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Sample records for friction layer beneath

  1. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J.

    2006-12-01

    The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties.

  2. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V.; Payne, A. J.; Gregory, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer. The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  3. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer.

    The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  4. Stratocumulus cloud thickening beneath layers of absorbing smoke aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus cloud properties, and the free-tropospheric environment above them, are examined in NASA A-Train satellite data for cases where smoke from seasonal burning of the West African savannah overlay the persistent southeast Atlantic stratocumulus cloud deck. CALIPSO space-borne lidar observations show that features identified as layers of aerosol occur predominantly between 2 km and 4 km. Layers identified as cloud features occur predominantly below 1.5 km altitude and beneath the layer of elevated smoke aerosol. The diurnal mean shortwave heating rates attributable to the absorption of solar energy in the aerosol layer is nearly 1.5 K d-1 for an aerosol optical thickness value of 1, and increases to 1.8 K d-1 when the smoke resides above clouds owing to the additional component of upward solar radiation reflected by the cloud. As a consequence of this heating, the 700 hPa air temperature above the cloud deck is warmer by approximately 1 K on average for cases where smoke is present above the cloud compared to cases without smoke above cloud. The warmer conditions in the free-troposphere above the cloud during smoke events coincide with cloud liquid water path values that are greater by 20 g m-2 and cloud tops that are lower for overcast conditions compared to periods with low amounts of smoke. The observed thickening and subsidence of the cloud layer are consistent with published results of large-eddy simulations showing that solar absorption by smoke above stratocumulus clouds increases the buoyancy of free-tropospheric air above the temperature inversion capping the boundary layer. Increased buoyancy inhibits the entrainment of dry air through the cloud-top, thereby helping to preserve humidity and cloud cover in the boundary layer. The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols residing over a bright cloud deck is a positive radiative forcing (warming) at the top of the atmosphere. However, the greater liquid water path for cases of smoke

  5. Measurement and Modeling of the Fluctuating Wall Pressure Field Beneath Transitional Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarski, Stephen R.

    2001-11-01

    Measurements have been performed to better understand the space-varying character of the fluctuating wall pressure field beneath a transitional boundary layer and to develop an appropriate model for the space-varying (nonhomogeneous) wavenumber-frequency wall pressure spectrum. Although a great deal is understood regarding the structure of the wall pressure field beneath turbulent boundary layers, the current understanding of the wall pressure field beneath the transitional boundary layer is incomplete. Overlooked have been critical issues concerning spatial variations in turbulence structure and the convection and decay of pressure producing disturbances—properties that define the character of the field and resulting form of the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. The experiments involve measurement of the space-time fluctuating wall pressure field across the transition region of a flat plate boundary layer by means of a 64-element linear array of hearing-aid microphones and hot wire velocity measurements in the adjacent laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers. Because the field is nonhomogeneous, wavelet based transform methods are required to appropriately resolve the space-varying structure of the field and form of the nonhomogeneous wavenumber-frequency spectrum.

  6. The use of surface layer with boron in friction pairs lubricated by engine oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of surface layers with boron and engine oil on the processes of friction and wear in friction pairs. The ring samples with borided surface layer cooperated under test conditions with counterparts made with CuPb30 and AlSn20 bearing alloys. During the tests, the friction pairs were lubricated with 15W/40 Lotos mineral oil and 5W/40 Lotos synthetic oil. The lubrication of friction area with Lotos mineral oil causes the reduction of the friction force, the temperature in the friction area and the wear of the bearing alloys under study, whereas the lubrication with Lotos synthetic oil reduces the changes in the geometrical structure of the cooperating friction pair elements. Lubrication of the friction area in the start-up phase of the friction pair by mineral oil causes faster stabilization of the friction conditions in the contact area than in the cause of lubrication of the friction pair by synthetic oil. The intensity of wear of the AlSn20 bearing alloy cooperating with the borided surface layer is three times smaller than the intensity of use of the CuPb30 alloy bearing.

  7. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  8. Effect of boundary vibration on the frictional behavior of a dense sheared granular layer

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, B; Guyer, R A; Johnson, P A; Carmeliet, J

    2014-01-01

    We report results of 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations aiming at investigating the role of the boundary vibration in inducing frictional weakening in sheared granular layers. We study the role of different vibration amplitudes applied at various shear stress levels, for a granular layer in the stick-slip regime and in the steady-sliding regime. Results are reported in terms of friction drops and kinetic energy release associated with frictional weakening events. We find that larger vibration amplitude induces larger frictional weakening events. The results show evidence of a threshold below which no induced frictional weakening takes place. Friction drop size is found to be dependent on the shear stress at the time of vibration. A significant increase in the ratio between the number of slipping contacts to the number of sticking contacts in the granular layer is observed for large vibration amplitudes. These vibration-induced contact rearrangements enhance particle mobilization and induces a fricti...

  9. Characteristics of Deformation Layer for Vermicular Iron under Dry Sliding Friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Le-min; SHANG Guan-bao; ZHANG Yong-zhen; CHEN Yue

    2004-01-01

    At room temperature, dry sliding wear tests were carried out using pin-on-disc test rig, in which the pin is made of vermicular iron and the disc is made of 40Cr steel. The microstructures of the frictional surfaces for the pin specimens were investigated. Under the action of both frictional heat and frictional shearing stress, a plastic deformation layer under the frictional surface is formed. The morphology and properties of the plastic deformation layer depend on specimen material, contact pressure and frictional shearing stress. In the plastic deformation layer, the phosphorous mass percent varies at different depth and results in different hardness. On the outer side of surface, the hardness is the biggest and the phosphorous mass percent is the highest. They become gradually small from outer side to inner side of the surface.

  10. Layered anisotropy within the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Deschamps, F.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2016-10-01

    Continental rifting during the Oligocene to mid-Miocene caused the opening of the Sea of Japan and the separation between the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian Plate. The tectonic evolution in the Sea of Japan is important for understanding the evolution of back-arc regions in active convergent margins. Here, we use data from the seismic stations surrounding the Sea of Japan to map the Rayleigh-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the Sea of Japan. We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath the Sea of Japan in a broad period range (30-80 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 231 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 22 seismic stations around the Sea of Japan from 1411 global earthquakes. The resulting maps of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy allow the examination of azimuthal anisotropy at specific periods. They exhibit several regions with different isotropic and anisotropic patterns: the Japan Basin displays fast velocities at shorter periods (30 and 40 s) with NNE-SSW anisotropy, whereas at 60 s and longer, the velocities become slow even if the anisotropy remains NE-SW; the East China Sea shows fast velocities at all periods (30-80 s) with constant NW-SE anisotropy. Trench-normal anisotropy beneath the Japanese Islands is found at short periods (30-40 s) and become trench-parallel at periods of 60 s and longer. Overall, our model resolves two layers of anisotropy, the shallowest and deepest layers being potentially related to frozen deformation due to recent geodynamic events, and asthenospheric flow, respectively.

  11. Experimental investigation of frictional resistance reduction with air layer on the hull bottom of a ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Jinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to cope with recent high oil price and global warming, developments of air lubricated ships have been pursued to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to save fuel costs by reducing the frictional resistance. In this study, reduction in the frictional resistance by air lubrication with air layers generated on the lower surface of a flat plate was investigated experimentally in the large water tunnel of SSMB. The generated air layers were observed, and changes in the local frictional drag were measured at various flow rates of injected air. The results indicated that air lubrication with air layers might be useful in reducing the frictional resistance at specific conditions of air injection. Accordingly, resistance and self-propulsion tests for a 66K DWT bulk carrier were carried out in the towing tank of SSMB to estimate the expected net power savings.

  12. Layering of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian Craton: Modeling using thermobarometry of mantle xenolith and xenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Vladykin, N. N.; Ntaflos, T.; Kostrovitsky, S. I.; Prokopiev, S. A.; Downes, H.; Smelov, A. P.; Agashev, A. M.; Logvinova, A. M.; Kuligin, S. S.; Tychkov, N. S.; Salikhov, R. F.; Stegnitsky, Yu. B.; Alymova, N. V.; Vavilov, M. A.; Minin, V. A.; Babushkina, S. A.; Ovchinnikov, Yu. I.; Karpenko, M. A.; Tolstov, A. V.; Shmarov, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    Single-grain thermobarometric studies of xenocrysts were used to compile local SCLM transects through the major regions of kimberlite magmatism in Siberia and longer transects through the subcontinental mantle lithosphere (SCLM) beneath the Siberian craton. The mantle structure was obtained using P-Fe#, Ca in garnets, oxygen fugacity values fO2 and calculated temperatures T°C. The most detail transect obtained for the Daldyn field on the Udachnaya-Zarnitsa reveals layering showing an inclination of > 35° to Udachnaya. Mantle layering beneath the Alakit field determined from the Krasnopresnenskaya-Sytykanskaya transect shows a moderate inclination from N to S. The inflection near Yubileinaya-Aykhal is also supported by the extreme depletion in peridotites with low-Fe sub-Ca garnets. Beneath the Malo-Botuobinsky field the sharply layered mantle section starts from 5.5 GPa and reveals step-like P-Fe#Ol trends for garnets and ilmenites. The deeper part of SCLM in this field was originally highly depleted but has been regenerated by percolation of protokimberlites and hybrid melts especially beneath Internationalnaya pipe. The three global transects reveal flat layering in granite-greenstone terranes and fluctuations in the granulite-orthogneiss Daldyn collision terranes. The mantle layering beneath the Daldyn - Alakite region may have been created by marginal accretion. Most of southern fields including the Malo-Botuobinsky field reveal flat layering. The primary subduction layering is smoothed beneath the Alakit field. Lower Jurassic kimberlites from the Kharamai-Anabar kimberlite fields reveal a small decrease of the thickness of the SCLM and heating of its base. The Jurassic Kuoyka field shows an uneven base of the SCLM inclined from west to east. SCLM sequences sampled at this time started mainly from depths of 130 km, but some pipes still showed mantle roots to 250 km. The garnet series demonstrates an inclined straight line pyroxenite P-Fe# trend due to

  13. Microstructure and Functional Mechanism of Friction Layer in Ni3Al Matrix Composites with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Zhu, Qingshuai; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zhai, Wenzheng; Yang, Kang; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    Microstructure and functional mechanism of friction layer need to be further researched. In the present work, the friction coefficients and wear rates are analyzed through response surface methodology to obtain an empirical model for the best response. Fitting results show that the tribological performance of Ni3Al matrix composites (NMCs) with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) is better than that of NMCs without GNPs, especially at high sliding velocities and high loads. Further research suggests that the formation of integrated friction layer, which consists of a soft microfilm on a hard coating, is the major reason to cause the differences. Of which, the wear debris layer (WDL) with a low shear strength can reduce the shear force. The ultrafine layer (UL), which is much harder and finer, can effectively avoid fracture and improve the load support capacity. Moreover, the GNPs in WDL and UL can be easily sheared and help to withstand the loads, trending to be parallel to the direction of shear force.

  14. Friction Characteristics of Nitrided Layers on AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel Obtained by Various Nitriding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AYDIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of plasma, gas and salt-bath nitriding techniques on the friction coefficient of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel was studied in this paper. Samples were plasma nitrided in 80 % N2 + 20 % H2 atmosphere at 450 °C and 520 °C for 8 h at a pressure of 2 mbar, gas nitrided in NH3 and CO2 atmosphere at 570 °C for 13 h and salt-bath nitrided in a cyanide-cyanate salt-bath at 570 °C for 1.5 h. Characterisation of nitrided layers on the ferritic stainless steel was carried out by means of microstructure, microhardness, surface roughness and friction coefficient measurements. Friction characteristics of the nitrided layers on the 430 steel were investigated using a ball-on-disc friction-wear tester with a WC-Co ball as the counter-body under dry sliding conditions. Analysis of wear tracks was carried out by scanning electron microscopy. Maximum hardness and maximum case depth were achieved on the plasma nitrided sample at 520 ºC for 8 h. The plasma and salt-bath nitriding techniques significantly decreased the average surface roughness of the 430 ferritic stainless steel. The friction test results showed that the salt-bath nitrided layer had better friction-reducing ability than the other nitrided layers under dry sliding conditions. Furthermore, the friction characteristic of the plasma nitrided layer at 520 ºC was better than that of the plasma nitrided layer at 450 °C.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3819

  15. A new visco-elastic contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor with stator frictional layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new contact model of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUSM) with a visco-elastic stator frictional layer was presented. In this model, the initial boundaries were revised, and the rotor revolution speed could be calculated iteratively. This model was compared with compliant slider and rigid stator model. The results of motor characteristics simulations showed that the motors based on this model would gain bigger stall torque. Then the friction and wear characteristics of two models were analyzed. The motors based on this model had lower coefficient of friction and better wear resistance.

  16. Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ``wearing-in`` effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs.

  17. Atomic-scale friction behavior of layered graphene and graphene-like BN materials modulated by interaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Liu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The understanding of fundamental issues related to friction at the atomic scale remains a great challenge due to the large difference between macroscopic and microscopic frictional behaviors. Here based on first-principles calculations, the applicability of macroscopic friction laws to the atomic scale is studied. The underlying mechanism that governs friction behavior is also explored. A completely new perspective of understanding the friction at the atomic scale is presented according to the observation of the applicability of friction law at the atomic scale and the variations of interaction potential induced by the number of layer and normal load.

  18. Self-forming oriented layer slip and macroscale super-low friction of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Ji, Li; Li, Hongxuan; Wang, Jinqing; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-02-01

    Graphite lubrication is not effective in vacuum, and the failure mechanism is still under debate. Here, we show that graphene as two-dimensional (2D) "graphite paper" can overcome this shortcoming of graphite. Graphene exhibits stable super-low friction in a vacuum environment at the engineering scale because it can self-form a highly ordered lamellar structure on the sliding interface during the friction process owing to its unique 2D nano-effects. Experimental observation of the layer-slip phenomenon on the low-energy-state outside layers provides direct evidence to understand the lubrication mechanism of graphitic materials.

  19. A note on boundary-layer friction in baroclinic cyclones

    CERN Document Server

    Boutle, I A; Belcher, S E; Plant, R S

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between extratropical cyclones and the underlying boundary layer has been a topic of recent discussion in papers by Adamson et. al. (2006) and Beare (2007). Their results emphasise different mechanisms through which the boundary layer dynamics may modify the growth of a baroclinic cyclone. By using different sea-surface temperature distributions and comparing the low-level winds, the differences are exposed and both of the proposed mechanisms appear to be acting within a single simulation.

  20. Upper mantle low-velocity layers beneath the High Lava Plains imaged by scattered-wavefield migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; James, D. E.; Wagner, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Cascadian arc, thinning to ~35 km depth beneath the HLP hotspot track, and dips southeasterly to ~45 km depth toward the Owyhee Plateau; 2) a pronounced subhorizontal low-velocity layer underlying the thickened crust beneath the Owyhee Plateau; 3) a low-velocity layer at ~50 km depth beneath the Newberry volcano, extending and apparently dipping to southeast, and 4) a low-velocity anomaly at ~75 km depth beneath the Steens Mountain. We find striking correlation between the locations of the three low-velocity layers and those of the low-velocity anomalies observed in the Rayleigh wave tomographic model. We suggest that these low-velocity structures may correspond to concentrated partial melts in the uppermost mantle likely associated with Holocene volcanism in the HLP.

  1. Velocities, turbulence, and skin friction in a deep-sea logarithmic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Giselher; Weatherly, Georges L.

    1985-05-01

    Speed, turbulence, skin friction, and drag measurements made with metal-clad hot wires, epoxy-coated hot films, and Savonius rotors are reported for a deep-sea boundary layer at a water depth of ˜5000 m. They include data from heights z < 30 cm, a region hitherto only investigated in detail by Chriss and Caldwell (1982) for a shelf site. A mean speed logarithmic layer was observed at 3 < z < 200 cm. The difference between the friction velocity u*log determined from the speed profiles and the skin friction u*skin measured by flush-mounted hot films was statistically significant at the 95% level in five out of eight analyzed burst intervals. This result suggests form-drag influence on the vertical mean flow profile. Although identified from the mean speed data as a hydrodynamically rough boundary layer, the turbulence and bottom stress intensities at the deep-sea site were found to be reduced by more than 40% compared to smooth-wall open-channel flow and planetary boundary layers. Applicability of the universal law of the wall has not been confirmed for this deep-sea boundary layer.

  2. Preliminary experimental research on friction characteristics of a thick gravitational casted babbit layer on steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleu, V.; Georgescu, S.; Baciu, C.; Istrate, B.; Baciu, E. R.

    2016-08-01

    The ability of the antifriction materials to withstand with no lubrication for a while can be a solution for the catastrophic failure of automotive journal bearings from the internal combustion engines in accidental breakdown of the oil pump. A thick layer of antifriction material (babbit) was deposited by gravitational casting on a steel disk substrate. Four tribological disk samples coated with babbit are tested against a steel shoe on Amsler tribometer at different speeds and loads in dry friction. The values of the friction coefficient versus speed and load are presented, the obtained results indicating a mild wear regime, recommending the new babbit as a possible coating for the bushes of the journal bearings in automotive internal combustion engines. Further tests must be dedicated to the establishment of the wear intensity of the steel shoe - babbit disk tribological pair, both for motor oil lubricated and dry friction conditions.

  3. Boundary Layer Skin Friction in the Vicinity of Multiple Jets in Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean; Plesniak, Michael

    2000-11-01

    Multiple jets in crossflow are commonly used for gas turbine film cooling and other industrial applications. Various flow structures, such as the pair(s) of counter-rotating vortices, influence the jet trajectory, separation and reattachment phenomena, and ultimately the surface skin friction and heat transfer. This study utilized a single row of five "short" injection hole jets separated in the spanwise direction by three jet diameters, which were injected into a crossflow at a 90-degree inclination. When short holes are used, i.e. L/D = 1 or less, the external flowfield is influenced by the flow within the holes and supply plenum, especially by separation events. A Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) technique was employed to investigate the effect of velocity ratio (0.5 to 1.0) and plenum flow direction on the skin friction in the boundary layer between and downstream of the injection holes. Interference fringes produced by a thin oil film deposited on the surface were imaged by a digital camera/frame grabber and processed to infer the skin friction distributions. Correlation between the skin friction distributions and other reported flow characteristics, and their relation to film cooling effectiveness, will be discussed.

  4. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of the Triboelectric Charges and Structural Optimization of the Friction Layer for a Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Lei, Yimin; Liu, Jinmei; Qin, Yong; Ma, Xiaohua; Hao, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Seeking to increase the triboelectric charge density on a friction layer is one of the most basic approaches to improve the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs). Here, we studied the storage mechanism of triboelectric charge in the friction layer and discussed the function of carrier mobility and concentration in the charge-storing process. As guided by these results, a kind of composite structure is constructed in the friction layer to adjust the depth distribution of the triboelectric charges and improve the output performance of TENGs. To further elucidate this theory, a simple TENG, whose negative friction layer is a composite structure by integrating polystyrene (PS) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), was fabricated, and its performance test was also carried out. Comparing with a pure PVDF friction layer, the composite friction layer can raise the triboelectric charge density by a factor of 11.2. The extended residence time of electrons in the friction layer is attributed to a large sum of electron trap levels from PS.

  6. A case study of cumulus formation beneath a stratocumulus sheet: Its structure and effect on boundary layer budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roy W.; Nicholls, S.

    1990-01-01

    On several occasions during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus IFO off the California coast, small cumulus were observed to form during the morning beneath the main stratocumulus (Sc) deck. This occurs in the type of situation described by Turton and Nicholls (1987) in which there is insufficient generation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) from the cloudtop or the surface to sustain mixing throughout the layer, and a separation of the surface and cloud layers occurs. The build up of humidity in the surface layer allows cumuli to form, and the more energetic of these may penetrate back into the Sc deck, reconnecting the layers. The results presented were collected by the UKMO C-130 aircraft flying in a region where these small cumulus had grown to the extent that they had penetrated into the main Sc deck above. The structure of these penetrative cumulus are examined and their implications on the layer flux and radiation budget discussed.

  7. An extension of the transpired skin-friction equation to compressible turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Freire, Atila P.

    1988-11-01

    A skin-friction equation for transpired incompressible turbulent boundary layer, proposed in a previous paper (Silva-Freire, 1988), is extended to compressible flow. The expression derived here is simple and gives more consistent results than the momentum-integral equation. The difficulty with the present formulation, however, is that the wake profile parameter due to injection has to be carefully determined in order to obtain good results.

  8. Investigation of void formation beneath thin AlN layers by decomposition of sapphire substrates for self-separation of thick AlN layers grown by HVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yoshinao; Enatsu, Yuuki; Ishizuki, Masanari; Kubota, Yuki; Tajima, Jumpei; Nagashima, Toru; Murakami, Hisashi; Takada, Kazuya; Koukitu, Akinori

    2010-09-01

    Void formation at the interface between thick AlN layers and (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrates was investigated to form a predefined separation point of the thick AlN layers for the preparation of freestanding AlN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). By heating 50-200 nm thick intermediate AlN layers above 1400 °C in a gas flow containing H 2 and NH 3, voids were formed beneath the AlN layers by the decomposition reaction of sapphire with hydrogen diffusing to the interface. The volume of the sapphire decomposed at the interface increased as the temperature and time of the heat treatment was increased and as the thickness of the AlN layer decreased. Thick AlN layers subsequently grown at 1450 °C after the formation of voids beneath the intermediate AlN layer with a thickness of 100 nm or above self-separated from the sapphire substrates during post-growth cooling with the aid of voids. The 79 μm thick freestanding AlN substrate obtained using a 200 nm thick intermediate AlN layer had a flat surface with no pits, high optical transparency at wavelengths above 208.1 nm, and a dislocation density of 1.5×10 8 cm -2.

  9. Effect of the Material Parameters on Layered Viscoelastic Frictional Contact Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin F. Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design process, one of the main targets is to reduce the peak values of the contact stresses. This can be attained by layering the contacting bodies by layers of different material characteristics. Viscoelastic materials are characterized by either a stress relaxation or a creep deformation; therefore, the contacting bodies can be layered with such materials to attain this target. This paper discusses effects of the material characteristics of viscoelastic layers upon the unbounded contact configuration. Three material parameters are considered: the layer/contact solids stiffness ratio, the delayed/instantaneous elasticity ratio, and the material relaxation time. The results are obtained by using a two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear computational model, developed by the authors, capable of analyzing quasistatic viscoelastic frictional contact problems.

  10. Study of nonlinear behaviors and modal reductions for friction destabilized systems. Application to an elastic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, A.; Sinou, J.-J.; Chiello, O.; Lorang, X.

    2012-02-01

    As noise reduction tends to be part of environmental directives, predicting squeal noise generated by disc brakes is an important industrial issue. It involves both the transient and stationary nonlinear dynamics of self-excited systems with frictional contact. Time simulation of the phenomenon is an attractive option for reducing experiment costs. However, since such computations using full finite element models of industrial disc brake systems is time-consuming, model reduction has to be performed. In this paper, both the transient and stationary nonlinear behaviors of the friction destabilized system and the effect of dynamical reduction on the nonlinear response of a simple friction destabilized system are carried out. The first part provides a description of the general modeling retained for friction destabilized systems. Then, discretization and solving processes for the stability analysis and the temporal evolution are presented. The third part presents an analysis of a sliding elastic layer for different operating conditions, in order to better understand the nonlinear behavior of such systems. Finally, spatial model reduction is performed with different kinds of reduction bases in order to analyze the different effects of modal reductions. This clearly shows the necessity of including static modes in the reduction basis and that nonlinear interactions between unstable modes are very difficult to represent with reduced bases. Finally, the proposed model and the associated studies are intended to be the benchmark cases for future comparison.

  11. Multiple pass and multiple layer friction stir welding and material enhancement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN; David, Stan A [Knoxville, TN; Frederick, David Alan [Harriman, TN

    2010-07-27

    Processes for friction stir welding, typically for comparatively thick plate materials using multiple passes and multiple layers of a friction stir welding tool. In some embodiments a first portion of a fabrication preform and a second portion of the fabrication preform are placed adjacent to each other to form a joint, and there may be a groove adjacent the joint. The joint is welded and then, where a groove exists, a filler may be disposed in the groove, and the seams between the filler and the first and second portions of the fabrication preform may be friction stir welded. In some embodiments two portions of a fabrication preform are abutted to form a joint, where the joint may, for example, be a lap joint, a bevel joint or a butt joint. In some embodiments a plurality of passes of a friction stir welding tool may be used, with some passes welding from one side of a fabrication preform and other passes welding from the other side of the fabrication preform.

  12. Double layering of a thermochemical plume in the upper mantle beneath Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer, M. D.; Ito, G.; Wolfe, C. J.; Cadio, C.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanism far from plate boundaries has traditionally been explained by "classical" plume theory. Classical plumes are typically described as narrow thermal upwellings that rise through the entire mantle to be deflected into a thin (Iceland, are indeed well explained by near-classical thermal plumes. High-resolution seismic velocity images obtained from the PLUME project support the concept of a deep-rooted mantle plume beneath the Hawaiian hotspot. However, in detail these images challenge traditional concepts inasmuch as they indicate a low-velocity body in the upper mantle that is too thick (~400 km) and asymmetric to be interpreted as a classical pancake. Classical plume theory is, moreover, inconsistent with several geochemical characteristics of Hawaiian magmas, which point to a heterogeneous mantle source involving mafic lithologies such as eclogite and not an exclusively thermal (i.e., isochemical) origin¹. To explore the dynamical and melting behavior of plumes containing a substantial fraction (~15%) of eclogite, we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of thermochemical convection. Relative to ambient-mantle peridotite, eclogite is intrinsically dense. This density contrast is sensitive to phase changes in the upper mantle; the contrast peaks at 410-300 km and lessens at about 250-190 km depth, where eclogite is subsequently removed by melting. For a plume core with an eclogite content >12%, these effects locally increase the density beyond that of the ambient mantle. Therefore, the upwelling column forms a broad and thick pool at depths of 450-300 km (which we term the deep eclogite pool, or DEP). As the DEP is well supported by the deeper stem of the plume and its non-eclogitic outskirts, it inflates to release a shallow thermal plume. This latter plume sustains hotspot volcanism and feeds a hot shallow pancake that compensates the seafloor swell. Our model predictions reconcile a range of characteristics for Hawaiian volcanism. We find

  13. Role of interfacial friction for flow instabilities in a thin polar-ordered active fluid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Niladri; Basu, Abhik

    2015-11-01

    We construct a generic coarse-grained dynamics of a thin inflexible planar layer of polar-ordered suspension of active particles that is frictionally coupled to an embedding isotropic passive fluid medium with a friction coefficient Γ . Being controlled by Γ , our model provides a unified framework to describe the long-wavelength behavior of a variety of thin polar-ordered systems, ranging from wet to dry active matter and free-standing active films. Investigations of the linear instabilities around a chosen orientationally ordered uniform reference state reveal generic moving and static instabilities in the system that can depend sensitively on Γ . Based on our results, we discuss estimation of bounds on Γ in experimentally accessible systems.

  14. On the friction and sliding wear of rubber/layered silicate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry sliding and friction behaviors of organoclay modified hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR and ethylene/propylene/diene (EPDM rubbers were studied using a pin (steel-on-plate(rubber sheet test configuration. It was found that the organoclay modification may improve or deteriorate the resistance to wear of rubbers. The resistance to wear was adversely affected by pronounced intercalation/exfoliation and two-dimensional alignment of the clay layers (i.e. normal to the moving pin. This result is in analogy with the directional dependence of the wear performance of fiber-reinforced composite laminates.

  15. Skin-friction measurements in a turbulent boundary layer under the influence of free-stream turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Luis Blay; Dogan, Eda; Rodríguez-López, Eduardo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-09-01

    This experimental investigation deals with the influence of free-stream turbulence (FST) produced by an active grid on the skin friction of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. Wall shear stress is obtained by oil-film interferometry. In addition, hot-wire anemometry was performed to obtain wall-normal profiles of streamwise velocity. This enables the skin friction to be deduced from the mean profile. Both methods show remarkable agreement for every test case. Although skin friction is shown to increase with FST, the trend with Reynolds number is found to be similar to cases without FST. Furthermore, once the change in the friction velocity is accounted for, the self-similarity of the logarithmic region and below (i.e. law of the wall) appears to hold for all FST cases investigated.

  16. Measurement of dynamic scattering beneath stationary layers using multiple-exposure laser speckle contrast analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Evan; Thompson, Oliver; Andrews, Mike

    2013-02-01

    The retina/choroid structure is an example of a complex biological target featuring highly perfused tissues and vessel flows both near the surface and at some depth. Laser speckle imaging can be used to image blood flows but static scattering paths present a problem for extracting quantifiable data. The speckle contrast is artificially increased by any residual specular reflection and light paths where no moving scatterers are encountered. Here we present results from phantom experiments demonstrating that the static and dynamic contributions to laser speckle contrast can be separated when camera exposures of varying duration are used. The stationary contrast parameter follows the thickness and strength of the overlying scatterer while the dynamic proportion of the scatter resulting from vessel flows and Brownian motion is unchanged. The importance of separating the two scatter components is illustrated by in vivo measurements from a scarred human retina, where the effect of the un-perfused scar tissue can be decoupled from the dynamic speckle from the intact tissue beneath it.

  17. Effect of Micro-addition Rare Earth and Chrome on Friction and Wear Behavior of Boronized layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUBin; WANGShu-hua; LUYu-peng; CUIJian-jun; LIMu-sen

    2004-01-01

    Application of powder boronizing to mechanical industry has been restricted because of the brittleness of boronized layer, which inevitably leeds to decrease of service life of boronized paris. Therefore, attention should be paid to reducing the brittleness of boronized layer without decreasing its high hardness. In the present paper, a study on the effect of micro-additionr are earth and chrome on friction and wear behavior of boronized layer was carded out using an MM-200 wear test machine. Compared with that of pure single Fe2B phase, the brittleness of the boronized layer containing minim rare earth and chrome elements, obtained by powder RE-chrome-boronizing, is reduced, which results in increasing the bearing capacity and wear resistance of the boronized layer, The friction and wear mechanism is also briefly analyzed.

  18. Effect of Micro-addition Rare Earth and Chrome on Friction and Wear Behavior of Boronized layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; WANG Shu-hua; LU Yu-peng; CUI Jian-jun; LI Mu-sen

    2004-01-01

    Application of powder boronizing to mechanical industry has been restricted because of the brittleness of boronized layer, which inevitably leads to decrease of service life of boronized parts. Therefore, attention should be paid to reducing the brittleness of boronized layer without decreasing its high hardness. In the present paper, a study on the effect of micro-addition rare earth and chrome on friction and wear behavior of boronized layer was carried out using an MM-200 wear test machine.Compared with that of pure single Fe2B phase, the brittleness of the boronized layer containing minim rare earth and chrome elements, obtained by powder RE-chrome-boronizing, is reduced, which results in increasing the bearing capacity and wear resistance of the boronized layer. The friction and wear mechanism is also briefly analyzed.

  19. Stability of Water Ice Beneath Porous Dust Layers of the Martian South Polar Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Skorov, Yu. V.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Basilevsky, A. T.

    2000-08-01

    The analysis of the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data show that the surface layers of the Mars south polar layered deposits have very low thermal inertia between 75 and 125 J/(sq m)(s-1/2)(K-1). This is consistent with the assumption that the surface is covered by a porous layer of fine dust. Paige and Keegan determined a slightly higher value based on a thermal model similar to that of Kieffer et al. In this model the heat transfer equation is used to estimate the thickness of the layer that protects the ground ice from seasonal and diurnal temperature variations. The physical properties of the layer are unimportant as long as it has a low thermal inertia and conductivity and keeps the temperature at the ice boundary low enough to prevent sublimation. A thickness between 20 and 4 cm was estimated. This result can be considered to be an upper limit. We assume the surface to be covered by a porous dust layer and consider the gas diffusion through it, from the ground ice and from the atmosphere. Then the depth of the layer is determined by the mass flux balance of subliming and condensing water and not by the temperature condition. The dust particles in the atmosphere are of the order 1 gm. On the surface we can expect larger grains (up to sand size). Therefore assuming an average pore size of 10 gm, a volume porosity of 0.5, a heat capacity of 1300 J/(kg-1)(K-1) leads to a thermal inertia of approx. 80 J/(sq m)(s-1/2)(K-1). With these parameters a dust layer of only 5 mm thickness is found to establish the flux balance at the ice-dust interface during spring season in the southern hemisphere at high latitudes (where Mars Polar Lander arrived). The diurnal temperature variation at the ice-dust surface is shown. The maximum of 205 K well exceeds the sublimation temperature of water ice at 198 K under the atmospheric conditions. The corresponding vapour flux during the last day is shown together with the flux condensing from the atmosphere. The calculations

  20. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Pourhiet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes

  1. Thermal Convection in High-Pressure Ice Layers Beneath a Buried Ocean within Titan and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Dumont, M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep interiors of large icy satellites such as Titan and Ganymede probably harbor a buried ocean sandwiched between low pressure ice and high-pressure ice layers. The nature and location of the lower interface of the ocean involves equilibration of heat and melt transfer in the HP ices and is ultimately controlled by the amount heat transferred through the surface ice Ih layer. Here, we perform 3D simulations of thermal convection, using the OEDIPUS numerical tool (Choblet et al. GJI 2007), to determine the efficiency of heat and mass transfer through these HP ice mantles. In a first series of simulations with no melting, we show that a significant fraction of the HP layer reaches the melting point. Using a simple description of water production and transport, our simulations demonstrate that the melt generation in the outermost part of the HP ice layer and its extraction to the overlying ocean increase the efficiency of heat transfer and reduce strongly the internal temperature. structure and the efficiency of the heat transfer. Scaling relationships are proposed to describe the cooling effect of melt production/extraction and used to investigate the consequences of internal melting on the thermal history of Titan and Ganymede's interior.

  2. Effect of elastic-plastic behavior of coating layer on drawability and frictional characteristic of galvannealed steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Won; Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Joun, Man Soo [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan [International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    During a galvannealed sheet metal forming, the failures of coating layers (powdering, flaking and cracking) frequently affect the strain state of sheets and deteriorate the frictional characteristic between sheets and tools. Two FE-models in this study were suggested to investigate the effects of the mechanical behavior of coating layers on the formability and friction of the coated steel sheets in FE analysis; the first is one-layer model to express the coated sheet as one stress-strain curve and the second is a multiple-layer model which is composed of substrates and coating layers, separately. First, the frictional properties and the formability of the coated sheets were experimentally investigated using a cup deep-drawing trial. After, the drawing process was simulated by FE analysis of the two models. In the multiplelayer model, the mechanical behavior of the coating is defined as a stress-strain curve which was determined using the nanoindentation test of the coating, its FE analysis and artificial neural network method. The result showed that the multiple-layer model provides more accuracy predictions of drawing loads than the one-layer model in the FE analysis, compared to the actual cup drawing test.

  3. Profiling float-based observations of net respiration beneath the mixed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennon, Tyler D.; Riser, Stephen C.; Mecking, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    We employ profiling floats with dissolved oxygen sensors to observe in situ temporal oxygen evolution below the mixed layer, allowing us to characterize net respiration of organic carbon in eight distinct regions over the globe. Export and export efficiency are generally high in locations with strong seasonal variability and low in locations of weak seasonality. Vertically integrated respiration is weakly, yet significantly, correlated with remote observations of chlorophyll, net primary production, and planktonic community size structure. These correlations suggest that regimes of high net primary production and large phytoplankton fuel elevated respiration at depth. Several regions of float-based observations intersect with sites of other detailed observations (e.g., Hawaii and Sargasso Sea), which allows us to compare our results to independent studies. We find that there is good agreement among export production estimates at highly seasonal locations, and that float-based observations may be biased low at weakly seasonal locations. We posit that the reason for the low-latitude discrepancy is the relative steady state of oxygen concentration caused by weak seasonality and shallow wintertime mixed layer depths.

  4. A Study of the Frictional Layer of TiAl-12Ag-5TiB2 Composite During Dry Sliding Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zengshi; Yao, Jie; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zhai, Wenzheng; Ibrahim, Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud; Xiao, Yecheng; Chen, Long; Zhu, Qingshuai; Zhang, Ao

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have shown that the excellent tribological properties of materials are primarily attributed to the formation of expected frictional layer on the worn surface. This article is dedicated to explore the possible formation and acting mechanism of frictional layer of TiAl-12Ag-5TiB2 composite. At normal load of 12 N, a frictional layer that consists of wear-induced layer and plastic deformation layer is observed. The soft wear-induced layer supported by the harder plastic deformation layer leads to the low friction coefficient and high wear resistance. The harder plastic deformation layer is induced by repetitive tribo-contact and considerable plastic deformation. Its high hardness improves the wear resistance of composite, and fine-grained structure promotes the diffusion of lubricating phase during dry friction process. The soft wear-induced layer can be divided into tribofilm and mechanically mixed layer. The mechanically mixed layer that consists of Ag and Ti-Al Oxides can continuously be provided to the worn surface to form a tribofilm with low shearing stress junctions, lowering the friction coefficient.

  5. The friction coefficient evolution of a MoS2/WC multi-layer coating system during sliding wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. Y.; Hu, Y.; Gharbi, Mohammad M.; Politis, D. J.; Wang, L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of friction coefficient for the multi-layered Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) and WC coated substrate during sliding against Aluminium AA 6082 material. A soft MoS2 coating was prepared over a hard WC coated G3500 cast iron tool substrate and underwent friction test using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The lifetime of the coating was reduced with increasing load while the Aluminium debris accumulated on the WC hard coating surfaces, accelerated the breakdown of the coatings. The lifetime of the coating was represented by the friction coefficient and the sliding distance before MoS2 coating breakdown and was found to be affected by the load applied and the wear mechanism.

  6. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quereda, J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, N. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-04

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  7. Single- and Two-Layer Coatings of Metal Blends onto Carbon Steel: Mechanical, Wear, and Friction Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Single- and two-layer coatings were deposited onto carbon steel using a high-velocity oxy-fuel deposition gun. The two-layer coating consisted of a top layer of tungsten carbide cobalt/nickel alloy blend that provides wear resistance and a bottom layer of iron/molybdenum blend that provides corrosion resistance. The morphological changes in the single- and two-layer coatings were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The residual stresses formed on the surface of various coatings were determined from x-ray diffraction data. Nanomechanical properties were measured using the nanoindentation technique. Microhardness and fracture toughness were measured incorporating the microindentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characteristics were measured using the pin-on-disk testing apparatus. The goal of this study was to ensure that the mechanical properties, friction, and wear resistance of the two-layer coating are similar to that of the single-layer coating.

  8. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multifrequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Hunkeler, Priska A.; Hendricks, Stefan; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise, accumulate beneath nearby sea ice, and subsequently form a several meter thick, porous sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator of the health of an ice shelf. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions within the platelet layer using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drillhole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction yielded results comparable to other studies. Both parameters together enable an estimation of the total ice volume within the platelet layer, which was found to be comparable to the volume of landfast sea ice in this region, and corresponded to more than a quarter of the annual basal melt volume of the nearby Ekström Ice Shelf. Our findings show that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties, with important implications for research into ocean/ice-shelf/sea-ice interactions. However, a successful application of this

  9. The analysis of the influence of the material antifrictional layer frictional properties on the parameters of the spherical bearing contact zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskikh, A. A.; Trufanov, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents data on the influence of the frictional properties of a material antifrictional layer on the parameters of the spherical bearing contact zone. The dependences of the friction coefficient from the load were obtained as a result of the study. Series of numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the frictional properties of a materials contact pair in the work. Regularities of the relative contact pressure and relative contact tangential stress were obtained for seven variants of the load-friction coefficient for the spherical bearing with a layer of modified fluoroplastic. The study puts emphasis on the fact that that adhesion area of the contact surface is reduced and the load is increased taking into account the fact that the friction properties of the layer has been fixed in the study.

  10. Laminar mixed convection boundary layer flow induced by a permeable surface stretched with prescribed skin friction boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixed laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction are studied. Three major cases, which correspond to complete similarity solutions, are considered. The cases are combinations of power law indices n and m representing temperature and skin friction distributions, respectively. The first case (n = 0, m = 0.5 corresponds to isothermal stretched surface with skin friction at the surface scales as x 1/4. The second case (n = 1, m = 1 is a linear temperature and skin friction distribution along the vertical stretched surface. The third case (n = −1, m = 0 represents inverse temperature variation along the surface with prescribed skin friction of the order of x −1/2. Similarity solutions are obtained for the surface stretched in a stagnant air with Prandtl number = 0.72. The effect of suction/injection velocity (fw and the buoyancy parameter (λ is studied in detail. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient along the surface is enhanced for assisting flow (λ > 0 at any value of fw for the first and second cases, while it is reduced for the third case. However, the opposite is true for the opposing flow (λ < 0. Furthermore, suction enhances the heat transfer coefficient, whereas injection degrades it at any fixed λ for the first and second prescribed skin friction boundary conditions, and the opposite is true for the third case.

  11. Scaling properties of velocity and temperature spectra above the surface friction layer in a convective atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. McNaughton

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We report velocity and temperature spectra measured at nine levels from 1.42 meters up to 25.7 m over a smooth playa in Western Utah. Data are from highly convective conditions when the magnitude of the Obukhov length (our proxy for the depth of the surface friction layer was less than 2 m. Our results are somewhat similar to the results reported from the Minnesota experiment of Kaimal et al. (1976, but show significant differences in detail. Our velocity spectra show no evidence of buoyant production of kinetic energy at at the scale of the thermal structures. We interpret our velocity spectra to be the result of outer eddies interacting with the ground, not "local free convection".

    We observe that velocity spectra represent the spectral distribution of the kinetic energy of the turbulence, so we use energy scales based on total turbulence energy in the convective boundary layer (CBL to collapse our spectra. For the horizontal velocity spectra this scale is (zi εo2/3, where zi is inversion height and εo is the dissipation rate in the bulk CBL. This scale functionally replaces the Deardorff convective velocity scale. Vertical motions are blocked by the ground, so the outer eddies most effective in creating vertical motions come from the inertial subrange of the outer turbulence. We deduce that the appropriate scale for the peak region of the vertical velocity spectra is (z εo2/3 where z is height above ground. Deviations from perfect spectral collapse under these scalings at large and small wavenumbers are explained in terms of the energy transport and the eddy structures of the flow.

    We find that the peaks of the temperature spectra collapse when wavenumbers are scaled using (z1/2 zi1/2. That is, the lengths of the thermal structures depend on both the lengths of the

  12. Friction velocity u* and roughness length z0 of atmospheric surface boundary layer in sparse-tree land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Dexin; Zhu Tingyao; Han Shijie

    1999-01-01

    Sparse-tree land is one of the typical lands and can be considered as one typical rough surface in boundary layer meteorology. Many lands can be classified into the kind surface in the view of scale and distribution feature of the roughness elements such as agroforest, scatter planted or growing trees, savanna and so on. The structure of surface boundary layer in sparse-tree land is analyzed and the parameters, friction velocity u* and roughness length z0 are deduced based on energy balance law and other physical hypothesis. The models agree well with data of wind tunnel experiments and field measurements.

  13. Approximate analytical solutions and approximate value of skin friction coefficient for boundary layer of power law fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xiao-hong; ZHENG Lian-cun; JIANG Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis for laminar boundary layer flow in a power law non-Newtonian fluids.The Adomian analytical decomposition technique is presented and an approximate analytical solution is obtained.The approximate analytical solution can be expressed in terms of a rapid convergent power series with easily computable terms.Reliability and efficiency of the approximate solution are verified by comparing with numerical solutions in the literature.Moreover,the approximate solution can be successfully applied to provide values for the skin friction coefficient of the laminar boundary layer flow in power law non-Newtonian fluids.

  14. Ex situ and in situ characterization of patterned photoreactive thin organic surface layers using friction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Quan; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Knall, Astrid-Caroline; Trimmel, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang; Teichert, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Photolithographic methods allow an easy lateral top-down patterning and tuning of surface properties with photoreactive molecules and polymers. Employing friction force microscopy (FFM), we present here different FFM-based methods that enable the characterization of several photoreactive thin organic surface layers. First, three ex situ methods have been evaluated for the identification of irradiated and non-irradiated zones on the same organosilane sample by irradiation through different types of masks. These approaches are further extended to a time dependent ex situ FFM measurement, which allows to study the irradiation time dependent evolution of the resulting friction forces by sequential irradiation through differently sized masks in crossed geometry. Finally, a newly designed in situ FFM measurement, which uses a commercial bar-shaped cantilever itself as a noncontact shadow mask, enables the determination of time dependent effects on the surface modification during the photoreaction.

  15. Virtual Photon Contribution to Frictional Drag in Double-layer Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donarini, Andrea; Ferrari, R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2003-01-01

    Frictional drag between coupled two-dimensional charge systems is commonly viewed as a second order effect arising either from screened Coulomb interaction, or phonon exchange. We point out that for single-photon exchange the first order contribution does not have to vanish even at T = 0, and eva......Frictional drag between coupled two-dimensional charge systems is commonly viewed as a second order effect arising either from screened Coulomb interaction, or phonon exchange. We point out that for single-photon exchange the first order contribution does not have to vanish even at T = 0...

  16. Formation of Al/B4C Surface Nano-composite Layers on 7075 Al Alloy Employing Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Bozorg, S. F.; Jazayeri, K.

    2009-06-01

    Al/B4C surface nano-composite layers was achieved on commercial 7075 Al substrate employing friction stir processing technique. Agglomeration of B4C particles was occurred after a single pass. The dispersion of B4C particles was found to be affected by the number of FSP passes. A distribution of nano-size B4C particle was achieved after four passes. Moreover, the increasing in number of FSP passes causes a decreasing in matrix grain size of the surface nano-composite layer. The micro hardness of the surface nano-composite layer improves by almost two times as compared to that of the as-received substrate; this is attributed to the finer matrix grains and dispersion of nano-sized B4C particles.

  17. Time Resolved PIV Investigation on the Skin Friction Reduction Mechanism of Outer-Layer Vertical Blades Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hyeon Park

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The drag reducing efficiency of the outer-layer vertical blades, which were first devised by Hutchins (2003, have been demonstrated by the recent towing tank measurements. From the drag measurement of flat plate with various vertical blades arrays by Park et al. (2011, a maximum 9.6% of reduction of total drag was achieved. The scale of blade geometry is found to be weakly correlated with outer variable of boundary layer. The drag reduction of 2.8% has been also confirmed by the model ship test by An et al. (2014. With a view to enabling the identification of drag reduction mechanism of the outer-layer vertical blades, detailed flow field measurements have been performed using 2D time resolved PIV in this study. It is found that the skin friction reduction effect is varied according to the spanwise position, with 2.73% and 7.95% drag reduction in the blade plane and the blade-in-between plane, respectively. The influence of vertical blades array upon the characteristics of the turbulent coherent structures was analyzed by POD method. It is observed that the vortical structures are cut and deformed by blades array and the skin frictional reduction is closely associated with the subsequent evolution of turbulent structures.

  18. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

    1943-01-01

    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  19. Frictional sliding in layered rock: Preliminary experiments on stacked Lexan plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fracture Behavior Group; Jung, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed-rock masses is of critical importance to designing and predicting the performance of a potential nuclear waste repositiry. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints using phase shifting moire interferometry. Preliminary calibration models were made from stacks of Lexan plates that were sand-blasted to provide a uniform frictional interface. Load was applied monotonically and phase shifted moire fringe patterns were recorded at three different load states. Plots of slip along the interfaces for the model are presented to demonstrate the ability of the photomechanics technique to provide precise measurements of in-plane displacement, and ultimately the slip between the plates.

  20. Effect of surface oxidation layer on tensile strength of Cu-Ni alloy in friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taejin; Park, Sangwon; Chung, Sungwook; Noh, Joongsuk; Kim, Kwangho; Kang, Chungyun

    2016-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of thick Cu-Ni plate was successfully completed. The fracture position after tensile testing was located at the weld nugget zone (WNZ), where surface oxidation occurred. The oxidation morphologies on the surface of the base metal were analyzed by SEM, EPMA and XRD, with the oxide layer being obtained by simple and useful way to analyze the oxide products, namely, collecting oxide powders after immersing of the oxidized specimen into HNO3 solution. The results highlighted that an oxide layer of 30 μm thickness consists of a mixture of two phases, Cu2O and NiO, on the surface of the base metal. After FSW, the thickness of the oxide layer on the surface was decreased to approximately 5 μm, and broken oxide particles, which is NiO, penetrated into the WNZ by the rotating tool. NiO was preferentially formed at the surface after FSW because it has a lower Gibbs free energy value at 950 °C, which is the peak temperature measured during FSW. Oxide layer of Cu-Ni plate was clearly only removed by mechanical method grinding with 1200-grit SiC paper. The removal of oxide layer results in improved mechanical strength.

  1. Acoustics of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    ultrasonic motors and other examples. Last, when considered phenomenologically, friction and boundary layer turbulence exhibit analogous properties and, when compared, each may provide clues to a better understanding of the other.

  2. Frictional sliding in layered rock model: Preliminary experiments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, K.E. Jr.; Buescher, B.J.; Anderson, D.; Epstein, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An important aspect of determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a possible nuclear waste repository requires understanding the mechanical behavior of jointed rock-masses. To this end we have studied the frictional sliding between simulated rock joints in the laboratory using the technique of phase shifting moire interferometry. The models were made from stacks of Lexan plates and contained a central hole to induce slip between the plates when the models were loaded in compression. These preliminary results confirm the feasibility of the approach and show a clear evolution of slip as function of load.

  3. Metallurgical investigations of dry sliding surface layer in phosphorous iron/steel friction pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Surface layer behaviors of composition concentration and micro-hardness were inves-tigated on phosphorous cast irons after dry sliding. The experimental results indicate that thehardness and chemical composition unevenly distribute in the surface layer. The sliding conditionand microstructure of the pin specimen have greatly effects on the distributions.

  4. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shi-ning; HU Chun-hua; LI Xin; QIU Ji

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulphurizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocarbonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing layer. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micron-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS、 FeS2、 Fe2C and Fe3N. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last very long. The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can greatly improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces'.

  5. Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics and Structure of Compound Layer from Combined Treatment of Ion Nitrocarburizing-Ion Sulphurizing of CrMoCu Alloy Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAShi-ning; HUChun-hua; LIXin; QIUJi

    2004-01-01

    The technics of combined treatment of ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulpburizing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron has been investigated and the compound layer with nitrocabonide and sulphide has been made on the surface of CrMoCu alloy cast iron. The compound layer is composed of sulfide surface layer and the nitrocarbonide hypo-surface layer and its diffusing laye. The size of sulfide globular grains distributing equably on the surface is in nano-micmn-scale, and the phase structure of the compound layer is composed of FeS, FeS2, Fe2C and FerN. Under dry sliding condition, the friction-reducing of sulphurized surface is good, but its function time can't last vet3. long, The nitrocarbonided+sulphurized surface can gready improve the wear-resistance and the friction-reducing of CrMoCu alloy cast iron, and its integrated friction and wear properties are better than plain and sulphurized surfaces.

  6. Global effect of local skin friction drag reduction in spatially developing turbulent boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Stroh, A; Schlatter, P; Frohnapfel, B

    2016-01-01

    A numerical investigation of two locally applied drag reducing control schemes is carried out in the configuration of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL). One control is designed to damp near-wall turbulence and the other induces constant mass flux in the wall-normal direction. Both control schemes yield similar local drag reduction rates within the control region. However, the flow development downstream of the control significantly differs: persistent drag reduction is found for the uniform blowing case whereas drag increase is found for the turbulence damping case. In order to account for this difference the formulation of a global drag reduction rate is suggested. It represents the reduction of the streamwise force exerted by the fluid on a finite length plate. Furthermore, it is shown that the far downstream development of the TBL after the control region can be described by a single quantity, namely a streamwise shift of the uncontrolled boundary layer, i.e. a changed virtual origin. B...

  7. A Survey of Scattering, Attenuation, and Size Spectra Studies of Bubble Layers and Plumes Beneath the Air-Sea Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    density. Raytraces were done from the layer source to the hydrophone at 267-m bottom depth and, finding refraction negligible out to 6-km radius, a... Radar ," in Wave Dynamics and Radio Probing of the Ocean Surface, Plenum, New York (1986). 56 [83] L. Kinsler and A. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics...Breaking in the Presence of Wind Drift and Swell," J. Fluid Mech. 66, 625-640 (1974). [1451 O.M. Phillips, " Radar Returns from the Sea Surface - Bragg

  8. GENERAL EQUATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRICTION LAW FOR HINDERED FALLING OF AN INDIVIDUAL BALL AND FLUID MOTION IN GRANULAR LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a research into various hydromechanical processes such as hindered falling of an individual ball in a liquid; suspension of a homogeneous monodispersed granular layer with ascending fluid flow; homogeneous liquid filtration in a porous granular layer. The authors generalize the results of theoretical and experimental studies, employ the theory of similarity, and establish that the laws of hydraulic friction for the mentioned hydromechanical processes share the common ground described by one general equation that provides basis for obtaining the individual formulae computing the studied hydromechanical processes. The formulae appear in dimensionless similitude parameters that reflect correlation of the essential action forces.The presented scientific results contribute to the theory development of the applied hydromechanical phenomena and the new obtained formulae enable enhancement of the calculation procedures for structures and installations that realize the studied hydraumechanical processes. Thus, the research results for the hindered falling of an individual ball in a liquid can apply in viscosimetry techniques and in handling the problems related to calculations of various movement types and separate units in technologies realizing the hydraulic processes of hindered falling of individual balls in liquids.Fluidization processes (pseudo-liquefaction of the granular layers enjoy wide application in various segments of industry for instance in chemical engineering at adsorption, desorption, dissolution, dealkalization, ablution. A new general calculating formula incipiency provides a possibility for technological computations realization under any operational mode. The filtration process is used in industry as well as occurs in nature, for example, in movement of the ground water. At present, the basis for calculating techniques is the monomial Darcy formula defining the filtering rate as function of the

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF FINISHING PARAMETERS OF ANTI-FRICTION LAYERS BY FINPLAST ON BEHAVIOR AT THE IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru DASCALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available FINPLAST is original proceedings propose for f inishing antifriction surfaces of sledding bearings. FINPLAST is an original method proposed for anti -friction surface finish of the sliding bearings. The process extends cold plastic deformation technology, for finishing antifriction surfaces of the sliding bearings. In this paper presents the results of the evaluation of the state of stresses and strains obtained by simulation using the finite element method.

  10. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  11. Financial Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Jensen, Mads

    frictions, a call option should never be exercised early, but only at expiration or just before the underlying stock pays a dividend. Chapter one of this thesis shows that suffciently severe frictions can make early exercise optimal. Short-sale costs especially represent an important driver of early...

  12. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Brkić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ. In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re and the relative roughness (ε/D ranging between 5000 and 108 and between 10−7 and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation.

  13. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  14. Research on Pump Primers for Friction Reduction of Wet-Mix Shotcrete Based on Precreating Lubricating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet-mix shotcrete has lower water content even though looking wet which is generally less than 8% of total content. The inner surface of pipes will absorb water from fresh concrete to wet itself if concrete pump primers is not pumped early; meanwhile, the saturated concrete is transformed into the unsaturated concrete, and pipe blockage often occurs. In order to minimize the loss of water and wet pipes, a new type of pump primers was developed to precreate the lubricating layer that is one of the most dominant factors in determining the pumping capability, which would provide a cost-effective replacement for premium priced cement-based primers. Experiments were conducted to measure the viscosity, stability, and strength of mix solution during development stage. The optimal formula was obtained by orthogonal matching tests with 0.5% sodium stearate, 0.75% xanthan gum, 0.3% polyacrylamide, and 0.4% blender (mass ratio related to mix water. The pressure drop reduction of new primers was larger than that of common primers.

  15. Wall-pressure-array measurements beneath a two/three-dimensional separating/reattaching boundary layer over an axisymmetric backward-facing-step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudy, Laura; Naguib, Ahmed; Humphreys, J. R.; Bartram, Scott

    2003-11-01

    The surface-pressure signature of the structure within a separated flow region was investigated using a microphone array in the NASA Langley Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel. The experimental set-up consisted of an axisymmetric backward-facing step with a section upstream of the step that could rotate to create a 3D boundary layer at separation. In the flow region, 32 flush-mounted Emkay electret microphones detected the pressure signature and 56 static pressure taps characterized the mean pressure. The taps were also used to align the model in the tunnel. Data were acquired for 2D and 3D flow configurations for Reynolds numbers of 5250 and 10500, based on the step height. A spatio-temporal analysis of the data revealed the dominant flow modes in the separating shear layer and their convective characteristics for both the 2D and 3D cases. Furthermore, similarities and differences between the two situations were investigated.

  16. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander M.; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    Ionic liquids, salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions, are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition.

  17. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-07

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition.

  18. New insight into the Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Pacific Ocean Using PP and SS Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola, H.; Rogers, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The passing of the EarthScope Transportable array has provided a dense data set that enabled beam forming of SS and PP data that resultes in improved frequency content to as much a 1 Hz in the imaging of upper mantle structure. This combined with the application of simultaneous iterative deconvolution has resulted in images to as much as 4 Hz. The processing however results in structure being averaged over regions of 60 to 100 km in radius. This is becomes a powerful new tool to image the upper mantle beneath Oceanic regions where locating stations is expensive and difficult. This presentation will summarize work from a number of regions as to new observations of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Images from a region of the Pacific Ocean furthest from hot spots or subduction zones (we will refer to this as the 'reference region'). show considerable layering in the upper mantle. The 410 km discontinuity is always imaged using these tools and appears to be a very sharp boundary. It does usually appear as an isolated positive phase. There appears to be a LAB at ~100 km as expected but there is a strong negative phase at ~ 200 km with a positive phase 15 km deeper. This is best explained as a lens of partial melt as expected for this depth based on the geothermal gradient. If so this should be a low friction point and so we would expect it to accommodate plate motion. Imaging of the Aleutian subduction zone does show the 100 km deep LAB as it descends but this 200 km deep horizon appears as a week descending positive anomaly without the shallower negative pulse. In addition to the 410, 100 and 200 km discontinuities there are a number of paired anomalies, between the 200 and 400 km depths, with a negative pulse 15 to 20 km shallower then the positive pulse. We do not believe these are side lobes or we would see side lobes on the 100 km and 410 km discontinuities. We believe these to be the result of friction induced partial melt along zones of

  19. Friction and Wear Behavior of Titania Nanotube Layers with Different Thicknesses on Titanium Surface%钛表面不同厚度氧化钛纳米管层的摩擦磨损行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锦洁; 冯波; 郭振永; 范兴平; 屈树新

    2012-01-01

    为了改善钛的摩擦学性能,采用阳极氧化法在钛表面制备了纳米管径约100 nm,厚度分别为500 nm、1 000 nm和1 500 nm的TiO2纳米管层,并在450℃保温3h进行热处理.对试样的表面形貌、显微硬度和粗糙度进行测试.利用摩擦磨损试验考察了热处理前后不同试样在大气环境下的摩擦磨损行为.结果表明:干摩擦下,纳米管层的存在降低了钛与GCr15轴承钢球之间的摩擦系数;随TiO2纳米管层厚度的增加,试样的摩擦因数逐渐降低,磨损逐渐下降;热处理使纳米管由无定型氧化钛转变为锐钛矿晶型,进一步降低了摩擦因数,增加了钛的耐磨性能;纳米管层的磨损机制为磨粒磨损,接触疲劳磨损和粘着磨损.%To improve the tribological properties of titanium, anodic oxidation was used to fabricate a series of nanotube layers on Ti surface with the same inner diameter about 100 nm and different thicknesses of 500 nm, 1 000 nm and 1 500 nm. Specimens were heat-treated at 450 ℃ for 3 h. Morphology, micro-hardness and rough-ness of specimens surface were measured. The friction and wear properties of the specimens treated before and after heat - treatment in atmosphere were investigated by friction and wear experiments. The results indicate that in dry friction condition, the friction coefficients between Ti and GCrl5 bearing steel ball decrease due to the existence of nanotube layers. The friction coefficients and wear rates decrease with the increase of the nanotube thickness. Amorphous titania nanotubes transform into anatase through heat - treatment, which re-duces the friction factor and increases the wear resistance of titanium. The wear mechanisms of the nanotube layers involve abrasive wear, fatigue wear and adhesive wear.

  20. Mass transport induced by internal Kelvin waves beneath shore-fast ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    StøYlen, Eivind; Weber, Jan Erik H.

    2010-03-01

    A one-layer reduced-gravity model is used to investigate the wave-induced mass flux in internal Kelvin waves along a straight coast beneath shore-fast ice. The waves are generated by barotropic tidal pumping at narrow sounds, and the ice lid introduces a no-slip condition for the horizontal wave motion. The mean Lagrangian fluxes to second order in wave steepness are obtained by integrating the equations of momentum and mass between the material interface and the surface. The mean flow is forced by the conventional radiation stress for internal wave motion, the mean pressure gradient due to the sloping surface, and the frictional drag at the boundaries. The equations that govern the mean fluxes are expressed in terms of mean Eulerian variables, while the wave forcing terms are given by the horizontal divergence of the Stokes flux. Analytical results show that the effect of friction induces a mean Eulerian flux along the coast that is comparable to the Stokes flux. In addition, the horizontal divergence of the total mean flux along the coast induces a small mass flux in the cross-shore direction. This flux changes the mean thickness of the upper layer outside the trapping region and may facilitate geostrophically balanced boundary currents in enclosed basins. This is indeed demonstrated by numerical solutions of the flux equations for confined areas larger than the trapping region. Application of the theory to Arctic waters is discussed, with emphasis on the transport of biological material and pollutants in nearshore regions.

  1. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  2. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D{sub 2}O ice beneath a H{sub 2}O ice layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui, E-mail: ryang73@ustc.edu; Gudipati, Murthy S., E-mail: gudipati@jpl.nasa.gov [Science Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-301, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D{sub 2}O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D{sub 2}O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D{sub 2}O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D{sub 2}O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H{sub 2}O molecules in the shockwave. We call this “shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation” technique as “two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers.” This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes—ablation and

  3. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons’ friction law in static and steady sliding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrégeas G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured fields are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, significant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the difference between the Amontons fields and the measured ones, in particular the effect of the finite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.

  4. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S; Jones, Craig H; Sheehan, Anne F

    2004-07-30

    Seismic tomography reveals garnet-rich crust and mantle lithosphere descending into the upper mantle beneath the southeastern Sierra Nevada. The descending lithosphere consists of two layers: an iron-rich eclogite above a magnesium-rich garnet peridotite. These results place descending eclogite above and east of high P wave speed material previously imaged beneath the southern Great Valley, suggesting a previously unsuspected coherence in the lithospheric removal process.

  5. Determinism beneath Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hooft, G

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to common belief, it is not difficult to construct deterministic models where stochastic behavior is correctly described by quantum mechanical amplitudes, in precise accordance with the Copenhagen-Bohr-Bohm doctrine. What is difficult however is to obtain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below, and whose ground state is a vacuum that exhibits complicated vacuum fluctuations, as in the real world. Beneath Quantum Mechanics, there may be a deterministic theory with (local) information loss. This may lead to a sufficiently complex vacuum state, and to an apparent non-locality in the relation between the deterministic ("ontological") states and the quantum states, of the kind needed to explain away the Bell inequalities. Theories of this kind would not only be appealing from a philosophical point of view, but may also be essential for understanding causality at Planckian distance scales.

  6. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  7. Sliding without slipping under Coulomb friction: opening waves and inversion of frictional force

    CERN Document Server

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A

    2015-01-01

    An elastic layer slides on a rigid flat governed by Coulomb's friction law. We demonstrate that if the coefficient of friction is high enough, the sliding localizes within stick-slip pulses, which transform into opening waves propagating at intersonic speed in the direction of sliding or, for high Poisson's ratios, at supersonic speed in the opposite one. This sliding mode, characterized by small frictional dissipation, rapidly relaxes the shear elastic energy via stress waves and enables the contact surface slide ahead of the top one, resulting in inversion of the frictional force direction.

  8. 尾矿土工织物编织袋层间界面摩擦强度特性研究%Study on the Layer Interface Friction Strength Characteristics of Tailings Geotextiles Woven Bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱君星; 张默; 曹作忠; 李东

    2013-01-01

    尾矿干式堆存技术近年来逐渐被推广应用,与传统的尾矿库堆存技术相比,尾矿干式堆存能够降低尾矿含水量,增强尾矿的力学性能,提高尾矿库的整体稳定性.在利用土工织物大型编织袋充灌尾矿干堆新技术中,土工织物编制袋层间界面的摩擦强度是影响和决定整个尾矿干堆场稳定性的主要指标.根据制作加工简易的大型土工“似直剪仪”,进行不同含水率和法向压力下的尾矿土工织物编织袋摩擦抗剪强度试验,得出尾矿土工织物编织袋层间界面摩擦系数和抗剪强度关系曲线,同时用一阶线性拟合的摩擦抗剪强度方程较符合摩尔-库伦强度准则.该抗剪强度方程能够反映土工织物层间界面摩擦的物理力学参数及变形特征,为尾矿土工织物编织袋干式堆存筑坝的稳定性计算提供依据.%In recent years,the tailings dry stockpiling technology was gradually popularized and applied.Compared with the traditional tailings stockpiling technology,the dry stockpiling technique can reduce water content in tailings,increase the mechanical parameters of tailings,and improve the overall stability of tailings pond.In the new technology of tailings dry stockpiling with filling of large geotextile woven bag,the interface frictional strength between layers of geotextile woven bag is the main indicator which influences and determines the stability of the entire tailings dry stockpiling.According to the easy production processing of large-scale geotechnical "resembling direct shear apparatus",tailings geotextile woven friction shear strength test under different moisture content and normal pressure is carried out,drawing the relationship curve between interface friction coefficient and shear strength of the tailings layer of geotextile fabric woven bags,simultaneously the linear fitting friction and shear strength equation is in line with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion.The shear strength equation

  9. Effect of energetic dissipation processes on the friction unit tribological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moving V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In article presented temperature influence on reological and fric-tion unit coefficients cast iron elements. It has been found that surface layer formed in the temperature friction has good rub off resistance. The surface layer structural hardening and capacity stress relaxation make up.

  10. Remote Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring Beneath Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Adam; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang; Hwang, Byongjun (Phil); Hagan, Bernard; Stothard, David J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The spillage of oil in Polar Regions is particularly serious due to the threat to the environment and the difficulties in detecting and tracking the full extent of the oil seepage beneath the sea ice. Development of fast and reliable sensing techniques is highly desirable. In this paper hyperspectral imaging combined with signal processing and classification techniques are proposed as a potential tool to detect the presence of oil beneath the sea ice. A small sample, lab based experiment, serving as a proof of concept, resulted in the successful identification of oil presence beneath the thin ice layer as opposed to the other sample with ice only. The paper demonstrates the results of this experiment that granted a financial support to execute full feasibility study of this technology for oil spill detection beneath the sea ice.

  11. Frictional Heat-Induced Phase Transformation on Train Wheel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hang; PAN Tao; LI Li; YANG Cai-fu; CUI Yin-hui; JI Huai-zhong

    2008-01-01

    By combining thermomechanical coupling finite element analysis with the characteristics of phase transformation [continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve],the thermal fatigue behavior of train wheel steel under high speed and heavy load conditions was analyzed.The influence of different materials on the formation of the phase transformation zone of the wheel tread was discussed.The result showed that the peak temperature of wheel/track friction zone could be higher than the austenitizing temperature for braking.The depth of the austenitized region could reach a point of 0.9 mm beneath the wheel tread surface.The supercooled austenite is transformed to a hard and brittle martensite layer during the following rapid cooling process,which may lead to cracking and then spalling on the wheel tread surface.The decrease in carbon contents of the train wheel steel helps inhibit the formation of martensite by increasing the austenitizing temperature of the train wheel steel.When the carbon contents decrease from 0.7% to 0.4%,the Ac3 of the wheel steel is increased by 45 ℃,and the thickness of the martensite layer is decreased by 30%,which is helpful in reducing the thermal cycling fatigue of the train wheel tread such as spalling.

  12. Investigation of the Microstructure of Joints of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Special features of the microstructure of joints of aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-copper alloys produced by friction stir welding are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a layered structure with ultradisperse grains is produced by friction stir welding at the center of the weld joint. An analogy is drawn between the microstructures of joints produced by friction stir welding and surface layer produced by sliding friction.

  13. Influence of volume percentage of NanoTiB2 particles on tribological & mechanical behaviour of 6061-T6 Al alloy nano-surface composite layer prepared via friction stir process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kishan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to analyze the influence of volume percentage (vol.% of nano-sized particles (TiB2: average size is 35 nm on microstructure, mechanical and tribological behavior of 6061-T6 Al alloy surface nano composite prepared via Friction stir process (FSP. The microstructure of the fabricated surface nanocomposites is examined using optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM for distribution of TiB2 nano reinforcement particles, thickness of nano composite layer formed on the Aluminum alloy substrate and fracture features. The depth of surface nano composite layer is measured as 3683.82 μm along the cross section of stir zone of nano composite perpendicular to FSP. It was observed that increase in volume percentage of TiB2 particles, the microhardness is increased up to 132 Hv and it is greater than as-received Al alloy's microhardness (104 Hv. It is also observed that at 4 volume percentage higher tensile properties exhibited as compared with the 2 and 8 vol. %. It is found that high wear resistance exhibited at 4 volume percentage as-compared with the 2 and 8 vol. %. The observed wear and mechanical properties are interrelated with microstructure, fractography and worn morphology.

  14. Permeability equipment for porous friction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, D. L.; Graul, R. A.; Lenke, L. R.

    1985-04-01

    Hydroplaning is the loss of traction between tires and pavement due to the presence of a layer of water. This loss of traction can result in loss of vehicle control. A porous friction surface (PFS) applied over an existing pavement permits the water to drain laterally and vertically away from the tire path, effectively lowering hydroplaning potential. Equipment used to measure pavement drainage (permeability) is discussed with respect to usage on porous friction surface. Background information on hydroplaning, flow theory, and PFS field performance as they are affected by permeability are also presented. Two dynamic test devices and four static devices are considered for measuring PFS permeability. Permeability tests are recommended to measure PFS permeability for maintenance purposes and construction control. Dynamic devices cited could possibly estimate hydroplaning potential; further research must be done to determine this. Permeability devices cannot be used to accurately estimate friction of a pavement surface, however, decreased permeability of a pavement infers a decrease in friction.

  15. Torsional friction damper optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shaochun; Williams, Keith A.

    2006-06-01

    A new approach for the analysis of friction dampers is presented in this work. The exact form of the steady-state solution for a friction damper implemented on a primary system is developed and numerical solutions are used to determine the optimum friction in a friction damper applied to a specific primary system. When compared to classical results presented by earlier authors, the new approach provides a more optimal solution. In addition, viscous damping in the primary system may be included with the new analysis approach. The ability to optimize a friction damper when viscous damping is included in the primary system is a significant improvement over earlier methods and shows potential for serving as a guide to realizing a more accurate estimate of the optimal damping for friction dampers.

  16. Uniform Design of Optimizing Formulation of Friction Materials with Composite Mineral Fiber (CMF) and Their Friction and Wear Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yazhou; Jiang, Man; Xu, Jie; Ma, Yunhai; Tong, Jin

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the uniform design method was applied to arrange the experimental scheme for optimizing formulation of friction materials. The friction and wear of the friction materials based on the optimized formulation was carried out on a constant speed friction tester (JF150D-II), using pad-on-disc contact mode against gray cast iron disc. The worn surfaces of the friction materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (JSM5310) and the friction mechanism was discussed. The results showed that the uniform design method was appropriate for finding the optimum formulation of the friction materials with better properties. Compared with two conventional friction materials, the friction materials based on the optimized formulation possessed higher and stable friction coefficient and higher wear resistance, even at the disc temperature of 350°C. The adhesion, strain fatigue and abrasive wear were the main wear mechanisms of the friction materials. Tribo-chemical phenomenon and plastic deformation existed on the worn surface layer.

  17. Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non...

  18. Microbial life beneath a high arctic glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, M L; Foght, J M; Sharp, M J

    2000-08-01

    The debris-rich basal ice layers of a high Arctic glacier were shown to contain metabolically diverse microbes that could be cultured oligotrophically at low temperatures (0.3 to 4 degrees C). These organisms included aerobic chemoheterotrophs and anaerobic nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, and methanogens. Colonies purified from subglacial samples at 4 degrees C appeared to be predominantly psychrophilic. Aerobic chemoheterotrophs were metabolically active in unfrozen basal sediments when they were cultured at 0.3 degrees C in the dark (to simulate nearly in situ conditions), producing (14)CO(2) from radiolabeled sodium acetate with minimal organic amendment (> or =38 microM C). In contrast, no activity was observed when samples were cultured at subfreezing temperatures (glacier provides a viable habitat for life and that microbes may be widespread where the basal ice is temperate and water is present at the base of the glacier and where organic carbon from glacially overridden soils is present. Our observations raise the possibility that in situ microbial production of CO(2) and CH(4) beneath ice masses (e.g., the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets) is an important factor in carbon cycling during glacial periods. Moreover, this terrestrial environment may provide a model for viable habitats for life on Mars, since similar conditions may exist or may have existed in the basal sediments beneath the Martian north polar ice cap.

  19. Friction Properties of Inkjet and Flexographic Prints on Different Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grigaliūnienė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction between different papers, inkjet and flexographic prints has been experimentally investigated. Flexographic prints have been made using an anilox roller, and inkjet prints have been produced covering paper with one and four toner layers. Static (SCOF and kinetic (KCOF friction coefficients between paper and paper, paper and prints, prints and prints have been determined. Friction properties have been discovered to be different in flexographic and laser prints. The dependence of SCOF and KCOF on pressure (both decrease together with roughness measurements enables to conclude that the friction of prints is mainly governed by adhesion forces.

  20. Knee synovial cyst presenting as iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M L; Marshall, T; Donell, S T; Phillips, H

    2004-06-01

    We present the case of a 28-year-old competitive runner with iliotibial band (ITB) friction syndrome associated with a synovial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not demonstrate a fluid collection. However, open exploration revealed a large cyst beneath the ITB arising from the capsule of the knee proximal to the lateral meniscus. The cyst disappeared on extension. The pre-operative MRI scan may have revealed the cyst, if it had been taken with the knee flexed.

  1. Friction in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873

  2. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  3. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  4. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  5. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanian, L. L.; Vnuchkova, T. A.; Egorov, I. V.; Basilevskii, A. T.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Fainberg, E. B.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctly anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotropic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding.

  6. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  7. Effect of Vortex Circulation on Injectant from a Single Film-Cooling Hole and a Row of Film-Cooling Holes in a Turbulent Boundary Layer. Part 1. Injection Beneath the Vortex Downwash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    distribution is unlimited ~ PERFORMING ORGAN IZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5 MONITORING ORGANIZ ATION REPORT NUMBER(S) )a NAM E OF PERF ORMING ORGANIZATION 6b...California, March, 1987. Ort1::, A., "The Thermal Behavoir of Film Cooled Turbulent Boundary Layers as Affected by Long1tudinal Vort1ces", M.E

  8. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  9. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  10. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice...... these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated...

  11. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  12. Reflections on Friction in Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Rezek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Distinctly quantum friction effects of three types are surveyed: internalfriction, measurement-induced friction, and quantum-fluctuation-induced friction. We demonstrate that external driving will lead to quantum internal friction, and critique the measurement-based interpretation of friction. We conclude that in general systems will experience internal and external quantum friction over and beyond the classical frictional contributions.

  13. Study of lubrication behavior of pure water for hydrophobic friction pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane molecular layer was self-assembled on glass plate. The tribological properties of the molecular layer in water were studied with the method of ball on disk. An interesting phenomenon was found that low friction coefficients of 0.02―0.08 were obtained when the friction pair was lubricated with only a water droplet. Whereas, when the friction pair was encircled with large amount of water or fully immersed in water, the friction coefficient was higher than that under a droplet lubrication. A mechanism of water droplet lubrication was proposed that the surface tension caused by the solid-liquid-air three-phase interface makes water molecules enter into the contact zone, which separates the two friction surfaces and provides a low friction coefficient. However, water film can hardly form when more water encircles the friction pair, due to the attraction between water molecules.

  14. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon; Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO2 and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO2 substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO2 substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics of NWs.

  15. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  16. Crustal structure beneath northeast India inferred from receiver function modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Bora, Dipok K.; Goyal, Ayush; Kumar, Raju

    2016-09-01

    We estimated crustal shear velocity structure beneath ten broadband seismic stations of northeast India, by using H-Vp/Vs stacking method and a non-linear direct search approach, Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) technique followed by joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity and receiver function, calculated from teleseismic earthquakes data. Results show significant variations of thickness, shear velocities (Vs) and Vp/Vs ratio in the crust of the study region. The inverted shear wave velocity models show crustal thickness variations of 32-36 km in Shillong Plateau (North), 36-40 in Assam Valley and ∼44 km in Lesser Himalaya (South). Average Vp/Vs ratio in Shillong Plateau is less (1.73-1.77) compared to Assam Valley and Lesser Himalaya (∼1.80). Average crustal shear velocity beneath the study region varies from 3.4 to 3.5 km/s. Sediment structure beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley shows 1-2 km thick sediment layer with low Vs (2.5-2.9 km/s) and high Vp/Vs ratio (1.8-2.1), while it is observed to be of greater thickness (4 km) with similar Vs and high Vp/Vs (∼2.5) in RUP (Lesser Himalaya). Both Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley show thick upper and middle crust (10-20 km), and thin (4-9 km) lower crust. Average Vp/Vs ratio in Assam Valley and Shillong Plateau suggest that the crust is felsic-to-intermediate and intermediate-to-mafic beneath Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley, respectively. Results show that lower crust rocks beneath the Shillong Plateau and Assam Valley lies between mafic granulite and mafic garnet granulite.

  17. Wet Friction-Elements Boundary Friction Mechanism and Friction Coefficient Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yanzhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction mechanism for the boundary friction course of friction elements engagement was explicitly expressed. The boundary friction model was built up by the surface topography. The model contained the effect of boundary film, adhesion, plough and lubrication. Based on the model, a coefficient for weakening plough for the lubrication was proposed. The modified model could fit for the working condition of wet friction elements. The friction coefficient as a function curve of rotating speed could be finally obtained by the data k and s/sm. The method provides a well interpretation of friction condition and friction coefficient prediction and the agreement between theoretical and experimental friction coefficients is reasonably good.

  18. Energy Balance of Friction and Friction Coefficient in Energetical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Fedorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction energy model is proposed. In this model, generalized mechanism of transformation and dissipation of energy under friction the model of elastic-plastic deformation and fracture contact volumes is considered. Energy model of the process of plastic deformation and destruction of solid bodies is based on the concept of ergodynamic of deformable bodies. Equations of energy balance of friction within the structural and energetic interpretation of deformation are proposed. The energy interpretation of the coefficient of friction is showed. From this position the friction coefficient is the most informative characteristic of the process. Experimental friction curves have been generalized. As a result of the energy analysis of friction, the energy diagram of the structural evolution of the friction surfaces is suggested.

  19. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang;

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

  20. Major disruption of D'' beneath Alaska: D'' Beneath Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daoyuan [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth' s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui China; National Geophysics Observatory at Mengcheng, Anhui China; Helmberger, Don [Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Caltech, Pasadena California USA; Miller, Meghan S. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California USA; Jackson, Jennifer M. [Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Caltech, Pasadena California USA

    2016-05-01

    D'' represents one of the most dramatic thermal and compositional layers within our planet. In particular, global tomographic models display relatively fast patches at the base of the mantle along the circum-Pacific which are generally attributed to slab debris. Such distinct patches interact with the bridgmanite (Br) to post-bridgmanite (PBr) phase boundary to generate particularly strong heterogeneity at their edges. Most seismic observations for the D'' come from the lower mantle S wave triplication (Scd). Here we exploit the USArray waveform data to examine one of these sharp transitions in structure beneath Alaska. From west to east beneath Alaska, we observed three different characteristics in D'': (1) the western region with a strong Scd, requiring a sharp δVs = 2.5% increase; (2) the middle region with no clear Scd phases, indicating a lack of D'' (or thin Br-PBr layer); and (3) the eastern region with strong Scd phase, requiring a gradient increase in δVs. To explain such strong lateral variation in the velocity structure, chemical variations must be involved. We suggest that the western region represents relatively normal mantle. In contrast, the eastern region is influenced by a relic slab that has subducted down to the lowermost mantle. In the middle region, we infer an upwelling structure that disrupts the Br-PBr phase boundary. Such an interpretation is based upon a distinct pattern of travel time delays, waveform distortions, and amplitude patterns that reveal a circular-shaped anomaly about 5° across which can be modeled synthetically as a plume-like structure rising about 400 km high with a shear velocity reduction of ~5%, similar to geodynamic modeling predictions of upwellings.

  1. On the nature of the static friction, kinetic friction and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Albohr, O.; Mancosu, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the nature of the static and kinetic friction, and of (thermally activated) creep.We focus on boundary lubrication at high confining pressure (∼1GPa), as is typical for hard solids, where one or at most two layers of confined molecules separates the sliding surfaces. We...... may depend linearly on ln (v/v0), as usually observed experimentally, rather than non-linearly [−ln (v/v0)]2/3 as predicted by a simple theory of activated processes. We also discuss the role of elasticity at stop and start. We show that for "simple" rubber (at low start velocity), the static friction...

  2. Fundamental Mechanisms Affecting Friction Welding under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    z Professor Koichi Masubuchi Ocean Engineering Dept., Thesis Supervisor ~Certified by - CProfessor Ltmest Rabinowicz Mechanical Engineering Dept...welding and oxide layer affects. 60 REFERENCES 1. Rabinowicz ,E., "Friction and Wear of Materials", Wiley, 1964 2. SmithM., "Effect of Vacuum on the...Professor ELnest Rabinowicz Mechanical Engineering Dept., Thesis Reader Accepted by- 14,~/G 1, ~ Z a- ’A. Douglas Carn-chtir,-hirman Departmental Graduate

  3. The elusive lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, David W.; Darbyshire, Fiona; Evans, Rob L.; Grütter, Herman; Jones, Alan G.; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2009-04-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is a first-order structural discontinuity that accommodates differential motion between tectonic plates and the underlying mantle. Although it is the most extensive type of plate boundary on the planet, its definitive detection, especially beneath cratons, is proving elusive. Different proxies are used to demarcate the LAB, depending on the nature of the measurement. Here we compare interpretations of the LAB beneath three well studied Archean regions: the Kaapvaal craton, the Slave craton and the Fennoscandian Shield. For each location, xenolith and xenocryst thermobarometry define a mantle stratigraphy, as well as a steady-state conductive geotherm that constrains the minimum pressure (depth) of the base of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) to 45-65 kbar (170-245 km). High-temperature xenoliths from northern Lesotho record Fe-, Ca- and Ti-enrichment, grain-size reduction and globally unique supra-adiabatic temperatures at 53-61 kbar (200-230 km depth), all interpreted to result from efficient advection of asthenosphere-derived melts and heat into the TBL. Using a recently compiled suite of olivine creep parameters together with published geotherms, we show that beneath cratons the probable deformation mechanism near the LAB is dislocation creep, consistent with widely observed seismic and electrical anisotropy fabrics. If the LAB is dry, it is probably diffuse (> 50 km thick) and high levels of shear stress (> 2 MPa or > 20 bar) are required to accommodate plate motion. If the LAB is wet, lower shear stress is required to accommodate plate motion and the boundary may be relatively sharp (≤ 20 km thick). The seismic LAB beneath cratons is typically regarded as the base of a high-velocity mantle lid, although some workers infer its location based on a distinct change in seismic anisotropy. Surface-wave inversion studies provide depth-constrained velocity models, but are relatively insensitive to the sharpness of the LAB

  4. Applications of Friction Stir Processing during Engraving of Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kočović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing has extensive application in many technological operations. Application area of friction stir processing can be extended to the processing of non-metallic materials, such as wood. The paper examines the friction stir processing contact between a specially designed hard and temperature-resistant rotating tool and workpiece which is made of wood. Interval of speed slip and temperature level under which the combustion occurs and carbonization layer of soft material was determined. The results of the research can be applied in technological process of wood engraving operations which may have significant technological and aesthetic effects.

  5. Electronic contribution to friction on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, UC Berkeley; Dept. of Materials Sciences and Engineering, UC Berkeley; Salmeron, Miquel; Qi, Yabing; Park, J.Y.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-15

    The electronic contribution to friction at semiconductor surfaces was investigated by using a Pt-coated tip with 50nm radius in an atomic force microscope sliding against an n-type GaAs(100) substrate. The GaAs surface was covered by an approximately 1 nm thick oxide layer. Charge accumulation or depletion was induced by the application of forward or reverse bias voltages. We observed a substantial increase in friction force in accumulation (forward bias) with respect to depletion (reverse bias). We propose a model based on the force exerted by the trapped charges that quantitatively explains the experimental observations of excess friction.

  6. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  7. [Guided bone regeneration beneath titanium foils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Katharina; Schopper, Christian; Ewers, Rolf; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and histological bony healing process beneath titanium foils used for guided tissue regeneration as well as of the Frios Algipore graft which was applied with autologous bone. 66 sinus floor elevations were carried out and examined over a period of three years and eight months. A success rate of 64% was recorded with foil incorporation. Complications occurred in form of primary and secondary disturbances in the healing process caused by exposure of the foil. 12 of the 66 foils had to be removed early. In all but one case, the augmented bone material was macroscopically well integrated despite the loss of the foil. Primary stability of the inserted dental implants into the ossified augmented site after operations of the sinus maxillaris was reached in all cases with absence of post-operative complications, and in 94% when there was postoperative exposure of the membrane. Histologically, a thin layer of connective tissue poor in cells but rich in collagen fibers appeared underneath the titanium foil. This was followed by newly-formed bony tissue transforming into osseous lamella parallel to the membrane underneath the new periost. In 65 out of 66 cases a sufficient amount of stable bone was built up locally suggesting good bio-compatibility and barrier function. Further, the foil also provided mechanical rest and supporting function for the space underneath. However, the occurrence of healing complications in 36% of the cases showed a need to improve on the titanium foils.

  8. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  9. Gravitomagnetic dynamical friction

    CERN Document Server

    Cashen, Benjamin; Kesden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A supermassive black hole moving through a field of stars will gravitationally scatter the stars, inducing a backreaction force on the black hole known as dynamical friction. In Newtonian gravity, the axisymmetry of the system about the black hole's velocity $\\mathbf{v}$ implies that the dynamical friction must be anti-parallel to $\\mathbf{v}$. However, in general relativity the black hole's spin $\\mathbf{S}$ need not be parallel to $\\mathbf{v}$, breaking the axisymmetry of the system and generating a new component of dynamical friction similar to the Lorentz force $\\mathbf{F} = q\\mathbf{v} \\times \\mathbf{B}$ experienced by a particle with charge $q$ moving in a magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}$. We call this new force gravitomagnetic dynamical friction and calculate its magnitude for a spinning black hole moving through a field of stars with Maxwellian velocity dispersion $\\sigma$, assuming that both $v$ and $\\sigma$ are much less than the speed of light $c$. We use post-Newtonian equations of motion accurate to $...

  10. Static and kinetic friction characteristics of nanowire on different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joon [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Gia Hau; Ky, Dinh Le Cao; Tran, Da Khoa [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ki-Joon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Direct measurement of kinetic friction of oxidized Si NW using AFM. • Determination of static friction of oxidized Si NW from most bent state. • Friction characteristics of oxidized Si NW on SiO{sub 2} and graphene. • Estimation of shear stress between cylindrical NW and flat substrate. • No significant dependence of shear stress on NW radius. - Abstract: Friction characteristics of nanowires (NWs), which may be used as building blocks for nano-devices, are crucial, especially for cases where contact sliding occurs during the device operation. In this work, the static and kinetic friction characteristics of oxidized Si NWs deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and chemical vapor-deposited single layer graphene were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Kinetic friction between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was directly measured by the AFM. Static friction was also obtained from the most bent state of the NWs using the individually determined elastic moduli of the NWs from kinetic friction experiments based on elastic beam theory. Furthermore, the shear stress between the oxidized Si NWs and the substrates was estimated based on adhesive contact theory. It was found that both static and kinetic friction increased as the radius of the NWs increased. The friction of the oxidized Si NWs on the graphene substrate was found to be smaller than that on the SiO{sub 2} substrate, which suggests that chemical vapor-deposited graphene can be used as a lubricant or as a protective layer in nano-devices to reduce friction. The shear stress estimated from the kinetic friction data between the oxidized Si NWs and the SiO{sub 2} substrate ranged from 7.5 to 12.3 MPa while that between the oxidized Si NWs and the graphene substrate ranged from 4.7 to 7.0 MPa. The result also indicated that the dependence of shear stress on the radius of the NWs was not significant. These findings may provide insight into the friction characteristics

  11. Lithospheric radial anisotropy beneath the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Risheng; Ko, Justin Yen-Ting; Wei, Shengji; Zhan, Zhongwen; Helmberger, Don

    2017-05-01

    The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), where a layer of low viscosity asthenosphere decouples with the upper plate motion, plays an essential role in plate tectonics. Most dynamic modeling assumes that the shear velocity can be used as a surrogate for viscosity which provides key information about mantle flow. Here, we derive a shear velocity model for the LAB structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico allowing a detailed comparison with that beneath the Pacific (PAC) and Atlantic (ATL). Our study takes advantage of the USArray data from the March 25th, 2013 Guatemala earthquake at a depth of 200 km. Such data is unique in that we can observe a direct upward traveling lid arrival which remains the first arrival ahead of the triplications beyond 18°. This extra feature in conjunction with upper-mantle triplication sampling allows good depth control of the LAB and a new upper-mantle seismic model ATM, a modification of ATL, to be developed. ATM has a prominent low velocity zone similar to the structure beneath the western Atlantic. The model contains strong radial anisotropy in the lid where VSH is about 6% faster than VSV. This anisotropic feature ends at the bottom of the lithosphere at about the depth of 175 km in contrast to the Pacific where it extends to over 300 km. Another important feature of ATM is the weaker velocity gradient from the depth of 175 to 350 km compared to Pacific models, which may be related to differences in mantle flow.

  12. Friction-induced skin injuries-are they pressure ulcers? An updated NPUAP white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, David; Antokal, Steven; Herbe, Laura; Logan, Susan; Maguire, Jeanine; Van Ranst, Jennifer; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Friction injuries are often misdiagnosed as pressure ulcers. The reason for the misdiagnosis may be a misinterpretation of classic pressure ulcer literature that reported friction increased the susceptibility of the skin to pressure damage. This analysis assesses the classic literature that led to the inclusion of friction as a causative factor in the development of pressure ulcers in light of more recent research on the effects of shear. The analysis in this article suggests that friction can contribute to pressure ulcers by creating shear strain in deeper tissues, but friction does not appear to contribute to pressure ulcers in the superficial layers of the skin. Injuries to the superficial layers of the skin caused by friction are not pressure ulcers and should not be classified or treated as such.

  13. Quantum tunneling with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.

    2017-05-01

    Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.

  14. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  15. Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear of proteins on polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Utter, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Protein layers are routinely deployed on biomaterials and biological micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS/NEMS) as a functional layer allowing for specific molecular recognition, binding properties or to facilitate biocompatibility. In addition, uncoated biomaterial surfaces will have uncontrolled protein layers adsorbing to the surface within seconds of implantation, so a pre-defined protein layer will improve the host response. Implanted biomaterials also experience micromotion over time which may degrade any surface protein layers. Degradation of these protein layers may lead to system failure or an unwanted immune response. Therefore, it is important to characterize the interfacial properties of proteins on biomaterial surfaces. In this study, the nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear properties of proteins adsorbed to a spin coated polystyrene surface were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in deionized (DI) water and phosphate buffered saline. Adhesion, friction and wear have been measured for bovine serum albumin (BSA), collagen, fibronectin and streptavidin (STA) in DI water and PBS as a function of protein concentration. These proteins were chosen due to their importance and widespread application in the biotechnology field. Adhesion and friction were also measured for BSA and STA at two different temperatures and different pH values to simulate a biological environment. Based on this study, adhesion, friction and wear mechanisms of the different proteins are discussed.

  16. Mars - Wind friction speeds for particle movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Leach, R.; White, B.; Iversen, J.; Pollack, J.

    1976-01-01

    Wind friction threshold speeds for particle movement were determined in a low pressure boundary layer wind tunnel at an atmospheric pressure of 5.3 mb. The results imply that for comparable pressures on Mars, the minimum wind friction threshold speed is about 2.5 m/sec, which would require free-stream winds of 50 to 135 m/sec, depending on the character of the surface and the atmospheric conditions. The corresponding wind speeds at the height of the Viking lander meteorology instrument would be about a factor of two less than the free-stream wind speed. The particle size most easily moved by winds on Mars is about 160 microns; particles both larger and smaller than this (at least down to about 5 microns) require stronger winds to initiate movement.

  17. Ultrahigh interlayer friction in multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niguès, A; Siria, A; Vincent, P; Poncharal, P; Bocquet, L

    2014-07-01

    Friction at the nanoscale has revealed a wealth of behaviours that depart strongly from the long-standing macroscopic laws of Amontons-Coulomb. Here, by using a 'Christmas cracker'-type of system in which a multiwalled nanotube is torn apart between a quartz-tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope (TF-AFM) and a nanomanipulator, we compare the mechanical response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) during the fracture and telescopic sliding of the layers. We found that the interlayer friction for insulating BNNTs results in ultrahigh viscous-like dissipation that is proportional to the contact area, whereas for the semimetallic CNTs the sliding friction vanishes within experimental uncertainty. We ascribe this difference to the ionic character of the BN, which allows charge localization. The interlayer viscous friction of BNNTs suggests that BNNT membranes could serve as extremely efficient shock-absorbing surfaces.

  18. Skin friction on a flat perforated acoustic liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The report concerns the measurement of friction coefficients of a typical perforated acoustic liner installed in the side of a wind tunnel. The results are compared with measured friction coefficients of a smooth hard wall for the same mean flow velocities in a wind tunnel. At a velocity of 61 m/sec, an increase in the local skin coefficient of only a few percent was observed, but at the highest velocity of 213 m/sec an increase of about 20% was obtained. This velocity is a realistic velocity for turbo-machinery components utilizing such liners, so a loss in performance is to be expected. Some tests were also performed to see if changes in the mean boundary layer induced by imposed noise would result in friction increase, but only at low velocity levels was such an increase in friction noted.

  19. High Speed Friction Microscopy and Nanoscale Friction Coefficient Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, James L.; Lee, Sungjun; Huey, Bryan D; Andersen, Andreas Sø; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2014-01-01

    As mechanical devices in the nano/micro length scale are increasingly employed, it is crucial to understand nanoscale friction and wear especially at technically relevant sliding velocities. Accordingly, a novel technique has been developed for Friction Coefficient Mapping (FCM), leveraging recent advances in high speed AFM. The technique efficiently acquires friction versus force curves based on a sequence of images at a single location, each with incrementally lower loads. As a result, true...

  20. Tribological behavior of a friction couple functioning with selective mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Filip

    2017-02-01

    Experimental researches on different lubricated friction couples, have confirmed that it is useful to investigate thermodynamic processes which are unstable in lubricant and on the friction couples surfaces in the first stage of the friction process. This presupposes that, in operating conditions, physical-chemical processes which are favourable to friction, such as: polymerization, formation of colloids, formation of other active substances at the contact surfaces and of other compounds with low resistance to shear take place. Friction in such conditions takes place with selective mass transfer, and it is used there where the friction of the mixed and adherence layers is not safe enough, or the durability of the friction couples is not assured. The selective mass transfer allows the transfer of some elements of the materials in contact from one surface to the other, covering them with a thin, superficial layer, with superior properties at minimal friction and wear. The aim of this paper is to analyse the physical-chemical factors and the proper processes for achieving the selective mass transfer for the couple steel/bronze, which in optimal conditions, forms a thin layer of copper on the contact surfaces areas. Also, it presents some studies and researches concerning the tribological behaviour of the surfaces of a friction couple with linear contact (roll/roll) which operates with selective mass transfer, tested on Amsler tribometer.

  1. Tribological behavior of a friction couple functioning with selective mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Experimental researches on different lubricated friction couples, have confirmed that it is useful to investigate thermodynamic processes which are unstable in lubricant and on the friction couples surfaces in the first stage of the friction process. This presupposes that, in operating conditions, physical-chemical processes which are favourable to friction, such as: polymerization, formation of colloids, formation of other active substances at the contact surfaces and of other compounds with low resistance to shear take place. Friction in such conditions takes place with selective mass transfer, and it is used there where the friction of the mixed and adherence layers is not safe enough, or the durability of the friction couples is not assured. The selective mass transfer allows the transfer of some elements of the materials in contact from one surface to the other, covering them with a thin, superficial layer, with superior properties at minimal friction and wear. The aim of this paper is to analyse the physical-chemical factors and the proper processes for achieving the selective mass transfer for the couple steel/bronze, which in optimal conditions, forms a thin layer of copper on the contact surfaces areas. Also, it presents some studies and researches concerning the tribological behaviour of the surfaces of a friction couple with linear contact (roll/roll) which operates with selective mass transfer, tested on Amsler tribometer.

  2. Experimental Relationships between Moduli For Soil Layers Beneath Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    Young’s Modulus with Overburden and Void Ratio for a Granular Soil ........... ...... .. ... 45 24 Measured Versus Calculated Deflections for Sand...values, to evaluate the validity of the material characteri,ations. By making comparisions between the "ideal" granular subgrade section and the...components C are dependent on the current total level of stress and strain. The variable modulus models represent materials of the so-called " hypoelastic

  3. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  4. Solid friction between soft filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

  5. Micromechanical study of macroscopic friction and dissipation in idealised granular materials: the effect of interparticle friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.; Rothenburg, L.; Gutkowski, Witold; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2004-01-01

    Using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations with varying interparticle friction coefficient, the relation between interparticle friction coefficient and macroscopic continuum friction and dissipation is investigated. As expected, macroscopic friction and dilatancy increase with interparticle fri

  6. Analysis of effect of different construction methods of piles on the end effect on skin friction of piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongbo; CHEN Zhuchang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of end effect on skin friction of displacement-pile (driven pile),the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is studied.The end effect on skin friction between driven pile and bored pile is different and the end effect on skin friction of bored pile is reduce of skin friction in the soil layer adjacent to the pile end.The degradation degree of skin friction is deduced with the increase of the distance from pile end.The concept of additional mud cake formed by the effect of cushion at the bottom of borehole during pouring concrete is introduced to explain the mechanism of end effect on skin friction of the bored pile.The test results of post-grouting piles indicate that the post-grouting technique is an effective way to improve the end effect on skin friction of bored pile.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer control through spanwise wall oscillation using Kagome lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Santer, Matthew; Morrison, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that a reduction in skin-friction and turbulence intensity can be achieved by applying in-plane spanwise forcing to a surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer. It has also been shown in DNS (M. Quadrio, P. Ricco, & C. Viotti; J. Fluid Mech; 627, 161, 2009), that this phenomenon is significantly enhanced when the forcing takes the form of a streamwise travelling wave of spanwise perturbation. In the present work, this type of forcing is generated by an active surface comprising a compliant structure, based on a Kagome lattice geometry, supporting a membrane skin. The structural design ensures negligible wall normal displacement while facilitating large in-plane velocities. The surface is driven pneumatically, achieving displacements of 3 mm approximately, at frequencies in excess of 70 Hz for a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ~ 1000 . As the influence of this forcing on boundary layer is highly dependent on the wavenumber and frequency of the travelling wave, a flat surface was designed and optimised to allow these forcing parameters to be varied, without reconfiguration of the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the fluid and surface motion are presented, and notable skin-friction drag reduction is demonstrated. Airbus support agreement IW202838 is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  9. Friction or Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundahl, Mikela

    2014-01-01

    . The anthropologist Anna Tsing has developed the concept-metaphor friction as a way to discuss the energy created when various actors narrate “the same” event(s) in different ways, and see the other participants’ accounts as fantasies or even fabrications. I will use my position as researcher and my relations...... is Stone Town in Zanzibar and the de-velopment and dissolution going on under the shadow of the UNESCO World Heritage flag; a growing tourism; a global and local increase in islamisation; and the political tension within the Tanzanian union. My main focus is narratives of the identity of Zanzibar since...

  10. Improved quality of beneath-canopy grass in South African savannas: Local and seasonal variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Looringh van Beeck, F.A.; Ludwig, F.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: Do large trees improve the nutrient content and the structure of the grass layer in savannas? Does the magnitude of this improvement differ with locality ( soil nutrients) and season ( water availability)? Are grass structure and species composition beneath tree canopies influenced by

  11. Friction analysis of kinetic schemes : the friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free ener

  12. FRICTION ANALYSIS OF KINETIC SCHEMES - THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOLKEMA, JS

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free ener

  13. Friction analysis of kinetic schemes : the friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free ener

  14. Contribution of velocity-vorticity correlations to the frictional drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between the frictional drag and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The frictional drag encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag.

  15. Slow frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  16. Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  17. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  18. Friction and wear properties of double glow plasma carburized layer of Ti2AlNb base O phase alloy%Ti2AlNb基O相合金双辉等离子渗碳层摩擦磨损性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶晶; 缪强; 梁文萍; 李龙; 任蓓蕾; 朱丹阳

    2013-01-01

    Double glow plasma carburized layer was carried out on the surface of Ti2AlNb base O phase alloy to improve its wear-resistance.The microstructure,element distribution,phases,hardness and wear resistance of the carburized layer were analyzed by SEM,EDS,XRD,hardness tester and friction wear testing machine.The results show that a carburized layer is formed about 30 μn,and surface hardness of the carburized layer is 1053-V0.1 and it gradually decreases along the depth.The general friction coefficient of the carhnrized layer and matrix is 0.4 and 0.75,respectively.The specific wear rate of carburized layer is 1/17 of the matrix.The wear resistance of Ti2AlNb base O phase alloy is improved significantly by plasma carburizing.%利用双层辉光等离子表面合金化技术在Ti2AlNb基O相合金表面进行渗碳处理,采用SEM、EDS、XRD、硬度仪及摩擦磨损试验机对其组织成分、元素分布、相组成、硬度及耐磨性能进行研究.结果表明,在Ti2AlNb基O相合金表面形成了约30μm的渗碳层,渗碳层表面硬度为1053 HV0.1,且硬度随渗层厚度梯度递减.渗碳层和基体平均摩擦因数分别为0.4和0.75,渗碳层比磨损率为基体比磨损率的1/17.双层辉光等离子渗碳技术明显提高了Ti2A1Nb基O相合金的耐磨性.

  19. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    -state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

  20. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  1. Elastic model of dry friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E., E-mail: dekl2@cam.ac.uk [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

  2. Estimation of friction parameters in gravity currents by data assimilation in a model hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wirth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the last in a series of three investigating the friction laws and their parametrisation in idealised gravity currents in a rotating frame. Results on the dynamics of a gravity current (Wirth, 2009 and on the estimation of friction laws by data assimilation (Wirth and Verron, 2008 are combined to estimate the friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws in non-hydrostatic numerical simulations of gravity current dynamics, using data assimilation and a reduced gravity shallow water model.

    I demonstrate, that friction parameters and laws in gravity currents can be estimated using data assimilation. The results clearly show that friction follows a linear Rayleigh law for small Reynolds numbers and the estimated value agrees well with the analytical value obtained for non-accelerating Ekman layers. A significant and sudden departure towards a quadratic drag law at an Ekman layer based Reynolds number of around 800 is shown, in agreement with classical laboratory experiments. The drag coefficient obtained compare well to friction values over smooth surfaces. I show that data assimilation can be used to determine friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws and that it is a powerful tool in systematically connection models within a model hierarchy.

  3. Estimation of friction parameters in gravity currents by data assimilation in a model hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wirth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the last in a series of three investigating the friction laws and their parametrisation in idealised gravity currents in a rotating frame. Results on the dynamics of a gravity current (Wirth, 2009 and on the estimation of friction laws by data assimilation (Wirth and Verron, 2008 are combined to estimate the friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws in non-hydrostatic numerical simulations of gravity current dynamics, using data assimilation and a reduced gravity shallow water model.

    I demonstrate, that friction parameters and laws in gravity currents can be estimated using data assimilation. The results clearly show that friction follows a linear Rayleigh law for small Reynolds numbers and the estimated value agrees well with the analytical value obtained for non-accelerating Ekman layers. A significant and sudden departure towards a quadratic drag law at an Ekman layer based Reynolds number of around 800 is shown, in agreement with classical laboratory experiments. The drag coefficient obtained compares well to friction values over smooth surfaces. I show that data assimilation can be used to determine friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws and that it is a powerful tool in systematically connecting models within a model hierarchy.

  4. Friction in surface micromachined microengines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.

  5. Study of adhesion and friction properties on a nanoparticle gradient surface: transition from JKR to DMT contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Nalam, Prathima C; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    We have previously investigated the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness by employing a roughness gradient. In this study, we correlate the obtained adhesion forces on nanometer-scale rough surfaces to their frictional properties. A roughness gradient with varying silica particle (diameter ≈ 12 nm) density was prepared, and adhesion and frictional forces were measured across the gradient surface in perfluorodecalin by means of atomic force microscopy with a polyethylene colloidal probe. Similarly to the pull-off measurements, the frictional forces initially showed a reduction with decreasing particle density and later an abrupt increase as the colloidal sphere began to touch the flat substrate beneath, at very low particle densities. The friction-load relation is found to depend on the real contact area (A(real)) between the colloid probe and the underlying particles. At high particle density, the colloidal sphere undergoes large deformations over several nanoparticles, and the contact adhesion (JKR type) dominates the frictional response. However, at low particle density (before the colloidal probe is in contact with the underlying surface), the colloidal sphere is suspended by a few particles only, resulting in local deformations of the colloid sphere, with the frictional response to the applied load being dominated by long-range, noncontact (DMT-type) interactions with the substrate beneath.

  6. The effect of elastic modulus and friction coefficient on rubber tube sealing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhimiao; Xu, Siyuan; Ren, Fushen; Liu, Jubao

    2015-03-01

    The packer is the key element in separating geosphere layers of water injection, water plugging and fracturing operations in the oilfield. The sealing ability of the packer is depending on the contact pressure between rubber tube and the casing. The circumferential strain of casing wall was tested by the strain gauge to get the contact pressure distribution along axial direction of the tube. The friction force between the casing and the rubber tube was taken by the pressure sensor in compression process. Under the 20,60 and 100 degrees Celsius conditions, the friction forces and the contact pressure distribution were taken in work condition of single rubber tube, double rubber tubes and combination rubber tubes after oil immersion .The result shows that elastic modulus of rubber tube has little effect on the friction force and contact pressure. With elastic modulus decreasing, the friction forces has gradually decreasing trend; The friction coefficient has much impact on friction force: the friction forces under the condition of dry friction and wet friction are respectively equivalent to 48.27% and 5.38% axial compression forces. At wet friction condition, the contact pressure distribution is more uniform and the sealing effect is better.

  7. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Polymeric composite and lubricants for the wearresistant friction units of railway mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp MYASNIKOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For long functioning of the friction unit it is necessary to create the steady layers between friction surfaces, which can lower considerably the friction force, and thereof also the wear reducing. Within the metal-polymer tribocoupling the friction transfer film shall function as a separating layer. The frame and kinetics of filming of friction carry at metal- binary material friction is studied, that creates the base for mining new high-performance self-lubricating polymer compositions.When the unit with a lubricant functions, a role of the uncoupling layer is being fulfilled by the lubricating film, which shall possess the given properties, that is to contain in its composition the nanoclaster additives, capable to function in a tribocoupling for a long time, constantly reappearing in a film due to the chemical reactions at friction. It is shown that introduction of nanomodified additives on the basis of phosphorus molybdate of metals into widely used lubricant compositions allows to create steady lubricant films between friction surfaces. The possible mechanism of action of inorganic phosphoprous-containing additives of the polymeric nature is discussed.

  9. Student figures in friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gritt B.

      This thesis analyses how ‘the student', as a contested figure, is negotiated and enacted in a period of extensive university reform in Denmark. Through a combination of historical and anthropological research, it focuses on students' changing participation in the shaping of Danish society......, students' room for participation in their own learning, influenced by demands for efficiency, flexibility and student-centred education. The thesis recasts the anthropological endeavour as one of ‘figuration work'. That is, ‘frictional events' are explored as moments when conflicting figures......, the university and their own education. Detailed studies explore, first, politically active students' various attempts to influence national educational policies; second, student participation in the development of the university, especially regarding debates over consumer conduct versus co-ownership; and third...

  10. Giant Frictional Drag in Double Bilayer Graphene Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Xue, Jiamin; Dillen, David C.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    We study the frictional drag between carriers in two bilayer graphene flakes separated by a 2-5 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride dielectric. At temperatures (T ) lower than ˜10 K , we observe a large anomalous negative drag emerging predominantly near the drag layer charge neutrality. The anomalous drag resistivity increases dramatically with reducing T , and becomes comparable to the layer resistivity at the lowest T =1.5 K . At low T the drag resistivity exhibits a breakdown of layer reciprocity. A comparison of the drag resistivity and the drag layer Peltier coefficient suggests a thermoelectric origin of this anomalous drag.

  11. Lithospheric Architecture Beneath Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches 􏰂350 km thick but is thinner (􏰂200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  12. Friction surface cladding: An exploratory study of a new solid state cladding process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.J.; Bor, T.C.; Stelt, van der A.A.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Kooijman, A.M.; Mol, J.M.C.; Akkerman, R.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Friction surface cladding is a newly developed solid state cladding process to manufacture thin metallic layers on a substrate. In this study the influence of process conditions on the clad layer appearance and the mechanical properties of both the clad layer and the substrate were investigated. Thi

  13. Imaging of subducted lithosphere beneath South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Berrocal, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomographic images are produced for the deep structure of the Andean subduction zone beneath western South America. The data used in the imaging are the delay times of P, pP and pwP phases from relocated teleseismic earthquakes in the region. Regionally, structural features larger than about 150 km

  14. A skin friction law for compressible turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwell, Richard W.; Wahls, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An algebraic skin friction law is derived for adiabatic, compressible, equilibrium, turbulent boundary layer flow. An outer solution in terms of the Clauser defect stream function is matched to an inner empirical expression composed of compressible laws of the wall and wake. The modified Crocco temperature-velocity relationship and the Clauser eddy viscousity model are used in the outer solution. The skin friction law pertains for all pressure gradients in the incompressible through supersonic range and for small pressure gradients in the hypersonic range. Excellent comparisons with experiment are obtained in the appropriate parameter ranges. The application to numerical computation is discussed.

  15. Tomography reveals buoyant asthenosphere accumulating beneath the Juan de Fuca plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, William B.; Allen, Richard M.; Richards, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    The boundary between Earth’s strong lithospheric plates and the underlying mantle asthenosphere corresponds to an abrupt seismic velocity decrease and electrical conductivity increase with depth, perhaps indicating a thin, weak layer that may strongly influence plate motion dynamics. The behavior of such a layer at subduction zones remains unexplored. We present a tomographic model, derived from on- and offshore seismic experiments, that reveals a strong low-velocity feature beneath the subducting Juan de Fuca slab along the entire Cascadia subduction zone. Through simple geodynamic arguments, we propose that this low-velocity feature is the accumulation of material from a thin, weak, buoyant layer present beneath the entire oceanic lithosphere. The presence of this feature could have major implications for our understanding of the asthenosphere and subduction zone dynamics.

  16. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  17. Frictional properties of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N; Persson, Bo N J

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force...

  18. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  19. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Pickett, Galen T

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  20. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) Mushrooms Adsorbed at Silica-Ionic Liquid Interfaces Reduce Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, James; Webber, Grant B; Atkin, Rob

    2016-03-01

    The adsorbed layer conformation and lubricity of 35, 100, and 300 kDa PEO adsorbed to ionic liquid (IL)-silica interfaces from 0.01 wt % solutions have been investigated using colloid probe atomic force microscopy. The ILs used were propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]), which are protic and aprotic ILs, respectively. Normal force curves reveal steric interactions consistent with adsorbed polymer layers which are best fit using the mushroom model. Friction measurements show that the adsorbed polymer layer markedly reduces friction compared to surfaces sliding in the pure ILs and that lubricity increases with polymer length. When polymer is adsorbed to the sliding surfaces, friction is controlled by the creation and disruption of intermolecular interactions between entangled chains and the dragging of polymer chains through the interpenetration region. These experiments show that added polymer can reduce friction while maintaining the useful properties of ILs as lubricants.

  2. The effect of interlayers on dissimilar friction weld properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Zepeda, Cuauhtemoc

    The influence of silver interlayers on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminium alloy/stainless steel friction welds are investigated. An elastic contact model is proposed that explains the conditions at and close to the contact surface, which produce Al2O3 particle fracture in dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds. Intermixed (IM) and particle dispersed (PD) regions are formed in Ag-containing dissimilar friction welds. These regions form very early in the joining operation and both contain Ag3Al. Therefore, an interlayer (Ag) introduced with the specific aim of preventing FexAly compound formation in MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds promotes the formation of another intermetallic phase at the bondline. Since IM and PD regions are progressively removed as the friction welding operation proceeds thinner intermetallic layers are produced when long friction welding times are applied. This type of behavior is quite different from that observed in silver-free dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel welds. Nanoparticles of silver are formed in dissimilar MMC/Ag/AISI 304 stainless steel welds produced using low friction pressures. Nanoparticle formation in dissimilar friction welds has never been previously observed or investigated. The introduction of silver interlayers decreases heat generation during welding, produces narrower softened zone regions and improved notch tensile strength properties. All research to-date has assumed per se that joint mechanical properties wholly depend on the mechanical properties and width of the intermetallic layer formed at the dissimilar joint interface. However, it is shown in this thesis that the mechanical properties of MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel joints are determined by the combined effects of intermetallic formation at the bondline and softened zone formation in MMC base material immediately adjacent to the joint interface. A methodology for calculating the notch tensile

  3. Suitable Friction Sliding Materials for Base Isolation of Masonry Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhikesh P. Nanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study of friction base isolation system for seismic protection has been performed. Four different sliding interfaces, namely, green marble/High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE, green marble/green marble, green marble/geosynthetic, and green marble/ rubber layers have been studied through experimental and analytical investigations. The experimental investigations show that the coefficient of friction values of these interfaces lies in the desirable range for seismic protection, i.e., 0.05 to 0.15. The analytical investigation reveals that most of these sliding interfaces are effective in reducing spectral accelerations up to 50% and the sliding displacement is restricted within plinth projection of 75 mm (3 in. Green marble and geosynthetic are found to be better alternatives for use in friction isolation system with equal effectiveness of energy dissipation and limiting the earthquake energy transmission to super structure during strong earthquake leading to a low cost, durable solution for earthquake protection of masonry buildings.

  4. Kinetic Friction Coefficient of Ice,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    For the hardest ice tested (xi = 0.33 described by Rabinowicz (1965), where To is inter- mm, H, = 1525 kPa), the calculated values of a preted as...material with a low elastic pressures. The frictional force was measured at modulus ( Rabinowicz 1965). It has been observed the application point of...tion 10, pp. 8-16. Barnes, P. and D. Tabor (1966) Plastic flow and Rabinowicz , E. (1965) Friction and Wear of Mate- pressure melting in the deformation

  5. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A

    1995-01-01

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  6. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  7. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  8. Engagement characteristics of a friction pad for commercial vehicle clutch system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aravind Vadiraj

    2010-10-01

    A commercially available sintered friction pad is coupled with a standard gray cast iron pressure plate (FG 250 grade) and tested in a clutch dynamometer for understanding the engagement characteristics and thereby predicting the useful life in number of engagements. Results show that sintered friction pad has a very stable range of friction coefficient (0·43–0·61) even after 5000 engagement cycles. The torque transmitted ranges from 350 to 400 N during one engagement cycle. The energy dissipation and mass loss of friction materials linearly increases with increasing sliding distance. A correlation is derived based on energy dissipation and mass loss in terms of total number of useful or available engagements before replacement or repair of friction pad or clutch pressure plate. Both the pressure plate and clutch disc with the sintered friction pad was tested in a 49 tons load capacity vehicle on a test track. Both sintered friction pad and pressure plate showed scoring marks along the sliding direction. Friction pad showed dense cracks along the top edge. Microscopic features of worn sintered friction pads show silica particle providing the required wear resistance for the pads. Pressure plate showed transfer layer of oxides and carbon with less scoring marks due to short duration vehicle level trials.

  9. Molecular dynamics investigation of the effect of copper nanoparticle on the solid contact between friction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengzhi; Bai, Minli; Lv, Jizu; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaojie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of copper (Cu) nanoparticles on the solid contact between friction surfaces by applying a molecular dynamics method to reveal the mechanisms responsible for the favorable friction properties of nanoparticles. Two models were built, which were named model A (without Cu) and model B (with Cu), respectively. The differences in the mechanical properties between these two models were compared. The simulation results demonstrated that the improvement in friction properties by Cu nanoparticles was more obvious at low velocity than at high velocity. At low velocity, a Cu nano-film was formed on the friction surface, which accommodated the velocity gradient and plastic deformation. Due to the good lubrication effect of the nano-film, the plastic deformation, defect structures and friction force of model B were improved compared with model A. Under high velocity conditions, a transfer layer appeared adjacent to the interface in both models. Because of this, the friction forces of the two models decreased with increased velocity. The fluid mechanics theory was used to explain why the friction force in model B was lower than that in model A at high velocity. The effect of the load on friction properties was also analyzed and the results showed that the mechanisms of anti-wear and friction reduction by Cu nanoparticles under a low load were the same as those under a high load.

  10. Bottom friction optimization for a better barotropic tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Martial; Lathuilière, Cyril; Son Hoang, Hong; Baraille, Rémy

    2015-04-01

    At a regional scale, barotropic tides are the dominant source of variability of currents and water heights. A precise representation of these processes is essential because of their great impacts on human activities (submersion risks, marine renewable energies, ...). Identified sources of error for tide modelling at a regional scale are the followings: bathymetry, boundary forcing and dissipation due to bottom friction. Nevertheless, bathymetric databases are nowadays known with a good accuracy, especially over shelves, and global tide models performances are better than ever. The most promising improvement is thus the bottom friction representation. The method used to estimate bottom friction is the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) which consists in the approximation of the gradient based on a fixed number of cost function measurements, regardless of the dimension of the vector to be estimated. Indeed, each cost function measurement is obtained by randomly perturbing every component of the parameter vector. An important feature of SPSA is its relative ease of implementation. In particular, the method does not require the development of tangent linear and adjoint version of the circulation model. Experiments are carried out to estimate bottom friction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) in barotropic mode (one isopycnal layer). The study area is the Northeastern Atlantic margin which is characterized by strong currents and an intense dissipation. Bottom friction is parameterized with a quadratic term and friction coefficient is computed with the water height and the bottom roughness. The latter parameter is the one to be estimated. Assimilated data are the available tide gauge observations. First, the bottom roughness is estimated taking into account bottom sediment natures and bathymetric ranges. Then, it is estimated with geographical degrees of freedom. Finally, the impact of the estimation of a mixed quadratic/linear friction

  11. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Li; Ken Mao

    2013-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented us...

  12. Study on S wave velocity structure beneath part stations in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学民; 束沛镒; 刁桂苓

    2003-01-01

    Based on S wave records of deep teleseisms on Digital Seismic Network of Shanxi Province, shear wave velocity structures beneath 6 stations were obtained by means of S wave waveform fitting. The result shows that the crust is thick in the studied region, reaching 40 km in thickness under 4 stations. The crust all alternatives high velocity layer with low velocity one. There appear varied velocity structures for different stations, and the stations around the same tectonic region exhibit similar structure characteristics. Combined with dominant depth distribution of many small-moderate earthquakes, the correlation between seismogenic layers and crustal structures of high and low velocity layers has been discussed.

  13. Upper Mantle Flow Beneath the Subducted Nazca Plate: Slab Contortions and Flattening (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The form of asthenospheric flow beneath subducted lithospheric slabs can be discerned using splitting of shear waves emanating from earthquakes in the slabs themselves. However, the subducted Nazca plate’s abrupt changes in morphology from a planar slab dipping 30° ENE beneath the central Andes to large areas of flat-lying slab beneath Peru, to the north, and Argentina, to the south, are a potential complication to the sub-slab mantle flow. S waves from earthquakes in the Nazca slab reveal details of the upper mantle flow field below and in the vicinity of the slab. Nazca slab earthquakes large enough to be well recorded (M > 5.4, typically), and deep enough to separate S from pS and sS (30-40 km or more), are suitable for such study, and, for events between 1990 and 2010, recording stations are mostly well-distributed azimuthally about the source event. The S waves were recorded at seismic stations at teleseismic distances from the events, and were corrected for known sub-station seismic anisotropy. Thus, the shear wave splitting engendered during their passage through the asthenospheric upper mantle beneath the slab was isolated, and asthenospheric deformation fabrics resulting from plastic flow beneath the slab mapped in some detail. Shear wave splitting fast directions and upper mantle flow beneath the Nazca plate are most often trench-parallel, consistent with trench-parallel upper mantle flow beneath the slab. Fast splitting polarizations at high angle to the strike of the slab occur in the transition regions from flat to normally dipping slab. Upper mantle flow beneath the slab in these regions appears to be channeled by the slab contortion. Upper mantle flow oceanward of the Nazca slab also appears to change abruptly from trends at a high angle to the Peru-Chile trench to trench-parallel as the top of the Nazca slab attains a depth of around 75 km. Trench-parallel sub-slab flow appears to develop once the asthenosphere beneath the Nazca plate is affected

  14. Mechanism of friction reduction and lubrication of nano-Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS solid lubrication duplex layer%纳米Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS固体润滑复合层减摩润滑机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春华; 杨春燕; 刘庆存; 孙志杰; 马世宁; 乔玉林

    2013-01-01

    FeS solid lubrication duplex layer was prepared on the surface of 45 steel by ion nitrocarburizing-ion sulphurizing process.Then the nano-Al2O3 and nano-Fe3O4 particles were set into the holes in micron and nano scale of the duplex layer by using vacuum dipping process to prepare the nano-Al2O3-Fe2O4/FeS solid lubrication duplex layer.Friction and wear performances of the nano-Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS solid lubrication duplex layer were investigated and the excellent performances are obtained under 10 N-60 N loads.The results show that the chemical reaction films are formed,which possess the functions of solid lubrication and cumbering the direct contact of the metals between the friction surfaces.Moreover,the nano-Al2O3 and nano-Fe3O4 particles in the nano-Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS solid lubrication duplex layer play the “micron and nano ball bearing” function,which can transform the “sliding friction” into the “rolling friction” in micro scale,and furthermore,the nano particles are beforehand set into the holes of the duplex layer and are difficult to run off in the friction process,which prolong their “micron and nano ball bearing” function,so the friction factor (under load 60N) and volume loss of the nano-Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS solid lubrication duplex layer are 7.2% and 50% lower than those of the FeS solid lubrication duplex layer lubricated by applying nano-Al2O3/nano-Fe3O4 additive,respectively.%采用离子氮碳共渗与离子渗硫复合处理技术在45钢表面形成FeS固体润滑复合层,然后采用真空浸渍方法将纳米Al2O3和Fe3O4颗粒置入复合层的微纳孔隙中,制备成纳米Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS固体润滑复合层.在10 ~60 N的载荷下,纳米Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS固体润滑复合层表现出优良的减摩与耐磨性能.这是因为,一方面磨损表面生成的化学反应膜,起到了固体润滑和阻碍摩擦表面间金属直接接触的作用;另一方面在摩擦过程中,纳米Al2O3-Fe3O4/FeS固体润滑复合层中的纳米Al2O

  15. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small-amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be nonzero for moderate values of the capillary number but vanishes in the limits of high and low capillary number. Physically, this force arises because the snail's foot deforms the free surface, thereby generating curvature pressures and lubrication flows inside the mucus layer that couple to the topography of the foot.

  16. Frictional convergence at coastlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, J.C.; Berg, W.D. van den; Oerlemans, J.

    1986-01-01

    The coastline generally represents it marked discontinuity in surface roughness. The resulting mechanical forcing leads to a secondary circulation in the boundary layer, and consequently to a vertical motion field that may have a strong influence on the weather in the coastal zone. In potentially un

  17. Effects of the ratio of hardness to Young's modulus on the friction and wear behavior of bilayer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wangyang; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Lukitsch, Michael J.; Weiner, Anita M.; Lev, Lenoid C.; Grummon, David S.

    2004-11-01

    We present a study of the effects of the ratio of hardness to Young's modulus on the friction and wear behavior of layered composite coatings. Layered coating structures with the same surface coating but different interlayers were prepared by physical vapor deposition. We found that the ratio of hardness to Young's modulus plays an important role in determining the friction coefficient and wear resistance of layered composite coatings. A low friction coefficient and high wear resistance can be achieved in structures with high ratio of hardness to Young's modulus and moderately high hardness.

  18. Friction Freeform Fabrication of Superalloy Inconel 718: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, J. J. S.; Janaki Ram, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Friction Freeform Fabrication is a new solid-state additive manufacturing process. The present investigation reports a detailed study on the prospects of this process for additive part fabrication in superalloy Inconel 718. Using a rotary friction welding machine and employing alloy 718 consumable rods in solution treated condition, cylindrical-shaped multi-layer friction deposits (10 mm diameter) were successfully produced. In the as-deposited condition, the deposits showed very fine grain size with no grain boundary δ phase. The deposits responded well to direct aging and showed satisfactory room-temperature tensile properties. However, their stress rupture performance was unsatisfactory because of their layered microstructure with very fine grain size and no grain boundary δ phase. The problem was overcome by heat treating the deposits first at 1353 K (1080 °C) (for increasing the grain size) and then at 1223 K (950 °C) (for precipitating the δ phase). Overall, the current study shows that Friction Freeform Fabrication is a very useful process for additive part fabrication in alloy 718.

  19. Electronic friction at the atomic scale: Conduction, electrostatic and magnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jacqueline; Altfeder, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5K) in the temperature range 65 - 293 K, to explore electronic contributions to friction at the atomic scale. The samples were prepared with oxygen-depleted surfaces, with thin semiconducting surface layers present atop the bulk. Below Tc, the friction coefficient was observed to be constant at 0.19 and exhibited no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces observed below Tc. The friction coefficient exhibited a change in slope within experimental error of Tc that increased progressively above Tc and reached 0.33 by room temperature. The results were analyzed within the context of underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction we conclude that contact electrification and static electricity play a significant role above Tc. Supported by NSF and AFOSR.

  20. Friction stir welding (FSW process of copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miličić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the structure of the weld joint of technically pure copper, which is realized using friction stir welding (FSW. The mechanism of thermo-mechanical processes of the FSW method has been identified and a correlation between the weld zone and its microstructure established. Parameters of the FSW welding technology influencing the zone of the seam material and the mechanical properties of the resulting joint were analyzed. The physical joining consists of intense mixing the base material along the joint line in the “doughy” phase. Substantial plastic deformations immediately beneath the frontal surface of tool provide fine-grained structure and a good quality joint. The optimum shape of the tool and the optimum welding regime (pressure force, rotation speed and the traverse speed of the tool in the heat affected zone enable the achievement of the same mechanical properties as those of the basic material, which justifies its use in welding reliable structures.

  1. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  2. Deep Background of Wenchuan Earthquake and the Upper Crust Structure beneath the Longmen Shan and Adjacent Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiusheng; GAO Rui; WANG Haiyan; ZHANG Jisheng; LU Zhanwu; LI Pengwu; GUAN Ye; HE Rizheng

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing the deep seismic sounding profiles across the Longmen Shan, this paper focuses on the study of the relationship between the upper crust structure of the Longmen Shan area and the Wenchuan earthquake. The Longmen Shan thrust belt marks not only the topographical change, but also the lateral velocity variation between the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. A low-velocity layer has consistently been found in the crust beneath the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and ends beneath the western Sichuan Basin. The low-velocity layer at a depth of -20 km beneath the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as the deep condition for favoring energy accumulation that formed the great Wenchuan earthquake.

  3. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball A. Milton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum electromagnetic fluctuations, which break time-reversal symmetry. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Partly because of the lack of contact with observations, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here, we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  4. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A; Brevik, I

    2015-01-01

    For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum fluctuations. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Because of the lack of contact with phenomena, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  5. Interfacial Reaction during Friction Stir Welding of Al and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, C.; Girard, M.; Huneau, B.; Sauvage, X.; Racineux, G.

    2011-08-01

    Commercially pure copper was joined to a 1050 aluminum alloy by friction stir welding. A specific configuration where the tool pin was fully located in the aluminum plate was chosen. In such a situation, there is no mechanical mixing between the two materials, but frictional heating gives rise to a significant thermally activated interdiffusion at the copper/aluminum interface. This gives rise to the formation of defect-free joints where the bonding is achieved by a very thin intermetallic layer at the Cu/Al interface. Nanoscaled grains within this bonding layer were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two phases were identified, namely, Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 phases. The nucleation and growth of these two phases are discussed and compared to the standard reactive interdiffusion reactions between Cu and Al.

  6. The role of frictional strength on plate coupling at the subduction interface

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Eh

    2012-10-01

    At a subduction zone the amount of friction between the incoming plate and the forearc is an important factor in controlling the dip angle of subduction and the structure of the forearc. In this paper, we investigate the role of the frictional strength of sediments and of the serpentinized peridotite on the evolution of convergent margins. In numerical models, we vary thickness of a serpentinized layer in the mantle wedge (15 to 25km) and the frictional strength of both the sediments and serpentinized mantle (friction angle 1 to 15, or static friction coefficient 0.017 to 0.27) to control the amount of frictional coupling between the plates. With plastic strain weakening in the lithosphere, our numerical models can attain stable subduction geometry over millions of years. We find that the frictional strength of the sediments and serpentinized peridotite exerts the largest control on the dip angle of the subduction interface at seismogenic depths. In the case of low sediment and serpentinite friction, the subduction interface has a shallow dip, while the subduction zone develops an accretionary prism, a broad forearc high, a deep forearc basin, and a shallow trench. In the high friction case, the subduction interface is steep, the trench is deeper, and the accretionary prism, forearc high and basin are all absent. The resultant free-air gravity and topographic signature of these subduction zone models are consistent with observations. We believe that the low-friction model produces a geometry and forearc structure similar to that of accretionary margins. Conversely, models with high friction angles in sediments and serpentinite develop characteristics of an erosional convergent margin. We find that the strength of the subduction interface is critical in controlling the amount of coupling at the seismogenic zone and perhaps ultimately the size of the largest earthquakes at subduction zones. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The microphysics of phyllosilicate friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Sabine A. M.; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-04-01

    Phyllosilicate-rich foliations in fault rocks are often thought to reduce overall fault strength and promote fault stability when forming an interconnected network. Indeed, laboratory measurements have shown that the average friction coefficient of dry phyllosilicates of 0.5 is reduced to 0.3 when wet or even 0.1 for smectite. A widely accepted interpretation of these observations is that the strength of phyllosilicates is controlled by breaking of interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces when dry and by the low strength of surface-bound water films when wet. However, the correlation between phyllosilicate shear strength and interlayer bond strength, which formed the basis for this interpretation, was not reproduced in recent experiments (Behnsen and Faulkner, 2012) and is not supported by the latest calculations of the interlayer bond energies (Sakuma and Suehara, 2015). The accepted explanation for phyllosilicate friction also fails to account for the velocity dependence or (a-b) values, which decrease with temperature, reaching a minimum at intermediate temperatures, before increasing again at higher temperatures (Den Hartog et al., 2013, 2014). In this study, we developed a microphysical model for phyllosilicate friction, involving frictional sliding along atomically flat phyllosilicate grain interfaces, with overlapping grain edges forming barriers to sliding. Assuming that the amount of overlap is controlled by crystal plastic bending of grains into pores, together with rate-dependent edge-site cleavage, our model predicts most of the experimentally observed trends in frictional behaviour and provides a basis for extrapolation of laboratory friction data on phyllosilicates to natural conditions.

  8. Low temperature friction force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckle, Christopher Gregory

    The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting of a diamond coated AFM tip and diamond-like carbon sample in a nominal sample temperature range of 90 to 275K. The results show that the coefficient of kinetic friction, mu k, has a linear dependence that is monotonically increasing with temperature varying from 0.28 to 0.38. To analyze this data it is necessary to correlate the sample temperature to the interface temperature. A detailed thermal model shows that the sample temperature measured by a macroscopic device can be very different from the temperature at the contact point. Temperature gradients intrinsic to the design of VT, UHV AFMs result in extreme, non-equilibrium conditions with heat fluxes on the order of gigawatts per squared meter through the interface, which produce a discontinuous step in the temperature profile due to thermal boundary impedance. The conclusion from this model is that measurements acquired by VT, UHV AFM, including those presented in this thesis, do not provide meaningful data on the temperature dependence of friction for single-asperities. Plans for future work developing an isothermal AFM capable of the same measurements without the introduction of temperature gradients are described. The experimental results and thermal analysis described in this thesis have been published in the Journal of Applied Physics, "Temperature dependence of single-asperity friction for a diamond on diamondlike carbon interface", J. App. Phys., 107(11):114903, 2010.

  9. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, Alexander G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  10. Liquefaction of a Horizontally Vibrated Granular Bed Friction, Dilation and Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Tennakoon, S G K; Tennakoon, Sarath G.

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental observations of the onset of flow (liquefaction) for horizontally vibrated granular materials. As the acceleration increases above certain value, the top layer of granular material liquefies, while the remainder of the layer moves with the shaker in solid body motion. With increasing acceleration, more of the layer becomes fluidized. The initial bifurcation is backward, and the amount of hysteresis depends mainly on frictional properties of the granular media. A small amount of fluidization by gas flow lifts the hysteresis. Modest differences in the frictional properties of otherwise identical particles leads to rapid segregation.

  11. Lubrication and friction prediction in metal-on-metal hip implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F C; Brockett, C; Williams, S; Udofia, I; Fisher, J; Jin, Z M

    2008-03-07

    A general methodology of mixed lubrication analysis and friction prediction for a conforming spherical bearing in hip implants was developed, with particular reference to a typical metal-on-metal hip replacement. Experimental measurement of frictional torque for a similar implant was carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup under cyclic operating conditions of representative load and motion. The mixed lubrication model presented in this study was first applied to identify the contact characteristics on the bearing surfaces, consisting of both fluid-film and boundary lubricated regions. The boundary lubricated contact was assumed to occur when the predicted fluid film thickness was less than a typical boundary protein layer absorbed on the bearing surfaces. Subsequently, the friction was predicted from the fluid-film lubricated region with viscous shearing due to both Couette and Poiseuille flows and the boundary protein layer contact region with a constant coefficient of friction. The predicted frictional torque of the typical metal-on-metal hip joint implant was compared with the experimental measurement conducted in a functional hip simulator and a reasonably good agreement was found. The mixed lubrication regime was found to be dominant for the conditions considered. Although the percentage of the boundary lubricated region was quite small, the corresponding contribution to friction was quite large and the resultant friction factor was quite high.

  12. Energy corrugation in atomic-scale friction on graphite revisited by molecular dynamics simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Sun; Yi-Zhou Qi; Wengen Ouyang; Xi-Qiao Feng; Qunyang Li

    2016-01-01

    Although atomic stick–slip friction has been extensively studied since its first demonstration on graphite, the physical understanding of this dissipation-dominated phenomenon is still very limited. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite surface. In contrast to the common wisdom, our MD results suggest that the energy barrier associated lateral sliding (known as energy corrugation) comes not only from interaction between the tip and the top layer of graphite but also from interactions among the deformed atomic layers of graphite. Due to the competi-tion of these two subentries, friction on graphite can be tuned by controlling the relative adhesion of different interfaces. For relatively low tip-graphite adhesion, friction behaves nor-mally and increases with increasing normal load. However, for relatively high tip-graphite adhesion, friction increases unusually with decreasing normal load leading to an effec-tively negative coefficient of friction, which is consistent with the recent experimental observations on chemically modified graphite. Our results provide a new insight into the physical origins of energy corrugation in atomic scale friction.

  13. Lubrication and friction prediction in metal-on-metal hip implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F C; Brockett, C; Williams, S; Udofia, I; Fisher, J; Jin, Z M [Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.c.wang@bath.ac.uk

    2008-03-07

    A general methodology of mixed lubrication analysis and friction prediction for a conforming spherical bearing in hip implants was developed, with particular reference to a typical metal-on-metal hip replacement. Experimental measurement of frictional torque for a similar implant was carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup under cyclic operating conditions of representative load and motion. The mixed lubrication model presented in this study was first applied to identify the contact characteristics on the bearing surfaces, consisting of both fluid-film and boundary lubricated regions. The boundary lubricated contact was assumed to occur when the predicted fluid film thickness was less than a typical boundary protein layer absorbed on the bearing surfaces. Subsequently, the friction was predicted from the fluid-film lubricated region with viscous shearing due to both Couette and Poiseuille flows and the boundary protein layer contact region with a constant coefficient of friction. The predicted frictional torque of the typical metal-on-metal hip joint implant was compared with the experimental measurement conducted in a functional hip simulator and a reasonably good agreement was found. The mixed lubrication regime was found to be dominant for the conditions considered. Although the percentage of the boundary lubricated region was quite small, the corresponding contribution to friction was quite large and the resultant friction factor was quite high.

  14. Energy corrugation in atomic-scale friction on graphite revisited by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Qi, Yi-Zhou; Ouyang, Wengen; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Li, Qunyang

    2016-08-01

    Although atomic stick-slip friction has been extensively studied since its first demonstration on graphite, the physical understanding of this dissipation-dominated phenomenon is still very limited. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite surface. In contrast to the common wisdom, our MD results suggest that the energy barrier associated lateral sliding (known as energy corrugation) comes not only from interaction between the tip and the top layer of graphite but also from interactions among the deformed atomic layers of graphite. Due to the competition of these two subentries, friction on graphite can be tuned by controlling the relative adhesion of different interfaces. For relatively low tip-graphite adhesion, friction behaves normally and increases with increasing normal load. However, for relatively high tip-graphite adhesion, friction increases unusually with decreasing normal load leading to an effectively negative coefficient of friction, which is consistent with the recent experimental observations on chemically modified graphite. Our results provide a new insight into the physical origins of energy corrugation in atomic scale friction.

  15. Structural and phase transformations in Hadfield steel upon frictional loading in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, L. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Chernenko, N. L.

    2016-08-01

    Structural transformations that occur in 110G13 steel (Hadfield) upon sliding friction in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) have been investigated by metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray diffraction methods. The frictional action was performed through the reciprocating sliding of a cylindrical indenter of quenched 110G13 steel over a plate of the studied steel. A like friction pair was immersed into a bath with liquid nitrogen. It has been shown that the Hadfield steel quenched from 1100°C under the given temperature conditions of frictional loading retains the austenitic structure completely. The frictional action forms in a surface layer up to 10 μm thick the nanocrystalline structure with austenite grains 10-50 nm in size and a hardness 6 GPa. Upon subsequent low-temperature friction, the tempering of steel at 400°C (3 h) and at 600°C (5 min and 5 h) brings about the formation of a large amount (tens of vol %) of ɛ (hcp) martensite in steel. The formation of this phase under friction is supposedly a consequence of the reduction in the stacking fault energy of Hadfield steel, which is achieved due to the combined action of the following factors: low-temperature cooling, a decrease in the carbon content in the austenite upon tempering, and the presence of high compressive stresses in the friction-contact zone.

  16. Adhesion energy between mica surfaces: Implications for the frictional coefficient under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.

  17. Influence of composition on friction-wear behavior of composite materials reinforced by brass fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xian; LING Xiaomei

    2003-01-01

    In the study, for the composite materials reinforced by brass fibers, the influence of dominant ingredients, such as organic adhesion agent, cast iron debris, brass fiber, and graphite powder, on the friction-wear characteristics was investigated. The friction-wear experiment was carried out on the block-on-ring tribometer MM200. The worn surfaces of the friction pair consisting of the composite materials and grey cast iron HT200 under dry sliding friction were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TAG). The experimental results showed that the friction coefficient and the wear loss of the composite material increase obviously with the increase of cast iron debris content, but decrease obviously with the increase of graphite powder content, and increase a little when the mass fraction of brass fiber was over 19%, and the orientation of brass fiber has obvious influence on friction-wear property. When the mass fraction of organic adhesion agent was about 10-11%, the composite materials have an excellent friction-wear performance. The friction heat can pyrolyze organic ingredient in worn surface layer.

  18. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix.

  19. Intrinsic structure and friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets studied by scanning probe microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan-Huai Ding; Hu-Ming Ren; Fei-Hu Chang; Ping Zhang; Yong Jiang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, atomic structure of single-layered graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) nanosheets was investigated using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunnelingmicroscopy (AFM and STM). Furthermore, friction properties of the graphene and GO nanosheets were studied by frictional force microscopy (FFM). STM imaging provided direct evidence and the morphology was influenced by oxygen-containing groups and defects. The atomic scale structural disorder in a hexagonal two-dimensional network of carbon atoms changes the surface condition, which also caused the frictional property variations of the samples.

  20. S-wave velocity structure beneath Changbaishan volcano inferred from receiver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Wu; Yuehong Ming; Lihua Fang; Weilai Wang

    2009-01-01

    The S wave velocity structure in Changbaishan volcanic region was obtained from teleseismic receiver func-tion modeling. The results show that there exist distinct low velocity layers in crust in volcano area. Beneath WQD station near to the Tianchi caldera the low velocity layer at 8 km depth is 20 km thick with the lowest S-wave velocity about 2.2 km/s. At EDO station located 50 km north of Tianchi caldera, no obvious crustal low velocity layer is detected. In the volcanic re-gion, the thickness of crustal low velocity layer is greater and the lowest velocity is more obvious with the distance shorter to the caldem. It indicates the existence of the high temperature material or magma reservoir in crust near the Tianchi caldera. The receiver functions and inversion result from different back azimuths at CBS permanent seismic station show that the thickness of near surface low velocity layer and Moho depth change with directions. The near surface low velocity layer is obviously thicker in south direction. The Moho depth shows slight uplifting in the direction of the caldera located. We con-sider that the special near surface velocity structure is the main cause of relatively lower prominent frequency of volcanic earthquake waveforms recorded by CBS station. The slight uplifting of Moho beneath Tianchi caldera indicates there is a material exchanging channel between upper mantle and magma reservoir in crust.

  1. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sungyon; Hosoi, A E; Lauga, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be non-zero for moderate values of Capillar...

  2. Depth variations of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy beneath Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Jiandong; Zhou, Bengang; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-07-19

    A high-resolution model of P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Mainland China and surrounding regions is determined using a large number of arrival-time data recorded by the China seismic network, the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and temporary seismic arrays deployed on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results provide important new insights into the subducted Indian plate and mantle dynamics in East Asia. Our tomographic images show that the northern limit of the subducting Indian plate has reached the Jinsha River suture in eastern Tibet. A striking variation of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy is revealed in the Indian lithosphere: the fast velocity direction (FVD) is NE-SW beneath the Indian continent, whereas the FVD is arc parallel beneath the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, which may reflect re-orientation of minerals due to lithospheric extension, in response to the India-Eurasia collision. There are multiple anisotropic layers with variable FVDs in some parts of the Tibetan Plateau, which may be the cause of the dominant null splitting measurements in these regions. A circular pattern of FVDs is revealed around the Philippine Sea slab beneath SE China, which reflects asthenospheric strain caused by toroidal mantle flow around the edge of the subducting slab.

  3. Composite Aluminum-Copper Sheet Material by Friction Stir Welding and Cold Rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, S; Osikowicz, W

    2013-01-01

    An aluminum alloy and a pure copper material were butt-joined by friction stir welding and subsequently cold rolled. The cold-rolling operation proved to be very advantageous because small voids present after friction stir welding were closed, the interface area per material thickness was enlarged, a thin intermetallic layer was partitioned, and the joint was strengthened by strain hardening. Tensile test specimens fractured in the heat-affected zone in the aluminum material; tensile strength...

  4. WS2 nanoparticles - potential replacement for ZDDP and friction modifier additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ratoi, Monica; Niste, Vlad; Zekonyte, Jurgita

    2014-01-01

    In high-pressure, high-temperature sliding contacts, WS2 nanoadditives react with the metal substrate to\\ud generate 100+ nm chemical tribofilms with a layered structure and excellent tribological properties. The\\ud friction, wear and micromechanical properties of WS2 tribofilms are compared with those of tribofilms\\ud formed by the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear additive and ZDDP-organic friction modifier\\ud (OFM) mixture. Nanoindentation measurements showed that WS2 generates t...

  5. Adhesion wear mechanisms under dry friction of titanium alloys in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedeva, I.L.; Presnyakova, G.N. (Physico-Technical Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR))

    1991-08-15

    Physicochemical processes taking place in the surface layers of titanium alloys were studied. For vacuum conditions, a range of external parameters was proved to exist where the alloys have high wear resistance and a low coefficient of friction. The transition from seizure, with tearing of the material at a large depth, to fatigue wear is related to surface hardening due to {alpha} {r reversible} {beta} transitions under friction. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the criteria of protective secondary structure formation defined. (orig.).

  6. Skin friction and heat transfer of liquid jet over a continuous moving horizontal hot plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The skin friction and heat transfer occurring in the laminarboundary layer which caused by a vertical liquid jet impinging on a continuously moving horizontal plate were studied. Similarity solutionsfor shear stress and heat distribution were obtained by using the shooting technique. The results shows that the skin friction decreases with an increase of velocity parameter, the evolving of thermal boundarydecrease with increasing in Prandtl number, but increase with increasing of velocity parameter.

  7. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  8. SURFACE DYNAMIC FRICTION OF POLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Gong; G.Kagata; Y.Iwasaki; Y.Osada

    2000-01-01

    The sliding friction of various kinds of hydrogels has been studied and it was found that the frictional behaviors of the hydrogels do not conform to Amonton's law F =μW which well describes the friction of solids. The frictional force and its dependence on the load are quite different depending on the chemical structures of the gels, surface properties of the opposing substrates, and the measurement condition. The gel friction is explained in terms of interfacial interaction, either attractive or repulsive, between the polymer chain and the solid surface. According to this model, the friction is ascribed to the viscous flow of solvent at the interface in the repulsive case. In the attractive case, the force to detach the adsorbing chain from the substrate appears as friction. The surface adhesion between glass particles and gels measured by AFM showed a good correlation with the friction, which supported the repulsion-adsorption model proposed by the authors.

  9. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wallen-Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium μice-al=0.1 typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction.

  10. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...

  11. Frictional heating of tribological contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Johannes

    1995-01-01

    Wherever friction occurs, mechanical energy is transformed into heat. The tem­ perature rise associated with this heating can have an important influence on the tribological behaviour of the contacting components. Apart from determining per­ formance, thermal phenomena affect reliability and may cau

  12. Friction Sensitivity of Primary Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    potassium dinitrobenzofuroxan none tetrazene 407913 tetrazene 7902454 The mixes which were tested are: NOL 130 (basic lead styphnate , barium nitrate, lead...azide, tetrazene, and antimony sulfide); PA 100 (normal lead styphnate , barium nitrate, tetrazene, lead dioxide, calcium silicide, and antimony...styuhnate, basic lead styphnate , potassium dinitrobenzofuroxan, and tetrazene were tested to determine the- 10% and 50% probability of friction

  13. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-03-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.

  14. Rotary Engine Friction Test Rig Development Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    5  4.  Friction Rig Development 7  5.  AutoCAD ...Figure 4. Engine friction test rig AutoCAD model. ........................................................................8  Figure 5. Engine...top dead center. 8 5. AutoCAD Model Development A model of the rotary engine friction test rig was developed to determine the optimal

  15. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

    2008-02-01

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

  16. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  17. A thermodynamic model of sliding friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Makkonen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A first principles thermodynamic model of sliding friction is derived. The model predictions are in agreement with the observed friction laws both in macro- and nanoscale. When applied to calculating the friction coefficient the model provides a quantitative agreement with recent atomic force microscopy measurements on a number of materials.

  18. Pyrometamorphism of Fault Zone Rocks Induced by Frictional Heating in High-velocity Friction Tests: Reliable Records of Seismic Slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, J.; Ando, J.; Kim, J.; Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-12-01

    Recognition of seismic slip zone is important for a better understanding of earthquake generation processes in fault zones and paleoseismology. However, there has been no reliable record of ancient seismic slip except pseudotachylyte. Recently, it has been suggested that decomposition (dehydration or decarbonation) products due to frictional heating can be used as a seismic slip record. The decomposition products, however, can be easily rehydrated or recarbonated with pervasive fluid migration in the fault zone after seismic slip, raising some question about their stability as a seismic slip record. Here, we review microstructural and mineralogical changes of the simulated fault zones induced by frictional heating (pyrometamorphism) from high-velocity friction tests (HVFT) on siltstone, sandstone and carbonates at seismic slip rates, and discuss on their stability after seismic slip. HVFT on siltstone generates pseuodotachylyte in the principal slip zone (0.30-0.75 mm thick) with 'damage' layer (0.1-0.2 mm thick) along its margins. Chlorite in the damage layer suffers an incipient dehydration with many voids (0.2-1.0 μm in diameter) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), appearing as dark tiny spots both in plane-polarized light and back-scattered electron (BSE) photomicrographs. HVFT on brown sandstone induces a color change of wall rocks adjacent to the principal slip zone (brown to red) due to the dehydration of iron hydroxides with frictional heating. These dehydration products in siltstone and sandstone due to frictional heating may be unstable since they would be easily rehydrated with fluid infiltration after a seismic slip. HVFT on carbonates including Carrara marble and siderite-bearing gouges produces decarbonation products of nano-scale lime (CaO) and magnetite (Fe3O4), respectively. Lime is a very unstable phase whereas magnetite is a stable and thus may be used as an indicator of seismic slip. The simulated fault zones of Carrara marble contain

  19. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  20. Analysis of the moment caused by friction of cardan joint. Cardan joint no friction kishinryoku kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Yagi, Shida, T. (Atsugi Unisia Corp., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Analyzing the vibromotive force, generated by the friction, in generation morphology, level, dynamical characteristics, etc., through measurement of joint unit friction simulation of frictional vibromotive force and on-platform measurement of propeller shaft in vibromotive force, the present report investigated the influence of friction on the vehicle in sound vibration performance. By a vibromotive force measurement system, internally equipped with a piezoelectric type force meter, frictional vibromotive force could be quantitatively grasped. The friction must be appropriately controlled, because the moment, generated by it, is expected to be put in the vehicle by intermediation of a supporting point and adversely influence the sound vibration performance. Apart from the above, elucidation was made of relation between the ordinal number components of rotation of vibromotive force and friction, calculation of reaction force at the supporting point by the frictional measurement, relation between the joint angle and frictional vibromotive force, second couple force due to the friction, etc. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  2. 核阀钴基合金密封面高温氮离子注入层的摩擦磨损特性研究%Study on Friction and Wear Characteristics of High Temperature Nitrogen Ion Implantation Layer on Nuclear Valve Cobalt-based Alloy sealing surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡西云; 李必文; 何彬; 曹强

    2015-01-01

    对经激光堆焊Stellite 6的316L核阀试样表面进行高温、高束流密度、大剂量的N+注入。分析了注入层的N+浓度分布及微观组织结构,测试了受注面的表面粗糙度及横截面的显微硬度,进行了摩擦磨损性能研究。结果表明,在上述条件下,N+的注入深度较常温条件提高了两个数量级且浓度呈准高斯状分布,近表面区形成了大量细小和微晶态的铁氮化合物,高能N+的轰击和溅射作用显著降低了受注堆焊层表面的粗糙度,受注表面及近表面区的显微硬度整体提高,N+注入对激光堆焊层的表面耐磨性能改善效果明显。探讨了N+注入对激光堆焊层表面强化的机理。%The N+ implantation at high temperature ,high current density ,high-dose was carried out on the surface of the 316L nuclear valve samples which have suffered laser cladding Stellite 6 alloy powder. The N + concentration distribution and microstructure of implanted layer were analysed ,the surface roughness of implanted surface and microhardness of cross section were tested,the friction and wear properties was studied. The results indicate that: under the conditions described above,N + implantation depth has improved two orders of magnitude than the normal temperature conditions ,the concentration distribution presented quasi-Gaussian ,and a large number of small and micro crystalline iron-nitrogen compounds formed near surface region; The bombardment and sputtering effect of high-energy N+significantly reduce the surface roughness of the implanted cladding layer. The microhardness of implanted surface and near surface region has improved integrally; The improving effect of surface wear resistance of laser cladding layer by N + implanting is obvious. The surface enhanced mechanism of laser cladding layer by N+implanting has been discussed.

  3. Effects of Current Density on Micromorphology and Property of Nickel Deposition Layer Prepared by Friction Jet Electrodeposition%电流密度对摩擦喷射电沉积制备镍沉积层微观形貌及性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜军; 沈理达; 田宗军; 刘志东; 黄因慧; 王桂峰

    2012-01-01

    采用摩擦喷射电沉积系统制备了镍沉积层,用形貌仪、X射线衍射仪和显微硬度计等研究了镍沉积层的表面形貌、组织结构、晶粒平均尺寸和显微硬度随电流密度的变化。结果表明:硬质粒子能有效去除镍沉积层表面的吸附气泡和积瘤,获得表面较为平整光亮的沉积层;随着电流密度的增大,(111)、(200)和(220)晶面的择优取向度趋于一致,镍沉积层的表面粗糙度和晶粒平均尺寸先减小后增大,电流密度为80A.dm-2时表面粗糙度最小,电流密度为100A.dm-2时晶粒的平均尺寸最小,为9.67nm;显微硬度先增大后减小,当电流密度为80A.dm-2时最大。%The nickel deposition layer was prepared by friction jet electrodeposition system,the variation of the surface micromorphology,microstructure,average size of grain and microhardness of the nickel deposition layer as a function of current density was studied by micromorphology analysing,X-ray diffraction,microhardness testing and so on.The results show that the hard particles could effectively remove the hydrogen bubbles and nodules absorbed on nickel deposition layer surface,and obtain regular and smooth deposition layer.With the increase of the current density,the orientation degree of the lattice planes of(111),(200) and(220) converged,the surface roughness and average size of grains first decreased and then increased,the surface roughness was minimal when the current density was 80 A·dm-2,and the average size of grains,which was 9.67 nm,was minimal when the current density was 100 A·dm-2.The microhardness first increased and then decreased and it was maximal when the current density was 80 A·dm-2.

  4. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, J. F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C. L., Jr.; Welch, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb3Sn in the form of composite Nb-Nb3Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A 15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at ~48 K. The internal friction Q-1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q-1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q-1~(ca-1)2. With residual compressive strains of ~0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +/- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3Si.

  5. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath NE China and implications for the lithospheric delamination hypothesis beneath the southern Great Xing'an range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Niu, Fenglin; Obayashi, Masayuki; Grand, Stephen P.; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; John Chen, Y.; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru

    2017-08-01

    We measured shear wave splitting from SKS data recorded by the transcontinental NECESSArray in NE China to constrain lithosphere deformation and sublithospheric flows beneath the area. We selected several hundreds of high quality SKS/SKKS waveforms from 32 teleseismic earthquakes occurring between 09/01/2009 and 08/31/2011 recorded by 125 broadband stations. These stations cover a variety of tectonic terranes, including the Songliao basin, the Changbaishan mountain range and Zhangguancai range in the east, the Great Xing'an range in the west and the Yanshan orogenic belt in the southwest. We assumed each station is underlaid by a single anisotropic layer and employed a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted multi-event stacking method to estimate the two splitting parameters (the fast polarization direction φ, and delay time, δt) that gives the best fit to all the SKS/SKKS waveforms recorded at each station. Overall, the measured fast polarization direction lies more or less along the NW-SE direction, which significantly differs from the absolute plate motion direction, but is roughly consistent with the regional extension direction. This suggests that lithosphere deformation is likely the general cause of the observed seismic anisotropy. The most complicated anisotropic structure is observed beneath the southern Great Xing'an range and southwest Songliao basin. The observed large variations in splitting parameters and the seismic tomographic images of the area are consistent with ongoing lithospheric delamination beneath this region.

  6. Seismic evidence for slab graveyards atop the Core Mantle Boundary beneath the Indian Ocean Geoid Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Rao, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Ocean Geoid Low (IOGL) that spans a vast areal extent south of the Indian subcontinent is a spectacular feature on the Earth, whose origin still remains ambiguous. In this study, we investigate the seismic character of the lower mantle below this geoid low utilizing the travel time and amplitude residuals of high quality S and ScS phases from 207 earthquakes recorded at 276 stations in the epicentral distance range of 36°-90°. For comparison, we also perform a similar exercise for a region of geoid high in the vicinity. Results reveal large variations in the ScS travel times indicating that the lowermost mantle beneath the IOGL region is heterogeneous. The ScS-S differential travel times are ∼3 s slower than those predicted by the IASP91 model, primarily due to velocity increase in the lowermost mantle beneath the IOGL region and ∼2 s higher than the IASP91 beneath the geoid high region, due to velocity decrease in the lowermost mantle. The largest negative residuals from manual method (-7.72 s) are concentrated below the IOGL. Iterative matching of differential travel time residuals reveals that the maximum positive and negative residuals can be explained in terms of a reduction in shear velocity of 0.9% and an increase of 1.6% respectively in a ∼1000 km thick layer above the Core Mantle Boundary. Further, the ScS/S amplitude residuals beneath the IOGL are positive, implying high impedance contrast at the Core Mantle Boundary, owing to the presence of high velocity material. We attribute these high velocities to the presence of dehydrated high density slab graveyards atop the Core Mantle Boundary beneath the Indian Ocean. Release of water at the mid-to-upper mantle depths due to the dehydration of subducted slabs causing a reduction in density and velocity of the ambient mantle, could be responsible for the geoid low.

  7. Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity signature and derived 3-D configuration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Singh; Niraj Kumar; Bijendra Singh

    2004-12-01

    The early Cretaceous thermal perturbation beneath the eastern continental margin of the Indian shield resulted in the eruption of the Rajmahal Traps. To understand the impact of the magmatic process that originated in the deep mantle on the lower crustal level of the eastern Indian shield and adjoining Bengal basin the conspicuous gravity anomalies observed over the region have been modelled integrating with available geophysical information. The 3-D gravity modelling has delineated 10–15km thick high-density ( = 3.02 g/cm3) accreted igneous layer at the base of the crust beneath the Rajmahal Traps. Thickness of this layer varies from 16km to the west of the Rajmahal towards north to about 12km near Kharagpur towards south and about 18km to the east of the Raniganj in the central part of the region. The greater thickness of the magmatic body beneath the central part of the region presents itself as the locus of the potential feeder channel for the Rajmahal Traps. It is suggested that the crustal accretion is the imprint of the mantle thermal perturbation, over which the eastern margin of the eastern Indian shield opened around 117Ma ago. The nosing of the crustal accretion in the down south suggests the possible imprint of the subsequent magmatic intrusion along the plume path.

  8. How linear molecules resist to shear:the origin of nanoscale friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linmao; QIAN; G.; Luengo; E.; Perez

    2004-01-01

    Friction force measurements between smooth surfaces across two layers of linear alkanes over five decades of speeds are presented. A maximum friction dissipation is observed at a characteristic speed. The behaviour is described by a new approach: the formation and destruction of molecular bridges between confined alkane layers. The bridges interdigitated between the layers exhibit a thermally activated resistance to shear.An analytical model involving activation barriers accounts for the overall behaviour of the forces over four decades of speed. This first simple semi-quantitative description sheds new light on the subtle mechanisms of friction at the nanoscale level and shows how the molecular length influences the tribological properties of the liquid.

  9. Active convection beneath ridges: a new spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    The role of buoyancy-driven, "active" upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridges has been long debated [1,2,3], with the naysayers holding sway in recent years. Recent work on tomographic imaging of the sub-ridge mantle has revealed patterns in velocity variation that seem inconsistent with what we expect of passive upwelling and melting [4]. The irregular distribution, asymmetry, and off-axis locations of slow regions in tomographic results are suggestive of time-dependent convective flow. Using 2D numerical simulations of internally consistent mantle and magmatic flow plus melting/freezing [5,6], I investigate the parametric subspace in which active convection is expected to occur. For low mantle viscosities, interesting symmetry-breaking behavior is predicted. References: [1] Rabinowicz, et al., EPSL, 1984; [2] Buck & Su, GRL, 1989; [3] Scott & Stevenson, JGR, 1989; [4] Toomey et al., Nature, 2007; [5] McKenzie, J.Pet., 1984; [6] Katz, J.Pet., 2008;

  10. Bed-Deformation Experiments Beneath a Temperate Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Fast flow of glaciers and genesis of glacial landforms are commonly attributed to shear deformation of subglacial sediment. Although models of this process abound, data gathered subglacially on the kinematics and mechanics of such deformation are difficult to interpret. Major difficulties stem from the necessity of either measuring deformation near glacier margins, where conditions may be abnormal, or at the bottoms of boreholes, where the scope of instrumentation is limited, drilling disturbs sediment, and local boundary conditions are poorly known. A different approach is possible at the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, where tunnels melted in the ice provide temporary human access to the bed of Engabreen, a temperate outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap in Norway. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.5 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed, where the glacier is 220 m thick and sliding at 0.1-0.2 m/d. During two spring field seasons, this trough was filled with 2.5 tons of simulated till. Instruments in the till recorded shear (tiltmeters), volume change, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure as ice moved across the till surface. Pore pressure was brought to near the total normal stress by feeding water to the base of the till with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. Results illustrate some fundamental aspects of bed deformation. Permanent shear deformation requires low effective normal stress and hence high pore-water pressure, owing to the frictional nature of till. Shear strain generally increases upward in the bed toward the glacier sole, consistent with previous measurements beneath thinner ice at glacier margins. At low effective normal stresses, ice sometimes decouples from underlying till. Overall, bed deformation accounts for 10-35 % of basal motion, although this range excludes shear in the uppermost 0.05 m of till where shear was not measured. Pump tests with durations ranging from seconds to hours highlight the need

  11. High temperature skin friction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  12. Correlation of Preston-tube data with laminar skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. D.; Abu-Mostafa, A.; Steinle, F. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Preston-tube data have been obtained on a sharp ten-degree cone in the NASA Ames Eleven-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.95 and unit Reynolds numbers of 9.84, 13.1, and 16.4 million per meter. The portions of these data, that were obtained within laminar boundary layers, have been correlated with the corresponding values of theoretical skin friction. The rms scatter of skin-friction coefficient about the correlation is of the order of one percent, which is comparable to the reported accuracy for calibrations of Preston-tubes in incompressible pipe-flows. In contrast to previous works on Preston-tube/skin-friction correlations, which are based on the physical height of the probe's face, this very satisfactory correlation for compressible boundary-layer flows is achieved by accounting for the effects of a variable 'effective' height of the probe. The coefficients, which appear in the correlation, are dependent on the particular tunnel environment. The general procedure can be used to define correlations for other wind tunnels.

  13. Ultrasonic excitation affects friction interactions between food materials and cutting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Schindler, Claudia; Rohm, Harald

    2009-06-01

    In the food industry, ultrasonic cutting is used to improve separation by a reduction of the cutting force. This reduction can be attributed to the modification of tool-workpiece interactions at the cutting edge and along the tool flanks because of the superposition of the cutting movement with ultrasonic vibration of the cutting tool. In this study, model experiments were used to analyze friction between the flanks of a cutting tool and the material to be cut. Friction force at a commercial cutting sonotrode was quantified using combined cutting-friction experiments, and sliding friction tests were carried out by adapting a standard draw-off assembly and using an ultrasonic welding sonotrode as sliding surface. The impact of material parameters, ultrasonic amplitude, and the texture of the contacting food surface on friction force was investigated. The results show that ultrasonic vibration significantly reduces the sliding friction force. While the amplitude showed no influence within the tested range, the texture of the contact surface of the food affects the intensity of ultrasonic transportation effects. These effects are a result of mechanical interactions and of changes in material properties of the contact layer, which are induced by the deformation of contact points, friction heating and absorption heating because of the dissipation of mechanical vibration energy.

  14. Thermodynamic aspects of rock friction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Noa

    2013-01-01

    Rate- and state-dependent friction law for velocity-step tests is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. A simple macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic model with a single internal variable reproduces instantaneous jump and relaxation. Velocity weakening appears as a consequence of a plasticity related nonlinear coefficient. Permanent part of displacement corresponds to plastic strain, and relaxation effects are analogous to creep in thermodynamic rheology.

  15. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  16. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo–W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh., E-mail: p.hovsepian@shu.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Mandal, Paranjayee, E-mail: 200712mum@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Ehiasarian, Arutiun P., E-mail: a.ehiasarian@shu.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, HIPIMS Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Sáfrán, G., E-mail: safran.gyorgy@ttk.mta.hu [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thegeut 29-33 (Hungary); Tietema, R., E-mail: rtietema@hauzer.nl [IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., Van Heemskerckweg 22, 5928 LL Venlo (Netherlands); Doerwald, D., E-mail: ddoerwald@hauzer.nl [IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., Van Heemskerckweg 22, 5928 LL Venlo (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel Mo–W–C coating provides extremely low friction (μ ∼ 0.03) in lubricated condition. • Mo–W–C outperforms existing DLCs in terms of low friction, independent of temperature. • Tribochemical reactions govern the wear mechanism of Mo–W–C coating. • The transfer layer contains graphitic carbon and ‘in situ’ formed WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}. • WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2} are the key factors facilitating appreciably low friction and wear rate. - Abstract: A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo–W–C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo–W–C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo–W–C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and ‘in situ’ formed metal sulphides (WS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  17. Friction characteristics of floppy disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This note presents the principle and structure of a tribological measure for floppy disks.The precision of the force measuring system is 1 mN in loading and 3×10-6 N in friction.The resolution of the film thickness between head and floppy disk is 0.5 nm in the vertical and 1.5 nm in the horizontal direction.In order to investigate the tribological characteristics of floppy disks,six types of floppy disks have been tested and the floating properties of these disks are also studied with film measuring system.The experimental results of the surface morphology and friction coefficient of these floppy disks using the atomic force microscope/friction force mcroscope (AFM/FFM) are in accordance with the conclusion made by our own measuring system.The experimental results show that the air film thickness between head and disk is of the same order as the surface roughness of floppy disks.

  18. Skin-friction drag analysis from the forced convection modeling in simplified underwater swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, G; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Mai, T H; Lodini, A

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with skin-friction drag analysis in underwater swimming. Although lower than profile drag, skin-friction drag remains significant and is the second and only other contribution to total drag in the case of underwater swimming. The question arises whether varying the thermal gradient between the underwater swimmer and the pool water may modify the surface shear stress distribution and the resulting skin-friction drag acting on a swimmer's body. As far as the authors are aware, such a question has not previously been addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of this thermal gradient by using the integral formalism applied to the forced convection theory. From a simplified model in a range of pool temperatures (20-30 degrees C) it was demonstrated that, whatever the swimming speeds, a 5.3% reduction in the skin-friction drag would occur with increasing average boundary-layer temperature provided that the flow remained laminar. However, as the majority of the flow is actually turbulent, a turbulent flow analysis leads to the major conclusion that friction drag is a function of underwater speed, leading to a possible 1.5% reduction for fast swimming speeds above 1m/s. Furthermore, simple correlations between the surface shear stress and resulting skin-friction drag are derived in terms of the boundary-layer temperature, which may be readily used in underwater swimming situations.

  19. Subduction or delamination beneath the Apennines? Evidence from regional tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Zabelina, I.; Roure, F.; Cloetingh, S.; El Khrepy, S.; Al-Arifi, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present a new regional tomography model of the upper mantle beneath Italy and the surrounding area derived from the inversion of travel times of P and S waves from the updated International Seismological Centre (ISC) catalogue. Beneath Italy, we identify a high-velocity anomaly whic

  20. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone.

  1. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Jenkins, Adrian; Dutrieux, Pierre; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to an increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and the strength of flow inside the ice-shelf cavities. We present measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica. These measurements were obtained by CTD, ADCP, and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The highest turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is found near the grounding line. The thermal variance dissipation rate increases closer to the ice-shelf base, with a maximum value found ˜0.5 m away from the ice. The measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate near the ice are used to estimate basal melting of the ice shelf. The dissipation-rate-based melt rate estimates is sensitive to the stability correction parameter in the linear approximation of universal function of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for stratified boundary layers. We argue that our estimates of basal melting from dissipation rates are within a range of previous estimates of basal melting.

  2. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  3. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  4. Apparatus and method to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus to reduce wear and friction between CMC-to-metal attachment and interface, including a metal layer configured for insertion between a surface interface between a CMC component and a metal component. The surface interface of the metal layer is compliant relative to asperities of the surface interface of the CMC component. A coefficient of friction between the surface interface of the CMC component and the metal component is about 1.0 or less at an operating temperature between about 300.degree. C. to about 325.degree. C. and a limiting temperature of the metal component.

  5. Characteristics of the kissing-bond in friction stir welded Al alloy 1050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yutaka S. [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)]. E-mail: ytksato@material.tohoku.ac.jp; Takauchi, Hideaki [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Park, Seung Hwan C. [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kokawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2005-09-25

    Initial oxide layer on the butt surface fragments during friction stir welding (FSW) often remaining as a faint zigzag-line pattern on the cross section. When remnants of the oxide layer often adversely affects the mechanical properties in the weld, it is called as 'kissing-bond'. The present study systematically examines the effect of oxide array on the bend property in the root region of friction stir (FS) welded Al alloy 1050 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to clarify the identity of 'kissing-bond'.

  6. Integrability and symmetries for the Helmholtz oscillator with friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almendral, Juan A; Sanjuan, Miguel A F [Grupo de Dinamica No Lineal y Teoria del Caos, Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica Aplicadas y Ciencias de la Naturaleza, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan, s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-01-24

    This paper deals with the Helmholtz oscillator, which is a simple nonlinear oscillator whose equation presents a quadratic nonlinearity and the possibility of escape. When a periodic external force is introduced, the width of the stochastic layer, which is a region around the separatrix where orbits may exhibit transient chaos, is calculated. In the absence of friction and external force, it is well known that analytical solutions exist since it is completely integrable. When only friction is included, there is no analytical solution for all parameter values. However, by means of the Lie theory for differential equations we find a relation between parameters for which the oscillator is integrable. This is related to the fact that the system possesses a symmetry group and the corresponding symmetries are computed. Finally, the analytical explicit solutions are shown and related to the basins of attraction.

  7. Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J. (University of Minnesota); Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

    2006-12-01

    Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the

  8. Influence of the Previous Preheating Temperature on the Static Coefficient of Friction with Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Živković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations static coefficient of friction in lubricated conditions and pre-heating of the sample pin at high temperatures is discussed in this paper. The static coefficient of friction was measured in the sliding steel copper pins per cylinder of polyvinylchloride. Pins are previously heated in a special chamber from room temperature to a temperature of 800 oC with a step of 50 °C. Tribological changes in the surface layer of the pins caused by pre-heating the pins at high temperatures and cooling systems have very significantly influenced the increase in the coefficient of static friction. The results indicate the possibility of improving the friction characteristics of metal materials based on their thermal treatment at elevated temperatures.

  9. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction in Supersonic Flow Using a Microblowing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1999-01-01

    A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).

  10. The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.V.

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Conflicting Geophysical and Geochemical Indicators of Mantle Temperature Beneath Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    In Tibet a small number of earthquakes occurs at 75-100 km depth, spanning the Moho, reaching >350 km and >550 km north of the Himalayan front in south-eastern Tibet and western Tibet respectively. 'Earthquake thermometry' implies these deep earthquakes occur in anhydrous lower lithosphere, either anorthitic or ultramafic, at 0.1RA (~1% mantle fluid) are conventionally taken to imply an unequivocal mantle component. Time-averaged upward flow rates calculated from measured 3He/4He ratios (R) and [4He] range from ~1-15 cm/a, implying transport times of 0.5-7 Ma through a 70-km thick crust. Discussion of 3He in Tibet in the western literature has been dominated by a single paper (Hoke et al., EPSL, 2000) that reported modest mantle helium (0.110% mantle fluids are reported 120 km and 150 km south of the northern limit of deep earthquakes in southeastern and western Tibet respectively. These hot springs apparently sampled mantle with T>800°C south of the locations where earthquake thermometry implies Moho temperatures India, Nepal and Pakistan, even though the 800°C isotherm is substantially shallower there than beneath southern Tibet? More plausibly the mantle helium is derived from an Asian mantle wedge above the region of deep earthquakes, in which case underthrusting Indian lithosphere is not intact, but breaks into an upper layer forming the lower crust of the Tibetan Plateau, and a lower seismogenic layer that is subducted more deeply into the mantle. Based on the geothermal springs, an Asian mantle wedge extended south of the Indus Tsangpo suture in SE Tibet and to the Karakoram fault in W Tibet until the latest Miocene, or even more recently.

  12. Thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere beneath Jiyang Depression: Its implications for geodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shaowen; WANG Liangshu; GONG Yuling; LI Cheng; LI Hua; HAN Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    ductile, and lithospheric mantle is dominated by the ductile layer. Additionally, lateral rheological heterogeneities exist in the depression, and the lithospheric strength of sags within depression differs much from each other. The total lithospheric strength of Jiyang Depression is between 1.52 and 2.16×1012 N/m, effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere in Jiyang Depression is about 24 km, approximating to the thickness of mechanically strong crust (MSC). We suggested that the dehydration of minerals in the subducting zone, along with upwelling of hot materials in the mantle wedge during subduction and back-arc spreading, results in the partial melting at the bottom of curst, which triggers magma intrusion and underplating. This geodynamics process maybe is the reason for the reduction of lower crustal viscosity for ductile flow. Lithospheric rheological stratification controlling the differential deformation styles of brittle fracture or frictional slide in the upper crust and ductile flow in the middle and lower crust, accounts for the basin formation and evolution of Jiyang Depression during Cenozoic.

  13. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  14. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  15. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  16. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Y Simha; Anirudhan Pottirayil; Pradeep L Menezes; Satish V Kailas

    2008-06-01

    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper proposes the concept of a friction tensor analogous to the heat conduction tensor in anisotropic media. This implies that there exists two principal friction coefficients $\\mu_{1,2}$ analogous to the principal conductivities $k_{1,2}$. For symmetrically textured surfaces the principal directions are orthogonal with atleast one plane of symmetry. However, in the case of polished single crystalline solids in relative sliding motion, crystallographic texture controls the friction tensor.

  17. Boundary lubrication under pressure: could the friction jump down, instead of up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanossi, Andrea; Benassi, Andrea; Varini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2012-02-01

    The sliding friction during pressure squeezout of a boundary lubricated contact has been shown [1,2] to undergo upward jumps every time a lubricant atomic layer is expelled. Here we ask the question whether the jump could not be downward. Whereas most studies focus on the layered structure which the confined lubricant takes in the normal direction, the element we wish to consider is a possible change of parallel periodicity occurring at the squeezout transition. Such changes have been reported in simulations [3], but their effect has not been discussed so far. One possible effect could be a transition of the slider-lubricant interface commensurability, producing a switch of the frictional mechanism, from lubricant melting-freezing in a commensurate state, to superlubric in an incommensurate one -- in this case with a drop of friction for increasing load. We exemplify this effect by MD simulations, where we replace for convenience the open squeezout system with a closed system, where the lubricant is sealed between the sliders. As the number of layers drops under pressure, the planar lubricant structural lattice parameter also drops. This change reflects in a sliding friction jump, which is easily observed to be downwards. The potential observability of load-induced friction drops will be discussed. [4pt] [1] J.N. Israelachvili et al., Science 240, 189 (1988). [0pt] [2] J. Gao et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 5033 (1998). [0pt] [3] U. Tartaglino et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 014704 (2006).

  18. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofidi, M; Prakash, B [Division of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa SE-97187 (Sweden); Persson, B N J [IFF, FZ-Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Albohr, O [Pirelli Deutschland AG, 64733 Hoechst/Odenwald, Postfach 1120 (Germany)

    2008-02-27

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  19. Low friction wear resistant graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali

    2017-02-07

    A low friction wear surface with a coefficient of friction in the superlubric regime including graphene and nanoparticles on the wear surface is provided, and methods of producing the low friction wear surface are also provided. A long lifetime wear resistant surface including graphene exposed to hydrogen is provided, including methods of increasing the lifetime of graphene containing wear surfaces by providing hydrogen to the wear surface.

  20. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi, M.; Prakash, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Albohr, O.

    2008-02-01

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short-wavelength roughness, which may make the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the counterface surface asperities. The results presented are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  1. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  2. The role of friction in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco; Wellington Corrêa Jansen; Dauro Douglas de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of this mechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desired orthodontic movement obtained. Due to the application and great acceptance of this type of mechanics, the role of friction in Orthodontics has been of interest for both clinicians and scientists. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this article discussed how friction affects orthodontic too...

  3. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M. C.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  4. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.

    2016-03-01

    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  5. How to teach friction: Experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; Borghi, Lidia; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Students generally have difficulty understanding friction and its associated phenomena. High school and introductory college-level physics courses usually do not give the topic the attention it deserves. We have designed a sequence for teaching about friction between solids based on a didactic reconstruction of the relevant physics, as well as research findings about student conceptions. The sequence begins with demonstrations that illustrate different types of friction. Experiments are subsequently performed to motivate students to obtain quantitative relations in the form of phenomenological laws. To help students understand the mechanisms producing friction, models illustrating the processes taking place on the surface of bodies in contact are proposed.

  6. Noise and vibration in friction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    The book analyzes the basic problems of oscillation processes and theoretical aspects of noise and vibration in friction systems. It presents generalized information available in literature data and results of the authors in vibroacoustics of friction joints, including car brakes and transmissions. The authors consider the main approaches to abatement of noise and vibration in non-stationary friction processes. Special attention is paid to materials science aspects, in particular to advanced composite materials used to improve the vibroacoustic characteristics of tribopairs The book is intended for researchers and technicians, students and post-graduates specializing in mechanical engineering, maintenance of machines and transport means, production certification, problems of friction and vibroacoustics.

  7. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented using finite element method. Nonlinear finite element model for gear tooth contact with rolling/sliding is then developed. The contact zones for multiple tooth pairs are identified and the associated integration situation is derived. The illustrated bending stress and transmission error results with static and dynamic boundary conditions indicate the significant effects due to the sliding friction between the surfaces of contacted gear teeth, and the friction effect can not be ignored. To understand the particular static and dynamic frictional effects on gear tooth contact analysis, some significant phenomena of gained results will also be discussed. The potentially significant contribution of tooth frictional shear stress is presented, particularly in the case of gear tooth contact analysis with both static and dynamic boundary conditions.

  8. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  9. Job Heterogeneity and Coordination Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    the job ladder, how the identification of assortative matching is fundamentally different in directed and undirected search models, how our theory accounts for business cycle facts related to inter-temporal changes in job offer distributions, and how our model could also be used to identify......We develop a new directed search model of a frictional labor market with a continuum of heterogenous workers and firms. We estimate two versions of the model - auction and price posting - using Danish data on wages and productivities. Assuming heterogenous workers with no comparative advantage, we...

  10. Friction of Plastic Rotating Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    for speeds eve ., the rdnge: 10 - 300 cm/s. Overwhelming evidence was presented to support a melt phenomena. Melt depth of: polymer, pins on a glass disk...Polymers," Proc. Roy. Soc., (London),. A291 (1966), p. 186. 24. Rabinowicz , S., et al., "The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Shear Yield Behavior of...34 Proc. Roy.,Soc., (London), A269. (19620 p. 368. 51. Carignan, F. J., and Rabinowicz , E., "Friction and Wear at ligh Sliding Speeds," ASLE Trans., 24

  11. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.

  12. Constraints on the anisotropic contributions to velocity discontinuities at ˜60 km depth beneath the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Strong, sharp, negative seismic discontinuities, velocity decreases with depth, are observed beneath the Pacific seafloor at ˜60 km depth. It has been suggested that these are caused by an increase in radial anisotropy with depth, which occurs in global surface wave models. Here we test this hypothesis in two ways. We evaluate whether an increase in surface wave radial anisotropy with depth is robust with synthetic resolution tests. We do this by fitting an example surface wave data set near the East Pacific Rise. We also estimate the apparent isotropic seismic velocity discontinuities that could be caused by changes in radial anisotropy in S-to-P and P-to-S receiver functions and SS precursors using synthetic seismograms. We test one model where radial anisotropy is caused by olivine alignment and one model where it is caused by compositional layering. The result of our surface wave inversion suggests strong shallow azimuthal anisotropy beneath 0-10 Ma seafloor, which would also have a radial anisotropy signature. An increase in radial anisotropy with depth at 60 km depth is not well-resolved in surface wave models, and could be artificially observed. Shallow isotropy underlain by strong radial anisotropy could explain moderate apparent velocity drops (effect is diminished if strong anisotropy also exists at 0-60 km depth as suggested by surface waves. Overall, an increase in radial anisotropy with depth may not exist at 60 km beneath the oceans and does not explain the scattered wave observations.

  13. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...

  14. Friction Melt Bonding: An innovative process for aluminium-steel lap joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Aude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new process based on Friction Stir Welding has been developed to weld dissimilar metals, particularly steel and aluminum, in a lap-joint configuration. In this Friction Melt Bonding process, frictional heat generated by the rotating and translating tool brings about local and transient melting (Figure 1. Welding then occurs owing to controlled reactivity and solidification at the interface between the two plates. With an adequate choice of the welding parameters, low alloy steel and aluminium alloys have been successfully welded. Characterisation of the microstructure was systematically performed to highlight the influence of the process parameters, particularly the temperature cycle, on the steel-Al interface. The thickness of the intermetallic layer varies from a couple of micrometers to tens of micrometers depending on the advancing speed of the tool (Fig. 2. The lap shear properties of the joints were also investigated and analysed based on the morphology of the intermetallic layer.

  15. A Proof of Concept Experiment for Reducing Skin Friction by Using a Micro-Blowing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1996-01-01

    A proof of concept experiment for reducing skin friction has been conducted in the Advanced Nozzle and Engine Components Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. In this unique concept, called the micro-blowing technique (MBT), an extremely small amount of air was blown vertically through very small holes to reduce the surface roughness and to control the gradient of the flow velocity profile on the surface thereby reducing skin friction. Research revealed that the skin was the most important factor to make this concept achievable. The proposed skin consisted of two layers. The inner layer was a low permeable porous skin for distributing the blowing air evenly while the outer layer with small holes controlled the vertical or nearly vertical blowing air. Preliminary experimental results showed that the MBT has the potential of a very large reduction in skin friction below the skin friction of a nonporous plain flat plate. Of the skins tested, three have been identified as the MBT skins. They provided very low unblown skin friction such that a large skin friction reduction, below a flat plate value, was achieved with very small amounts of blowing air. The reduction in skin friction of 55 percent was achieved at the Mach number of 0.3 for the exhaust pressure of 0.85 atm, and 60 percent reduction was obtained for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm (corresponding to 10 700-m altitude) at the same Mach number. A significant reduction in skin friction of over 25 percent was achieved for the exhaust pressure of 0.24 atm at the Mach number of 0.7. This implied that the MBT could be applied to a wide range of flight conditions. It is also believed that additional 10 percent reduction could be obtained by eliminating the gap between the inner layer and the outer layer. The aspect ratio of the vertical small holes for the outer layer of the MBT skin should be larger than 4 based on the preliminary conclusion from this test. Many experiments are needed to find out the

  16. Searching for structure in the mid-mantle: Observations of converted phases beneath Iceland and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.; Deuss, A. F.; Cottaar, S.

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, most of the lower mantle was considered to be well-mixed with strong heterogeneity restricted to the lowermost several hundred kilometers above the core-mantle boundary, also known as the D'' layer. However, several recent studies have started to hint at a potential change in earth structure at mid-mantle depths, with evidence from both seismic tomography (Fukao and Obayashi 2013, French and Romanowichz, 2015) and global viscosity structure (Rudolph et al., 2015). We present the first continental-wide search for mid-mantle P to S wave converted phases and find most observations come from approximately 1000 km depth beneath Iceland and Western Europe. Conversions are identified using a data set of 50,000 high quality receiver functions which are systematically searched for robust signals from the mid-mantle. Potential P to s conversions are analysed in terms of slowness to determine whether they are true observations from depth or simply surface multiples arriving at similar times. We find broad regions with robust signals from approximately 1000 km depth in several locations; beneath Iceland and across Western Europe, beneath Ireland, Scotland, Eifel and south towards NW Italy and Spain. Similar observations have previously been observed mainly in subduction zone settings, and have been hypothesised to be caused by down-going oceanic crustal material. Here we present observations which correlate with slow seismic velocities in recent tomographic models (Rickers et al., (2013); French and Romanowicz, (2015)). These low velocities appear to be a channel deviating from the broad mantle plume beneath Iceland at mid-mantle depths. We hypothesise that the mid-mantle seismic signals we observe are caused by either a phase transition occurring locally in a specific composition or by small-scale chemical heterogeneities swept along with upwelling material and ponding around 1000 km.

  17. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  18. Comparison of Frictional Heating Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Nicholas R [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.

  19. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  20. Mantle Structure Beneath Central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, J. C.; Silver, P. G.; James, D. E.; Assumpcao, M.; Schimmel, M.; Zandt, G.

    2003-12-01

    Making use of 60 digital broadband seismic stations that have operated across central South America in recent years, we have undertaken an inversion for the upper- and uppermost lower-mantle P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath the region. We have combined data from four portable PASSCAL-type experiments as well as the 3 GTSN permanent stations (LPAZ, BDFB and CPUP) and 1 Geoscope station (SPB) located in the region. The portable data were deployed at various times between 1992 and 1999 and include: 28 sites from the Brazilian Lithosphere Seismic Project (BLSP: Carnegie Institution of Washington and Universidade de Sao Paulo), 16 sites from the Broadband ANdean JOint experiment (BANJO: Carnegie Institution of Washington and University of Arizona), 8 sites from the Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano project (SEDA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and 4 sites from the University of Brasilia. The P- and S-wave relative delay times are independently obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 120,000 nodes across South America between latitudes of 15 and 30 degrees South. Amongst other features, we robustly image the high-velocity subducting Nazca plate penetrating into the lower mantle and the high-velocity root of the ~3.2 Gyr old Sao Francisco Craton extending to depths of 200-300 km. We will discuss the consistency between our tomographic models and predictions of dynamic mantle models based on plate tectonic reconstructions of subduction.

  1. A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.

  2. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Geometric and oceanographic controls on melting beneath Pine Island Glacier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Rydt, J; Holland, P. R; Dutrieux, P; Jenkins, A

    2014-01-01

    .... As a result, a large ocean cavity has formed behind the ridge, strongly controlling the ocean circulation beneath the ice shelf and modulating the ocean water properties that cause ice melting...

  4. Friction of sodium alginate hydrogel scaffold fabricated by 3-D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Jian; Xu, Heng; Long, Shijun; Li, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    A rapid prototyping technology, formed by three-dimensional (3-D) printing and then crosslinked by spraying Ca(2+) solution, is developed to fabricate a sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel scaffold. The porosity, swelling ratio, and compression modulus of the scaffold are investigated. A friction mechanism is developed by studying the reproducible friction behavior. Our results show that the scaffold can have 3-D structure with a porosity of 52%. The degree of swelling of the SA hydrogel scaffold is 8.5, which is nearly the same as bulk SA hydrogel. SA hydrogel exhibits better compressive resilience than bulk hydrogel despite its lower compressive modulus compared to bulk hydrogel. The SA hydrogel scaffold exhibits a higher frictional force at low sliding velocity (10(-6) to 10(-3) m/s) compared to bulk SA hydrogel, and they are equal at high sliding velocity (10(-2) to 1 m/s). For a small pressure (0.3 kPa), the SA hydrogel scaffold shows good friction reproducibility. In contrast, bulk SA hydrogel shows poor reproducibility with respect to friction behavior. The differences in friction behaviors between the SA hydrogel scaffold and bulk SA hydrogel are related to the structure of the scaffold, which can keep a stable hydrated lubrication layer.

  5. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  6. On the Blasius correlation for friction factors

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Khanh Tuoc

    2010-01-01

    The Blasius empirical correlation for turbulent pipe friction factors is derived from first principles and extended to non-Newtonian power law fluids. Two alternative formulations are obtained that both correlate well with the experimental measurements of Dodge, Bogue and Yoo. Key words: Blasius, turbulent friction factor, power law fluids

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  8. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  9. The Gulf Stream: Inertia and friction

    OpenAIRE

    ASSAF, GAD

    2011-01-01

    The inertial theory of the Gulf Stream (Charney, 1955) is extended to include vertical friction in the cyclonic shear zone (the western side) of the stream. The vertical friction is assumed to be controlled by local Froude conditions.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00717.x

  10. Graphite friction coefficient for various conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The friction coefficient the graphite used in the Tsinghua University 10MW High Tem-perature Gas-Cooled Reactor was analyzed for various conditions. The variation of the graphitefriction coefficient was measured for various sliding velocities, sliding distances, normal loads, en-vironments and temperatures. A scanning elector microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the fric-tion surfaces.

  11. Wiping Metal Transfer in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that as the friction stir pin-tool moves along a weld seam the displacement of metal takes place by a wiping action at the surface of a plug of metal that rotates with the tool. The wiping model is explained and some consequences for the friction stir welding process are drawn.

  12. Toothbrush abrasion, simulated tongue friction and attrition of eroded bovine enamel in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.; Overweg, E.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Enamel erosion results in the formation of a softened layer that is susceptible to disruption by mechanical factors such as brushing abrasion, tongue friction and attrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the individual contribution of those mechanical insults to the enamel los

  13. Friction surface cladding of AA1050 onto AA2024: parameter study and process window development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaojie

    2016-01-01

    Friction surface cladding (FSC), a relatively new solid state surface modification technique, was developed to deposit thin metallic layers onto substrates to protect the substrates from chemical corrosion. The FSC process employs a specially designed rotating tool containing an opening as the suppl

  14. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  15. Trial manufacture of rotary friction tester and frictional force measurement of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Kanari, M; Tanzawa, S

    2002-01-01

    In the plasma confinement type fusion reactor, in-vessel structures such as a blanket module slide at the joints each other when plasma disruption occurs, and then frictional heat is generated there. Therefore, for the selection of material and the use as the design data, it is important to understand the frictional characteristics of metals and ceramic films in the vacuum. In the present study, we have manufactured a prototype of rotary friction tester and examined the performances of the tester. The frictional characteristics of metals in the room air was measured using the friction tester, and the results obtained are as follows. A drifting friction force for a constant time and a friction force during the idling were 98 mN and 225 mN, respectively. These values were sufficiently small as compared to pressing load (9.8 - 57.8 N) used in the friction test. In a friction force measurement of stainless steel, dynamic friction force obeyed Amontons' law which indicated that dynamic friction force is not depend...

  16. Rheology and friction along the Vema transform fault (Central Atlantic) inferred by thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, Marco; Ligi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We investigate with 3-D finite element simulations the temperature distribution beneath the Vema transform that offsets the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by ~300 km in the Central Atlantic. The developed thermal model includes the effects of mantle flow beneath a ridge-transform-ridge geometry and the lateral heat conduction across the transform fault, and of the shear heating generated along the fault. Numerical solutions are presented for a 3-D domain, discretized with a non-uniform tetrahedral mesh, where relative plate kinematics is used as boundary condition, providing passive mantle upwelling. Mantle is modelled as a temperature-dependent viscous fluid, and its dynamics can be described by Stokes and advection-conduction heat equations. The results show that shear heating raises significantly the temperature along the transform fault. In order to test model results, we calculated the thermal structure simulating the mantle dynamics beneath an accretionary plate boundary geometry that duplicates the Vema transform fault, assuming the present-day spreading rate and direction of the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 11 °N. Thus, the modelled heat flow at the surface has been compared with 23 heat flow measurements carried out along the Vema Transform valley. Laboratory studies on the frictional stability of olivine aggregates show that the depth extent of oceanic faulting is thermally controlled and limited by the 600 °C isotherm. The depth of isotherms of the thermal model were compared to the depths of earthquakes along transform faults. Slip on oceanic transform faults is primarily aseismic, only 15% of the tectonic offset is accommodated by earthquakes. Despite extensive fault areas, few large earthquakes occur on the fault and few aftershocks follow large events. Rheology constrained by the thermal model combined with geology and seismicity of the Vema Transform fault allows to better understand friction and the spatial distribution of strength along the fault and provides

  17. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...... shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity....

  18. FRICTION-BOON OR BANE IN ORTHODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Most fixed appliance techniques involve some degree of sliding between brackets and arch wires. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance to the clinician. The present study was performed to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance and characteristics between self-ligating brackets and pre-adjusted edgewise brackets with different types of ligation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tidy's frictional test design was used to simulate retraction of tooth along with artificial saliva to simulate wet conditions in oral cavity. The jig with this assembly was mounted on the Instron machine with the cross head moving upwards at a speed of 5mm/min. The movable bracket was suspended from the load cell of the testing machine, while the jig was mounted on cross head of machine and the load cell readings were recorded on digital display. Following wires are used 0.016 HANT, 0.019X 0.025HANT, 0.019X 0.025 SS, 0.021X 0.025 SS wires are used. The brackets used were 0.022 slot Damon, 0.022 Smart clip and 0.022 slot MBT system. RESULTS: Self ligating brackets were shown to produce lesser friction when compared to the conventional brackets used with modules, and stainless steel ligatures. Damon self-ligating brackets produce a least friction of all the brackets used in the study. Stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction compared to elastomeric. CONCLUSION: Self ligation brackets produce lesser friction than the conventional brackets ligated with elastomeric modules and stainless steel ligature. Damon self-ligating brackets produce a least friction of all the brackets used in the study width of the bracket was also found to be directly proportional to the friction produced 0.0016HANT with elastomeric modules produce more friction due increase in flexibility of wire.

  19. Spectroscopic signatures of quantum friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Juliane; Bennett, Robert; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2016-12-01

    We present a formula for the spectroscopically accessible level shifts and decay rates of an atom moving at an arbitrary angle relative to a surface. Our Markov formulation leads to an intuitive analytic description whereby the shifts and rates are obtained from the coefficients of the Heisenberg equation of motion for the atomic flip operators but with complex Doppler-shifted (velocity-dependent) transition frequencies. Our results conclusively demonstrate that for the limiting case of parallel motion the shifts and rates are quadratic or higher in the atomic velocity. We show that a stronger, linear velocity dependence is exhibited by the rates and shifts for perpendicular motion, thus opening the prospect of experimentally probing the Markovian approach to the phenomenon of quantum friction.

  20. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  1. Mapping Instabilities in Polymer Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Charles; Crosby, Alfred

    2005-03-01

    Schallamach waves are instabilities that occur as interfaces between a soft elastomer and rigid surface slide past each other.(1) The presence of Schallamach waves can lead to drastic changes in frictional properties. Although the occurrence of Schallamach waves has been studied for the past several decades, a general map relating fundamental material properties, geometry, and operating conditions (i.e. speed and temperature) has not been established. Using a combinatorial approach, we illustrate the role of modulus, testing velocity and surface energetics of crosslinked poly(dimethyl siloxane) on the generation Schallamach waves. This knowledge will be used with polymer patterning processes to fabricate responsive coatings for applications such as anti-fouling coatings. (1)Schallamach, A.;Wear 1971,17, 301-312.

  2. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  3. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jessica E.; Skulski, Thomas; Craven, James A.; Jones, Alan G.; Snyder, David B.; Kiyan, Duygu

    2014-03-01

    New magnetotelluric soundings at 64 locations throughout the central Rae craton on mainland Nunavut constrain 2-D resistivity models of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath three regional transects. Responses determined from colocated broadband and long-period magnetotelluric recording instruments enabled resistivity imaging to depths of > 300 km. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition on all data reveal a regional trend of 45-53°, but locally the geoelectric strike angle varies laterally and with depth. The 2-D models reveal a resistive upper crust to depths of 15-35 km that is underlain by a conductive layer that appears to be discontinuous at or near major mapped geological boundaries. Surface projections of the conductive layer coincide with areas of high grade, Archean metasedimentary rocks. Tectonic burial of these rocks and thickening of the crust occurred during the Paleoproterozoic Arrowsmith (2.3 Ga) and Trans-Hudson orogenies (1.85 Ga). Overall, the uppermost mantle of the Rae craton shows resistivity values that range from 3000 Ω m in the northeast (beneath Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula) to 10,000 Ω m beneath the central Rae craton, to >50,000 Ω m in the south near the Hearne Domain. Near-vertical zones of reduced resistivity are identified within the uppermost mantle lithosphere that may be related to areas affected by mantle melt or metasomatism associated with emplacement of Hudsonian granites. A regional decrease in resistivities to values of 500 Ω m at depths of 180-220 km, increasing to 300 km near the southern margin of the Rae craton, is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  4. Friction and Wear Performance of Boron Doped, Undoped Microcrystalline and Fine Grained Composite Diamond Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinchang; WANG Liang; SHEN Bin; SUN Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don’t have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional

  5. Friction and wear performance of boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchang; Wang, Liang; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have attracted more attentions due to their excellent mechanical properties. Whereas as-fabricated traditional diamond films in the previous studies don't have enough adhesion or surface smoothness, which seriously impact their friction and wear performance, and thus limit their applications under extremely harsh conditions. A boron doped, undoped microcrystalline and fine grained composite diamond (BD-UM-FGCD) film is fabricated by a three-step method adopting hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method in the present study, presenting outstanding comprehensive performance, including the good adhesion between the substrate and the underlying boron doped diamond (BDD) layer, the extremely high hardness of the middle undoped microcrystalline diamond (UMCD) layer, as well as the low surface roughness and favorable polished convenience of the surface fine grained diamond (FGD) layer. The friction and wear behavior of this composite film sliding against low-carbon steel and silicon nitride balls are studied on a ball-on-plate rotational friction tester. Besides, its wear rate is further evaluated under a severer condition using an inner-hole polishing apparatus, with low-carbon steel wire as the counterpart. The test results show that the BD-UM-FGCD film performs very small friction coefficient and great friction behavior owing to its high surface smoothness, and meanwhile it also has excellent wear resistance because of the relatively high hardness of the surface FGD film and the extremely high hardness of the middle UMCD film. Moreover, under the industrial conditions for producing low-carbon steel wires, this composite film can sufficiently prolong the working lifetime of the drawing dies and improve their application effects. This research develops a novel composite diamond films owning great comprehensive properties, which have great potentials as protecting coatings on working surfaces of the wear-resistant and anti-frictional

  6. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 μm. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces.

  7. Temperature dependent effective friction coefficient estimation in friction stir welding with the bobbin tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović Miroslav M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction coefficient in many friction stir welding researches is generally used as an effective, constant value without concern on the adaptable and changeable nature of the friction during welding sequence. This is understandable because the main problem in analyzing friction in friction stir welding are complex nature of the friction processes, case-dependent and time dependent contact between the bodies, influence of the temperature, sliding velocity, etc. This paper is presenting a complex experimental-numerical-analytical model for estimating the effective friction coefficient on contact of the bobbin tool and welding plates during welding, considering the temperature at the contact as the most influencing parameter on friction. The estimation criterion is the correspondence of the experimental temperature and temperature from the numerical model. The estimation procedure is iterative and parametric - the heat transport parameters and friction coefficient are adapted during the estimation procedure in a realistic manner to achieve relative difference between experimental and model’s temperature lower than 3%. The results show that friction coefficient varies from 0.01 to 0.21 for steel-aluminium alloy contact and temperature range from 406°C to 22°C.

  8. Thermal activation in boundary lubricated friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, P.C. [Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab. and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabinowicz, E. [Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab. and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab. and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The friction coefficients for copper pairs lubricated with fatty acids and fluorinated fatty acids have been measured over a wide range of sliding speeds and temperatures. Sliding speeds in the range 10{sup -7}-10{sup -2} m s{sup -1} and temperatures in the range 4.2-300 K were used. The friction coefficients near 300 K are generally low and increase with sliding speed, while the friction coefficients at low temperatures are markedly higher and relatively independent of velocity. Each lubricant`s friction vs. velocity behavior over the temperature range 150-300 K can be described by a friction-velocity master curve derived from a thermal activation model for the lubricant`s shear strength. The activation energies deduced from this friction model are identical to those obtained in the same temperature range for a vibrational mode associated with low temperature mechanical relaxations in similarly structured polymers. These results suggest that thermally activated interfacial shear is responsible for the fatty acids` positive-sloped friction vs. velocity characteristics at low sliding speeds near room temperature. (orig.)

  9. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  10. Assessment of semi-active friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Braga; Coelho, Humberto Tronconi; Lepore Neto, Francisco Paulo; Mafhoud, Jarir

    2017-09-01

    The use of friction dampers has been widely proposed for a variety of mechanical systems for which applying viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or other viscous dampers is impossible. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades' vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive manner, but significant improvements can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the contact region. The aim of this paper is to present and study five control strategies for friction dampers based on three different hysteresis cycles by using the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM), a numerical and experimental analysis. The first control strategy uses the friction force as a resistance when the system is deviating from its equilibrium position. The second control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle by calculating the optimal normal force based on the last displacement peak. The third control strategy combines the first strategy with the homogenous modulation of the friction force. Finally, the last two strategies attempt to predict the system's movement based on its velocity and acceleration and our knowledge of its physical properties. Numerical and experimental studies are performed with these five strategies, which define the performance metrics. The experimental testing rig is fully identified and its parameters are used for numerical simulations. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance of the friction damper and selected strategy and the suitable agreement between the numerical and experimental results.

  11. Receiver function structures beneath the deep large faults in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuzhang; Zhou, Yuanze; Zhang, YuanSheng; Mei, Xiuping; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Xuzhou; Qin, Manzhong; Wei, Congxin; Li, Cuiqin

    2014-01-01

    Using the teleseismic P- and S-wave receiver functions of the dense linear temporary seismic array, the crust and uppermost mantle structures beneath the deep large faults in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau were imaged. The images of the first converted wave and the multiples indicated that the North Fault Zone of West Qinling (NWQ) Mountain and Diebu-Lueyang (DBL) faults cut the Mohorovicic (Moho) Discontinuity and cause an obvious difference feature for the Moho in the two sides of the faults. The higher Vp/Vs ratio and lower velocity layer is found beneath the west portion of the array near the Tibetan Plateau, which implies a lower crust channel flow coming from the Tibetan Plateau. The weak Moho and higher Vp/Vs ratio beneath the eastern portion of the array near the Ordos suggest the upwelling of the hot mantle material. The results also indicate an obvious deformation in the upper crust with the lower Vp/Vs ratio beneath the middle of the array. Such upper crust deformation is closely related to the topography of the surface; therefore, we deduce that the deformation of the brittle upper crust is accompanied by the formation of the local topography during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, which is also the primary reason for the active seismicity in the study region. The deformation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) can also be associated with the formation of the diapir caused by the upwelling hot materials in the upper mantle due to the uprising of the thrusting plate caused by the subduction of the India Plate. The existence of the lower crust channel flow, the crust shortening, and the mantle diapir in the local region simultaneously implies that the elevation and formation of the Tibetan Plateau cannot be explained with a single model. The higher resolution results for the crust and the mantle, especially beneath the block boundary region, are necessary to construct the completed geodynamic model to understand the formation

  12. MM99.70 - MODELS FOR FRICTION AND MATERIAL STRESS STRAIN HARDENING IN COLD FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    and tool temperature for four different combination of basic material, conversion layer and lubricant. Furthermore flow stress curves for aluminium, steel and stainless steel are given at varying slug temperatures in the range which can be reached in cold forming (25-200C).The documentation is divided......The purpose of the present documentation is to provide the necessary information for numerical simulation of cold forging operations applying the new friction model based on simulative testing as described in /1/..The documentation describes how the friction stress depends on the surface pressure...

  13. Contact-line friction of liquid drops on self-assembled monolayers: chain-length effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voué, M; Rioboo, R; Adao, M H; Conti, J; Bondar, A I; Ivanov, D A; Blake, T D; De Coninck, J

    2007-04-24

    The static and dynamic wetting properties of self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers of increasing chain length were studied. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction on the microscopic scale. Although the surfaces had a similar static wettability, the coefficient of contact-line friction zeta0 increased linearly with alkyl chain length. This result supports the hypothesis of energy dissipation due to a local deformation of the nanometer-thick layer at the contact line.

  14. Effect of Nano Oil Additive Proportions on Friction and Wear Performance of Automotive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vadiraj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nano boric acid and nano copper based engine and transmission oil additives in different volume ratios (1:10, 2:10, and 3:10 on friction and wear performance of cast iron and case carburized gear steel has been investigated. The results show that coefficient of friction increases with increase in volume ratio of engine oil additives and decreases with increasing in volume ratio of transmission oil additives. Cast iron substrate shows higher wear damage than case carburized gear steel. Nano copper additive with crystalline atomic structure shows more severe three body wear compared to boric acid with layered lattice structure.

  15. A one-dimensional model of solid-earth electrical resistivity beneath Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Cletus; Love, Jeffrey J.; Pedrie, Kolby; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2015-11-19

    An estimated one-dimensional layered model of electrical resistivity beneath Florida was developed from published geological and geophysical information. The resistivity of each layer is represented by plausible upper and lower bounds as well as a geometric mean resistivity. Corresponding impedance transfer functions, Schmucker-Weidelt transfer functions, apparent resistivity, and phase responses are calculated for inducing geomagnetic frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 100 hertz. The resulting one-dimensional model and response functions can be used to make general estimates of time-varying electric fields associated with geomagnetic storms such as might represent induction hazards for electric-power grid operation. The plausible upper- and lower-bound resistivity structures show the uncertainty, giving a wide range of plausible time-varying electric fields.

  16. Precambrian crust beneath the Mesozoic northern Canadian Cordillera discovered by Lithoprobe seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick A.; Clowes, Ronald M.; Snyder, David B.; van der Velden, Arie J.; Hall, Kevin W.; Erdmer, Philippe; Evenchick, Carol A.

    2004-04-01

    -British Columbia border, a reflection dips eastward from ˜14.0 s to ˜21.0 s (˜45 to 73 km depth) beneath exposed Eocene magmatic rocks. It is interpreted as a relict subduction surface of the Kula plate. Our interpretation of Proterozoic layered rocks beneath most of the northern Cordillera suggests a much different crustal structure than previously considered: (1) Ancient North American crust comprising up to 25 km of metamorphosed Proterozoic to Paleozoic sediments plus 5-10 km of pre-1.8 Ga crystalline basement projects westward beneath most of the northern Canadian Cordillera. (2) The lateral (500 km by at least 1000 km) and vertical (up to 25 km) extent of the Proterozoic layers and their internal deformation are consistent with a long-lived margin for northwestern North America with alternating episodes of extension and contraction. (3) The detachments that carry deformed rocks of the Mackenzie Mountains and northern Rocky Mountains are largely confined to the upper crustal region above the layering. (4) Accreted terranes include thin klippen that were thrust over North American pericratonic strata (e.g., Yukon-Tanana), and terranes such as Nisling and Stikinia that thicken westward as the underlying Proterozoic layers taper and disappear. (5) The ages of exposed rocks are not necessarily indicative of the ages of underlying crust, a frequent observation in Lithoprobe interpretations, so that estimates of crustal growth based on surface geology may not be representative.

  17. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  18. An inquiry-based laboratory on friction

    CERN Document Server

    Montalbano, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Sliding friction is usually introduced in high school, but rarely through activities in laboratory. A qualitative introduction to friction is presented by proposing exploration of different kind of materials in order to suggest which aspects can be relevant and which interaction is involved. Different quantitative experiments are proposed for studying Leonardo's laws for friction. The learning path was tested with two high school classes during an instruction trip at department. Students were engaged in the inquiry-based introductory activity and seemed to realize with care the measurements. However, the analysis of their reports shows some learning difficulties.

  19. Methods and Devices used to Measure Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, Jack; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    The physical condition at the work-piece/die boundary, in both bulk forming and sheet forming is, arguably, the single most important physical parameter influencing the processing of metals, yet it remains the least understood. Hence the need for basic research into metal-die interface mechanisms....... To gain a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure friction-stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods, which have...

  20. Forming of aluminium alloy friction stir welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The present paper aims at investigating, through analytical models, numerical models and experiments, the effect of the warm deformation phase, realised with an in temperature upsetting, on the weld previously performed by friction stir lap welding on aluminium alloy blanks. The investigation allows to show the deformation zones after upsetting that determine the homogenisation of the weld section. The analytical model allows to relate the friction factor with the upsetting load. The presence on the weld of not elevated friction factor values determines the deformation and localisation levels very useful for the weld. Such methodology allows to improve the weld itself with the forming phase.

  1. Study on the Friction Coefficient in Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The friction between the abrasive grains and workpi ec e is a crutial factor determining the main grinding output. Few studies have bee n carried out investigating the values of the friction coefficient in grinding, due to the difficulty of direct measurement. In this paper, a mathematical model of the friction coefficient in grinding has been established with the aid of a new grinding parameter C ge, which has close relations to wheel wear rate Z s, metal removal rate Z w, specific energy u and gr...

  2. Autonomous ocean observations beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Jacobs, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warm circumpolar deep water reaching 3.5ºC above the in situ freezing point pervasively fills a network of glacially carved troughs in the Amundsen sea, West Antarctica, and melts and thins neighbouring ice shelves, including Pine Island glacier Ice Shelf (PIIS). Hydrographic, current, and microstructure observations obtained in austral summer 2009 and 2014 by an autonomous underwater vehicle beneath the PIIS are used here to detail the complex ice-ocean interaction and resulting ocean circulation. The theoretical schematic of deeply incoming warm and saline water melting the grounding line and generating a buoyant plume upwelling along the ice draft is generally consistent with observations. The cavity beneath PIIS is clearly divided in two by a seabed ridge, constraining the oceanic circulation and water masses distribution. On the seaward side of the ridge, a thick warm deep water layer circulates cyclonically and is overlaid by a thin meltwater layer. Only intermediate depth waters are allowed to overflow from the ridge top into the inner cavity, where a much thinner warm water layer is now overlaid by a thicker meltwater layer. At the ice/ocean interface, melt induced freshening is forcing an upwelling which in turn injects cyclonic vorticity and participates in creating a vigorous cyclonic recirculation in the inner cavity. The top of the ridge, where warm waters overflow in the inner cavity, is a dynamical boundary characterized by northward along-ridge currents up to 0.2 m/s and enhanced shear, thermal gradient, and mixing. Observations at two points at the ice interface indicate that the ocean remains stratified within 2 meters of the ice.

  3. High friction and low wear properties of laser-textured ceramic surface under dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Wu, Ze; Wu, Fengfang

    2017-08-01

    Two kinds of grooved textures with different spacing were fabricated on Al2O3/TiC ceramic surface by an Nd:YAG laser. The dry tribological properties of the textured samples were investigated by carrying out unidirectional rotary sliding friction and wear tests using a ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the laser textured samples exhibit higher friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance compared with the smooth sample under dry friction conditions. Furthermore, the texture morphology and spacing have a significant influence on the tribological properties. The sample with small texture spacing may be beneficial to increasing the friction coefficient, and the wavy-grooved sample exhibits the highest friction coefficient and shallowest wear depth. The increasing friction coefficient and anti-wear properties are attributed to the combined effects of the increased surface roughness, reduced real contact area, micro-cutting effect by the texture edges and entrapment of wear debris.

  4. On the frictional (in) stability of clay-bearing faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violay, M.; Orellana, F.; Scuderi, M. M.; Collettini, C.

    2016-12-01

    Opalinus clay (OPA) is shale rock studied under the context of deep geological disposal by The Mont Terri Laboratory research program in Switzerland. Despite its favorable hydro-mechanical properties, the presence of a large tectonic fault system intersecting the rock formation arises questions over the long-term safety performance of a nuclear waste repository, in terms of possible leakages and the possibility of earthquakes triggered by fault instability. To study the frictional stability of OPA, we have performed velocity steps (1-300 μm/s) and slide-hold-slide tests (1-10000 s) on simulated gouge and intact samples - sheared parallel and perpendicular to foliation - at different normal stresses (4 - 30 MPa). To understand the deformation mechanisms, we have analyzed the microstructures of the sheared samples trough optical and SE microscopy. Results reported peak and steady state friction values ranging from 0.21 to 0.52 and from 0.14 to 0.39 respectively. Consistently, samples with well-developed layering showed lower friction values than gouge samples even though they have the same mineralogical composition. At all normal stresses, velocity dependence tests on gouge showed a velocity strengthening regime, whereas, intact samples developed both velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening regimes. Finally, we have recorded near zero healing values for both intact and powdered samples at different normal stress. However, a complex evolution from negative to positive frictional healing rate, with an inflexion holding time of 300 s, has been observed. In conclusion, our data suggests that both the velocity strengthening regime and the near zero healing for the simulated gouge, are consistent with aseismic creep. We have also reported the possibility of unstable sliding outside the fault core accompanied by low capacity of contact regeneration, and low capacity to sustain future stress drops compared to evidence showed by experiments on simulated gouge. Moreover

  5. Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional torque increases to a maximum of 1.273 times the frictional torque at zero wear.

  6. The macrostructure of Al-40Sn alloy and its tribological properties under dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, N. M.; Skorentsev, A. L.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The tribological properties of sintered Al-40Sn alloy under dry friction were studied. Before the tests, the samples were treated by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via routes A and C. The initial cellular structure of the sintered two-phase alloy restored after each even pressing with route C and transformed into the layered one in the case of route A. The thickness of the interlayers diminished with every pressing with route A. Due to thinning, Al interlayers could bend under the action of friction force oriented perpendicularly to them. As a result of the bending, the thickness of deformed subsurface layer increased, and the wear intensity of the samples with layered structure decreased.

  7. Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J, E-mail: yovany@unizar.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-07

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. (paper)

  8. Shell Galaxies, Dynamical Friction, and Dwarf Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrova, Ivana; Canalizo, Gabriela; Bennert, Nicola; Jilkova, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Using N-body simulations of shell galaxies created in nearly radial minor mergers, we investigate the error of collision dating, resulting from the neglect of dynamical friction and of gradual disruption of the cannibalized dwarf.

  9. Frictional Sliding without Geometrical Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldam, Michael; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Svetlizky, Ilya; Brener, Efim A.; Fineberg, Jay; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of frictional interfaces plays an important role in many physical systems spanning a broad range of scales. It is well known that frictional interfaces separating two dissimilar materials couple interfacial slip and normal stress variations, a coupling that has major implications on their stability, failure mechanism, and rupture directionality. In contrast, it is traditionally assumed that interfaces separating identical materials do not feature such a coupling because of symmetry considerations. We show, combining theory and experiments, that interfaces that separate bodies made of macroscopically identical materials but lack geometrical reflection symmetry generically feature such a coupling. We discuss two applications of this novel feature. First, we show that it accounts for a distinct, and previously unexplained, experimentally observed weakening effect in frictional cracks. Second, we demonstrate that it can destabilize frictional sliding, which is otherwise stable. The emerging framework is expected to find applications in a broad range of systems.

  10. Frictional sliding with geometrically broken reflection symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aldam, Michael; Svetlizky, Ilya; Brener, Efim A; Fineberg, Jay; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of frictional interfaces play an important role in many physical systems spanning a broad range of scales. It is well-known that frictional interfaces separating two dissimilar materials couple interfacial slip and normal stress variations, a coupling that has major implications on their stability, failure mechanism and rupture directionality. In contrast, interfaces separating identical materials are traditionally assumed not to feature such a coupling due to symmetry considerations. We show, combining theory and experiments, that interfaces which separate bodies made of identical materials, but lack geometric reflection symmetry, generically feature such a coupling. We discuss two applications of this novel feature. First, we show that it accounts for a distinct and previously unexplained weakening effect in frictional cracks observed experimentally. Second, we demonstrate that it can destabilize frictional sliding which is otherwise stable. The emerging framework is expected to find applicatio...

  11. Torque Control of Friction Stir Welding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Longhurst Engineering, PLC and Vanderbilt University propose the innovation of torque control of friction stir welding (FSW) as a replacement to force control of...

  12. Transient effects in friction fractal asperity creep

    CERN Document Server

    Goedecke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Transient friction effects determine the behavior of a wide class of mechatronic systems. Classic examples are squealing brakes, stiction in robotic arms, or stick-slip in linear drives. To properly design and understand mechatronic systems of this type, good quantitative models of transient friction effects are of primary interest. The theory developed in this book approaches this problem bottom-up, by deriving the behavior of macroscopic friction surfaces from the microscopic surface physics. The model is based on two assumptions: First, rough surfaces are inherently fractal, exhibiting roughness on a wide range of scales. Second, transient friction effects are caused by creep enlargement of the real area of contact between two bodies. This work demonstrates the results of extensive Finite Element analyses of the creep behavior of surface asperities, and proposes a generalized multi-scale area iteration for calculating the time-dependent real contact between two bodies. The toolset is then demonstrated both...

  13. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  14. Composites materials for friction and braking application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, A. L.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.; Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Josan, A.

    2017-05-01

    The brake pads are an important component in the braking system of automotive. Materials used for brake pads should have stable and reliable frictional and wear properties under varying conditions of load, velocity, temperature and high durability. These factors must be satisfied simultaneously which makes it difficult to select effective brake pads material. The paper presents the results of the study for characterisation of the friction product used for automotive brake pads. In the study it was developed four frictional composites by using different percentages of coconut fibres (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) reinforcement in aluminium matrix. The new composites tested in the laboratory, modelling appropriate percentage ratio between matrix and reinforcement volume and can be obtained with low density, high hardness properties, good thermal stability, higher ability to hold the compressive force and have a stable friction coefficient. These characteristics make them useful in automotive industry.

  15. Friction and friction-generated temperature at a polymer-metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results of friction and thermal tests of molded polyimide and pyrrone polymers are presented. The coefficient of sliding friction up to surface velocities of 2 m/sec and the coefficient of thermal expansion from 300 to 500 K were measured. An apparatus was constructed to measure simultaneously the coefficient of sliding friction and the friction-generated temperature. Measurements were made at a nominal pressure-velocity product of 0.25 MN/msec and at temperatures between 300 and 500 K.

  16. A review of dynamics modelling of friction wedge suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Sun, Yan Quan

    2014-11-01

    Three-piece bogies with friction wedge suspensions are the most widely used bogies in heavy haul trains. Fiction wedge suspensions play a key role in these wagon systems. This article reviews current techniques in dynamic modelling of friction wedge suspension with various motivations: to improve dynamic models of friction wedge suspensions so as to improve general wagon dynamics simulations; to seek better friction wedge suspension models for wagon stability assessments in complex train systems; to improve the modelling of other friction devices, such as friction draft gear. Relevant theories and friction wedge suspension models developed by using commercial simulation packages and in-house simulation packages are reviewed.

  17. Experimental study of error sources in skin-friction balance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to determine potential error sources in skin-friction balance measurements. A floating-element balance, large enough to contain the instrumentation needed to systematically investigate these error sources has been constructed and tested in the thick turbulent boundary layer on the sidewall of a large supersonic wind tunnel. Test variables include element-to-case misalignment, gap size, and Reynolds number. The effects of these variables on the friction, lip, and normal forces have been analyzed. It was found that larger gap sizes were preferable to smaller ones; that small element recession below the surrounding test surface produced errors comparable to the same amount of protrusion above the test surface; and that normal forces on the element were, in some cases, large compared to the friction force.

  18. Mantle discontinuities beneath Izu-Bonin and the implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧绍先; 周元泽; 蒋志勇

    2003-01-01

    The SdP, pdP and sdP phases are picked up with the Nth root slant stack method from the digital waveform data recorded by the networks and arrays in USA, Germany and Switzerland for the earthquakes occurring beneath Izu-Bonin and Japan Sea. The mantle discontinuities and the effects of subducting slab on the 660 km and 410 km discontinuities are studied. It is found that there are mantle discontinuities existing at the depths of 170, 220, 300, 410, 660, 850 and 1150 km. Beneath Izu-Bonin, the 410 km discontinuity is elevated, while the 660 km discontinuity is depressed; for both discontinuities, there are regionalized differences. Beneath Japan Sea, however, there is no depth variation of the 410 km discontinuity, and the 660 km discontinuity is depressed without obvious effect of the subducting slab.

  19. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Yong Chae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Murray [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Sanderson, Samuel [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Larsen, Steve [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Steel, Russel [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Fleck, Dale [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Fairchild, Doug P [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC), Houston, TX (United States); Wasson, Andrew J [ExxonMobil, Upstream Research Company (URC), Houston, TX (United States); Babb, Jon [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States); Higgins, Paul [MegaStir Technologies LLC, Orem, UT (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  20. Linearization of friction effects in vibration of two rotating blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajžman M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of friction effects in blade shrouding which are realized by means of friction elements placed between blades. In order to develop a methodology of modelling, two blades with one friction element in between are considered only. Flexible blades fixed to a rotating disc are discretized by FEM using 1D Rayleigh beam elements derived in rotating space as well as the friction element modelled as a rigid body. The blades and the friction element are connected through two concurrent friction planes, where the friction forces arise on the basis of centrifugal force acting on the friction element. The linearization of friction is performed using the harmonic balance method to determine equivalent damping coefficients in dependence on the amplitudes of relative slip motion between the blades and the friction element. The methodology is applied to a model of two real blades and will be extended for the whole bladed disc with shrouding.

  1. Comparisons of friction models in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    A friction model is one of the key input boundary conditions in finite element simulations. It is said that the friction model plays an important role in controlling the accuracy of necessary output results predicted. Among the various friction models, which one is of higher accuracy is still...... unknown and controversial. In this paper, finite element analyses applying five different friction models to experiments of upsetting of AA 6082 lubricated with four lubricants are presented. Frictional parameter values are determined by fitness of data of friction area ratio from finite element analysis...... to experimental results. It is found that calibration curves of the friction area ratio for all of the five chosen friction models used in the finite element simulation do fit the experimental results. Usually, calbration curves of the friction area ratio are more sensitive to friction at the tool...

  2. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  3. THE FRICTION OF QUARTZ IN HIGH VACUUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    the effects of surface cleanliness . Ultra-high vacuums (to 10 to the minus 10th power torr) and high temperatures (to 350 deg C) were combined with...chemical cleaning and careful handling techniques to produce the maximum surface cleanliness . The coefficient of static friction under varying...on 30-40 mesh glass balls. The coefficient of friction of smooth quartz was found to vary from 0.1 to 1.0 depending on the surface cleanliness . The

  4. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin E.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetallic compounds. Because of the significant influence that intermetallic compound formation has on mechanical and ballistic behavior, the characterization of the specific intermetallic phases and the degree to which they are formed in the weld microstructure is critical to predicting weld performance. This study used electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Vickers micro-hardness indentation to explore and characterize the microstructures of lap friction stir welds between an applique 6061-T6 aluminum armor plate alloy and a RHA homogeneous armor plate steel alloy. Macroscopic defects such as micro-cracks were observed in the cross-sectional samples, and binary intermetallic compound layers were found to exist at the aluminum-steel interfaces of the steel particles stirred into the aluminum weld matrix and across the interfaces of the weld joints. Energy dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis identified the intermetallic layer as monoclinic Al3Fe. Dramatic decreases in grain size in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and weld zones that evidenced grain refinement through plastic deformation and recrystallization. Crystallographic grain orientation and texture were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. Striated regions in the orientations of the aluminum alloy were determined to be the result of the severe deformation induced by the complex weld tool geometry. Many of the textures observed in the weld

  5. Structure and friction of stearic acid and oleic acid films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces in squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Michael; Warrens, Chris P; Camp, Philip J

    2014-01-14

    The structure and friction of fatty acid surfactant films adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces lubricated by squalane are examined using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The structures of stearic acid and oleic acid films under static and shear conditions, and at various surface coverages, are described in detail, and the effects of unsaturation in the tail group are highlighted. At high surface coverage, the measured properties of stearic acid and oleic acid films are seen to be very similar. At low and intermediate surface coverages, the presence of a double bond, as in oleic acid, is seen to give rise to less penetration of lubricant in to the surfactant film and less layering of the lubricant near to the film. The kinetic friction coefficient is measured as a function of shear rate within the hydrodynamic (high shear rate) lubrication regime. Lubricant penetration and layering are observed to be correlated with friction coefficient. The friction coefficient with oleic acid depends only weakly on surface coverage, while stearic acid admits more lubricant penetration, and its friction coefficient increases significantly with decreasing surface coverage. Connections between film structure and friction are discussed.

  6. Effects of friction on forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, Luke A. K.; Tran, Chuong V.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale dissipation mechanisms have been routinely employed in numerical simulations of two-dimensional turbulence to absorb energy at large scales, presumably mimicking the quasisteady picture of Kraichnan in an unbounded fluid. Here, “side effects” of such a mechanism—mechanical friction—on the small-scale dynamics of forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence are elaborated by both theoretical and numerical analysis. Given a positive friction coefficient α, viscous dissipation of enstrophy has been known to vanish in the inviscid limit ν→0. This effectively renders the scale-neutral friction the only mechanism responsible for enstrophy dissipation in that limit. The resulting dynamical picture is that the classical enstrophy inertial range becomes a dissipation range in which the dissipation of enstrophy by friction mainly occurs. For each α>0, there exists a critical viscosity νc, which depends on physical parameters, separating the regimes of predominant viscous and frictional dissipation of enstrophy. It is found that νc=[η'1/3/(Ckf2)]exp[-η'1/3/(Cα)], where η' is half the enstrophy injection rate, kf is the forcing wave number, and C is a nondimensional constant (the Kraichnan-Batchelor constant). The present results have important theoretical and practical implications. Apparently, mechanical friction is a poor choice in numerical attempts to address fundamental issues concerning the direct enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence. Furthermore, as relatively strong friction naturally occurs on the surfaces and at lateral boundaries of experimental fluids as well as at the interfaces of shallow layers in geophysical fluid models, the frictional effects discussed in this study are crucial in understanding the dynamics of these systems.

  7. Network-Configurations of Dynamic Friction Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, H O

    2012-01-01

    The complex configurations of dynamic friction patterns-regarding real time contact areas- are transformed into appropriate networks. With this transformation of a system to network space, many properties can be inferred about the structure and dynamics of the system. Here, we analyze the dynamics of static friction, i.e. nucleation processes, with respect to "friction networks". We show that networks can successfully capture the crack-like shear ruptures and possible corresponding acoustic features. We found that the fraction of triangles remarkably scales with the detachment fronts. There is a universal power law between nodes' degree and motifs frequency (for triangles, it reads T(k)\\proptok{\\beta} ({\\beta} \\approx2\\pm0.4)). We confirmed the obtained universality in aperture-based friction networks. Based on the achieved results, we extracted a possible friction law in terms of network parameters and compared it with the rate and state friction laws. In particular, the evolutions of loops are scaled with p...

  8. Role of Friction in Cold Ring Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He YANG; Lianggang GUO; Mei ZHAN

    2005-01-01

    Cold ring rolling is an advanced but complex metal forming process under coupled effects with multi-factors, such as geometry sizes of rolls and ring blank, material, forming process parameters and friction, etc. Among these factors,friction between rolls and ring blank plays animportant role in keeping the stable forming of cold ring rolling. An analytical method was firstly presented for proximately determining the critical friction coefficient of stable forming and then a method was proposed to determine thecritical friction coefficient by combining analytical method with numerical simulation. And the influence of friction coefficient on the quality of end-plane and side spread of ring,rolling force, rolling moment and metal flow characteristic in the cold ring rolling process have been explored using the three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation based on the elastic-plastic dynamic finite element method (FEM)under the ABAQUS software environment, and the results show that increasing the friction on the contact surfaces between rolls and ring blank is useful not only for improving the stability of cold ring rolling but also for improving the geometry and dimension precision of deformed ring.

  9. Methods and devices used to measure friction in rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, J.; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure frictional stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods that have been used...... to measure friction in rolling in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs that can now be used to measure friction both in production situations and for research purposes....

  10. Numerical implementation of a state variable model for friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzekwa, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Boyce, D.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A general state variable model for friction has been incorporated into a finite element code for viscoplasticity. A contact area evolution model is used in a finite element model of a sheet forming friction test. The results show that a state variable model can be used to capture complex friction behavior in metal forming simulations. It is proposed that simulations can play an important role in the analysis of friction experiments and the development of friction models.

  11. Nano-Sized Grain Refinement Using Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    friction stir weld is a very fine grain microstructure produced as a result of dynamic recrystallization. The friction stir ... Friction Stir Processing, Magnesium, Nano-size grains Abstract A key characteristic of a friction stir weld is a very fine grain microstructure...state process developed on the basis of the friction stir welding (FSW) technique invented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991 [2]. During

  12. Seismic imaging of the downwelling Indian lithosphere beneath central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Frederik; Ni, James

    2003-05-30

    A tomographic image of the upper mantle beneath central Tibet from INDEPTH data has revealed a subvertical high-velocity zone from approximately 100- to approximately 400-kilometers depth, located approximately south of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. We interpret this zone to be downwelling Indian mantle lithosphere. This additional lithosphere would account for the total amount of shortening in the Himalayas and Tibet. A consequence of this downwelling would be a deficit of asthenosphere, which should be balanced by an upwelling counterflow, and thus could explain the presence of warm mantle beneath north-central Tibet.

  13. Nonlinear friction characteristics between silica surfaces in high pH solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Elena; Kanda, Yoichi; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko

    2007-03-15

    Molecular-scale characteristics of friction forces between silica particles and silica wafers in aqueous solutions of the normal (pH 5.6) and high pH (pH 10.6) are investigated, using the lateral force measuring procedure of the atomic force microscope (AFM). Various significant differences of friction characteristics between solutions of normal and high pH's are found. In the case of solutions of normal pH, the friction force increases linearly with increasing loading force, as the Amonton's law for solid bodies indicates. However, in the case of high pH solutions, the increasing rate with the loading force is considerably reduced in the low loading region, but the value increases abruptly above a critical loading force to overcome the magnitude of friction force of normal pH above the region of very high loading. It is very interesting to know that this nonlinear force curve at high pH is independent of the atomic-scale roughness of surfaces, although the magnitude of friction is greatly influenced by the roughness in the case of normal pH. The reason why the friction at high pH is independent of the surface roughness is postulated to be due to the hairy-like layer formed on the silica surface. The existence of hairy-like layers at high pH is proven directly by the dynamic method of normal force measurements with AFM and the thickness is estimated to be at least ca. 1.3 nm.

  14. PIV-based investigation of the skin friction of the flow over random fibrous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Gheisari, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Finite Reynolds number (Reflow over fibrous medium inside a rectangular duct was studied using a planar 2D PIV system. Three different fibrous materials with different porosities were used. Fibrous material lined the bottom wall of the duct along the length of the duct. The flow regime for all tests was laminar, and measurements were all done when the flow reached a steady state. Error and uncertainty sources in the experiments were also discussed. Shear rates were estimated at the surface of the fibrous media. As a conclusion to this study skin friction factor were calculated at the interface of all fibrous media at selected Reynolds number. Then using power function, curve fits with the Cf = a/Re form were found which could closely correlate skin friction and Reynolds number. To weaken the effect of near-wall errors in estimated shear rates and consequently skin friction, an average of shear rate estimation in a layer with thickness of 5 mm was calculated which was used to calculate an average skin friction. Correlations of average skin friction with average Reynolds number were also presented.

  15. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J. N.; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  16. Tribo-chemical behavior of eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Cai, Z. B.; Peng, J. F.; Cao, B. B.; Jin, X. S.; Zhu, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The tribo-chemical behavior of the eutectoid steel during rolling contact friction is investigated via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The worn surface is divided into three zones: matrix zone (without friction), tribo-film zone (formed during friction) and delamination zone (tribo-film spalling). The different chemical states of atoms between those three zones and the air were investigated using the XPS analysis. The results showed that the matrix zone is composed of Fe2O3, FeO and metallic Fe, while the tribo-film and delamination zones only contain Fe2O3 and FeO. Where the tribo-film is formed, the absorptive ability of O and C atoms on the top 2-3 atomic layers is probably weakened, while the exposed fresh metal in the delamination zone tends to be continuously oxidized and form tribo-film. The tribo-chemical reaction in the delamination zone is more activated than that in the other two zones. The protective nature of the tribo-film probably maintains a low friction coefficient under rolling contact friction condition.

  17. A journey to the seismic low velocity zone beneath the ocean (Beno Gutenberg Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    The seismic low velocity zone (LVZ), first proposed by Beno Gutenberg, is an enigmatic layer of the Earth that has been drawing attention of earth scientists, most-likely because of its close association with the asthenosphere that enables plate motions in the plate tectonics context. "A journey to the LVZ", therefore, is equivalent to a journey to elucidate the lithosphere-asthenosphere system (LAS) beneath the ocean (at least that is what I mean by this title). Plate tectonics started as a theory of ocean basins nearly 50 years ago, but the mechanical details of how it works are still highly debated. It has been hampered partly by our inability to characterize the physical properties of the LAS beneath the ocean. I will discuss existing observational constraints, including our own results, on the physical properties of the LAS for normal oceanic regions, where plate tectonics is expected to present its simplest form. While a growing number of seismic data on land have provided remarkable advances in large scale pictures, seafloor observations have been shedding new light on the essential details. Particularly, recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire LAS, from the surface to a depth of 200km, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal), with deployments of 15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers for 1 2 years. We have thus succeeded to model the entire oceanic LAS without a priori assumption for the shallow-most structure, the assumption often made for the global surface wave tomography. I hope to convince the audience that we are now at an exciting stage that a large-scale array experiment in the ocean (e.g., Pacific Array: http://eri-ndc.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/PacificArray/) is becoming approachable to elucidate the enigma of the LVZ, thus the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, beneath the ocean.

  18. Evidence for high fluid/melt content beneath Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) from local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Seht, Malte Ibs-von; Klinge, Klaus; Reichert, Christian; Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.

    2011-09-01

    Within the KRAKMON project for multiparameter monitoring of Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), a network of temporary stations was installed on the islands of the Krakatau complex as well as in the surrounding areas of the Sunda Strait, Sumatra and Java. The network was operated from June 2005 until January 2006. More than 700 local events were recorded during this experiment, and travel times from these events were used to perform a tomographic inversion for P and S velocities and for the Vp/Vs ratio. In this study, special attention was paid to the validation of the computed model based on different tests, such as inversion of independent data subsets and synthetic modeling. Although the network configuration and the distribution of the events are not favorable for high-quality tomographic imaging, we have obtained some important and robust features which give information about sources of volcanic activity in the Krakatau complex. The most interesting feature of this study is a zone of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex. At depths down to 4 km depth we observe anticorrelation of higher P- and lower S-velocities that leads to Vp/Vs ratio higher than 2. This is a probable indicator of the presence of partially molten and/or with high fluid content material with a composition corresponding to deeper layers. It is important that the anomaly of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex appears to be separated in two parts at a depth of 5-6 km. This fits to results of geobarometric analysis that presume the existence of several levels of magma chambers beneath Anak Krakatau.

  19. Internally heated convection beneath a poor conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider convection in an internally heated layer of fluid that is bounded below by a perfect insulator and above by a poor conductor. The poorly conducting boundary is modelled by a fixed heat flux. Using solely analytical methods, we find linear and energy stability thresholds for the static state, and we construct a lower bound on the mean temperature that applies to all flows. The linear stability analysis yields a Rayleigh number above which the static state is linearly unstable ($R_L$), and the energy analysis yields a Rayleigh number below which it is globally stable ($R_E$). For various boundary conditions on the velocity, exact expressions for $R_L$ and $R_E$ are found using long-wavelength asymptotics. Each $R_E$ is strictly smaller than the corresponding $R_L$ but is within 1%. The lower bound on the mean temperature is proven for no-slip velocity boundary conditions using the background method. The bound guarantees that the mean temperature of the fluid, relative to that of the top boundary, gr...

  20. Anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath the Indian Ocean Geoid Low from ScS splitting measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Rao, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Singh, Arun

    2017-02-01

    The Indian Ocean Geoid Low (IOGL) to the south of Indian subcontinent is the world's largest geoid anomaly. In this study, we investigate the seismic anisotropy of the lowermost mantle beneath the IOGL by analyzing splitting of high-quality ScS phases corrected for source and receiver side upper mantle anisotropy. Results reveal significant anisotropy (˜1.01%) in the D'' layer. The observed fast axis polarization azimuths in the ray coordinate system indicate a TTI (transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry) style of anisotropy. Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO) deformation of the palaeo-subducted slabs experiencing high shear strain is a plausible explanation for the observed anisotropy beneath the IOGL.

  1. Experimental and microstructural investigations of frictional heating and fluidization in clay-rich fault gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, K.; Nakakoji, T.; Tsutsumi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Mature faults commonly contain a considerable amount of clay minerals in their core. The frictional properties and the co-seismic deformation mechanisms of clay-rich fault gouges are key controls of the co-seismic fault strength, rupture propagation, and tsunamigenesis in subduction zones. Recent microstructural observations of natural slip zones and high-velocity friction experiments on clay-rich fault gouges suggest that the clay-clast aggregates (CCA; the spherical aggregates defined by clasts surrounded by a cortex of concentric clay layer) and the grain size segregation could be new textural evidence for thermal pressurization associated with water vaporization and fluidization, respectively. However, the physical processes and frictional properties during the development of these textures remain not fully understood. We conducted friction experiments on clay-rich fault gouge taken from the megasplay fault zone in the Nankai subduction zone and examined the resulting microstructures. Friction experiments were conducted at a normal stress of 1.0 MPa and slip rates (V) of 0.0013-1.3 m/s under dry (room humidity) and wet (water saturated) conditions. In the dry tests at V=1.3 m/s, the peak friction of 0.6-0.7 decreases to the steady-state friction of 0.2, over slip weakening distances of ~10.9 m, which is closely correlated to gouge dilation. In contrast, there is no visible slip weakening in the dry tests at V=0.0013-0.13 m/s; friction coefficients remain high in the range of 0.6-0.9 until the end of the experiments and the gouge dilation is small or absent. However, CCA are observed in all dry tests, with their volume content in the fault gouge decreasing with a decrease in V. The calculated temperatures in the fault gouge during the experiments are lower than the temperature for water vaporization at 1.0 MPa (180°C) when V=0.0013-0.013 m/s. These results demonstrate that CCA are neither textural evidence of the reduction in frictional coefficient due to

  2. Is iliotibial band syndrome really a friction syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, John; Hayashi, Koji; Toumi, Hechmi; Lyons, Kathleen; Bydder, Graeme; Phillips, Nicola; Best, Thomas M; Benjamin, Mike

    2007-04-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is regarded as an overuse injury, common in runners and cyclists. It is believed to be associated with excessive friction between the tract and the lateral femoral epicondyle-friction which 'inflames' the tract or a bursa. This article highlights evidence which challenges these views. Basic anatomical principles of the ITB have been overlooked: (a) it is not a discrete structure, but a thickened part of the fascia lata which envelops the thigh, (b) it is connected to the linea aspera by an intermuscular septum and to the supracondylar region of the femur (including the epicondyle) by coarse, fibrous bands (which are not pathological adhesions) that are clearly visible by dissection or MRI and (c) a bursa is rarely present-but may be mistaken for the lateral recess of the knee. We would thus suggest that the ITB cannot create frictional forces by moving forwards and backwards over the epicondyle during flexion and extension of the knee. The perception of movement of the ITB across the epicondyle is an illusion because of changing tension in its anterior and posterior fibres. Nevertheless, slight medial-lateral movement is possible and we propose that ITB syndrome is caused by increased compression of a highly vascularised and innervated layer of fat and loose connective tissue that separates the ITB from the epicondyle. Our view is that ITB syndrome is related to impaired function of the hip musculature and that its resolution can only be properly achieved when the biomechanics of hip muscle function are properly addressed.

  3. Frictional transfer and the self-organization phenomenon in the friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, I. V.; Manturov, D. S.

    2017-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface structures formation in the process of metal-polymer frictional contact. IR spectroscopy methods have showed that the formation kinetics of a frictionally transferred film is determined by the adhesion of the composite components and the direction of the electric field at the contact.

  4. Frictional stability-permeability relationships for fractures in shales: Friction-Permeability Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Department of Geosciences, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Wang, Chaoyi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Ishibashi, Takuya [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Koriyama Japan; Fitts, Jeffrey P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey USA

    2017-01-01

    There is wide concern that fluid injection in the subsurface, such as for the stimulation of shale reservoirs or for geological CO2 sequestration (GCS), has the potential to induce seismicity that may change reservoir permeability due to fault slip. However, the impact of induced seismicity on fracture permeability evolution remains unclear due to the spectrum of modes of fault reactivation (e.g., stable versus unstable). As seismicity is controlled by the frictional response of fractures, we explore friction-stability-permeability relationships through the concurrent measurement of frictional and hydraulic properties of artificial fractures in Green River shale (GRS) and Opalinus shale (OPS). We observe that carbonate-rich GRS shows higher frictional strength but weak neutral frictional stability. The GRS fracture permeability declines during shearing while an increased sliding velocity reduces the rate of permeability decline. By comparison, the phyllosilicate-rich OPS has lower friction and strong stability while the fracture permeability is reduced due to the swelling behavior that dominates over the shearing induced permeability reduction. Hence, we conclude that the friction-stability-permeability relationship of a fracture is largely controlled by mineral composition and that shale mineral compositions with strong frictional stability may be particularly subject to permanent permeability reduction during fluid infiltration.

  5. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  6. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  7. Optimizing Geometry Mediated Skin Friction Drag on Riblet-Textured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth

    2016-11-01

    Micro-scale riblets have been shown to modify the skin friction drag on patterned surfaces. Shark skin is widely known as a natural example of this passive drag reduction mechanism and artificial riblet tapes have been previously used in the America's Cups tournament resulting in a 1987 victory. Previous experiments with riblet surfaces in turbulent boundary layer flow have shown 4-8% reduction in the skin friction drag. Our computations with sinusoidal riblet surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flow and experiments with V-grooves in laminar Taylor-Couette flow also show that the reduction in skin friction can be substantial and depends on the spacing and height of the riblets. In the boundary layer setting, this frictional reduction is also a function of the length of the plate in the flow direction, while in the Taylor Couette setting it depends on the gap size. In the current work, we use scaling arguments and conformal mapping to establish a simplified theory for laminar flow over V-groove riblets and explore the self-similarity of the velocity contours near the patterned surface. We combine these arguments with theoretical and numerical calculations using Matlab and OpenFOAM to show that the drag reduction achievable in laminar flow over riblet surfaces depends on a rescaled form of the Reynolds number combined with the aspect ratio of the texture (defined in terms of the ratio of the height to spacing of the riblets). We then use these results to explain the underlying physical mechanisms driving frictional drag reduction and offer recommendations for designing low drag surfaces.

  8. Window into the Caledonian orogen: Structure of the crust beneath the East Shetland platform, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; England, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Reprocessing and interpretation of commercial and deep seismic reflection data across the East Shetland platform and its North Sea margin provide a new view of crustal subbasement structure beneath a poorly known region of the British Caledonian orogen. The East Shetland platform, east of the Great Glen strike-slip fault system, is one of the few areas of the offshore British Caledonides that remained relatively insulated from the Mesozoic and later rifting that involved much of the area around the British Isles, thus providing an "acoustic window" into the deep structure of the orogen. Interpretation of the reflection data suggests that the crust beneath the platform retains a significant amount of its original Caledonian and older architecture. The upper to middle crust is typically poorly reflective except for individual prominent dipping reflectors with complex orientations that decrease in dip with depth and merge with a lower crustal layer of high reflectivity. The three-dimensional structural orientation of the reflectors beneath the East Shetland platform is at variance with Caledonian reflector trends observed elsewhere in the Caledonian orogen (e.g., north of the Scottish mainland), emphasizing the unique tectonic character of this part of the orogen. Upper to middle crustal reflectors are interpreted as Caledonian or older thrust surfaces that were possibly reactivated by Devonian extension associated with post-Caledonian orogenic collapse. The appearance of two levels of uneven and diffractive (i.e., corrugated) reflectivity in the lower crust, best developed on east-west-oriented profiles, is characteristic of the East Shetland platform. However, a north-south-oriented profile reveals an interpreted south-vergent folded and imbricated thrust structure in the lower crust that appears to be tied to the two levels of corrugated reflectivity on the east-west profiles. A thrust-belt origin for lower crustal reflectivity would explain its corrugated

  9. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20

  10. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  11. pH dependence of friction forces between silica surfaces in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Elena; Donose, Bogdan C; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko

    2006-05-01

    The pH dependence of the friction between a silica particle and a silica wafer was investigated using lateral force microscopy. Measurements were done in the range of 3.6 < or = pH < or = 10.6 and the effect of high loading force was also examined. It is found that the friction is independent of the pH of solutions and increases linearly with the applied load, when the pH is between 3.6 and 8.6. On the other hand, once the pH is above 9.0, the friction becomes extremely small and the dependence on the applied load becomes nonlinear. It is postulated that this transition is due to the development of a gel layer composed of polymer-like segments of silicilic acid anchored on the surface; at the lower applied load, this layer acts as a boundary lubricant between the surfaces, but, at the higher applied load, the entanglements of these segments and more direct contact between two solid surfaces leads to the increase of the friction. The effects found here are expected to play an important role in elucidating the basic mechanism of the planarization process of silica wafers.

  12. A relation between velocity-vorticity correlations and skin friction in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the skin friction and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient (Cf) is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The skin friction coefficient can be derived from the mean spanwise vorticity at the wall. Double integration with respect to the wall-normal direction (from 0 to y) is needed to derive Cf from the second derivative of the mean spanwise vorticity in the mean spanwise vorticity equation. One more integration is needed to find the contribution of each component to Cf from the wall to the boundary layer edge (from 0 to δ) . The present formula encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  13. Subduction beneath Eurasia in connection with the Mesozoic Tethys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spakman, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present new results concerning the existence and subduction of Meso-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle-East. The results arise from a large scale body wave tomographic analysis of the upper mantle in this region. It is sh

  14. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  16. New design and the manufacturing techniques of the main friction pair of frictional dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander GOLUBENKO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the main friction pair of the frictional oscillations damper of passenger car axle box stage suspension and its manufacturing techniques are described. The difference of the design of the main friction pair consists in replacement of a conicalcontact surface of the shpinton sleeve by a pyramidal surface as well as a cylindrical surface of the frictional slide block by a flat surface of the rectangular form. Technological ways of increase of strength and wear resistance were developed that allowed quantitatively to estimate a reserve of increase of strength and thermal wear resistance by methods of plastic deforming. With the purpose of increase of wear resistance and resource saving the new technology of producing the shpinton sleeve blank is offered by a method of cold die forging, and a frictional slide block – by hot dieforging.

  17. Mantle flow geometry from ridge to trench beneath the Gorda-Juan de Fuca plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Short, Robert; Allen, Richard M.; Bastow, Ian D.; Totten, Eoghan; Richards, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic plates are underlain by a low-viscosity mantle layer, the asthenosphere. Asthenospheric flow may be induced by the overriding plate or by deeper mantle convection. Shear strain due to this flow can be inferred using the directional dependence of seismic wave speeds--seismic anisotropy. However, isolation of asthenospheric signals is challenging; most seismometers are located on continents, whose complex structure influences the seismic waves en route to the surface. The Cascadia Initiative, an offshore seismometer deployment in the US Pacific Northwest, offers the opportunity to analyse seismic data recorded on simpler oceanic lithosphere. Here we use measurements of seismic anisotropy across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates to reconstruct patterns of asthenospheric mantle shear flow from the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge to the Cascadia subduction zone trench. We find that the direction of fastest seismic wave motion rotates with increasing distance from the mid-ocean ridge to become aligned with the direction of motion of the Juan de Fuca Plate, implying that this plate influences mantle flow. In contrast, asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the Gorda Plate does not align with Gorda Plate motion and instead aligns with the neighbouring Pacific Plate motion. These results show that asthenospheric flow beneath the small, slow-moving Gorda Plate is controlled largely by advection due to the much larger, faster-moving Pacific Plate.

  18. Torsional Vibrations of a Cantilever with Lateral Friction in a Resonance Friction Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Song; GE Yun; ZHANG Hui

    2012-01-01

    A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method. The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold, the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever. When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude, the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude. If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product, the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions. The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever, and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.%A model of fundamental torsional vibration of a cantilever with lateral friction is presented by using the harmonic balance method.The model demonstrates that the torsional vibration has close relations with the lateral friction threshold,the lateral contact stiffness and the torsional vibration amplitude of the cantilever.When the threshold is larger than a product of the stiffness and the vibration amplitude,the lateral friction is a linear force with the amplitude.If the lateral friction threshold is less than the product,the motions of the tip on the sample can be stick-slip or slip motions.The results are useful to optimize and to manipulate the fundamental flexural vibration of the piezo-cantilever,and give an insight into the tribological characterization of the interface in a resonance friction microscope.

  19. Three-dimensional shallow velocity structure beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shuei-Huei; Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Gung, Yuancheng; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-01

    Based on its numerous historical explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of millions, Taal Volcano is one of the most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. To provide better investigation on local seismicity and seismic structure beneath Taal Volcano, we deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of eight stations from March 2008 to March 2010. In the preliminary data processing stage, three periods showing linear time-drifting of internal clock were clearly identified from noise-derived empirical Green's functions. The time-drifting errors were corrected prior to further data analyses. By using VELEST, 2274 local earthquakes were manually picked and located. Two major earthquake groups are noticed, with one lying beneath the western shore of Taal Lake showing a linear feature, and the other spreading around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island at shallower depths. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using the LOTOS algorithm. Some interesting features are revealed from the tomographic results, including a solidified magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, indicated by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a large potential hydrothermal reservoir beneath the center of Taal Volcano Island, suggested by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Furthermore, combining earthquake distributions and tomographic images, we suggest potential existence of a hydrothermal reservoir beneath the southwestern corner of Taal Lake, and a fluid conduit extending to the northwest. These seismic features have never been proposed in previous studies, implying that new hydrothermal activity might be formed in places away from the historical craters on Taal Volcano Island.

  20. The elastic properties of the lithosphere beneath Scotian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Arkani-Hamed, Jafar

    2002-02-01

    To assess the possibility that the North Atlantic Ocean may subduct at Scotian basin east of Canada, we investigate the present compensation state of this deep basin. A Fourier domain analysis of the bathymetry, depth to basement and observed gravity anomalies over the oceanic area east of Nova Scotia indicates that the basin is not isostatically compensated. Moreover, the analysis emphasizes that in addition to the sediments, density perturbations exist beneath the basin. The load produced by the sediments and these density perturbations must have been supported by the lithosphere. We simulate the flexure of the lithosphere under this load by that of a thin elastic plate overlying an inviscid interior. It is shown that a plate with a uniform rigidity does not adequately represent the lithosphere beneath the basin as well as the oceanic lithosphere far from the basin, rather the rigidity of the lithosphere directly beneath the basin is about one to two orders of magnitude smaller than elsewhere. We relate this weakening to the thermal blanketing effects of the thick sediments and the fact that the lithosphere has a temperature-dependent rheology. We suggest that this weak zone would have a controlling effect on the reactivation of normal faults at the hinge zone of the basin, that were formed during the break-up of Africa and North America and were locked in the early stages after the break-up. The weak zone would facilitate reactivation of the faults if tensional stresses were produced by possible reorientation of the spreading direction of the North Atlantic Ocean in the future. The reactivation of the faults would create a free boundary condition at the hinge zone, allowing further bending of the lithosphere beneath the basin and juxtaposition of this lithosphere to the mantle beneath the continent. This may provide a favorable situation for initiation of slow subduction due to subsequent compressional forces.

  1. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  2. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...

  3. Friction characteristics of trocars in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazmani, Ali; Roshan, Rupesh; Jayne, David G; Neville, Anne; Culmer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates the friction characteristics of the instrument-trocar interface in laparoscopic surgery for varying linear instrument velocities, trocar seal design and material, and trocar tilt. Furthermore, the effect of applying lubrication at the instrument-trocar seal interface on friction was studied. A friction testing apparatus was designed and built to characterise the resistance force at the instrument-trocar interface as a function of the instrument's linear movement in the 12-mm trocar (at constant velocity) for different design, seal material, and angle of tilt. The resistance force depended on the trocar seal design and material properties, specifically surface roughness, elasticity, hardness, the direction of movement, and the instrument linear velocity, and varied between 0.25 and 8 N. Lubricating the shaft with silicone oil reduced the peak resistance force by 75% for all trocars and eliminated the stick-slip phenomenon evident in non-lubricated cases. The magnitude of fluctuation in resistance force depends on the trocar design and is attributed to stick-slip of the sealing mechanism and is generally higher during retraction in comparison to insertion. Trocars that have an inlet seal made of rubber/polyurethane showed higher resistance forces during retraction. Use of a lubricant significantly reduced frictional effects. Comparisons of the investigated trocars indicate that a low friction port, providing the surgeon with improved haptic feedback, can be designed by improving the tribological properties of the trocar seal interface.

  4. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching.

  5. Plastic flow pattern and its effect in friction stir welding of A2024 and A1060

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-jing; ZHANG Zhong-ke; LI Jing; DA Chao-bing

    2006-01-01

    During the friction stir welding (FSW), the property of the welding joint is highly affected by the plastic and viscous flow behavior of the softened material. The flow pattern of the welded material was examined through observing the microstructural distribution of friction stir welded joints between dissimilar 2024 and 1060 aluminum alloy. The experimental results show that the flow patterns of material at different locations in the weld are different and can be divided into four layers along the thickness direction: surface flow layer influenced by the shoulder of the tool, in which the material tends to flow as integrity; horizontal flow layer influenced by the surface flow layer, in which the material of surface flow layer enters and flows forwards under the advancing force of the tool; vertical flow layer (plastic flow area induced by stirring of the pin), in which the flow pattern is complex and onion rings can often be observed; unstirred bottom layer because of the length of the pin being shorter than the thickness of the plates. The effect of plastic flow on welding quality was further investigated. The study suggests that welding quantity is significantly influenced by the flow pattern and defects always appear in horizontally lamellar flow region because of the complex flow pattern.

  6. Friction and wear in polymer-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bely, V A; Petrokovets, M I

    1982-01-01

    Friction and Wear in Polymer-Based Materials discusses friction and wear problems in polymer-based materials. The book is organized into three parts. The chapters in Part I cover the basic laws of friction and wear in polymer-based materials. Topics covered include frictional interaction during metal-polymer contact and the influence of operating conditions on wear in polymers. The chapters in Part II discuss the structure and frictional properties of polymer-based materials; the mechanism of frictional transfer when a polymer comes into contact with polymers, metals, and other materials; and

  7. Benchmarking of direct and indirect friction tests in micro forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Calaon, Matteo; Arentoft, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sizeable increase in metal forming friction at micro scale, due to the existence of size effects, constitutes a barrier to the realization of industrial micro forming processes. In the quest for improved frictional conditions in micro scale forming operations, friction tests are applied...... to qualify the tribological performance of the particular forming scenario. In this work the application of a simulative sliding friction test at micro scale is studied. The test setup makes it possible to measure the coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding motion. The results confirm a sizeable...... increase in the coefficient of friction when the work piece size is scaled down. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications....

  8. Shear, Stability and Mixing within the Ice-Shelf-Ocean Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Ocean-forced basal melting has been implicated in the widespread thinning of Antarctic ice shelves that has been causally linked with acceleration in the outflow of grounded ice. What determines the distribution and rates of basal melting and freezing beneath an ice shelf and how these respond to changes in the ocean temperature or circulation are therefore key questions. Recent years have seen major progress in our ability to observe basal melting and the ocean conditions that drive it, but data on the latter remain sparse, limiting our understanding of the key processes of ice-ocean heat transfer. In particular, we have no observations of current profiles through the buoyancy- and frictionally-controlled flows along the ice shelf base that drive mixing through the ice-ocean boundary layer. This presentation represents an attempt to address this gap in our knowledge through application of a very simple model of such boundary flows that considers only the spatial dimension perpendicular to the boundary. Initial results obtained with an unrealistic assumuption of constant eddy viscosity/diffusivity are nevertheless informative. For the buoyancy-driven flow two possible regimes exist: a weakly-stratified, geostrophic cross-slope current with an embedded Ekman layer, somewhat analogous to a conventional density current on a slope; or a strongly-stratified upslope jet with weak cross-slope flow, more analogous to an inverted katabatic wind. The latter is most appropriate when the ice-ocean interface is very steep, while for the gentle slopes typical of ice shelves the buoyant Ekman regime prevails. Introduction of a variable eddy viscosity/diffusivity derived from a local turbulence closure scheme modifies the current structure and stratification. There is a sharp step in properties across the surface layer, where the viscosity/diffusivity is low, weak gradients across the outer part of the boundary layer, where shear-driven mixing is strong, and a relatively strong

  9. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  10. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  11. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  12. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  13. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build......-in piezoelectric torque transducer. This technique results in a very sensitive measurement of friction, which furthermore enables recording of lubricant film breakdown as function of drawing distance. The proposed test is validated in an experimental investigation of the influence of lubricant viscosity...

  14. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

    2012-11-07

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability.

  16. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  17. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  18. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  19. Elastic friction drive of surface acoustic wave motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi; Itoh, Hidenori; Asai, Katsuhiko

    2003-06-01

    Importance of elastic deformation control to obtain large output force with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is discussed in this paper. By adding pre-load to slider, stator and slider surfaces are deformed in a few tens nanometer. Appropriate deformation in normal direction against normal vibration displacement amplitude of SAW existed. By moderate deformation, the output force of the SAW motor was enlarged up to about 10 N and no-load speed was 0.7 m/s. To produce this performance, the transducer weight and slider size were only 4.2 g and 4 x 4 mm(2).By traveling wave propagation, surface particles of the SAW device move in elliptical motion. Due to the amplitude of the elliptical motion is 10 or 20 nm order, the contact condition of the slider is very critical. To control the contact condition, namely, the elastic deformation of the slider and stator surface in nanometer order, a lot of projections were fabricated on the slider surface. The projection diameter was 20 micro m. In static condition, the elastic deformation and stress were evaluated with the FEM analysis. From this calculation and the simulation result, it is consider that the wave crest is distorted, hence the elasticity has influence on the friction drive condition. Elastic deformation of the stator surface beneath the projection from the initial position were evaluated. In 4 x 4 mm(2) square area, the sliders had from 1089 to 23,409 projections. Depression was independent to the contact pressure. However, the output force depended on the depression although the projection density were different. From the view point of the output power of the motor, the proper depression was independent to the projection density. Around 25 nm depression, the output force and output power were maximized. This depression value was almost same as the vibration displacement amplitude of the stator transducer.

  20. Seismic structure of the lithosphere beneath the ocean islands near the mid-oceanic ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, C.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi

    2013-10-01

    Deciphering the seismic character of the young lithosphere near the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR) is a challenging endeavor. In this study, we determine the seismic structure of the oceanic plate near the MORs, using the P-to-s conversions isolated from good quality data recorded at 5 broadband seismological stations situated on the ocean Islands in their vicinity. Estimates of the crustal and lithospheric thickness values from waveform modeling of the P receiver function stacks reveal that the crustal thickness varies between 6 and 8 km with the corresponding depths to the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varying between 43 and 68 km. However, the depth to the LAB at Macquire Island is intriguing in view of the observation of a thick (~ 87 km) lithosphere beneath a relatively young crust. At three other stations i.e., Ascension Island, Sao Jorge and Easter Island, we find evidence for an additional deeper low velocity layer probably related to the presence of a hotspot.

  1. Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.

  2. An investigation into friction stir welding of copper niobium nanolamellar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Josef Benjamin

    The workpiece materials used in this study are CuNb nano-layered composites (NLC) which are produced in bulk form by accumulative roll bonding (ARB). CuNb NLC panels are of interest because of their increase in strength and radiation damage tolerance when compared to either of their bulk constituents. These increased properties stem from the bi-metal interface, and the nanometer length-scale of the layers. However to be commercially viable, methods to successfully join the ARB NLC which retain the layered structure panels are needed. Friction stir welding is investigated in this study as a possible joining method that can join the material while maintaining its layered structure and hence its properties. Mechanical properties of the weld were measured at a macro level using tensile testing, and at a local level via nano-indentation. The post weld layer structure was analyzed to provide insight into the flow paths. The grain orientation of the resulting weld nugget was also analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction and transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Results from this study show that the nano-layered structure can be maintained in the CuNb NLC by control of the friction stir welding parameters. The resulting microstructure is dependent on the strain experienced during the joining process. A variation in layer thickness reduction is correlated with increasing shear strain. Above a critical level of shear strain, the NLC microstructure was observed to fragment into equiaxed grains with a higher hardness than the NLC panels. Results from this study are also used to further the understanding of the material flow and hot working conditions experienced during the friction stir welding process.

  3. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S. (Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI); Street, Mark D. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the

  4. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution of crystallog......Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...

  5. Ratchet device with broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which is in ac......An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which...

  6. Analysis of nonlinear channel friction inverse problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Weiping; LIU Guohua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Backus-Gilbert inverse theory, the singular value decomposition (SVD) for general inverse matrices and the optimization algorithm are used to solve the channel friction inverse problem. The resolution and covari- ance friction inverse model in matrix form is developed to examine the reliability of solutions. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the convergence rate of the general Newton optimization algorithm is in the second-order. The Wiggins method is also incorporated into the algorithm. Using the method, noise can be suppressed effectively, and the results are close to accurate solutions with proper control parameters. Also, the numerical stability can be improved.

  7. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... and forces on piston rod. Since the frictional forces are small compared to the rest of the acting forces the main design idea is to fix the piston, while the cylinder liner moves. This approach makes it simple to measure the parameters mentioned above by putting the instrumentation in the piston....

  8. Frictional coupling between sliding and spinning motion

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Z; Unger, T; Wolf, D E; Farkas, Zeno; Bartels, Guido; Unger, Tamas; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2002-01-01

    We show that the friction force and torque, acting at a dry contact of two objects moving and rotating relative to each other, are inherently coupled. As a simple test system, a sliding and spinning disk on a horizontal flat surface is considered. We calculate, and also measure, how the disk is slowing down, and find that it always stops its sliding and spinning motion at the same moment. We discuss the impact of this coupling between friction force and torque on the physics of granular materials.

  9. Monomeric Friction Coefficient of Metalnanodispersible Polymeric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Kolupayev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of a nanodispersible metal excipient in number of 0    5,0 vol.% Cu for the size of a monomeric friction coefficient of polyvinylchloride (PVC systems in temperature range 298  Т  (Tg + 10 K is investigated. It is shown that various types of coordination movements of building blocks are described by a friction coefficient which serves as a measure of influence of external fields and ingredients on viscoelastic behavior of a composite. The analysis of processes of a relaxation on the basis of the theory of flexible chains taking into account power and entropic factors is carried out.

  10. Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system beneath the Rwenzori region of the Albertine Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, B.; Löbl, U.; Batte, A. G.; Link, K.; Kasereka, C. M.; Rümpker, G.

    2016-09-01

    Shear-wave splitting measurements from local and teleseismic earthquakes are used to investigate the seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath the Rwenzori region of the East African Rift system. At most stations, shear-wave splitting parameters obtained from individual earthquakes exhibit only minor variations with backazimuth. We therefore employ a joint inversion of SKS waveforms to derive hypothetical one-layer parameters. The corresponding fast polarizations are generally rift parallel and the average delay time is about 1 s. Shear phases from local events within the crust are characterized by an average delay time of 0.04 s. Delay times from local mantle earthquakes are in the range of 0.2 s. This observation suggests that the dominant source region for seismic anisotropy beneath the rift is located within the mantle. We use finite-frequency waveform modeling to test different models of anisotropy within the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the rift. The results show that the rift-parallel fast polarizations are consistent with horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI anisotropy) caused by rift-parallel magmatic intrusions or lenses located within the lithospheric mantle—as it would be expected during the early stages of continental rifting. Furthermore, the short-scale spatial variations in the fast polarizations observed in the southern part of the study area can be explained by effects due to sedimentary basins of low isotropic velocity in combination with a shift in the orientation of anisotropic fabrics in the upper mantle. A uniform anisotropic layer in relation to large-scale asthenospheric mantle flow is less consistent with the observed splitting parameters.

  11. Friction welding of AA6061 to AISI 4340 using silver interlayer

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh D. Meshram; G. Madhusudhan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The present work pertains to the study on joining of AA6061 and AISI 4340 through continuous drive friction welding. The welds were evaluated by metallographic examination, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, tensile test and microhardness. The study reveals that the presence of an intermetallic compound layer at the bonded interface exhibits poor tensile strength and elongation. Mg in AA6061 near to the interface is found to be favourable for the formation and growth of Fe2Al5 i...

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WE43 Alloy Produced Via Additive Friction Stir Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Jacob Rollie

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to save weight, transportation and aerospace industries have increasing investigated magnesium alloys because of their high strength-to-weight ratio. Further efforts to save on material use and machining time have focused on the use of additive manufacturing. However, anisotropic properties can be caused by both the HCP structure of magnesium alloys as well as by layered effects left by typical additive manufacturing processes. Additive Friction Stir (AFS) is a relatively new add...

  13. Determination of Actual Friction Factors in Metal Forming under Heavy Loaded Regimes Combining Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Camacho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tribological conditions can change drastically during heavy loaded regimes as experienced in metal forming; this is especially critical when lubrication can only be applied at the early stage of the process because the homogeneous lubricant layer can break along the die-workpiece interface. In these cases, adopting a constant friction factor for the lubricant-surface pair may not be a valid assumption. This paper presents a procedure based on the use of dual friction factor maps to determine friction factors employed in heavy loaded regimes. A finite element (FE simulation is used to obtain the friction factor map for the alloy UNS A96082. Experiments were conducted using four lubricants (aluminum anti-size, MoS2 grease, silicone oil, and copper paste to determine the actual friction curves. The experimental procedure is based on the application of lubricant only at the beginning of the first stage of ring compression, and not at intermediate stages as is usual in typical ring compression tests (RCTs. The results show that for small reductions (rh < 20%, the conventional RCT can be applied because the tribological conditions remain similar. For large reductions (rh > 20%, it is recommended to obtain an average value of the friction factor for every lubricant-surface pair in the range of deformation considered.

  14. Reduction in Friction and Wear of Alumina Surfaces as Assisted with Surface-Adsorbing Polymers in Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    electrostatic attraction and form a protective layer. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) showed a reduction in coefficient of friction by ca. 28% and wear rate by 50% at a concentration of 10 mg/mL in PBS solution compared to polymer-free buffer solution. This effect was comparable to reported lubricating...

  15. Bifurcations in Systems with Friction : Basic Models and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Examples of irregular behavior of dynamical systems with dry friction are discussed. A classification of frictional contacts with respect to their dimensionality, associativity, and the possibility of interruptions is proposed and basic models showing typical features are stated. In particular,

  16. Micromechanisms of friction and wear introduction to relativistic tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubimov, Dmitrij; Pinchuk, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    The modern vision of the micromechanism of friction and wear is explored, from the examination of ideal and real crystal structure and adhesion properties to the dynamics of solid frictional interaction. The fundamental quantum-mechanical and relativity principles of particle interaction are considered as basis of friction micro-process examination. The changes in solid structure originated from the influence of different kinds of force fields are considered. The principal possibility of relativity effect manifestation by friction is explained. The critical state of friction – triboplasma – was studied. Structural peculiarities of triboplasma, the kinetics of its transformation during frictional interaction as well as the influence of plasma and postplasma processes on tribojunction friction characteristics and complex formation by friction were examined. The book addresses to tribology researchers.

  17. Assessing slipperiness in fast-food restaurants in the USA using friction variation, friction level and perception rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Way Li, Kai; Filiaggi, Alfred; Courtney, Theodore K

    2008-05-01

    Although friction variation is speculated to be a significant contributor to slip and fall incidents, it has not been related to a measurement of slipperiness in the literature. This field study investigated the relationship among multiple friction variations, friction levels and the perception ratings of slipperiness in six major working areas of 10 fast-food restaurants in the USA. The mean perception rating score for each working area was correlated with various friction reduction variables across all the restaurants in comparison with its correlation with the mean friction coefficient of each working area. The results indicated that the absolute and relative reductions in friction over the whole working area, among 12 friction reduction variables evaluated, could have a slightly better correlation with the perception rating score (r=0.34 and 0.37, respectively) than the mean friction coefficient of each working area (0.33). However, in friction measurements, more effort and time are needed to quantify friction variations than to obtain the mean friction coefficient. The results of the multiple regression model on the perception rating indicated that adding friction reduction variables into the regression model, in addition to the mean friction coefficient, did not make a significant impact on the outcomes. The results further indicated a statistically significant correlation between the mean friction coefficient and the maximum relative friction reduction over the whole area in each working area across all the restaurants evaluated (r=0.80). Despite a slightly lower correlation with perception rating than the friction variation, the mean friction coefficient of an area is still a reasonably good indicator of slipperiness.

  18. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  19. Molecular resolution friction microscopy of Cu phthalocyanine thin films on dolomite (104) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Paweł; Pimentel, Carlos; Luo, Feng; Milián-Medina, Begoña; Gierschner, Johannes; Pina, Carlos M; Gnecco, Enrico

    2014-07-21

    The reliability of ultrathin organic layers as active components for molecular electronic devices depends ultimately on an accurate characterization of the layer morphology and ability to withstand mechanical stresses on the nanoscale. To this end, since the molecular layers need to be electrically decoupled using thick insulating substrates, the use of AFM becomes mandatory. Here, we show how friction force microscopy (FFM) in water allows us to identify the orientation of copper(ii)phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules previously self-assembled on a dolomite (104) mineral surface in ultra-high vacuum. The molecular features observed in the friction images show that the CuPc molecules are stacked in parallel rows with no preferential orientation with respect to the dolomite lattice, while the stacking features resemble well the single CuPc crystal structure. This proves that the substrate induction is low and makes friction force microscopy in water a suitable alternative to more demanding dynamic AFM techniques in ultra-high vacuum.

  20. Research on Friction Properties of Mineral Lubricants in Thin-Film-Lubricating Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie; Guan Tingting; Piao Jicheng

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of thin iflm lubrication theory, the inlfuence of lfuid iflm (disordered iflm), ordered iflm and ad-sorbed iflm on tribological behavior of lubricating oil in thin-iflm lubrication (TFL) regime was studied. Theμ-L (friction coefifcient versus load) curves of different oil viscosity and additive dosage were obtained by a high frequency reciprocat-ing test rig and the adsorption capacity of additive on steel surface were measured by QCM-D. Based on the Stribeck curve and thin iflm lubrication theory model, some conclusions can be drawn up, namely:(1) Theμ-L curves and the parameters of L0 andμ0, obtained from the high frequency reciprocating test rig with ball-disc contact, can be used to study tribologi-cal behaviors of lubricating oil under TFL conditions. (2) In comparison with the high viscosity base lfuid, the lower one can enter into TFL regime under lower load and keeps a lower friction coefifcient in TFL regime. (3) The polar molecules in additive formulation produce ordered adsorbed layer on steel surface to reduce friction coefifcient. And in TFL regime, the molecule’s polarity, layer thickness and saturation degree on steel surface probably can inlfuence lubricant’s tribological behaviors between the moving interfaces. Moreover, the further study would be focused on the competitive adsorption of different additives, the formation of dual-and/or tri-molecular adsorption layers, and other aspects.

  1. Soft-bed experiments beneath Engabreen, Norway: regelation infiltration, basal slip and bed deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Moore, P. L.; Jackson, M.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    To avoid some of the limitations of studying soft-bed processes through boreholes, a prism of simulated till (1.8 m × 1.6 m × 0.45 m) with extensive instrumentation was constructed in a trough blasted in the rock bed of Engabreen, a temperate glacier in Norway. Tunnels there provide access to the bed beneath 213 m of ice. Pore-water pressure was regulated in the prism by pumping water to it. During experiments lasting 7-12 days, the glacier regelated downward into the prism to depths of 50- 80 mm, accreting ice-infiltrated till at rates predicted by theory. During periods of sustained high pore water pressure (70-100% of overburden), ice commonly slipped over the prism, due to a water layer at the prism surface. Deformation of the prism was activated when this layer thinned to a sub-millimeter thickness. Shear strain in the till was pervasive and decreased with depth. A model of slip by ploughing of ice-infiltrated till across the prism surface accounts for the slip that occurred when effective pressure was sufficiently low or high. Slip at low effective pressures resulted from water-layer thickening that increased non-linearly with decreasing effective pressure. If sufficiently widespread, such slip over soft glacier beds, which involves no viscous deformation resistance, may instigate abrupt increases in glacier velocity.

  2. The stress field beneath a quiescent stratovolcano: The case of Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Massa, Bruno; Matteo, Ada De

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed a focal mechanism data set for Mount Vesuvius, consisting of 197 focal mechanisms of events recorded from 1999 to 2012. Using different approaches and a comparison between observations and numerical models, we have determined the spatial variations in the stress field beneath the volcano. The main results highlight the presence of two seismogenic volumes characterized by markedly different stress patterns. The two volumes are separated by a layer where the seismic strain release shows a significant decrease. Previous studies postulated the existence, at about the same depth, of a ductile layer allowing the spreading of the Mount Vesuvius edifice. We interpreted the difference in the stress pattern within the two volumes as the effect of a mechanical decoupling caused by the aforementioned ductile layer. The stress pattern in the top volume is dominated by a reverse faulting style, which agrees with the hypothesis of a seismicity driven by the spreading process. This agrees also with the persistent character of the seismicity located within this volume. Conversely, the stress field determined for the deep volume is consistent with a background regional field locally perturbed by the effects of the topography and of heterogeneities in the volcanic structure. Since the seismicity of the deep volume shows an intermittent behavior and has shown to be linked to geochemical variations in the fumaroles of the volcano, we hypothesize that it results from the effect of fluid injection episodes, possibly of magmatic origin, perturbing the pore pressure within the hydrothermal system.

  3. Seismic evidence for the depression of the D″ discontinuity beneath the Caribbean: Implication for slab heating from the Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Justin Yen-Ting; Hung, Shu-Huei; Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Zhao, Li

    2017-06-01

    The lowermost 100-300 km of the Earth's mantle commonly regarded as the thermal boundary layer (TBL) of mantle circulation is characterized by its complex physical properties. Beneath the Caribbean this so-called D″ layer features relatively high velocities and abrupt impedance increase at the top (designated as the D″ discontinuity). These seismic characteristics have been attributed to the accumulation of ancient subducted slab material and the phase transition in the major lower mantle mineral of pervoskite. Geodynamic models predict that the blanketing cold slabs may trap enough heat from core to be buoyantly destabilized, and eventually broken apart and entrained into the bottom of the convection cell. Here we explore the D″ structure with unprecedented resolution through modeling traveltimes, amplitudes, and waveform shapes from the USArray. We find an east-to-west asymmetrical undulation of the D″ discontinuity with a V-shaped depression of ∼70-160 km over a lateral distance of 600 km beneath northern South America. The shear velocity perturbations vary in the same trend showing the most pronounced reduction of ∼3-4% below the thinnest D″ layer in close proximity to an intermittently undetected discontinuity. The strong correlation between the D″ topography and velocity variations indicates the phase transition boundary has been perturbed or even disrupted by the large lateral temperature gradient of slab material which has been reheated from the core over extended periods of time.

  4. On Irrotational Flows Beneath Periodic Traveling Equatorial Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some aspects of the velocity field and particle trajectories beneath periodic traveling equatorial surface waves over a flat bed in a flow with uniform underlying currents. The system under study consists of the governing equations for equatorial ocean waves within a non-inertial frame of reference, where Euler's equation of motion has to be suitably adjusted, in order to account for the influence of the earth's rotation.

  5. Detection of Cracks in Aluminum Structure Beneath Inconel Repair Bushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    conductivity (i.e. Inconel 718 ) – Primary challenge then becomes detecting the weak eddy current field in the structure beyond the bushing wall...was able to be selected with inspectability as a goal. – Inconel 718 • low permeability (~μ0) • low conductivity (< 2% IACS) • Combined with...Detection of Cracks in Aluminum Structure beneath Inconel Repair Bushings Mr. Kenneth J. LaCivita (USAF) AFRL/RXSA Air Force Research Laboratory

  6. Lithospheric instability beneath the Transverse Ranges of California

    OpenAIRE

    Houseman, Gregory A.; Neil, Emily A.; Kohler, Monica D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent high-resolution seismic experiments reveal that the crust beneath the San Gabriel Mountains portion of the Transverse Ranges thickens by 10–15 km (contrary to earlier studies). Associated with the Transverse Ranges, there is an anomalous ridge of seismically fast upper mantle material extending at least 200 km into the mantle. This high-velocity anomaly has previously been interpreted as a lithospheric downwelling. Both lithospheric downwelling and crustal thickening are associated wit...

  7. On Irrotational Flows Beneath Periodic Traveling Equatorial Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    We discuss some aspects of the velocity field and particle trajectories beneath periodic traveling equatorial surface waves over a flat bed in a flow with uniform underlying currents. The system under study consists of the governing equations for equatorial ocean waves within a non-inertial frame of reference, where Euler's equation of motion has to be suitably adjusted, in order to account for the influence of the earth's rotation.

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz wave generation beneath hovercraft skirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. A.; Walsh, C.; Hinchey, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    When a hovercraft is hovering over water, the air flow beneath its skirts can interact with the water surface and generate waves. These, in turn, can cause the hovercraft to undergo violent self-excited heave motions. This note shows that the wave generation is due to the classical Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism where, beyond a certain air flow rate, small waves at the air water interface extract energy from the air stream and grow.

  9. The Dumbarton Oaks Tlazolteotl: looking beneath the surface

    OpenAIRE

    MacLaren Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The Dumbarton Oaks Tlazolteotl: looking beneath the surface. Some of the earliest and most revered pre-Columbian artifacts in the world’s major museum and private collections were collected prior to the advent of systematic, scientific archaeological excavation, and have little or no reliable provenience data. They have consistently posed problems for researchers due to anomalies of theme, material, size, technical virtuosity and iconography. This paper offers a historical and scientific appr...

  10. New interpretation of the deep mantle structure beneath eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Liu, Shaofeng; Lin, Chengfa; Yao, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent study of high resolution seismic tomography presents a large mass of high velocity abnormality beneath eastern China near the phase change depth, expanding more than 1600km-wide in East-west cross-section across the North China plate. This structure high is generally believed to be the subducted slab of Pacific plate beneath the Eurasia continent, while its origin and dynamic effect on the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of eastern China remain to be controversial. We developed a subduction-driven geodynamic mantle convection model that honors a set of global plate reconstruction data since 230Ma to help understand the formation and evolution of mantle structure beneath eastern China. The assimilation of plate kinematics, continuous evolving plate margin, asymmetric subduction zone, and paleo seafloor age data enables the spatial and temporal consistency between the geologic data and the mantle convection model, and guarantees the conservation of the buoyancy flux across the lithosphere and subducted slabs. Our model achieved a first order approximation between predictions and the observed data. Interestingly, the model suggests that the slab material stagnated above discontinuity didn't form until 15Ma, much later than previous expected, and the fast abnormality in the mid-mantle further west in the tomographic image is interpreted to be the remnants of the Mesozoic Izanagi subduction. Moreover, detailed analysis suggests that the accelerated subduction of Philippine Sea plate beneath Eurasia plate along the Ryukyu Trench and Nankai Trough since 15Ma may largely contribute to extending feature above 670km discontinuity. The long distance expansion of the slab material in the East-west direction may be an illusion caused by the approximate spatial perpendicularity between the cross-section and the subduction direction of the Philippine Sea plate. Our model emphasizes the necessity of the re-examination on the geophysical observation and its tectonic and

  11. An empirical model for friction in cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    With a system of simulative tribology tests for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reductions in cold forward rod extrusion. KEY WORDS: empirical friction model, cold forging, simulative friction tests....

  12. Low-impact friction materials for brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  14. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  15. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  16. Descending lithosphere slab beneath the Northwest Dinarides from teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumanovac, Franjo; Dudjak, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The area of study covers the marginal zone between the Adriatic microplate (African plate) and the Pannonian segment (Eurasian plate). We present a tomography model for this area, with special emphasis on the northwest Dinarides. A dense distribution of temporary seismic stations in the area of the Northern Dinarides along with permanent seismic stations located in the area, allowed us to construct this P-wave tomographic model. We assembled our travel-time dataset based on 26 seismic stations were used to collect the dataset. Teleseismic events were recorded for a period of 18 months and a set of 76 distant earthquakes were used to calculate the P-wave travel-time residuals. We calculated relative rather than absolute arrival-time residuals in the inversion to obtain depths of 0-400 km. We imaged a pronounced fast velocity anomaly below the NW Dinarides which directly indicates a lithosphere slab downgoing beneath the Dinarides. This fast anomaly extends towards the NW direction to at least 250 km depth, and we interpreted it as a descending lithosphere slab. The thrusting of the Adriatic microplate may be brought about by sub-lithosphere rising movement beneath the Pannonian region, along with a push from African plate. In our interpretation, the Adriatic lower lithosphere has been detached from the crust, and steeply sinks beneath the Dinarides. A lithosphere model of the contact between the Adriatic microplate and Pannonian tectonic segment was constructed based on the tomographic velocity model and results of previous crustal studies.

  17. What lies beneath the Cerro Prieto geothermal field?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Biehler, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir is one of the world`s largest geothermal developments, conflicting ideas persist about the basement beneath it. The current plan to drill a 6 km deep exploratory well in the eastern part of the field has brought this controversy into sharper focus. This paper discusses criteria which any model of what lies beneath the reservoir must meet, in terms of regional tectonics and geophysics, of the metamorphic and igneous rocks thus far encountered in drilling, and of models of possible heat sources and coupling between the hydrothermal and magmatic systems. Our analysis confirms the interpretation that the crystalline basement beneath the sediments, rather than being granitic, is oceanic in character, resembling an ophiolite complex. The heat source is most likely a cooling gabbroic intrusion, several kilometers in diameter, overlain by a sheeted dike swarm. A 6 km deep bore-hole centered over such an intrusion would not only be one of the world`s deepest geothermal wells but could also be one of the hottest.

  18. EHD lubricating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvarts, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    The simplest model of an EHD lubricating layer consists of a unipolarly charged nonconducting viscous fluid between two parallel or slightly inclined nonconducting plates. The performance of such a layer is analyzed here on the basis of the fundamental EHD equations, with a plane-parallel approximation of the flow of a thin layer under a variable upper boundary. The results of the solution indicate that the bearing capacity of such a layer between parallel plates does not depend on the viscosity of the fluid, but is proportional to the energy density of the electric field in vacuum. With the plates not parallel, the bearing capacity depends on the mobility and the diffusion of the charged fluid particles. In either case the energy of the electric field can be made to compensate for the energy dissipation due to viscous friction, and in this case or with overcompensation such as EHD bearing becomes an EHD generator. Most valuable for practical applications are fluids with a high dielectric permittivity, such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride at cryogenic temperatures. 5 references, 1 figure.

  19. Addressing the Limit of Detectability of Residual Oxide Discontinuities in Friction Stir Butt Welds of Aluminum using Phased Array Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    This activity seeks to estimate a theoretical upper bound of detectability for a layer of oxide embedded in a friction stir weld in aluminum. The oxide is theoretically modeled as an ideal planar layer of aluminum oxide, oriented normal to an interrogating ultrasound beam. Experimentally-measured grain scattering level is used to represent the practical noise floor. Echoes from naturally-occurring oxides will necessarily fall below this theoretical limit, and must be above the measurement noise to be potentially detectable.

  20. Interfacial Friction and Adhesion of Polymer Brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.

    2011-08-02

    A bead-probe lateral force microscopy (LFM) technique is used to characterize the interfacial friction and adhesion properties of polymer brushes. Our measurements attempt to relate the physical structure and chemical characteristics of the brush to their properties as thin-film, tethered lubricants. Brushes are synthesized at several chain lengths and surface coverages from polymer chains of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and a poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PPG/PEG). At high surface coverage, PDMS brushes manifest friction coefficients (COFs) that are among the lowest recorded for a dry lubricant film (μ ≈ 0.0024) and close to 1 order of magnitude lower than the COF of a bare silicon surface. Brushes synthesized from higher molar mass chains exhibit higher friction forces than those created using lower molar mass polymers. Increased grafting density of chains in the brush significantly reduces the COF by creating a uniform surface of stretched chains with a decreased surface viscosity. Brushes with lower surface tension and interfacial shear stresses manifest the lowest COF. In particular, PDMS chains exhibit COFs lower than PS by a factor of 3.7 and lower than PPG/PEG by a factor of 4.7. A scaling analysis conducted on the surface coverage (δ) in relation to the fraction (ε) of the friction force developing from adhesion predicts a universal relation ε ∼ δ4/3, which is supported by our experimental data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Multiscaling behavior of atomic-scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesar, M.; Jamali, T.; Sadeghi, A.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Fesler, G.; Meyer, E.; Khoshnevisan, B.; Jafari, G. R.

    2017-06-01

    The scaling behavior of friction between rough surfaces is a well-known phenomenon. It might be asked whether such a scaling feature also exists for friction at an atomic scale despite the absence of roughness on atomically flat surfaces. Indeed, other types of fluctuations, e.g., thermal and instrumental fluctuations, become appreciable at this length scale and can lead to scaling behavior of the measured atomic-scale friction. We investigate this using the lateral force exerted on the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) when the tip is dragged over the clean NaCl (001) surface in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. Here the focus is on the fluctuations of the lateral force profile rather than its saw-tooth trend; we first eliminate the trend using the singular value decomposition technique and then explore the scaling behavior of the detrended data, which contains only fluctuations, using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The results demonstrate a scaling behavior for the friction data ranging from 0.2 to 2 nm with the Hurst exponent H =0.61 ±0.02 at a 1 σ confidence interval. Moreover, the dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent, h (q ) , on the index variable q confirms the multifractal or multiscaling behavior of the nanofriction data. These results prove that fluctuation of nanofriction empirical data has a multifractal behavior which deviates from white noise.

  2. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  3. [Penis friction edema: not a venereal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erceg, A.; Verlind, J.; Berretty, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a local swelling of the penis, which increased until the entire penis was thick and swollen. After infectious and obstructive causes had been eliminated, a diagnosis of 'penis friction oedema' was made. The swelling disappeared during several weeks of abstinence from

  4. Friction welding thermal and metallurgical characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book provides insight into the thermal analysis of friction welding incorporating welding parameters such as external, duration, breaking load, and material properties. The morphological and metallurgical changes associated with the resulting weld sites are analysed using characterization methods such as electron scanning microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Nuclear reaction analysis.

  5. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...

  6. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  7. On the superradiance-tidal friction correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Glampedakis, K; Kennefick, D

    2013-01-01

    Since the work of Hartle in the 1970s, and the subsequent development of the the Membrane Paradigm approach to black hole physics it has been widely accepted that superradiant scattering of gravitational waves bears strong similarities with the phenomenon of ``tidal friction'' (well-known from Newtonian gravity) operating in binary systems of viscous material bodies. In this paper we revisit the superradiance-tidal friction analogy within the context of ultracompact relativistic bodies. We advocate that as long as these bodies have non-zero viscosity they should undergo tidal friction that can be construed as a kind of superradiant scattering from the point of view of the dynamics of an orbiting test-body. In addition we consider the presence of anisotropic matter, which is required for at least some ultracompact bodies, if they are to sustain a radius very close to the gravitational radius. We find that the tidal friction/superradiance output is enhanced with increasing anisotropy and that strongly anisotrop...

  8. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    by gravity, and a vehicle (such as a car or bicycle ) accelerating along a level road is driven by a motor or by pedalling. In such cases, static...continuously roll. Consider a cart of mass m that is free rolling up an incline, as sketched in figure 1. The total frictional force f on the cart

  9. Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhi-hong; HE Di-qiu; WANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding(FSW), a new solid-state welding technology invited in the early 1990s,enables us weld aluminum alloys and titanium alloys etc. The processing of FSW, the microstructure in FSW alloysand the factors influencing weld quality are introduced. The complex factors affecting the properties are researched.

  10. Frictional Dermatosis in a Courier Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Frictional hypermelanosis is an uncommon finding in Caucasians. We report the unusual case of 56-year-old male courier driver who developed linear and patchy hypermelanosis of the back caused by the driver's seat. Histology has included other pathologies. Treatment of the asymptomatic hyper pigmentation was not warranted.

  11. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai;

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task ...

  12. Frictional Torque on a Rotating Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to motion often includes a dry frictional term independent of the speed of an object and a fluid drag term varying linearly with speed in the viscous limit. (At higher speeds, quadratic drag can also occur.) Here, measurements are performed for an aluminium disc mounted on bearings that is given an initial twist and allowed to spin…

  13. Friction Force: From Mechanics to Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Christian; Gruber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We study some mechanical problems in which a friction force is acting on a system. Using the fundamental concepts of state, time evolution and energy conservation, we explain how to extend Newtonian mechanics to thermodynamics. We arrive at the two laws of thermodynamics and then apply them to investigate the time evolution and heat transfer of…

  14. Tribology: Friction, lubrication, and wear technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: introduction and definitions of terms; friction concepts; lubrication technology concepts; wear technology concepts; and tribological transitions. This document is designed for educators who seek to teach these concepts to their students.

  15. [Penis friction edema: not a venereal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erceg, A.; Verlind, J.; Berretty, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a local swelling of the penis, which increased until the entire penis was thick and swollen. After infectious and obstructive causes had been eliminated, a diagnosis of 'penis friction oedema' was made. The swelling disappeared during several weeks of abstinence from

  16. Fibre Distribution in Friction-spun Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen

    2006-01-01

    According to the yarn forming characteristics in friction spinning, the arrangement of fed sliver is designed, to get the desired fiber distribution in the resultant yarn. On the base of that, the relation between the theoretical fibre distribution and the actual fibre distribution is analyzed by use of electron microscope.

  17. Simulations of atomic-scale sliding friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Stoltze, Per

    1996-01-01

    Simulation studies of atomic-scale sliding friction have been performed for a number of tip-surface and surface-surface contacts consisting of copper atoms. Both geometrically very simple tip-surface structures and more realistic interface necks formed by simulated annealing have been studied. Ki...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter the effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56... Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter the effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with synchronizing...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014 Section 56.19014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014 Section 57.19014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered...

  2. Atomic-scale friction : thermal effects and capillary condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinesh, Kochupurackal Balakrishna Pillai

    2006-01-01

    This work entitled as "Atomic-scale friction: thermal effects and capillary condensation" is a study on the fundamental aspects of the origin of friction from the atomic-scale. We study two realistic aspects of atomic-scale friction, namely the effect of temperature and the effect of relative humidi

  3. Investigation of Friction-induced Damage to the Pig Cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Cruz Barros, Raquel; Van Kooten, Theo G.; Veeregowda, Deepak Halenahally

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical friction causes damage to the cornea. A friction measurement device with minimal intervention with the pig cornea tear film revealed a low friction coefficient of 0.011 in glycerine solution. Glycerine molecules presumably bind to water, mucins, and epithelial cells and therewith improve

  4. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  5. Investigation of Friction-induced Damage to the Pig Cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Cruz Barros, Raquel; Van Kooten, Theo G.; Veeregowda, Deepak Halenahally

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical friction causes damage to the cornea. A friction measurement device with minimal intervention with the pig cornea tear film revealed a low friction coefficient of 0.011 in glycerine solution. Glycerine molecules presumably bind to water, mucins, and epithelial cells and therewith improve

  6. Frictional torque numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Plastic bearing material wears in ball cup and journal bearings. Contact areas in the ball cup and the journal bearing increase. The frictional torque needed to rotate the ball or journal also increases. When the coefficient of friction is assumed to be constant during wearing out, the frictional t

  7. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  8. A Microphysical Model for Phyllosilicate Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, S. A. M.; Faulkner, D.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Phyllosilicate-rich foliations in fault rocks are often thought to reduce overall fault strength and promote fault stability when forming an interconnected network. Indeed, laboratory measurements have shown that the average friction coefficient of dry phyllosilicates of 0.5 is reduced to 0.3 when wet or even 0.1 for smectite. A widely accepted interpretation of these observations is that the strength of phyllosilicates is controlled by breaking of interlayer bonds to form new cleavage surfaces when dry and by the low strength of surface-bound water films when wet. However, the correlation between phyllosilicate shear strength and interlayer bond strength, which formed the basis for this interpretation, was not reproduced in recent experiments (Behnsen and Faulkner, 2012) and is not supported by the latest calculations of the interlayer bond energies (Sakuma and Suehara, 2015). The accepted explanation for phyllosilicate friction also fails to account for the velocity dependence or (a-b) values, which decrease with temperature, reaching a minimum at intermediate temperatures, before increasing again at higher temperatures (Den Hartog et al., 2013, 2014). In this study, we developed a microphysical model for phyllosilicate friction, involving frictional sliding along atomically flat phyllosilicate grain interfaces, with overlapping grain edges forming barriers to sliding. Assuming that the amount of overlap is controlled by crystal plastic bending of grains into pores, together with rate-dependent edge-site cleavage, our model predicts the experimentally observed temperature dependence of (a-b) and provides a basis for extrapolation of laboratory friction data on phyllosilicates to natural conditions.

  9. Effect of infiltrating Si on friction properties of C/C composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马运柱; 黄伯云; 熊翔; 肖鹏; 李江鸿; 黄启忠; 易茂忠

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the friction-wear properties of the C/C composites for aircraft brake pairs, the fric-tion behavior of samples with infiltrating Si was investigated. The influence of Si smearing thickness on frictionproperties was studied in detail. The results show that with the increase of Si smearing thickness and β-SiC content,the friction coefficient reduces from 0.40 to 0.30; the linear wear of stators increases from 2.0 μm to 18.9 μm percycle, and that of rotors increases from 1.4 μm to 22.6 μm per cycle; mass wear of stators increases from 20.6 mgto 126.9 mg per cycle, and that of rotors increases from 13.7 mg to 166.2 mg per cycle. On the other hand, whena large number of inhomogeneous β-SiC particulates are performed, friction surfaces of the samples flake off layer bylayer and many nicks are observed.

  10. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE FRICTION REDUCTION BY MICROBUBBLES FOR FLAT PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan De-xin; Wang Jia-mei; Lin Li-ming

    2003-01-01

    The two-dimensional flow on the flat plate with injected microbubbles is simulated using the software, PHOENICS (V3.2), usually used in the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics).A set of formulas for K-ε turbulence model modified with the presence of microbubbles, is employed.With considering the effect of gravity, interfacial lift, interphase friction, virtual mass force and interfacial pressure on the flow with microbubbles, numerical calculations for the influence of variable air volume fracton as well as distribution, injecting speed, microbubble diameter and position of introducing microbubbles on the friction reduction are presented.Results show that the friction reduction increases with increasing volume fraction and microbubble diameter within the range of 100μm, and that the velocity in the boundary layer with microbubbles is greater than that without microbubbles.The order of magnitude and trends of the experimental skin-friction are reproduced well.The uniform free-stream speed in all cases is 4m/s, giving Reynolds number of up to 20 million.

  11. Effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on ultrafine aerosol particles clogging in nanofiber based filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaer, Wannes; Zatloukal, Martin; Kimmer, Dusan

    2013-04-01

    Realistic SEM image based 3D filter model considering transition/free molecular flow regime, Brownian diffusion, aerodynamic slip, particle-fiber and particle-particle interactions together with a novel Euclidian distance map based methodology for the pressure drop calculation has been utilized for a polyurethane nanofiber based filter prepared via electrospinning process in order to more deeply understand the effect of particle-fiber friction coefficient on filter clogging and basic filter characteristics. Based on the performed theoretical analysis, it has been revealed that the increase in the fiber-particle friction coefficient causes, firstly, more weaker particle penetration in the filter, creation of dense top layers and generation of higher pressure drop (surface filtration) in comparison with lower particle-fiber friction coefficient filter for which deeper particle penetration takes place (depth filtration), secondly, higher filtration efficiency, thirdly, higher quality factor and finally, higher quality factor sensitivity to the increased collected particle mass. Moreover, it has been revealed that even if the particle-fiber friction coefficient is different, the cake morphology is very similar.

  12. Three measuring techniques for assessing the mean wall skin friction in wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoun, E.-S.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.

    2014-04-01

    The present paper aims at evaluating the mean wall skin friction data in laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows obtained from two optical and one thermal measuring techniques, namely, laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), oil-film interferometry (OFI), and surface hot-film anemometry (SHFA), respectively. A comparison among the three techniques is presented, indicating close agreement in the mean wall skin friction data obtained, directly, from both the OFI and the LDA near-wall mean velocity profiles. On the other hand, the SHFA, markedly, over estimates the mean wall skin friction by 3.5-11.7% when compared with both the LDA and the OFI data, depending on the thermal conductivity of the substrate and glue material, probe calibration, probe contamination, temperature drift and Reynolds number. Satisfactory agreement, however, is observed among all three measuring techniques at higher Reynolds numbers, Re x >106, and within ±5% with empirical relations extracted from the literature. In addition, accurate velocity data within the inertial sublayer obtained using the LDA supports the applicability of the Clauser method to evaluate the wall skin friction when appropriate values for the constants of the logarithmic line are utilized.

  13. The effect of bone cement particles on the friction of polyethylene and polyurethane knee bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, H. E.; Scholes, S. C.; Unsworth, A.; Jones, E.

    2004-08-01

    Compliant layer knee joints have been considered for use in an attempt to increase the serviceable life of artificial joints. If designed correctly, these joints should operate within the full-fluid film lubrication regime. However, adverse tribological conditions, such as the presence of bone and bone cement particles, may breach the fluid film and cause surface wear. The frictional behaviour of both polyurethane (PU) and conventional polyethylene (PE) tibial components against a metallic femoral component was therefore assessed when bone cement particles were introduced into the lubricant. The bone cement particles caused a large increase in the frictional torque of both the PE and PU bearings; however, the friction produced by the PU bearings was still considerably lower than that produced by the PE bearings. The volume of bone cement particles between each of the bearings and the resultant frictional torque both decreased over time. This occurred more quickly with the PE bearings but greater damage was caused to the surface of the PE bearings than the PU components.

  14. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herst, Patries M [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  15. Microstructure and optical appearance of anodized friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Bordo, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate Ti, Y and Ce oxide powders into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The FSP processed surface composite was subsequently anodized with an aim to develop optical effects in the anodized layer owing to the presence of incorporated...... oxide particles which will influence the scattering of light. This paper presents the investigations on relation between microstructure of the FSP zone and optical appearance of the anodized layer due to incorporation of metal oxide particles and modification of the oxide particles due to the anodizing...

  16. Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  17. Low friction and wear resistant coating systems on Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Wendler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of an original multiplex hybrid treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy: diffusion hardening+intermediate hard gradient TiCxNy layer with use of continuous CAE+top low friction and wear resistant hard amorphous a-C layer with use of pulsed CAE method.Design/methodology/approach: Ti6Al4V substrates were diffusion hardened with interstitial O or N atoms with use of glow discharge plasma in the atmosphere Ar+O2 or Ar+N2. Next they were deposited with a hard gradient TiCxNy layer and with a hard amorphous a-C coating as the top one. The morphology, microstructure, chemical and phase composition, chemical bonds, microhardness and tribological properties during dry friction of the alloy after multiplex treatment have been investigated with use of SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, Vickers diamond indenter and ball-on-plate test.Findings: An important increase of hardness of the near surface zone of the Ti6Al4V alloy has been achieved (from ~350VHN to ~1000 VHN, good adhesion between the gradient TiCxNy coating and the Ti6Al4V substrate as well as an important decrease of dry friction coefficient (down to ~0.15 and a substantial increase of the resistance to wear (up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with non treated Ti alloy.Research limitations/implications: The research will be continued on greater number of specimens and against other counterbodies.Practical implications: It looks like that the Ti alloys can be used as mobile parts of machines due to high resistance to wear and low friction.Originality/value: A novel original multiplex hybrid treatment of Ti alloys has been developed at the Lodz University of Technology.

  18. Selenium Adsorption onto Iron Oxide Layers beneath Coal-Mine Overburden Spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Joseph J; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2013-09-01

    A field experimental study to determine the feasibility of sequestering dissolved selenium (Se) leached from coal-mine waste rock used an iron (Fe)-oxide amendment obtained from a mine-drainage treatment wetland. Thirty lysimeters (4.9 × 7.3 m), each containing 57.7 t (1.2-1.8 m thickness) of mine-run carbonaceous shale overburden, were installed at the Hobet mine in southeastern West Virginia. The fine-grained Fe-oxide was determined to be primarily metal oxides (91.5% ferric and 4.37% aluminous), with minor (mine water can sequester Se by adsorption on surfaces of goethite and possibly also ferrihydrite. This process is demonstrated to substantially reduce dissolved Se in leachate and improve compliance with regulatory discharge limits. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Interpreting syndepositional sediment remobilization and deformation beneath submarine gravity flows; a kinematic boundary layer approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, Rob W.H.; Eggenhuisen, J.T.; Haughton, Peter; McCaffrey, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Turbidite sandstones and related deposits commonly contain deformation structures and remobilized sediment that might have resulted from post-depositional modification such as downslope creep (e.g. slumping) or density-driven loading by overlying deposits. However, we consider that deformation can o

  20. A theoretical remark about waves on a static water surface beneath a layer of moving air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, T.; Hayashi, R.; Yasutomi, Z.

    1990-12-01

    Grundy and Tuck (1987) treat the problem of large-amplitude waves on an air-water interface where the air is a steady nonuniform flow and the water is stationary. Both periodic nonlinear Stokes-like waves far downstream and a configuration of the water surface from the edge region of a hovercraft were computed. However, there is no work that treats the existence of such Stokes-like waves theoretically. The present work aims to prove the existence of such solutions in the case where the cushion pressure is low, that is, the depression at the upstream stagnation point from the mean water level is small.