play no role, since it acts perpendicular to the cylinder wall. C(cl) is decreased as the cylinder diameter is increased; x(3)(L) is increased; and θ increases. For a given value of C(cl), x(3)(L) can be changed by rotating the cylinder or by changing the height of the three-phase line in a gravitational field. In all cases, for water in borosilicate glass cylinders, the value of θ is shown to increase as x(3)(L) is increased. This behaviour requires the Gibbsian adsorption at the solid-liquid interface to be negative, indicating the liquid concentration in the interphase is less than that in the bulk liquid. For sessile droplets, the value of θ depends on both x(3)(L) and C(cl). If the value of θ for spherical sessile droplets is measured as a function of C(cl), the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface that would give that dependence can be determined. It is unnecessary to introduce the line tension hypothesis to explain the dependence of θ on C(cl). Adsorption at the solid-liquid interface gives a full explanation.

  4. Reduction of Structural Vibrations by Passive and Semiactively Controlled Friction Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of structural vibrations is of major interest in mechanical engineering for lowering sound emission of vibrating structures, improving accuracy of machines, and increasing structure durability. Besides optimization of the mechanical design or various types of passive damping treatments, active structural vibration control concepts are efficient means to reduce unwanted vibrations. In this contribution, two different semiactive control concepts for vibration reduction are proposed that adapt to the normal force of attached friction dampers. Thereby, semiactive control concepts generally possess the advantage over active control in that the closed loop is intrinsically stable and that less energy is required for the actuation than in active control. In the chosen experimental implementation, a piezoelectric stack actuator is used to apply adjustable normal forces between a structure and an attached friction damper. Simulation and experimental results of a benchmark structure with passive and semiactively controlled friction dampers are compared for stationary narrowband excitation. For simulations of the control performance, transient simulations must be employed to predict the achieved vibration damping. It is well known that transient simulation of systems with friction and normal contact requires excessive computational power due to the nonlinear constitutive laws and the high contact stiffnesses involved. However, commercial finite-element codes do not allow simulating feedback control in a general way. As a remedy, a special simulation framework is developed which allows efficiently modeling interfaces with friction and normal contact by appropriate constitutive laws which are implemented by contact elements in a finite-element model. Furthermore, special model reduction techniques using a substructuring approach are employed for faster simulation.

  5. Optimization of the contact resistance in the interface structure of n-type Al/a-SiC:H by thermal annealing for optoelectronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Roberto; Mireles, Jose Jr. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Torres, Alfonso; Zuniga, Carlos; Moreno, Mario [National Institute for Astrophysics Optics and Electronics INAOE, Luis E. Erro 1, PO Box 51 and 216, 7200, Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The presented work meets the requirements for integration of amorphous silicon carbon films with silicon technology in order to obtain a complete optoelectronic system such as light emitting diodes and its electronic readout circuits. The key enabler for this integration scheme is the low temperature of deposition of a-SiC:H films and an ohmic behavior in the interface metal/a-SiC:H. In this work, the optimization of the interface Al/a-SiC:H films are performed by means of thermal annealing timing. The a-SiC:H films were deposited by enhanced chemical vapor deposition from CH{sub 4}/SiH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} mixtures. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films are presented. An implantation phosphorous dose was used for doping before fabrication of patterned aluminum contacts. The implanted films were electrically characterized by the transfer length method (TLM) measuring a sheet resistance value as low as 171 M{omega}/square. The Schottky behavior was improved to ohmic behavior after several hours in thermal annealing treatments at 350 C, which allows to obtain a reasonable contact resistance values in the range from 8.6 to 26.8 k{omega}. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Stochastic modeling of friction force and vibration analysis of a mechanical system using the model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Seok; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The squeal noise generated from a disk brake or chatter occurred in a machine tool primarily results from friction-induced vibration. Since friction-induced vibration is usually accompanied by abrasion and lifespan reduction of mechanical parts, it is necessary to develop a reliable analysis model by which friction-induced vibration phenomena can be accurately analyzed. The original Coulomb's friction model or the modified Coulomb friction model employed in most commercial programs employs deterministic friction coefficients. However, observing friction phenomena between two contact surfaces, one may observe that friction coefficients keep changing due to the unevenness of contact surface, temperature, lubrication and humidity. Therefore, in this study, friction coefficients are modeled as random parameters that keep changing during the motion of a mechanical system undergoing friction force. The integrity of the proposed stochastic friction model was validated by comparing the analysis results obtained by the proposed model with experimental results.

  7. Studies of the electrical and interface properties of the metal contacts to CuInSe sub 2 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.A.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Matson, R.J.; Dunlavy, D.J.; Coutts, T.J. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado 80401 (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The electrical behavior of the metal contacts and ITO and CdS junctions to single crystals of CuInSe{sub 2} has been studied using {ital I}--{ital V} and electron beam induced current measurements, then correlated to the chemical composition and intrinsic defect states in the semiconductor. The results have indicated that the contact resistance, junction characteristics, and crystalline order of surfaces are controlled mainly by the type and relative concentration of the intrinsic defect states dominating the copper-indium-deselenide material; these states are very sensitive to heat treatments and surface preparation procedures. Correlation between the behavior of different samples (polycrystalline thin films or single crystals) should be based upon similarities in the type and relative concentration of the chemical composition.

  8. A contact stress model for multifingered grasps of rough objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pramath Raj; Abel, Jacob M.

    1990-01-01

    The model developed utilizes a contact-stress analysis of an arbitrarily shaped object in a multifingered grasp. The fingers and the object are all treated as elastic bodies, and the region of contact is modeled as a deformable surface patch. The relationship between the friction and normal forces is nonlocal and nonlinear in nature and departs from the Coulomb approximation. The nature of the constraints arising out of conditions for compatibility and static equilibrium motivated the formulation of the model as a nonlinear constrained minimization problem. The model is able to predict the magnitude of the inwardly directed normal forces and both the magnitude and direction of the tangential (friction) forces at each finger-object interface for grasped objects in static equilibrium.

  9. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2014-10-31

    We examined the influence of geologic features present at the reservoir/caprock interface on the transmission of supercritical CO2 into and through caprock. We focused on the case of deformation-band faults in reservoir lithologies that intersect the interface and transition to opening-mode fractures in caprock lithologies. Deformation-band faults are exceeding common in potential CO2 injection units and our fieldwork in Utah indicates that this sort of transition is common. To quantify the impact of these interface features on flow and transport we first described the sedimentology and permeability characteristics of selected sites along the Navajo Sandstone (reservoir lithology) and Carmel Formation (caprock lithology) interface, and along the Slickrock Member (reservoir lithology) and Earthy Member (caprock lithology) of the Entrada Sandstone interface, and used this information to construct conceptual permeability models for numerical analysis. We then examined the impact of these structures on flow using single-phase and multiphase numerical flow models for these study sites. Key findings include: (1) Deformation-band faults strongly compartmentalize the reservoir and largely block cross-fault flow of supercritical CO2. (2) Significant flow of CO2 through the fractures is possible, however, the magnitude is dependent on the small-scale geometry of the contact between the opening-mode fracture and the deformation band fault. (3) Due to the presence of permeable units in the caprock, caprock units are capable of storing significant volumes of CO2, particularly when the fracture network does not extend all the way through the caprock. The large-scale distribution of these deformation-bandfault-to-opening-mode-fractures is related to the curvature of the beds, with greater densities of fractures in high curvature regions. We also examined core and outcrops from the Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire

  10. Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber thinning and the homo-interface model: Influence of Mo back contact and 3-stage process on device characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, E.; Arzel, L.; Tomassini, M.; Barreau, N., E-mail: nicolas.barreau@univ-nantes.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zabierowski, P. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, PL 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Fuertes Marrón, D. [Instituto de Energía Solar–ETSIT, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-21

    Thinning the absorber layer is one of the possibilities envisaged to further decrease the production costs of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films solar cell technology. In the present study, the electronic transport in submicron CIGSe-based devices has been investigated and compared to that of standard devices. It is observed that when the absorber is around 0.5 μm-thick, tunnelling enhanced interface recombination dominates, which harms cells energy conversion efficiency. It is also shown that by varying either the properties of the Mo back contact or the characteristics of 3-stage growth processing, one can shift the dominating recombination mechanism from interface to space charge region and thereby improve the cells efficiency. Discussions on these experimental facts led to the conclusions that 3-stage process implies the formation of a CIGSe/CIGSe homo-interface, whose location as well as properties rule the device operation; its influence is enhanced in submicron CIGSe based solar cells.

  11. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber thinning and the homo-interface model: Influence of Mo back contact and 3-stage process on device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E.; Arzel, L.; Tomassini, M.; Zabierowski, P.; Fuertes Marrón, D.; Barreau, N.

    2014-08-01

    Thinning the absorber layer is one of the possibilities envisaged to further decrease the production costs of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin films solar cell technology. In the present study, the electronic transport in submicron CIGSe-based devices has been investigated and compared to that of standard devices. It is observed that when the absorber is around 0.5 μm-thick, tunnelling enhanced interface recombination dominates, which harms cells energy conversion efficiency. It is also shown that by varying either the properties of the Mo back contact or the characteristics of 3-stage growth processing, one can shift the dominating recombination mechanism from interface to space charge region and thereby improve the cells efficiency. Discussions on these experimental facts led to the conclusions that 3-stage process implies the formation of a CIGSe/CIGSe homo-interface, whose location as well as properties rule the device operation; its influence is enhanced in submicron CIGSe based solar cells.

  12. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball A. Milton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, which break time-reversal symmetry. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Partly because of the lack of contact with observations, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here, we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  13. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A; Brevik, I

    2015-01-01

    For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum fluctuations. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Because of the lack of contact with phenomena, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  14. Rôle des additifs anti-usure des huiles lubrifiantes dans un teste de frottement simulant le contact segment-chemise Role of Antiwear Additives for Lube Oils in a Friction Test Simulating Ring-Liner Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons mis en oeuvre un test de frottement dans lequel les conditions tribologiques sont voisines de celles existant au niveau segment-chemise des moteurs à explosion. Nous avons éprouvé différentes huiles commerciales ainsi que des additifs purs. Ayant choisi la température comme paramètre variable au cours de ce test nous pouvons déterminer pour chaque lubrifiant une plage de température correspondant à une zone d'efficacité maximale de l'additif anti-usure qu'il contient. La température correspondant à la limite inférieure de cette plage est liée à la nature chimique de l'additif. De plus lorsqu'un gradient de température existe entre les deux pièces en frottement, on observe, dans la zone d'efficacité maximale du lubrifiant, un phénomène de pulsations verticales de la goutte d'huile placée dans le contact. Des éléments d'interprétation, expliquant ces deux phénomènes, sont proposés et conduisent à relier l'efficacité anti-usure d'un additif à ses propriétés d'adsorption à la surface des pièces frottantes. The tribological conditions in the test used were similar to these existing in the ringliner area. of explosion engines. Different commercial cils were tested along with pure additives. Since temperature was chosen as a variable parameter during these tests, it was possible to determine a temperature range for each lubricant, corresponding to the maximum efficiency zone for the antiwear additive it contained. The temperature corresponding to the lower limit of this range is linked to the chemical nature of the additive. Likewise, when a temperature gradient exists between two rubbing parts, a vertical pulsation phenomenon of the drop of cil n the contact area occurs in the maximum efficiency zone of the lubricant. Interpretation elements explaining these two phenomena are proposed and lead to linking the antiwear efficiency of an additive to its adsorption properties on the surface of rubbing parts.

  15. Sliding without slipping under Coulomb friction: opening waves and inversion of frictional force

    CERN Document Server

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A

    2015-01-01

    An elastic layer slides on a rigid flat governed by Coulomb's friction law. We demonstrate that if the coefficient of friction is high enough, the sliding localizes within stick-slip pulses, which transform into opening waves propagating at intersonic speed in the direction of sliding or, for high Poisson's ratios, at supersonic speed in the opposite one. This sliding mode, characterized by small frictional dissipation, rapidly relaxes the shear elastic energy via stress waves and enables the contact surface slide ahead of the top one, resulting in inversion of the frictional force direction.

  16. Boundary lubrication under pressure: could the friction jump down, instead of up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Benassi, Andrea; Varini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2012-02-01

    The sliding friction during pressure squeezout of a boundary lubricated contact has been shown [1,2] to undergo upward jumps every time a lubricant atomic layer is expelled. Here we ask the question whether the jump could not be downward. Whereas most studies focus on the layered structure which the confined lubricant takes in the normal direction, the element we wish to consider is a possible change of parallel periodicity occurring at the squeezout transition. Such changes have been reported in simulations [3], but their effect has not been discussed so far. One possible effect could be a transition of the slider-lubricant interface commensurability, producing a switch of the frictional mechanism, from lubricant melting-freezing in a commensurate state, to superlubric in an incommensurate one -- in this case with a drop of friction for increasing load. We exemplify this effect by MD simulations, where we replace for convenience the open squeezout system with a closed system, where the lubricant is sealed between the sliders. As the number of layers drops under pressure, the planar lubricant structural lattice parameter also drops. This change reflects in a sliding friction jump, which is easily observed to be downwards. The potential observability of load-induced friction drops will be discussed. [4pt] [1] J.N. Israelachvili et al., Science 240, 189 (1988). [0pt] [2] J. Gao et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5033 (1998). [0pt] [3] U. Tartaglino et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 014704 (2006).

  17. High friction on ice provided by elastomeric fiber composites with textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, R.; Naguib, H.; Fernie, G.; Dutta, T.

    2015-03-01

    Two main applications requiring high friction on ice are automobile tires and footwear. The main motivation behind the use of soft rubbers in these applications is the relatively high friction force generated between a smooth rubber contacting smooth ice. Unfortunately, the friction force between rubber and ice is very low at temperatures near the melting point of ice and as a result we still experience automobile accidents and pedestrian slips and falls in the winter. Here, we report on a class of compliant fiber-composite materials with textured surfaces that provide outstanding coefficients of friction on wet ice. The fibrous composites consist of a hard glass-fiber phase reinforcing a compliant thermoplastic polyurethane matrix. The glass-fiber phase is textured such that it is aligned transversally and protruding out of the elastomer surface. Our analysis indicates that the exposed fiber phase exhibits a "micro-cleat" effect, allowing for it to fracture the ice and increase the interfacial contact area thereby requiring a high force to shear the interface.

  18. A finite element study on the mechanical response of the head-neck interface of hip implants under realistic forces and moments of daily activities: Part 1, level walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoudi, Hamidreza; Fallahnezhad, Khosro; Oskouei, Reza H; Taylor, Mark

    2017-08-12

    This paper investigates the mechanical response of a modular head-neck interface of hip joint implants under realistic loads of level walking. The realistic loads of the walking activity consist of three dimensional gait forces and the associated frictional moments. These forces and moments were extracted for a 32mm metal-on-metal bearing couple. A previously reported geometry of a modular CoCr/CoCr head-neck interface with a proximal contact was used for this investigation. An explicit finite element analysis was performed to investigate the interface mechanical responses. To study the level of contribution and also the effect of superposition of the load components, three different scenarios of loading were studied: gait forces only, frictional moments only, and combined gait forces and frictional moments. Stress field, micro-motions, shear stresses and fretting work at the contacting nodes of the interface were analysed. Gait forces only were found to significantly influence the mechanical environment of the head-neck interface by temporarily extending the contacting area (8.43% of initially non-contacting surface nodes temporarily came into contact), and therefore changing the stress field and resultant micro-motions during the gait cycle. The frictional moments only did not cause considerable changes in the mechanical response of the interface (only 0.27% of the non-contacting surface nodes temporarily came into contact). However, when superposed with the gait forces, the mechanical response of the interface, particularly micro-motions and fretting work, changed compared to the forces only case. The normal contact stresses and micro-motions obtained from this realistic load-controlled study were typically in the range of 0-275MPa and 0-38µm, respectively. These ranges were found comparable to previous experimental displacement-controlled pin/cylinder-on-disk fretting corrosion studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High friction and low wear properties of laser-textured ceramic surface under dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Wu, Ze; Wu, Fengfang

    2017-08-01

    Two kinds of grooved textures with different spacing were fabricated on Al2O3/TiC ceramic surface by an Nd:YAG laser. The dry tribological properties of the textured samples were investigated by carrying out unidirectional rotary sliding friction and wear tests using a ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the laser textured samples exhibit higher friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance compared with the smooth sample under dry friction conditions. Furthermore, the texture morphology and spacing have a significant influence on the tribological properties. The sample with small texture spacing may be beneficial to increasing the friction coefficient, and the wavy-grooved sample exhibits the highest friction coefficient and shallowest wear depth. The increasing friction coefficient and anti-wear properties are attributed to the combined effects of the increased surface roughness, reduced real contact area, micro-cutting effect by the texture edges and entrapment of wear debris.

  20. Interface behaviour and electrical performance of ruthenium Schottky contact on 4H-SiC after argon annealing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kinnock V munthali; Chris Theron; F Danie Auret; Sergio M M Coelho

    2015-06-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis, carried out at various annealing temperatures, of a thin film of ruthenium on n-type four-hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) showed the evidence of ruthenium oxidation, ruthenium silicide formation and diffusion of ruthenium into silicon carbide starting from an annealing temperature of 400° C. Ruthenium oxidation was more pronounced, and ruthenium and silicon interdiffusion was very deep after annealing at 800° C. Raman analysis of some samples also showed ruthenium silicide formation and oxidation. The Schottky barrier diodes showed very good linear capacitance–voltage characteristics and excellent forward current–voltage characteristics, despite the occurrence of the chemical reactions and interdiffusion of ruthenium and silicon at ruthenium–silicon–carbide interface, up to an annealing temperature of 800° C.

  1. On the possibility of contact-induced spin polarization in interfaces of armchair nanotubes with transition metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzubov, Alexander A. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kovaleva, Evgenia A., E-mail: kovaleva.evgeniya1991@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Tomilin, Felix N.; Mikhaleva, Natalya S.; Kuklin, Artem V. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction between armchair carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (NT) with ferromagnetic transition metal (TM) surfaces, namely, Ni(111) and Co(0001), was studied by means of density functional theory. Different configurations of composite compartments mutual arrangement were considered. Partial densities of states and spin density spatial distribution of optimized structures were investigated. Influence of ferromagnetic substrate on nanotubes’ electronic properties was discussed. The values of spin polarization magnitude at the Fermi level are also presented and confirm the patterns of spin density spatial distribution. - Highlights: • Interaction of armchair nanotubes with ferromagnetic metal surfaces was investigated. • Different configurations of nanotube's location were considered. • For all nanotubes the energy difference between configurations is negligible. • Nanotubes were found to be more or less spin-polarized regarding to the configuration. • BN nanotubes demonstrate vanishing of the band gap and contact-induced conductivity.

  2. Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    Friction at the workpiece-die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals; yet it remains the least understood. Hence there is a need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms. To gain...... a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...

  3. Transient effects in friction fractal asperity creep

    CERN Document Server

    Goedecke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Transient friction effects determine the behavior of a wide class of mechatronic systems. Classic examples are squealing brakes, stiction in robotic arms, or stick-slip in linear drives. To properly design and understand mechatronic systems of this type, good quantitative models of transient friction effects are of primary interest. The theory developed in this book approaches this problem bottom-up, by deriving the behavior of macroscopic friction surfaces from the microscopic surface physics. The model is based on two assumptions: First, rough surfaces are inherently fractal, exhibiting roughness on a wide range of scales. Second, transient friction effects are caused by creep enlargement of the real area of contact between two bodies. This work demonstrates the results of extensive Finite Element analyses of the creep behavior of surface asperities, and proposes a generalized multi-scale area iteration for calculating the time-dependent real contact between two bodies. The toolset is then demonstrated both...

  4. Contact angle-based predictive model for slip at the solid-liquid interface of a transverse-shear mode acoustic wave device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jonathan S.; McHale, Glen; Hayward, Gordon L.; Thompson, Michael

    2003-11-01

    We have revisited the Blake-Tolstoi theory [Coll. Surf. 47, 135 (1990)] for molecular and hydrodynamic slip and applied it to the fundamental description of acoustic wave devices coupled to a liquid of finite thickness. The aim is to provide a framework for a predictive model for slip, based on surface-liquid interactions and contact angle. This theory provides a description of slip that links hydrodynamic boundary slip to a schematic, molecular description involving the wettability of the liquid-solid interface. We redevelop the model, using current acoustic sensors notation, then evaluate its qualitative behavior as a predictive model for slip length in the context of acoustic wave devices. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model and consider the advantages of a predictive model for boundary slip.

  5. Semi-insulating GaAs-based Schottky contacts in the role of detectors of ionising radiation: An effect of the interface treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanco, J; Darmo, J; Krempasky, M; Besse, I; Senderak, R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the substrate material quality plays a key role in the performance of back-to-back detectors of ionising radiation based on semi-insulating (SI) material. The aim of this paper is to evaluate usually overlooked problem, namely the influence of the Schottky contact preparation on detector performance. We report on different approaches to modify and control the quality of the metal/SI GaAs interface via a treatment of the SI-GaAs surface by means of low-temperature hydrogen plasma and wet etching. The measured electrical and detecting properties of such structures display a strong dependence on the history and the way the GaAs surface is treated prior to the metal evaporation. We point out, therefore, that the semiconductor surface treatment before the Schottky metallization plays a role of comparable importance to the influence of the SI-GaAs substrate properties on detector performances. (author)

  6. Resonance reflection of elastic waves at the interface between two crystals with sliding contact: II. Plane waves and acoustic beams in structures with hexagonal symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshits, V.I.; Darinskii, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Radovich, A. [Kielce Technological Univ., Kielce (Poland)

    1995-05-01

    The specific features of acoustic wave reflection are analyzed at the interface between two hexagonal crystals with a sliding contact between them. Attention is focused on the angles of incidence corresponding to excitation of the leaky wave. The conditions supporting the existence of leaky waves are found. The expressions illustrating the behavior of plane wave transformation coefficients for reflection, refraction, and excitation of interfacial oscillations are found in analytic form. In addition, the features of nonmirror reflection are studied for a slightly diverging acoustic beam having initially a rectangular profile. The study deals with the case when the tangential projection of the {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} wavevector for the beam is close to or coincides with the real part of the wavevector of the leaky wave. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  7. A Damping Characteristics Calculation Method of Metal Dry Friction Isolators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-yuan; HAO De-gang; XIA Yu-hong; ULANOV A M; PONOMAREV Yu K

    2008-01-01

    The dry friction ring-type vibration isolator is considered as an isotropic continuous medium. A method of dry friction hysteresis loop calculation is proposed based on friction force analysis of contact beam. The friction force is modeled as an equivalent distributed moment to use the finite element method (FEM) to calculate the dry friction vibration isolator hysteresis loop, so the damping characteristics can be obtained. A comparison of the hysteresis loop calculation results and the experimental results shows the average relative error is 2.7%, it proves the calculation method is feasible.

  8. Friction Effects in Pedestrian Headform Impacts with Engine Hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; XIA Yong; ZHOU Qing

    2009-01-01

    In the pedestrian headform impact test mandated by the European pedestrian safety requirements, the contact friction between the headform and the engine hood affects the headform kinematics and head injury criterion (HIC) to some extent. This study shows that the friction effect is more significant with child headform impact than with adult headform impact and the relative angle between the headform impact di-rection and the hood surface greatly affects the headform impact sensitivity to the friction coefficient. The sensitivity of the headform kinematics to the friction coefficient is also analyzed. The results show that ac-curate friction coefficients are needed to improve predictions of pedestrian headform impacts with hoods.

  9. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  10. Inhibitory NK receptor recognition of HLA-G: regulation by contact residues and by cell specific expression at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsufit Gonen-Gross

    Full Text Available The non-classical HLA-G protein is distinguished from the classical MHC class I molecules by its expression pattern, low polymorphism and its ability to form complexes on the cell surface. The special role of HLA-G in the maternal-fetal interface has been attributed to its ability to interact with specific receptors found on maternal immune cells. However this interaction is restricted to a limited number of receptors. In this study we elucidate the reason for this phenomenon by comparing the specific contact residues responsible for MHC-KIR interactions. This alignment revealed a marked difference between the HLA-G molecule and other MHC class I molecules. By mutating these residues to the equivalent classical MHC residues, the HLA-G molecule regained an ability of interacting with KIR inhibitory receptors found on NK cells derived either from peripheral blood or from the decidua. Functional NK killing assays further substantiated the binding results. Furthermore, double immunofluorescent staining of placental sections revealed that while the conformed form of HLA-G was expressed in all extravillous trophoblasts, the free heavy chain form of HLA-G was expressed in more distal cells of the column, the invasion front. Overall we suggest that HLA-G protein evolved to interact with only some of the NK inhibitory receptors thus allowing a control of inhibition, while permitting appropriate NK cell cytokine and growth factor production necessary for a viable maternal fetal interface.

  11. Friction Phenomenon in Contact Stress Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    specimen. A virtual reference grating created by interference of two coherent beams A and B is superimposed on the specimen grating. The specimen and...where f is the frequency of the virtual reference grating, x is the wavelength of the light employed, a is the angle of incidence (Fig. 3), N is the...orders the test case was run again. This corresponds to a similar order of interpolation error which might occur with a virtual reference grating of 240

  12. A frictional sliding algorithm for liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a new frictional sliding algorithm for liquid menisci in contact with solid substrates. In contrast to solid-solid contact, the liquid-solid contact behavior is governed by the contact line, where a contact angle forms and undergoes hysteresis. The new algorithm admits arbitrary meniscus shapes and arbitrary substrate roughness, heterogeneity and compliance. It is discussed and analyzed in the context of droplet contact, but it also applies to liquid films and solids with surface tension. The droplet is modeled as a stabilized membrane enclosing an incompressible medium. The contact formulation is considered rate-independent such that hydrostatic conditions apply. Three distinct contact algorithms are needed to describe the cases of frictionless surface contact, frictionless line contact and frictional line contact. For the latter, a predictor-corrector algorithm is proposed in order to enforce the contact conditions at the contact line and thus distinguish between the cases of advancing, pinning and receding. The algorithms are discretized within a monolithic finite element formulation. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the numerical and physical behavior of sliding droplets.

  13. Study on friction behaviour of brake shoe materials for mining hoist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, M.; Ungureanu, N. S.; Crăciun, I.

    2017-02-01

    The friction coefficient in the brake linkages has an important influence on the braking efficiency and safety of machines. The paper presents a method for the study of the friction coefficient of the friction couple brake shoe-drum for mining hoist. In this context, it is interesting to define the friction coefficient, not just according to the materials in contact, but according to the entire ensemble of tribological factors of the friction couple.

  14. Friction in Sliding Orthodontic Mechanics: Ceramic Brackets, Teflon-Coated Wires and Comparative Resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    of contact between the surfaces; and 4) friction is independent of the sliding velocity. Rabinowicz (1965) argued that frictional force is independent...between them. This greater friction is due to the increased area of actual contact. Rabinowicz (1965) also described exceptions to these "laws" of... Rabinowicz , 1965). In the following discussion, however, the classical (Coulomb) frictional model that correlates increased normal force directly to

  15. Friction characteristics of trocars in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazmani, Ali; Roshan, Rupesh; Jayne, David G; Neville, Anne; Culmer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates the friction characteristics of the instrument-trocar interface in laparoscopic surgery for varying linear instrument velocities, trocar seal design and material, and trocar tilt. Furthermore, the effect of applying lubrication at the instrument-trocar seal interface on friction was studied. A friction testing apparatus was designed and built to characterise the resistance force at the instrument-trocar interface as a function of the instrument's linear movement in the 12-mm trocar (at constant velocity) for different design, seal material, and angle of tilt. The resistance force depended on the trocar seal design and material properties, specifically surface roughness, elasticity, hardness, the direction of movement, and the instrument linear velocity, and varied between 0.25 and 8 N. Lubricating the shaft with silicone oil reduced the peak resistance force by 75% for all trocars and eliminated the stick-slip phenomenon evident in non-lubricated cases. The magnitude of fluctuation in resistance force depends on the trocar design and is attributed to stick-slip of the sealing mechanism and is generally higher during retraction in comparison to insertion. Trocars that have an inlet seal made of rubber/polyurethane showed higher resistance forces during retraction. Use of a lubricant significantly reduced frictional effects. Comparisons of the investigated trocars indicate that a low friction port, providing the surgeon with improved haptic feedback, can be designed by improving the tribological properties of the trocar seal interface.

  16. The microphysics of phyllosilicate friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Sabine A. M.; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-04-01

    Phyllosilicate-rich foliations in fault rocks are often thought to reduce overall fault strength and promote fault stability when forming an interconnected network. Indeed, laboratory measurements have shown that the average friction coefficient of dry phyllosilicates of 0.5 is reduced to 0.3 when wet or even 0.1 for smectite. A widely accepted interpretation of these observations is that the strength of phyllosilicates is controlled by breaking of interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces when dry and by the low strength of surface-bound water films when wet. However, the correlation between phyllosilicate shear strength and interlayer bond strength, which formed the basis for this interpretation, was not reproduced in recent experiments (Behnsen and Faulkner, 2012) and is not supported by the latest calculations of the interlayer bond energies (Sakuma and Suehara, 2015). The accepted explanation for phyllosilicate friction also fails to account for the velocity dependence or (a-b) values, which decrease with temperature, reaching a minimum at intermediate temperatures, before increasing again at higher temperatures (Den Hartog et al., 2013, 2014). In this study, we developed a microphysical model for phyllosilicate friction, involving frictional sliding along atomically flat phyllosilicate grain interfaces, with overlapping grain edges forming barriers to sliding. Assuming that the amount of overlap is controlled by crystal plastic bending of grains into pores, together with rate-dependent edge-site cleavage, our model predicts most of the experimentally observed trends in frictional behaviour and provides a basis for extrapolation of laboratory friction data on phyllosilicates to natural conditions.

  17. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  18. Microstructure analysis in friction welding of copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, A. G. Wahyu; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.

    2016-04-01

    The Friction welding is a welding method with utilizing heat generated due to friction. Surfaces of two materials to be joined, one rotates the other being idle, is contacted by a pressure force. Friction on the second contact surface is done continuously so that the heat generated by the continuous friction will continue to rise. With the heat and the pressure force on the second surface to the second meeting of the material reaches its melting temperature then there is the process of welding. This paper examines the influence of the pressure force, rotational speed and contact time on friction welding of Aluminum (Al) and Copper (Cu) to the quality of welded joints. Friction welding process is performed on a friction welding machine that is equipped with the loading mechanism. The parameters used are the pressure force, rotational speed and friction time. Determination of the quality of welding is done by testing the tensile strength, hardness, and micro structure on the weld joint areas. The results showed that the friction welding quality is very good, this is evidenced by the results of a tensile strength test where the fault occurs outside the weld joint and increased violence in the weld joint. On the results visually cuts the welding area did not reveal any porosity so that it can be concluded that each metal contacts have melted perfectly and produce a connection with good quality.

  19. A distributed mechanical joint contact model with slip/slap coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Hamid; Mohammadali, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces a zero thickness interface model that considers hysteresis effects in both normal and shear directions of a contact. The model is rate independent and represents coupling effects between normal and shear displacements. Contact effects are included through a segment-to-segment contact model which considers stick, micro-slip, slide and slap behaviors at every point within the contact interface. The model has six parameters and three memory variables without the need for integration during response computations. Behavior of the model is validated using the available mechanical joint records in the literature and it is successfully employed for model identification and dynamic response prediction of an internally resonating test structure with frictional support.

  20. Frictional Contact An alysis of Ambient Braking Mech anism in Direct-driven Rotra y Table Based on ANSYS Work bench%基于 ANSYS Workbench 直驱转台环抱式制动结构的摩擦接触分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 刘海岷; 杨群

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the structure of the ambient braking mechanism and describes the contact problems and charac-teristics of braking sleeve during braking process.The ANSYS Workbench finite element software is used to analyze the fric-tional contact problems, and then the contact result is obtained.The sliding friction occurred between contact surfaces is ex-plored, and the holding torque in consideration of the structural parameters is acquired.%简要说明了直驱转台环抱式制动结构,介绍了制动机构中制动套接触的问题和特点;用ANSYS Workbench软件对制动结构摩擦接触问题进行有限元分析,确定摩擦接触的分析结果,探索制动过程中产生滑动摩擦的接触面,结合制动套的结构参数,获得制动力矩的大小。

  1. CONTACT NOTCH STRESS ASSESSMENT WITHIN FRICTIONAL CONTACT JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ SZWEDOWICZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan, por medio del método del elemento finito (FE, las concentraciones de esfuerzo en los límites de zonas de contacto nominales que incluyen deslizamiento con fricción. Los elementos mecánicos para el análisis numérico se consideran como una flecha acoplada a un cubo de rueda por medio de aros cónicos deformables. El proceso de refinamiento de malla usado en el modelo discreto garantiza la confiabilidad de los resultados de FE, los cuales muestran un pico de esfuerzo considerablemente mayor al obtenido de la solución analítica, que usualmente se recomienda en guías de diseño de uniones con fricción. Esos picos de esfuerzo resultan en fallas por fatiga de bajos ciclos (LCF durante el servicio de la unión flecha cubo, porque pueden rebasar el punto de cedencia del material en áreas particulares de la flecha. Además en el estudio se considera el efecto de claros y magnitudes de fricción, entre los componentes mecánicos, y su influencia en la variación del esfuerzo máximo de contacto. Los resultados y conclusiones obtenidos del artículo son aplicables a los procesos de diseño y manufactura de uniones cónicas con fricción, con relación a sus características y tolerancias de ensamble.

  2. Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.

  3. Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.

  4. Heat source models in simulation of heat flow in friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    . The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in the literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority neglects the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In this work, a number......The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in friction stir welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms...... of cases is established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models, the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear layers...

  5. Heat Source Models in Simulation of Heat Flow in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    . The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority of them neglect the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In the present work......The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms......, a number of cases are established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear...

  6. Influence of Friction Condition on Cold Upsetting of Tube Flange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    FEM is used to analyze the influence of interface friction on the material flow and the cause of forming defect in the cold upsetting of tube flange. Based on the FEM simulation results, the relationships between flange width and the extreme friction factors are established. The concept of forming limit diagram for cold upsetting of tube flange is presented.

  7. Frictional Forces Required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted t

  8. Development of a Constitutive Friction Law based on the Frictional Interaction of Rough Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction has a considerable impact in metal forming. This is in particular true for sheet-bulk metal-forming (SBMF in which local highly varying contact loads occur. A constitutive friction law suited to the needs of SBMF is necessary, if numerical investigations in SBMF are performed. The identification of the friction due to adhesion and ploughing is carried out with an elasto-plastic half-space model. The normal contact is verified for a broad range of normal loads. In addition, the model is used for the characterization of the occurring shear stress. Ploughing is determined by the work which is necessary to plastically deform the surface asperities of the new area that gets into contact during sliding. Furthermore, the surface patches of common half-space models are aligned orthogonally to the direction in which the surfaces approach when normal contact occurs. For a better reflection of the original surfaces, the element patches become inclined. This leads to a geometric share of lateral forces which also contribute to friction. Based on these effects, a friction law is derived which is able to predict the contact conditions especially for SBMF.

  9. DSPC/DLPC mixed films supported on silica: a QCM-D and friction force study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Takakuni; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The membrane properties of phospholipid mixtures supported on silica were studied by means of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technique, in situ soft-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM), and friction force microscopy (FFM). The phospholipids used in this study were di-stearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). The phospholipid films were prepared by a vesicle-fusion method, in which DSPC/DLPC mixed liposomes dispersed in an aqueous medium are adsorbed on silica and their structure is transformed into a bilayer on the substrate. The changes in QCM-D (frequency and dissipation) and friction responses of DSPC single systems (gel state at 25°C) are relatively large compared with those of DLPC single systems (liquid-crystalline state at 25°C) and those of mixed DSPC/DLPC systems. This suggests that (i) the gel-state DSPC liposomes are somewhat flattened on the silica, by keeping their solid-like molecular rigidity, whereas (ii) both the liquid-crystalline DLPC and mixed liposomes experience instantaneous structural transformation at the silica/water interface and form a normally flattened bilayer on the substrate. The friction force response is dependent on the phase state of the phospholipids, and the liquid-crystalline DLPC has a more significant impact on the overall membrane properties (i.e., the degree of swelling and the friction response on the surface) than does the gel-state DSPC.

  10. Nonlinear Vibration Characteristics of a Flexible Blade with Friction Damping due to Tip-Rub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqing Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate approach is proposed in this paper for analyzing the two-dimensional friction contact problem so as to compute the dynamic response of a structure constrained by friction interfaces due to tip-rub. The dynamical equation of motion for a rotational cantilever blade in a centrifugal force field is established. Flow-induced distributed periodic forces and the internal material damping in the blade are accounted for in the governing equation of motion. The Galerkin method is employed to obtain a three-degree-of-freedom oscillator with friction damping due to tip-rub. The combined motion of impact and friction due to tip-rub produced a piecewise linear vibration which is actually nonlinear. Thus, a complete vibration cycle is divided into successive intervals. The system possesses linear vibration characteristic during each of these intervals, which can be determined using analytical solution forms. Numerical simulation shows that the parameters such as gap of the tip and the rotational speed of the blades have significant effects on the dynamical responses of the system. Finally, the nonlinear vibration characteristics of the blade are investigated in terms of the Poincare graph, and the frequency spectrum of the responses and the amplitude-frequency curves.

  11. General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real co...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data.......An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...

  12. Assessment of semi-active friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Braga; Coelho, Humberto Tronconi; Lepore Neto, Francisco Paulo; Mafhoud, Jarir

    2017-09-01

    The use of friction dampers has been widely proposed for a variety of mechanical systems for which applying viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or other viscous dampers is impossible. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades' vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive manner, but significant improvements can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the contact region. The aim of this paper is to present and study five control strategies for friction dampers based on three different hysteresis cycles by using the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM), a numerical and experimental analysis. The first control strategy uses the friction force as a resistance when the system is deviating from its equilibrium position. The second control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle by calculating the optimal normal force based on the last displacement peak. The third control strategy combines the first strategy with the homogenous modulation of the friction force. Finally, the last two strategies attempt to predict the system's movement based on its velocity and acceleration and our knowledge of its physical properties. Numerical and experimental studies are performed with these five strategies, which define the performance metrics. The experimental testing rig is fully identified and its parameters are used for numerical simulations. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance of the friction damper and selected strategy and the suitable agreement between the numerical and experimental results.

  13. Bifurcations in Systems with Friction : Basic Models and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Examples of irregular behavior of dynamical systems with dry friction are discussed. A classification of frictional contacts with respect to their dimensionality, associativity, and the possibility of interruptions is proposed and basic models showing typical features are stated. In particular, bifu

  14. Effect of friction heat on tribological behavior of M2 steel against GCr15 steel in dry sliding systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The tribological behavior depends significantly on friction heat under high sliding velocity. Many factors influence the conduction rate of friction heat, such as thermophysical properties of the pairs, the formation components of interface-film, environment mediums, etc. Through theoretical and experimental studies on surface temperature, the heat partition approaches have been applied to the pairs of M2 steel against GCr15 steel to compare and discuss their tribological behavior in dry sliding contact. The results indicate that the values of the contact pressure have little effect on the heat partition at a high sliding velocity of 40 m/s. Furthermore, the degree of correlation between the dynamic temperature and friction coefficient is obvious, and the correlation degree of parameters increases as the pressure grows. A close correlation exists among the temperatures measured from different points of the pin specimen. At last, X-ray diffraction analysis denotes that the carbides of secondary M6C are separated out during the process of friction.

  15. Numerical simulation of the insertion process of an uncemented hip prosthesis in order to evaluate the influence of residual stress and contact distribution on the stem initial stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monea, Aida Georgeta; Pastrav, Leonard Cezar; Mulier, Michiel; Van der Perre, Georges; Jaecques, Siegfried V

    2014-01-01

    The long-term success of a cementless total hip arthroplasty depends on the implant geometry and interface bonding characteristics (fit, coating and ingrowth) and on stem stiffness. This study evaluates the influence of stem geometry and fitting conditions on the evolution and distribution of the bone-stem contact, stress and strain during and after the hip stem insertion, by means of dynamic finite element techniques. Next, the influence of the mechanical state (bone-stem contact, stress and strain) resulted from the insertion process on the stem initial resistance to subsidence is investigated. In addition, a study on the influence of bone-stem interface conditions (friction) on the insertion process and on the initial stem stability under physiological loading is performed. The results indicate that for a stem with tapered shape the contact in the proximal part of the stem was improved, but contact in the calcar region was achieved only when extra press-fit conditions were considered. Changes in stem geometry towards a more tapered shape and extra press fit and variation in the bone-stem interface conditions (contact amount and high friction) led to a raise in the total insertion force. A direct positive relationship was found between the stem resistance to subsidence and stem geometry (tapering and press fit), bone-stem interface conditions (bone-stem contact and friction interface) and the mechanical status at the end of the insertion (residual stress and strain). Therefore, further studies on evaluating the initial performance of different stem types should consider the parameters describing the bone-stem interface conditions and the mechanical state resulted from the insertion process.

  16. From the Nano- to the Macroscale - Bridging Scales for the Moving Contact Line Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Andreas; Sibley, David; Goddard, Benjamin; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team

    2016-11-01

    The moving contact line problem remains an unsolved fundamental problem in fluid mechanics. At the heart of the problem is its multiscale nature: a nanoscale region close to the solid boundary where the continuum hypothesis breaks down, must be resolved before effective macroscale parameters such as contact line friction and slip can be obtained. To capture nanoscale properties very close to the contact line and to establish a link to the macroscale behaviour, we employ classical density-functional theory (DFT), in combination with extended Navier-Stokes-like equations. Using simple models for viscosity and slip at the wall, we compare our computations with the Molecular Kinetic Theory, by extracting the contact line friction, depending on the imposed temperature of the fluid. A key fluid property captured by DFT is the fluid layering at the wall-fluid interface, which has a large effect on the shearing properties of a fluid. To capture this crucial property, we propose an anisotropic model for the viscosity, which also allows us to scrutinize the effect of fluid layering on contact line friction.

  17. Interface studies on the tunneling contact of a MOCVD-prepared tandem solar cell; Grenzflaechenuntersuchungen am Tunnelkontakt einer MOCVD-praeparierten Tandemsolarzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, U.

    2007-07-10

    In this thesis a tandem solar cell with a novel tunneling contact was developed. For the development of the monolithic preparation especailly critical hetero-interfaces were studied in the region of the tunneling contact with surface-sensitive measuring method. The tandem solar cell consisted of single solar cells with absorber layers of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (E{sub g}=0.73 eV) and In{sub 0.78}Ga{sub 0.22}As{sub 0.491}P{sub 0.51} (E{sub g}=1.03 eV), the serial switching of which was pursued with a tunneling contact (ESAKI diode, which consisted of a very thin n-doped InGaAs and a p-doped GaAsSb layer. The III-V semiconductor layers were prepared by metalorganic gas phase epitaxy (MOCVD) monocrystallinely on an InP(100) substrate lattice-matchedly. Especially the influence of the preparation of InGaAs surfaces on the sharpness of the InGaAs/GaAsSb interface was in-situ studied by reflection-anisotropy spectroscopy and after a contamination-free transfer into the ultrahigh vacuum with photoelectron spectroscopy and with low-energetic electron diffraction (LEED). Thereby for the first time three different reconstructions of the MOCVD-prepared InGaAs surfaces could be observed, which were dependent on the heating temperature under pure hydrogen. The arsenic-rich InGaAs surface was observed for temperatures less than 300 C and showed in the LEED picture a (4 x 3) reconstruction. In the temperature range from 300 C until about 500 C a (2 x 4) reconstruction was observed, above 500 C the InGaAs surface 94 x 2)/c(8 x 2) was reconstructed. Subsequently the study of the growth of thin GaAsSb layers on these three InGaAs surface reconstructions followed. XPS measurements showed that the Sb/As ratio in GaAsSb at the growth on the As-rich (4 x 3) reconstructed surface in the first monolayers was too low. The preparation of the GaAsSb on the two other InGaAs surfaces yielded however in both cases a distinctly higher Sb/As ratio. Finally tandem solar cells with differently

  18. The contact mechanics of fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, Renato; Boragno, Corrado; Biscarini, Fabio; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco; Valbusa, Ugo

    2003-04-01

    The role of surface roughness in contact mechanics is relevant to processes ranging from adhesion to friction, wear and lubrication. It also promises to have a deep impact on applied science, including coatings technology and design of microelectromechanical systems. Despite the considerable results achieved by indentation experiments, particularly in the measurement of bulk hardness on nanometre scales, the contact behaviour of realistic surfaces, showing random multiscale roughness, remains largely unknown. Here we report experimental results concerning the mechanical response of self-affine thin films indented by a micrometric flat probe. The specimens, made of cluster-assembled carbon or of sexithienyl, an organic molecular material, were chosen as prototype systems for the broad class of self-affine fractal interfaces, today including surfaces grown under non-equilibrium conditions, fractures, manufactured metal surfaces and solidified liquid fronts. We observe that a regime exists in which roughness drives the contact mechanics: in this range surface stiffness varies by a few orders of magnitude on small but significant changes of fractal parameters. As a consequence, we demonstrate that soft solid interfaces can be appreciably strengthened by reducing both fractal dimension and surface roughness. This indicates a general route for tailoring the mechanical properties of solid bodies.

  19. Effect of friction and cohesion on anisotropy in quasi-static granular materials under shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan; R. Yang A. Yu, K. Dong

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of particle friction and cohesion on the steady-state shear stress and the contact anisotropy of a granular assembly sheared in a split-bottom ring shear cell. For non-cohesive frictional materials, the critical state shear stress first increases and then saturates with friction.

  20. Uniform Design of Optimizing Formulation of Friction Materials with Composite Mineral Fiber (CMF) and Their Friction and Wear Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yazhou; Jiang, Man; Xu, Jie; Ma, Yunhai; Tong, Jin

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the uniform design method was applied to arrange the experimental scheme for optimizing formulation of friction materials. The friction and wear of the friction materials based on the optimized formulation was carried out on a constant speed friction tester (JF150D-II), using pad-on-disc contact mode against gray cast iron disc. The worn surfaces of the friction materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (JSM5310) and the friction mechanism was discussed. The results showed that the uniform design method was appropriate for finding the optimum formulation of the friction materials with better properties. Compared with two conventional friction materials, the friction materials based on the optimized formulation possessed higher and stable friction coefficient and higher wear resistance, even at the disc temperature of 350°C. The adhesion, strain fatigue and abrasive wear were the main wear mechanisms of the friction materials. Tribo-chemical phenomenon and plastic deformation existed on the worn surface layer.

  1. Experimental investigation of friction coefficient in tube hydroforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyae Kyung YI; Hong Sup YIM; Gun Yeop LEE; Sung Mun LEE; Gi Suk CHUNG; Young-Hoon MOON

    2011-01-01

    The friction coefficient between tube and die in guide zone of tube hydroforming was obtained. In hydroforming, the tube is expanded by an internal pressure against the tool wall. By pushing the tube through tool, a friction force at the contact surface between the tube and the tool occurs. In guiding zone, the friction coefficients between tube and die can be estimated from the measured axial feeding forces. In expansion zone, the friction coefficients between tube and die can be evaluated from the measured geometries of expanded tubes and FE analysis.

  2. THE COUPLED FEM ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE FIELD DURING INERTIA FRICTION WELDING OF GH4169 ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The inertia friction welding process is a non-linear process because of the interaction between the temperature field and the material properties as well as the friction force. A thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model is established to simulate the temperature field of this process. The transient temperature distribution during the inertia friction welding process of two similar workpieces of GH4169 alloy is calculated. The region of the circular cross-section of the workpiece is divided into a number of four-nodded isoparametric elements. In this model, the temperature dependent thermal properties, time dependent heat inputs, contact condition of welding interface,and deformation of the flash were considered. At the same time, the convection and radiation heat losses at the surface of the workpieces were also considered. A temperature data acquisition system was developed. The temperature at some position near the welding interface was measured using this system. The calculated temperature agrees well with the experimental data. The deformation of the flash and the factor affecting the temperature distribution at the welding interface are also discussed.

  3. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  4. Adhesion, friction, and wear behavior of clean metal-ceramic couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1995-01-01

    When a clean metal is brought into contact with a clean, harder ceramic in ultrahigh vacuum, strong bonds form between the two materials. The interfacial bond strength between the metal and ceramic surfaces in sliding contact is generally greater than the cohesive bond strength in the metal. Thus, fracture of the cohesive bonds in the metal results when shearing occurs. These strong interfacial bonds and the shearing fracture in the metal are the main causes of the observed wear behavior and the transfer of the metal to the ceramic. In the literature, the surface energy (bond energy) per unit area of the metal is shown to be related to the degree of interfacial bond strength per unit area. Because the two materials of a metal-ceramic couple have markedly different ductilities, contact can cause considerable plastic deformation of the softer metal. It is the ductility of the metal, then, that determines the real area of contact. In general, the less ductile the metal, the smaller the real area of contact. The coefficient of friction for clean surfaces of metal-ceramic couples correlates with the metals total surface energy in the real area of contact gamma A (which is the product of the surface energy per unit area of the metal gamma and the real area of contact (A)). The coefficient of friction increases as gamma A increases. Furthermore, gamma A is associated with the wear and transfer of the metal at the metal-ceramic interface: the higher the value of gamma A, the greater the wear and transfer of the metal.

  5. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S. (Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI); Street, Mark D. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the

  6. A Novel Engine Mount with Semi-Active Dry Friction Damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lorenz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a semi-active engine mount with a controllable friction damper. The normal force of the friction contact is applied by an electromagnetic actuator and can be varied dynamically. The nonlinear current-force-relation of the actuator is linearized. To account for wear and assembly tolerances, an initialization method is developed, that is based on indirect measurement of the actuators inductance. The friction contact is made up of industrial friction pads and a friction rod of steel. The friction model used is suitable especially for small oscillations of the friction damper. The control policy imitates viscous damping forces that exert a minimum of harmonics. Damping is activated only when necessary. Finally the friction mount is compared to the original mount in a row of test rack experiments and also in the car.

  7. Robust Algorithms for Contact Problems with Constitutive Contact Laws

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the solution of contact problems with advanced Coulomb friction in the 3D case using the finite element method. A Lagrange multiplier method modelling the contact traction is employed and the contact conditions are enforced in a weak sense leading to a surface-to-surface discretization. Here more precisely the dual mortar method is used allowing for a static condensation of the additional variables in the system before solving without loosing the optimality of...

  8. Friction Properties of Bio-mimetic Nano-fibrillar Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Hua; MI Chun-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibrillar arrays are fabricated using polystyrene materials. The average diameter of each fiber is about 300 nm.Experiments show that such a fibrillar surface possesses a relatively hydrophobic feature with a water contact angle of 142°.Nanoscale friction properties are mainly focused on.It is found that the friction force of polystyrene nano-fibrillar surfaces is obviously enhanced in contrast to polystyrene smooth surfaces.The apparent coefficient of friction increases with the applied load, but is independent of the scanning speed.An interesting observation is that the friction force increases almost linearly with the real contact area, which abides by the fundamental Bowden-Tabor law of nano-scale friction.

  9. Friction and wear studies on the temperature dependence of brake-pad materials containing brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brake pad materials for automobile applications are basically polymer matrix composites. Various reinforcing constituents used in brake pads are organic, metallic and ceramic fillers which play among others an important role on the mechanical and thermal properties, and the wear resistance at high temperature. Friction and wear depend on various parameters such as the micro-chemical structure of the pad and of the metallic counter-face, the rotation speed, the pressure, and the contact surface temperature (M.G. Jacko 1983. This latter parameter can be locally as high as 600 up to 1.500 ∘C depending on the brake type (M.G. Jacko 1983; Blau 2001. Thermal models have been developed to study interface effects at contacting surfaces (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Frictional energy can be dissipated through different mechanisms such as oxidation, rise in temperature, formation of wear particles, entropy changes associated to viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation, and noise generation (Eddoumy, Addiego et al. 2011. Studies of friction brake show that more than 95% of the dissipated energy is transformed into heat (Kasem, Thevenet et al.; Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Thermal analysis is therefore a primordial step in the study of brake systems since it provides thermo-mechanical properties (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. The influence of the addition of metallic fibers on the performance of organic friction composites has been investigated using friction tests (Qu, Zhang et al. 2004. Benefits or limitations of the different fibers have been reported, however the issues of thermo-mechanical properties or effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior were not yet investigated (Bijwe, Kumar et al. 2008. No effort was done to correlate the thermo-mechanical and thermal properties with the friction and wear behavior. An important prerequisite is to get a good understanding on how brake materials behave. However, a link

  10. Velocity tuning of friction with two trapped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Jhe, Wonho; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Friction is the basic, ubiquitous mechanical interaction between two surfaces that results in resistance to motion and energy dissipation. In spite of its technological and economic significance, our ability to control friction remains modest, and our understanding of the microscopic processes incomplete. At the atomic scale, mismatch between the two contacting crystal lattices can lead to a reduction of stick-slip friction (structural lubricity), while thermally activated atomic motion can give rise to a complex velocity dependence, and nearly vanishing friction at sufficiently low velocities (thermal lubricity). Atomic force microscopy has provided a wealth of experimental results, but limitations in the dynamic range, time resolution, and control at the single-atom level have hampered a full quantitative description from first principles. Here, using an ion-crystal friction emulator with single-atom, single substrate-site spatial resolution and single-slip temporal resolution, we measure the friction force...

  11. Torsional friction damper optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shaochun; Williams, Keith A.

    2006-06-01

    A new approach for the analysis of friction dampers is presented in this work. The exact form of the steady-state solution for a friction damper implemented on a primary system is developed and numerical solutions are used to determine the optimum friction in a friction damper applied to a specific primary system. When compared to classical results presented by earlier authors, the new approach provides a more optimal solution. In addition, viscous damping in the primary system may be included with the new analysis approach. The ability to optimize a friction damper when viscous damping is included in the primary system is a significant improvement over earlier methods and shows potential for serving as a guide to realizing a more accurate estimate of the optimal damping for friction dampers.

  12. Network-Configurations of Dynamic Friction Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O

    2012-01-01

    The complex configurations of dynamic friction patterns-regarding real time contact areas- are transformed into appropriate networks. With this transformation of a system to network space, many properties can be inferred about the structure and dynamics of the system. Here, we analyze the dynamics of static friction, i.e. nucleation processes, with respect to "friction networks". We show that networks can successfully capture the crack-like shear ruptures and possible corresponding acoustic features. We found that the fraction of triangles remarkably scales with the detachment fronts. There is a universal power law between nodes' degree and motifs frequency (for triangles, it reads T(k)\\proptok{\\beta} ({\\beta} \\approx2\\pm0.4)). We confirmed the obtained universality in aperture-based friction networks. Based on the achieved results, we extracted a possible friction law in terms of network parameters and compared it with the rate and state friction laws. In particular, the evolutions of loops are scaled with p...

  13. Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.

  14. Noise of sliding rough contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This article is a discussion about the origin of friction noise produced when rubbing solids having rough surfaces. We show that noise emerges from numerous impacts into the contact between antagonist asperities of surfaces. Prediction of sound sources reduces to a statistical problem of contact mechanics. On the other hand, contact is also responsible of dissipation of vibration. This leads to the paradoxical result that the noise may not be proportional to the number of sources.

  15. 螺旋槽机械密封摩擦副界面流固耦合分析%Fluid-solid Coupling Analysis of the Friction Pair Interface for Spiral Groove Mechanical Seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 穆塔里夫•阿赫迈德; 吕星刚

    2016-01-01

    Based on the 3D finite element models of the fluid-film and solid of the friction pair interface for spiral groove me-chanical seal,the fluid-film between the faces of the static and dynamic is simulated ,and the law of the pressure distribution was obtained,the result show that pressure distribution is nonlinear.After that,the pressure was imported into static analysis module as one boundary condition of dynamic ring,then the one-way fluid-solid weak coupling was achieved by automatic iterative of the two steps.,the values indicate that the maximum deformation occurs on the spiral groove in the face of dynamic ring,while the maxi-mum stress occurs on the end of the spiral groove.Further,the effect of the rotational speed of dynamic ring,the pressure differ-ence and the viscosity on the maximum deformation and stress were also studied,the result provide a beneficial reference for the optimization of sealing performance.%基于建立的三维螺旋槽机械密封摩擦副界面的流、固有限元模型,数值模拟了动静环端面间的流体膜,得到液膜的压力分布规律,结果显示压力呈非线性分布;然后将得到的压力值作为边界条件之一导入到动环端面的静力学分析中,利用两者接触面间的自动迭代计算实现单向弱流固耦合分析,结果表明:最大变形发生在动环端面螺旋槽处,而最大应力发生在螺旋槽顶端;并进一步研究了动环的转速以及介质压力和粘度对最大变形和最大应力的影响规律,为密封性能的优化提供了有益的参考。

  16. BACK-CALCULATION OF ROCK SOCKET FRICTION FOR CONCRETE SHAFTS IN KARST%喀斯特地区嵌岩混凝土摩擦桩的反算(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅世龙; E.C. Drumm; 黄宝山; 何文斌; 左刚

    2005-01-01

    A 2.5 meter diameter 49 m long concrete shaft foundation socketed into rock was load tested with a system of balanced internal jacks similar to the O-cell test. This internal loading provided an examination of the skin friction response both above and below the load jack. Based on the observed response, the properties for the interface between the concrete and rock-socket were back-calculated. Since the observed side resistance at the interface was greater than the resistance due solely to friction, an apparent interface cohesion term was included by idealizing small asperities along the rock socket. The use of idealized asperities appears to be an effective way to model cohesion at the rock-concrete contact.

  17. Frictional coupling between sliding and spinning motion

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Z; Unger, T; Wolf, D E; Farkas, Zeno; Bartels, Guido; Unger, Tamas; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    We show that the friction force and torque, acting at a dry contact of two objects moving and rotating relative to each other, are inherently coupled. As a simple test system, a sliding and spinning disk on a horizontal flat surface is considered. We calculate, and also measure, how the disk is slowing down, and find that it always stops its sliding and spinning motion at the same moment. We discuss the impact of this coupling between friction force and torque on the physics of granular materials.

  18. Mussel Coating Protein-Derived Complex Coacervates Mitigate Frictional Surface Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The role of friction in the functional performance of biomaterial interfaces is widely reckoned to be critical and complicated but poorly understood. To better understand friction forces, we investigated the natural adaptation of the holdfast or byssus of mussels that live in high-energy surf habitats. As the outermost covering of the byssus, the cuticle deserves particular attention for its adaptations to frictional wear under shear. In this study, we coacervated one of three variants of a key cuticular component, mussel foot protein 1, mfp-1 [(1) Mytilus californianus mcfp-1, (2) rmfp-1, and (3) rmfp-1-Dopa], with hyaluronic acid (HA) and investigated the wear protection capabilities of these coacervates to surfaces (mica) during shear. Native mcfp-1/HA coacervates had an intermediate coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3) but conferred excellent wear protection to mica with no damage from applied loads, F⊥, as high as 300 mN (pressure, P, > 2 MPa). Recombinant rmfp-1/HA coacervates exhibited a comparable coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3); however, wear protection was significantly inferior (damage at F⊥ > 60 mN) compared with that of native protein coacervates. Wear protection of rmfp-1/HA coacervates increased 5-fold upon addition of the surface adhesive group 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, (Dopa). We propose a Dopa-dependent wear protection mechanism to explain the differences in wear protection between coacervates. Our results reveal a significant untapped potential for coacervates in applications that require adhesion, lubrication, and wear protection. These applications include artificial joints, contact lenses, dental sealants, and hair and skin conditioners. PMID:26618194

  19. Mussel Coating Protein-Derived Complex Coacervates Mitigate Frictional Surface Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dusty Rose; Das, Saurabh; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Han, Songi; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-11-09

    The role of friction in the functional performance of biomaterial interfaces is widely reckoned to be critical and complicated but poorly understood. To better understand friction forces, we investigated the natural adaptation of the holdfast or byssus of mussels that live in high-energy surf habitats. As the outermost covering of the byssus, the cuticle deserves particular attention for its adaptations to frictional wear under shear. In this study, we coacervated one of three variants of a key cuticular component, mussel foot protein 1, mfp-1 [(1) Mytilus californianus mcfp-1, (2) rmfp-1, and (3) rmfp-1-Dopa], with hyaluronic acid (HA) and investigated the wear protection capabilities of these coacervates to surfaces (mica) during shear. Native mcfp-1/HA coacervates had an intermediate coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3) but conferred excellent wear protection to mica with no damage from applied loads, F⊥, as high as 300 mN (pressure, P, > 2 MPa). Recombinant rmfp-1/HA coacervates exhibited a comparable coefficient of friction (μ ∼0.3); however, wear protection was significantly inferior (damage at F⊥ > 60 mN) compared with that of native protein coacervates. Wear protection of rmfp-1/HA coacervates increased 5-fold upon addition of the surface adhesive group 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, (Dopa). We propose a Dopa-dependent wear protection mechanism to explain the differences in wear protection between coacervates. Our results reveal a significant untapped potential for coacervates in applications that require adhesion, lubrication, and wear protection. These applications include artificial joints, contact lenses, dental sealants, and hair and skin conditioners.

  20. The Relationship between the Friction Coefficient and the Asperities Original Inclination Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Guan Cheng-yao; Qi Jia-fu; Qiu Nan-sheng; Zhao Guo-chun; Zhang Hou-he; Yang Qiao; Bai Xiang-dong; Wang Chao

    2013-01-01

    Because of the contact deformation, the inclination angle of the contact face is decreased gradually when contact and deformation. Base on the change of inclination angle of the contact surface, the concept “friction repose angle” set out. The tangent of the initial inclination angle of two asperities is three time of the tangent of the “friction repose angle”. The relationship set up a bridge between the initial surface geometric configuration (can be detect) and the configuration which afte...