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Sample records for freshwater snail pomacea

  1. Influence of age and body size on alarm responses in a freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Katsuya

    2002-10-01

    A hypothesis that size selection of prey by predators elicits size-specific responses from prey was examined. Freshwater snails, Pomacea canaliculata, ages 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, or 60 days, were given an extract of 3-day-old snails, and 3-day-old snails were given extracts of snails of the otherages oreggs. Snails 15 days or younger crawled out of the water in response to the 3-day-old snail extract, but older ones did not. The 3-day-old snails responded to the extracts of snails of all examined ages, but not to the extract of eggs. Snails of four size classes, 3-days-old, small (shell lengths 8-12 mm), medium (13-20 mm), and large (>28 mm) were given extracts of snails of each of these four classes. The 3-day-old snails crawled out of the water in response to the extract of 3-day-old snails, but showed a lower or no response to other extracts. Larger snails buried themselves in the soil in response to the extract of snails of similar sizes. These responses are discussed in the context of the evolution of the snail's avoidance behavior in response to the size-dependent prey choice by the predator.

  2. Physiological response to low temperature in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    Cold hardiness of the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, varies seasonally. We investigated lethal factors and physiological changes arising from exposure of P. canaliculata to low temperatures. Snails did not survive freezing. The supercooling point of cold-acclimated (cold tolerant) snails (-6.6+/-0.8 degrees C) did not differ significantly from that of non-acclimated ones (-7.1+/-1.5 degrees C) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, snails died even under more moderately low temperatures approaching 0 degrees C. These results indicate that indirect chilling injury is a factor in the death of P. canaliculata at low temperatures. Regardless of whether the snails were acclimated to low temperatures, all of the dead, and even some of the snails still alive at 0 degrees C, had injured mantles, indicating that the mantle may be the organ most susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. The concentration of glucose in the posterior chamber of the kidney and concentration of glycerol in the digestive gland were significantly higher in cold-acclimated snails than in non-acclimated ones, suggesting carbohydrate metabolic pathways are altered in snails during cold acclimation.

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhang, Chao-Wei; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-06-01

    An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail's distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae while developing within P. canaliculata. The distribution of refractile granules in the larval body and characteristic head structures changed during the developmental cycle. Two well-developed, rod-like structures with expanded knob-like tips at the anterior part were observed under the buccal cavity as early as the late second developmental stage. A "T"-shaped structure at the anterior end and its tenacity distinguished the outer sheath from that shed during the second molting. Early first-stage larvae obtained from fresh rat feces are free moving and characterized by a coiled tail, whereas a mellifluous "Q"-movement was the behavioral trait of third-stage A. cantonensis larvae outside the host tissue. In combination, the distribution of refractive granules, distinct head features, variations in sheaths, and behavioral characteristics can be utilized for differentiation of larval stages, and for distinguishing A. cantonensis larvae from those of other free-living nematodes.

  4. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

    2005-07-01

    We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  5. Influence of water quality on zinc toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and sensitivity of freshwater snails to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Tong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The present study characterized the influence of water-quality characteristics on zinc (Zn) toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and the sensitivity of freshwater snails to Zn. Standard 96-h renewal acute toxicity tests were conducted with Zn and juvenile P. paludosa under 3 conditions of pH and alkalinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Median lethal effect concentrations (96-h LC50s), no-observed- effect concentrations, lowest-observed-effect concentrations, LC10s, and LC20s were determined for each test. The results showed that Zn toxicity to P. paludosa decreased linearly with increasing hardness, pH, and DOC. A multiple linear regression model based on pH, hardness, and DOC was able to explain 99% of the observed variability in LC50s. These results are useful for the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for P. paludosa and Zn. Zinc acute toxicity data were collected from the literature for 12 freshwater snail species in a wide range of water-quality characteristics for species sensitivity distribution analysis. The results showed that P. paludosa is the second most sensitive to Zn. The present study also suggested that aqueous ZnCO3 and ZnHCO3 (-) can be bioavailable to P. paludosa. Therefore, bioavailability models (e.g., BLM) should take these Zn species into consideration for bioavailability when applied to snails. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. The development of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, L R; Coaglio, A L; Dracz, R M; Ribeiro, V M A; Lima, W S

    2015-11-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode that infects the heart and pulmonary artery and its branches of domestic and wild canids. The parasite can use several species of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs as intermediate hosts, although susceptibility varies. Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusc found in lakes, swamps and rivers in South America. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility, parasite growth, oviposition and larval development of 282 P. canaliculata infected with 500 A. vasorum first-instar larvae (L1). From day 5 post-infection (pi) to day 30 pi, seven specimens per day were sacrificed to recover the larval instars. We compared 50 egg masses from infected and uninfected molluscs to determine the number of eggs per clutch, the hatching rate and the growth of the molluscs. The percentage of recovered larvae ranged from 39.17% to 67.5%. First-stage larvae (L1) were found until day 19 pi, second-stage larvae (L2) were found from days 11 to 25 pi, and third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered only after day 19 pi. Infected snails exhibited the most eggs during spawning, although the rate of hatching and shell size were lower in the infected snails compared with controls. This is the first report of an experimental infection of P. canaliculata with A. vasorum, and the results confirm the non-specificity of the nematode in relation to the intermediate host and indicate the importance of epidemiological surveys of this parasite and mollusc.

  7. Comparative analysis of circulating hemocytes of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Alice; Bucci, Laura; de Eguileor, Magda; Ottaviani, Enzo; Malagoli, Davide

    2013-05-01

    Molluscs are invertebrates of great relevance for economy, environment and public health. The numerous studies on molluscan immunity and physiology registered an impressive variability of circulating hemocytes. This study is focused on the first characterization of the circulating hemocytes of the freshwater gastropod Pomacea canaliculata, a model for several eco-toxicological and parasitological researches. Flow cytometry analysis identified two populations of hemocytes on the basis of differences in size and internal organization. The first population contains small and agranular cells. The second one displays major size and a more articulated internal organization. Light microscopy evidenced two principal morphologies, categorized as Group I (small) and II (large) hemocytes. Group I hemocytes present the characteristics of blast-like cells, with an agranular and basophilic cytoplasm. Group I hemocytes can adhere onto a glass surface but seem unable to phagocytize heat-inactivated Escherichia coli. The majority of Group II hemocytes displays an agranular cytoplasm, while a minority presents numerous granules. Agranular cytoplasm may be basophilic or acidophilic. Granules are positive to neutral red staining and therefore acidic. Independently from their morphology, Group II hemocytes are able to adhere and to engulf heat-inactivated E. coli. Transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly distinguished between agranular and granular hemocytes and highlighted the electron dense content of the granules. After hemolymph collection, time-course analysis indicated that the Group II hemocytes are subjected to an evident dynamism with changes in the percentage of agranular and granular hemocytes. The ability of circulating hemocytes to quickly modify their morphology and stainability suggests that P. canaliculata is endowed with highly dynamic hemocyte populations able to cope with rapid environmental changes as well as fast growing pathogens. Copyright © 2013

  8. Changes in chemical components in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in relation to the development of its cold hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is an invasive freshwater snail. It increases its cold hardiness before winter. However, the physiological mechanism of cold hardiness in molluscs is poorly understood, especially in freshwater molluscs. In this study, we examined the changes in low molecular weight compounds, glycogen and lipids, in the body of P. canaliculata in association with the development of cold hardiness. When snails without cold hardiness were experimentally cold-acclimated, the amount of glycerol, glutamine, and carnosine increased, while glycogen and phenylalanine decreased. Overwintering cold-tolerant snails collected from a drained paddy field in November also showed increased glycerol in their bodies with decreasing glycogen concentration, compared to summer snails collected from a submerged field. Water content also decreased during the cold acclimation, although the water loss was minimal. These results indicate that the freshwater snail, P. canaliculata enhances cold hardiness by accumulation of some kinds of low molecular weight compounds in its body as some insects do. However, the actual function of each low molecular compound is still unknown.

  9. Intrahost distribution and transmission of a new species of cyclopoid copepod endosymbiotic to a freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), from Argentina.

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    Gamarra-Luques, C D; Vega, I A; Koch, E; Castro-Vazquez, A

    2004-08-01

    A new species of cyclopoid copepod, Ozmana huarpium, is described as a symbiont to Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822) (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae). Rather large numbers (about one hundred copepods per snail) were found, although there was no evidence of harm to the host. To our knowledge, O. haemophila (symbiont to P. maculata), and the currently described species, O. huarpium, are the only copepod species ever recorded as endosymbionts to freshwater invertebrates. While O. haemophila is restricted to the haemocoel of its host, O. huarpium predominate in the penis sheath, the ctenidium and the mantle cavity, figuring in these pallial organs 63-65% of total mature forms. The sex ratio of the symbiont is skewed to the female side in these organs, specially in male hosts. The hypothesis that a special female tropism for the male host's pallial organs might ensure interindividual transmission of the symbiont was tested, with indications that the symbiont is mainly transmitted during copulation.

  10. First evidence of "paralytic shellfish toxins" and cylindrospermopsin in a Mexican freshwater system, Lago Catemaco, and apparent bioaccumulation of the toxins in "tegogolo" snails (Pomacea patula catemacensis).

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    Berry, John P; Lind, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater systems, including both direct (e.g., drinking water) and indirect (e.g., bioaccumulation in food webs) routes, is emerging as a potentially significant threat to human health. We investigated cyanobacterial toxins, specifically cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the microcystins (MCYST) and the "paralytic shellfish toxins" (PST), in Lago Catemaco (Veracruz, Mexico). Lago Catemaco is a tropical lake dominated by Cylindrospermopsis, specifically identified as Cylindrospermopsis catemaco and Cylindrospermopsis philippinensis, and characterized by an abundant, endemic species of snail (Pomacea patula catemacensis), known as "tegogolos," that is both consumed locally and commercially important. Samples of water, including dissolved and particulate fractions, as well as extracts of tegogolos, were screened using highly specific and sensitive ELISA. ELISA identified CYN and PST at low concentrations in only one sample of seston; however, both toxins were detected at appreciable quantities in tegogolos. Calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAF) support bioaccumulation of both toxins in tegogolos. The presence of CYN in the phytoplankton was further confirmed by HPLC-UV and LC-MS, following concentration and extraction of algal cells, but the toxin could not be confirmed by these methods in tegogolos. These data represent the first published evidence for CYN and the PST in Lago Catemaco and, indeed, for any freshwater system in Mexico. Identification of the apparent bioaccumulation of these toxins in tegogolos may suggest the need to further our understanding of the transfer of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater food webs as it relates to human health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imposex and novel mechanisms of reproductive failure induced by tributyltin (TBT) in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Clément, María E; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    The effects of tributyltin (TBT) on mortality and reproduction were studied in the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata. The nominal median lethal concentration (LC50) was 9 µg TBT/L, after 28 d. The nominal no-observed effect on lethality concentration (NOECL) was 6 µg TBT/L after the same period. Male-female couples and females that had been group-mated but were isolated from males during the experiment (isolated females) were exposed (for 28 d) to either 0 µg/L or 6 µg/L of TBT (nominal NOECL-exposed). Copulation and oviposition frequencies, egg clutch mass, and percentage of egg fertility were recorded. Gonads (both sexes) and the seminal receptacle (females) were studied histologically at the end of the experiment. A significant decrease in copulation frequency was observed in mated-exposed females. Exposure also decreased oviposition frequency of mated-exposed and isolated-exposed females, but only the latter reached significance. No differences in either egg clutch mass or percentage of fertility were observed at first oviposition, but both parameters were drastically reduced in subsequent egg clutches of exposed females. No histological alterations were observed in gonads of TBT-exposed animals; however, sperm storage in the seminal receptacle was drastically decreased in exposed females. Imposex but no oviductal obstruction was observed in all exposed females. It is concluded that TBT induces reproductive failure in P. canaliculata by decreasing copulation frequency and by severely affecting sperm storage by the female. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators.

  13. Calcium oxide from Pomacea canaliculata and Babylonia spirata snails

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    Triayu Septiani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of CaO from golden snail (Pomacea canaliculata and lion snail (Babylonia spirata through decomposition at various temperature i.e 700o, 800o, 900o and 1000oC during 3 hours has been carried out. Calcium oxide from decomposition was characterized using X-Ray diffractometer.  Furthermore, the characterization was continued using FT-IR spectrophotometer and determination of surface area using BET analysis. The results showed that the optimum temperature for preparation of CaO from  golden snail and lion snail at  900oC with 2q values are: 32.2° , 37.4o , 54o , 64.2o , 67.3° and 32.4°, 37.5°, 67.5 °,  respectively. FT-IR spectra showed characteristic vibrations for the Ca-O in the sample golden snail and lion snail combustion products at a temperature of 900oC. Ca-O absorption of golden snail samples in the wavenumber around 362.62 cm-1 and lion snail seen in wavenumber around 384.76 cm-1 indicating the presence of Ca-O vibration of the metal oxide of preparation. Golden snail and the lion snail combustion at 900oC temperature of each sample which has a surface area of 20.495 m2/g, while the lion snail 17.308 m2/g.  The pore diameter of golden snail 3.753 nm and 11.319 nm of lion snail. All CaO can be categorized as mesoporous material. Keywords: golden snail, lion snail, decomposition, CaO

  14. Calcium oxide from Pomacea canaliculata and Babylonia spirata snails

    OpenAIRE

    Triayu Septiani; Nurlisa Hidayati; Risfidian Mohadi

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of CaO from golden snail (Pomacea canaliculata) and lion snail (Babylonia spirata) through decomposition at various temperature i.e 700o, 800o, 900o and 1000oC during 3 hours has been carried out. Calcium oxide from decomposition was characterized using X-Ray diffractometer.  Furthermore, the characterization was continued using FT-IR spectrophotometer and determination of surface area using BET analysis. The results showed that the optimum temperature for preparation of CaO f...

  15. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  16. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

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    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  17. Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

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    Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited.

  18. Permeability barrier in the mantle epithelium lining the testis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

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    Albrecht, E A; Cavicchia, J C

    2001-04-01

    Intercellular junctions are studied in the epithelium lining the testis of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata by conventional staining and lanthanum tracer techniques. The junctional complex consists of belt desmosomes and septate junctions. Septate junctions are of the pleated-sheet type and they are constantly associated with mitochondria. Gap and tight junctions appear to be absent. These septate junctions seem to be the structural correlate of an epithelial permeability barrier that separate the testis from the extrapallial space where the shell elements are deposited. These junctions may contribute to a functional barrier in the male gonad of Pomacea canaliculata. The results indicate that freshwater prosobranchs have junctional structures very close to those found in other molluscs.

  19. Alterations of biochemical indicators in hepatopancreas of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, from paddy fields in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wu, Jui-Pin; Hsieh, Tsung-Chih; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    The freshwater golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snails' wide distribution, high abundance, and sensitivity to environmental pollution make them a potential bioindicator for environmental contamination. In this study, the biochemical status of golden apple snails collected from paddy fields throughout the island of Taiwan was examined. This study found that the biochemical status of apple snails collected from paddy fields differed from that of animals bred and maintained in the laboratory. Furthermore, certain biochemical endpoints of the snails collected from the paddy fields before and after agricultural activities were also different-hemolymphatic vitellogenin protein was induced in male snail after exposure to estrogen-like chemicals, the hepatic monooxygenase (1.97 +/- 0.50 deltaA(650mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and glutathione S transferase (0.02 +/- 0.01 delta A(340mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) snails exposed to pesticides, as well as the hepatopancreatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase (450.00 +/- 59.40 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and alanine aminotransferase (233.27 +/- 42.09 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) decreased the indicating that xenobiotics destroyed hepatopancreatic. The above findings reveal that apple snail could be used as a practical bioindicator to monitor anthropogenic environmental pollution.

  20. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions.

  1. Suriname Freshwater Snails of the Genus Pomacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijskes, D.C.; Pain, T.

    1957-01-01

    Of the three Guyanas on the north coast of South America, Suriname is the middle one, lying between French Guyana to the east and British Guyana to the west. The frontiers between these three countries are formed by the Marowijne River (Suriname — French Guyana) and the Courantyne River (Suriname —

  2. The major egg reserve protein from the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata is a complex carotenoprotein related to those of Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea scalaris.

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    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Heras, H

    2014-03-01

    Snails from the genus Pomacea lay conspicuous masses of brightly colored eggs above the water. Coloration is given by carotenoproteins that also which play important roles in protection against sun radiation, stabilizing and transporting antioxidant molecules and helping to protect embryos from desiccation and predators. They seem a key acquisition, but have been little studied. Here we report the characteristics of the major carotenoprotein from Pomacea maculata and the first comparison among these egg proteins. This particle, hereafter PmPV1, represents ~52% of perivitellin fluid protein. It is a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein responsible for the bright reddish egg coloration. With VHDL characteristics, PmPV1 apparent molecular mass is 294kDa, composed of five non-covalently bound subunits of pI 4.7-9.8 and masses between 26 and 36kDa whose N-terminal sequences were obtained. It is a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein scarcely lipidated (Pomacea canaliculata. The characterization of PmPV1 allows the first comparisons among snail carotenoproteins and further highlights the importance of these perivitellins in the reproductive strategy of Pomacea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, distribution, and levels of an egg lipoprotein from the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

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    Dreon, M; Lavarias, S; Garin, C F; Heras, H; Pollero, R J

    2002-02-15

    The site of synthesis of mollusc lipoproteins is hitherto unknown and was investigated for perivitellin 2 (PV2), an egg lipoprotein found in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. Tissues (albumen gland, gonad-digestive gland complex, and muscle) from vitellogenic females were incubated in vitro with 14C-leucine at 25 degrees C for 12 hr. At the end of incubation, soluble proteins from tissue homogenates and medium were analyzed for de novo protein synthesis by electrophoresis and HPLC, and radiolabeled proteins were quantified by liquid scintillation. Two albumen gland radiolabeled proteins (67 and 31 kDa) co-migrated with the subunits of PV2, and they represented 6.0% of the total labeled protein in that tissue. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PV2 only in the albumen gland. In vivo experiments where adult females were injected with 3H-leucine revealed that PV2 was not present in hemolymph. ELISA analysis in all tissues of the snail confirmed the PV2 presence only in the albumen gland and developing eggs with levels of 26 and 98 mg/g protein, respectively. Therefore, the albumen gland is the only site for PV2 synthesis, and no extra-gland synthesis, circulation, or accumulation could be found. PV2 subunits were further characterized analyzing N-terminal sequences which showed no homology with other proteins. Copyright 2002 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

  4. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch Palomo, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  5. [Investigation on snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Panyu region of Guangzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Xuan; He, Hui-Fang; Yin, Zhu; Zhou, Jin-Huan; Li, Shi-Qun; Li, Fang-Hui; Chen, Jiong-Min; Zhu, Wei-Jin; Zhong, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Kai-Ying; Liu, Gui-Ping; Jia, Xun; Chen, Wan-Tong; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Yu-Chang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Shen, Hao-Xian

    2012-06-01

    To understand the natural infection status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata captured from the field were digested with the artificial stomach fluid. The third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were examined and counted under a microscope. The collected third-stage larvae were used to infect SD rats. A total of 367 Achatina fulica and 357 Pomacea canaliculata were examined. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica was 22.62%, with a mean intensity of 57.00 larvae per positive snail. The infection rate of A. cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata was 3.08%, with a mean intensity of 1.64 larvae per positive snail. The infection rates of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica from Dagang, Shiqi, Hualong, and Lanhe towns and Nansha District, were 13.33%, 15.00%, 20.93%, 73.68% and 8.41%, respectively. Those in Pomacea canaliculata were 5.88%, 2.88%, 1.89%, 0% and 3.96%, respectively. A. cantonensis infection exists in Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata from Panyu region of Guangzhou City, and the infection in Achatina fulica is more serious than that in Pomacea canaliculata. The infection rates of the snails among five sites are different.

  6. Characterization of the major egg glycolipoproteins from the perivitellin fluid of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Heras, Horacio; Pollero, Ricardo J

    2004-07-01

    Ovorubin and PV2 are the major lipoglycocarotenoproteins present in the perivitellus of the freshwater snail eggs of Pomacea canaliculata, a rapidly expanding rice field pest. We have previously characterized these two particles regarding their lipid and protein compositions, their synthesis and tissular distribution, and their contributions of energy and structural precursors for the developing embryo. In the present study, we have characterized the glycosidic moieties associated to these perivitellines. Both proteins were isolated from egg homogenates by ultracentrifugation, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using anionic exchange and size exclusion columns. Total carbohydrates accounted for 17.8% and 2.5% (w/w) of the apparent molecular mass of ovorubin and PV2, respectively. Analysis by size exclusion chromatography showed that the amount of O-linked oligosaccharides is higher than that of the N-linked species (59% and 67% w/w of total carbohydrates of ovorubin and PV2, respectively). Glycosylation patterns were determined by a set of biotinilated lectins onto blotted purified proteins. Lectin affinities confirmed the presence of aspargine-linked carbohydrates, probably of hybrid and high mannose types. Jacaline affinity suggested the presence of O-linked residues derived from the T-antigen. Total carbohydrate composition determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) showed that mannose was the major monosaccharide in both perivitellins followed by GlcNAc and Gal in ovorubin, and Gal and GlcNAc in PV2. Only one fatty acid (22:1 n-9) accounted for 46% and 56% of the fatty acids present in ovorubin and PV2, respectively. Carbohydrate role on these reserve proteins during embryogenesis of the apple snail is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Genetic diversity and molecular markers in introduced and Thai native apple snails (Pomacea and Pila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaewnon-ngiw, Bungorn; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Phanwichien, Kantimanee; Sangduen, Nitsri; Lauhachinda, Nitaya; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2004-07-31

    The genetic diversity and species-diagnostic markers in the introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata and in the native Thai apple snails; Pila ampullacea, P. angelica, P. pesmei, and P. polita, were investigated by restriction analysis of COI and are reported for the first time. Twenty-one composite haplotypes showing non-overlapping distributions among species were found. Genetic heterogeneity analysis indicated significant differences between species (P Pomacea canaliculata (P > 0.0036 as modified by the Bonferroni procedure), P. ampullacea (P = 0.0824-1.000) and P. polita (P = 1.0000). A neighbor-joining tree based on genetic distance between pairs of composite haplotypes differentiated all species and indicated that P. angelica and P. pesmei are closely related phylogenetically. In addition, the 16S rDNA of these species was cloned and sequenced. A species-specific PCR for P. canaliculata was successfully developed with a sensitivity of detection of approximately 50 pg of the target DNA template. The amplification of genomic DNA (50 pg and 25 ng) isolated from the fertilized eggs, and juveniles (1, 7, and 15 d after hatching) of Pomacea canaliculata was also successful, and suggested that Pomacea canaliculata and Pila species can be discriminated from the early stages of development.

  8. Evaluation of genetic diversity in the golden apple snail, Pomacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity of Pomacea canaliculata, collected from Los Banos (LB) in Philippines and Yuyao (YY), Taizhou (TZ), Fuzhou (FZ), Guangzhou (GZ), Nanning (NN), Kunming (KM) in China, was studied by using the inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique. A total of 498 loci from 140 individuals were amplified ...

  9. Gender-based differences in Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-Darby, P. L.; Darby, P.C.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Gastropod movements have been studied in the context of habitat selection, finding food and mates, and avoiding predation. Many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory, where constraints on spatial scale influence behavior. We conducted a field study of Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements using telemetry. We hypothesized that Florida apple snail movements were driven by reproductive activity, and that gender differences would be evident. We documented male and female directions and distances traveled. We also conducted a trapping study that included conspecific bait to test if the presence of females attracted more males as measured by M:F ratios in traps. The greatest distances traveled were by males, and males were more likely to maintain a consistent bearing compared to females. Male distances peaked in what typically corresponds to peak breeding season. M:F ratios in traps were positively associated with reproductive activity in the study population as measured by egg cluster counts. Conspecific bait had no effect on the number of males or females captured. However, if a female crawled into the trap, we observed greater numbers of males compared to those with no trapped females. Males may have tracked females to increase mating encounters, following slime trails, as seen in other aquatic (including other Pomacea) snails. The capacity for mate finding has implications for reproductive success in the relatively low density populations often seen for Pomacea paludosa.

  10. The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a novel vector of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its introduction, spread, and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-Bao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2013-06-01

    The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata was introduced to Taiwan then to mainland China in the early 1980s from Argentina, its native region, for the purpose of aquaculture. Because of the lack of natural enemies and its tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions, both its abundance and distribution have dramatically increased and it has become a harmful species to local agriculture and other native species in many areas of China. Unfortunately, the snail also acts as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been implicated in transfer of the parasite to people, resulting in angiostrongyliasis manifested as eosinophilic meningitis. Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail.

  11. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. A temperature-dependent physiologically based model for the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Pasquali, Sara; Martín, Pablo R.; Carlsson, Nils; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    In order to set priorities in management of costly and ecosystem-damaging species, policymakers and managers need accurate predictions not only about where a specific invader may establish but also about its potential abundance at different geographical scales. This is because density or biomass per unit area of an invasive species is a key predictor of the magnitude of environmental and economic impact in the invaded habitat. Here, we present a physiologically based demographic model describing and explaining the population dynamics of a widespread freshwater invader, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, which is causing severe environmental and economic impacts in invaded wetlands and rice fields in Southeastern Asia and has also been introduced to North America and Europe . The model is based on bio-demographic functions for mortality, development and fecundity rates that are driven by water temperature for the aquatic stages (juveniles and adults) and by air temperature for the aerial egg masses. Our model has been validated against data on the current distribution in South America and Japan, and produced consistent and realistic patterns of reproduction, growth, maturation and mortality under different scenarios in accordance to what is known from real P. canaliculata populations in different regions and climates. The model further shows that P. canaliculata will use two different reproductive strategies (semelparity and iteroparity) within the potential area of establishment, a plasticity that may explain the high invasiveness of this species across a wide range of habitats with different climates. Our results also suggest that densities, and thus the magnitude of environmental and agricultural damage, will be largely different in locations with distinct climatic regimes within the potential area of establishment. We suggest that physiologically based demographic modelling of invasive species will become a valuable tool for invasive species managers.

  13. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters.

  14. Juvenile growth and survival of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) reared at different constant temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuffert, María E; Martín, Pablo R

    2013-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that cultured under certain conditions could provide interesting rewards in research and aquaculture. P. canaliculata is usually reared at 25°C, though the optimal temperature for culturing this species, that balances growth and survival rates, is so far unknown. In this work we present results of growth and survival of cohorts reared in the laboratory at different constant water temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C) during the pre-reproductive period. Two different groups were recognized among the five treatments: the two lower temperatures (15 and 20°C) that showed no mortality but with very low growth rates and the treatments of 25, 30 and 35°C in which snails grew faster but displayed a reduction in survival as temperature increases. After 10 weeks, the mean shell lengths attained at 30 and 35°C were only 2-3 mm higher than that of the treatment of 25°C and were not statistically different. Our results support using water temperatures of 25°C for the rearing of cohorts when the objective is to quickly obtain numerous large snails. Temperatures of 15 and 20°C may be appropriate if the aim is to preserve juveniles for long periods with a very low risk of mortality. The results reported here will be useful to the scheduling of laboratory trials intended for basic research, snail control or mass rearing for different applications of this species.

  15. Describing shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism of Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 using geometric morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Cabuga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.

  16. Effects of absolute fasting on reproduction and survival of the invasive apple snailPomacea canaliculatain its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburi, Nicolás E; Martín, Pablo R

    2016-08-01

    A South American freshwater gastropod, the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, has become a driver of ecosystemic changes in wetlands and an important rice pest after its introduction to various parts of the world, mainly Asia. The objective of this study was to study the effect of an abrupt interruption in food availability in the short term (up to 4 weeks) and long term (up to 8 months) on survival and reproductive activity. The main results indicate that short-term fasting mainly affects the survival of males, but only when they are raised together with females, probably due to a greater mate-searching activity that increases mortality in the individuals with lower reserves. The number of copulating snails or egg-laying females shows an abrupt drop when fasting and a rapid recovery after the food supply is restored. The strategy of discontinuing reproductive activity prioritizes energy conservation for the survival of the females. Interpopulation variation in resistance to starvation was observed in adults, which can be explained to some extent by the food availability that they experienced in their natural environment. No interpopulational differences in survival were seen in hatchlings. The mean maximum values of survival under starvation were 52.6 days in hatchlings and the 3.3% of adults survive over than 200 days, which may be a relevant trait in dispersal and establishment in new habitats.

  17. Effects of absolute fasting on reproduction and survival of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburi, Nicolás E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A South American freshwater gastropod, the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, has become a driver of ecosystemic changes in wetlands and an important rice pest after its introduction to various parts of the world, mainly Asia. The objective of this study was to study the effect of an abrupt interruption in food availability in the short term (up to 4 weeks) and long term (up to 8 months) on survival and reproductive activity. The main results indicate that short-term fasting mainly affects the survival of males, but only when they are raised together with females, probably due to a greater mate-searching activity that increases mortality in the individuals with lower reserves. The number of copulating snails or egg-laying females shows an abrupt drop when fasting and a rapid recovery after the food supply is restored. The strategy of discontinuing reproductive activity prioritizes energy conservation for the survival of the females. Interpopulation variation in resistance to starvation was observed in adults, which can be explained to some extent by the food availability that they experienced in their natural environment. No interpopulational differences in survival were seen in hatchlings. The mean maximum values of survival under starvation were 52.6 days in hatchlings and the 3.3% of adults survive over than 200 days, which may be a relevant trait in dispersal and establishment in new habitats. PMID:29491925

  18. Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

    2007-12-01

    The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction.

  19. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  20. Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ituarte

    Full Text Available Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae, involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC, the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0. The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C. PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins.

  1. Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins.

  2. Agglutinating Activity and Structural Characterization of Scalarin, the Major Egg Protein of the Snail Pomacea scalaris (d’Orbigny, 1832)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca2+ and Mg2+ were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60°C and completely lost above 80°C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60°C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins. PMID:23185551

  3. Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Tosi, Martín E Rinaldi; Abud, María A; Calderón, María L; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-02-15

    The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod.

  4. Effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on survival, development and growth of invasive snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanggui; Li, Adela Jing; Li, Kaibin; Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou

    2017-12-01

    This study tests the hypotheses that whether environmental relevance of glyphosate would help control spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata, or benefit its population growth worldwide. Our results showed that glyphosate induced acute toxicity to the snail only at high concentrations (96h LC50 at 175mg/L) unlikely to occur in the environment. Long-term exposures to glyphosate at sublethal levels (20 and 120mg/L) caused inhibition of food intake, limitation of growth performance and alterations in metabolic profiles of the snail. It is worth noting that glyphosate at 2mg/L benefited growth performance in P. canaliculata. Chronic exposures of glyphosate significantly enhanced overall metabolic rate and altered catabolism from protein to carbohydrate/lipid mode. Cellular responses in enzyme activities showed that the exposed snails could increase tolerance by their defense system against glyphosate-induced oxidative stress, and adjustment of metabolism to mitigate energy crisis. Our study displayed that sublethal concentrations of glyphosate might be helpful in control of the invasive species by food intake, growth performance and metabolic interruption; whether environmental relevance of glyphosate (≤2mg/L) benefits population growth of P. canaliculata is still inconclusive, which requires further field study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Should apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) be used as bioindicator for BDE-209?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eduardo; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Covaci, Adrian; Lana, Nerina Belén; Ciocco, Néstor Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Apple snail Pomacea canaliculata has been reported to accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and was recently proposed as PBDE bioindicator. This work investigates the ability of P. canaliculata to accumulate BDE-209 by dietary exposure under controlled experimental conditions. A 30-day long enrichment feeding assay was carried out using 30 adult apple snails, placed in individual aquaria. Food was enriched at three BDE-209 concentrations (400, 4,700, and 8,300 μg g(−1) lipid weight). Correlation between BDE-209 values in food and snail tissue were estimated according to Stockholm Convention suggested criteria for chemicals with K(OW) >5. All animals survived with no evident physical alterations, and all of them accumulated BDE-209. BDE-209 levels in tissue samples increased exponentially with the exposure concentration. The bioaccumulation factor vs. food concentration plot showed a peculiar pattern, in which at intermediate concentrations the snails accumulated less BDE-209 than expected. Our results suggest that P. canaliculata would present a detoxification mechanism for BDE-209 different from the most commonly reported metabolic pathways.

  6. Nuclear sex-determining genes cause large sex-ratio variation in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary maintenance of genetic sex-ratio variation is enigmatic since genes for biased sex ratios are disadvantageous in finite populations (the "Verner effect"). However, such variation could be maintained if a small number of nuclear sex-determining genes were responsible, although this has not been fully demonstrated experimentally. Brood sex ratios of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata are highly variable among parents, but population sex ratios are near unity. In this study, the effect of each parent on the brood sex ratio was investigated by exchanging partners among mating pairs. There were positive correlations between sex ratios of half-sib broods of the common mother (r = 0.42) or of the common father (r = 0.47). Moreover, the correlation between full-sib broods was very high (r = 0.92). Thus, both parents contributed equally to the sex-ratio variation, which indicates that nuclear genes are involved and their effects are additive. Since the half-sib correlations were much stronger than the parent-offspring regressions previously obtained, the variation was caused by zygotic sex-determining genes rather than by parental sex-ratio genes. The number of relevant genes appears to be small.

  7. Nuclear Sex-Determining Genes Cause Large Sex-Ratio Variation in the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary maintenance of genetic sex-ratio variation is enigmatic since genes for biased sex ratios are disadvantageous in finite populations (the “Verner effect”). However, such variation could be maintained if a small number of nuclear sex-determining genes were responsible, although this has not been fully demonstrated experimentally. Brood sex ratios of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata are highly variable among parents, but population sex ratios are near unity. In this study, the effect of each parent on the brood sex ratio was investigated by exchanging partners among mating pairs. There were positive correlations between sex ratios of half-sib broods of the common mother (r = 0.42) or of the common father (r = 0.47). Moreover, the correlation between full-sib broods was very high (r = 0.92). Thus, both parents contributed equally to the sex-ratio variation, which indicates that nuclear genes are involved and their effects are additive. Since the half-sib correlations were much stronger than the parent–offspring regressions previously obtained, the variation was caused by zygotic sex-determining genes rather than by parental sex-ratio genes. The number of relevant genes appears to be small. PMID:17057241

  8. Tolerance to hypometabolism and arousal induced by hibernation in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo; Campoy-Diaz, Alejandra D; Giuffrida, Pablo M; Vega, Israel A

    2017-12-19

    Pomacea canaliculata may serve as a model organism for comparative studies of oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in active, hibernating and arousing snails. Oxidative damage (as TBARS), free radical scavenging capacity (as ABTS + oxidation), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the protein expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsc70, Hsp90) were studied in digestive gland, kidney and foot. Tissue TBARS of hibernating snails (45days) was higher than active snails. Hibernation produced an increase of ABTS + in digestive gland, probably because of the sustained antioxidant defenses (UA and/or GSH and SOD levels). Kidney protection during the activity-hibernation cycle seemed provided by increased UA concentrations. TBARS in the foot remained high 30min after arousal with no changes in ABTS + , but this tissue increased ABTS + oxidation at 24h to expenses increased UA and decreased GSH levels, and with no changes in SOD and CAT activities. The level of Hsp70 in kidney showed no changes throughout the activity-hibernation cycle but it increased in the foot after hibernation. The tissue levels of Hsp90 in snails hibernating were higher than active snails and returned to baseline 24h after arousal. Results showed that chronic cooling produces a significant oxidative damage in three studied tissues and that these tissue damages are overcome quickly (between 30min to 24h) with fluctuations in different antioxidant defenses (UA, GSH, CAT) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  10. Freshwater Snails Of Niger-Cem, Nkalagu Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of snail collections carried out in the freshwater habitats of Niger-Cem in Nkalagu from August to November 2002 are reported. Also repored are findings on abundance, diversity and age structure of the snails. A total of 3491 pulmonate snails were collected, belonging to 3 families: Planorbidae (3133); ...

  11. Isolation and characterization of sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of "100 of the world's worst invasive alien species". The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310-0.966 and 0.523-0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  12. Searching for doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA in the apple snail Pomacea diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakatselaki, Maria Eleni; Saavedra, Carlos; Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D

    2016-11-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an exceptional mode of mtDNA transmission, restricted so far to the class of bivalves. We searched for DUI outside bivalves using the apple snail Pomacea diffusa. It was an appropriate candidate to search for DUI for three reasons; it belongs to gastropods, which is the closest sister group to bivalves, it is gonochoristic and it has a strong sex bias in the progeny of different female individuals. These phenomena (gonochorism and sex-biased progeny) are also found in species with DUI. We searched for heteroplasmy in males and for high sequence divergence among mtDNA sequences obtained from male and female gonads. All sequences examined were identical. These data suggest that the mtDNA in P. diffusa is maternally transmitted and DUI remains an exclusive characteristic of bivalves.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  14. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, James E; McDowell, William G; Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Pintor, Lauren M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5) are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas), which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  15. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Byers

    Full Text Available Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5 are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas, which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  16. Observations of raccoon (Procyon lotor) predation on the invasive Maculata apple snail (Pomacea maculata) in southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacoby; Merino, Sergio; Prejean, Drew; LaFleur, Gary Jr.

    2017-01-01

    We used camera traps to determine which predators were responsible for depredated Pomacea maculata (Maculata Apple Snail) shells at 2 different study sites. Evidence of predation at these sites included operculums near the shells with a small amount of flesh attached and shells accumulating a meter or more from the water’s edge with no evidence of recent flooding. In both locations, the most frequently observed potential predators were Procyon lotor (Raccoon), which was the only species directly observed capturing and eating Apple Snails.

  17. Evidence of oligogenic sex determination in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yoichi; Kumagai, Natsumi

    2018-02-26

    A small number of genes may interact to determine sex, but few such examples have been demonstrated in animals, especially through comprehensive mating experiments. The highly invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is gonochoristic and shows a large variation in brood sex ratio, and the involvement of multiple genes has been suggested for this phenomenon. We conducted mating experiments to determine whether their sex determination involves a few or many genes (i.e., oligogenic or polygenic sex determination, respectively). Full-sib females or males that were born from the same parents were mated to an adult of the opposite sex, and the brood sex ratios of the parents and their offspring were investigated. Analysis of a total of 4288 offspring showed that the sex ratios of offspring from the full-sib females were variable but clustered into only a few values. Similar patterns were observed for the full-sib males, although the effect was less clear because fewer offspring were used (n = 747). Notably, the offspring sex ratios of all full-sib females in some families were nearly 0.5 (proportion of males) with little variation. These results indicate that the number of genotypes of the full-sibs, and hence genes involved in sex determination, is small in this snail. Such oligogenic systems may be a major sex-determining system among animals, especially those with variable sex ratios.

  18. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-08-13

    Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail.

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: experimental study on the susceptibility of apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata compared to Pila polita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesana, Smarn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laha, Thewarach

    2008-04-01

    Six groups (15 snails/group) of Pomacea canaliculata and Pila polita were infected orally with 0 (control), 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 first-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L1). The respective mean+/-SD third stage larvae (L3) worm recovery 1-month post-infection (p.i.) for P. canaliculata was 0, 1.4+/-5.42 (0.7%), 0.13+/-0.35 (0.03%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.009%), 0.07+/-0.26 (0.004%), 0, and for P. polita 0, 64.33+/-21.38 (32.25%), 115.36+/-36.82 (28.93%), 265.33+/-90.01 (33.27%), 471.33+/-92.98 (29.60%) and 849.00+/-243.23 (26.61%). The susceptibility of A. cantonensis in P. polita was dose-dependent (p<0.001). In the three groups (nine snails/group) of P. polita given 500 L1, we studied the distribution of L3 in the internal organs (i.e., foot, head+esophagus, kidney, albumin gland, mantle, intestine, digestive gland) and found the highest density after 1, 2 and 3 months p.i. in the mantle at 29.37%, 31.09% and 37.45%. The infection rate in P. canaliculata was too low to study distribution rates.

  1. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: VI - Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C Thiengo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the last of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2005 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; B. straminea; B. tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; D. cimex; D. depressissimum; D. lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; P. marmorata; Plesiophysa guadeloupensis; Pomacea lineata; and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of schistosomiasis the three natural vectors were identified and, although no specimens were found harbouring larval forms of Schistosoma mansoni, different kinds of cercariae had been observed.

  2. Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IV - Sul Fluminense Mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C Thiengo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  3. The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

  4. Effects of sublethal chronic copper exposure on the growth and reproductive success of the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogevich, Emily C; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2009-04-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 microg/L, 16 microg/L, 24 microg/L), for one generation to examine uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F(0) generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F(1) generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8-16 microg/L Cu had high Cu accumulation (whole body, foot, viscera, and shell) and significantly reduced clutch production (8-16 microg/L) and egg hatching (16 microg/L). Apple snails exposed to the 24 microg/L Cu had low survival and the treatment was therefore terminated. Concentrations of minerals (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) in tissues were maintained regardless of Cu exposure, but the distribution of Cu in the body of snails differed, depending on exposure concentrations. Higher exposure concentrations resulted in a greater percentage of Cu accumulated in the viscera of the snail. Copper exposure to the F(0) generation did not affect the survival, growth, or whole body Cu concentrations in the F(1) generation. These finding are significant, given the importance of the Florida apple snail in the Everglades food chain. Changes in the abundance of apple snail populations, as a result of Cu exposure, could ultimately affect foraging success of predators.

  5. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-09

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides.

  6. Differential response between histological and biochemical biomarkers in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gasteropoda: Amullariidae) exposed to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighetti, F; Ambrosio, E; Astiz, M; Capítulo, A Rodrigues; Lavarías, S

    2018-01-01

    To develop effective programs to monitor water quality is necessary to identify sensitive biomarkers in indicator species. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomarkers in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata exposed to the insecticide Cypermethrin (CYP). Adult male and female snails were exposed to sublethal CYP concentrations (10, 25 and 100μgl -1 ) for 1, 4, 7 and 14days. The recovery of the exposed snails was also studied by a post-exposure assay. The activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PC) in digestive gland and gills were studied as biomarkers of exposure. Histopathological changes in target tissues were also evaluated. In digestive gland, CYP caused a significant increase in SOD, CAT and GST activities compared to control (pbiomarkers of toxicity induced by CYP in P. canaliculata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ambrosia artemisiifolia as a potential resource for management of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenbing; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Zhongshi; He, Hualiang; Li, Youzhi

    2018-04-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive weed in Europe and Asia, is highly toxic to the golden apple snail (GAS; Pomacea canaliculata) in laboratory tests. However, little is known about the chemical components of A. artemisiifolia associated with the molluscicidal activity or about its potential application for GAS control in rice fields. This study evaluated the molluscicidal activities of powders, methanol extracts, and individual compounds from A. artemisiifolia against GAS in rice fields and under laboratory conditions. Ambrosia artemisiifolia powders did not negatively affect the growth and development of rice but they reduced damage to rice caused by GAS. Extracts had moderate acute toxicity but potent chronic toxicity. The 24-h 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the extracts against GAS was 194.0 mg L -1 , while the weights, lengths and widths of GAS were significantly affected by exposure to a sublethal concentration (100 mg/mL). Psilostachyin, psilostachyin B, and axillaxin were identified as the most active molluscicide components in the aerial parts of A. artemisiifolia, and the 24-h LC 50 values of these purified compounds were 15.9, 27.0, and 97.0 mg/L, respectively. The results indicate that chemical compounds produced by A. artemisiifolia may be useful for population management of GAS in rice fields. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Poly Herbal Molluscicidal Extracts for Control of Apple Snail (Pomacea maculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruswamy Prabhakaran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Golden Apple Snail (GAS is the most destructive invasive rice pest in Southeast Asia. The cost of synthetic molluscicides, their toxicity to non-target organisms, and their persistence in the environment have propelled the research of plant-derived molluscicides. Most research efforts have focused on individual plant extracts for their molluscicidal potency against GAS and have not been proven to be entirely effective in rice field conditions. Selective combination of synergistically acting molluscicidal compounds from various plant extracts might be an effective alternative. In this direction, ethanolic extracts from six different plants (Neem, Tobacco, Nerium, Pongamia, Zinger, and Piper were evaluated against Pomacea maculata Perry. Of the various combinations studied, a binary extract (1:1 of nerium and tobacco (LC90 177.71 mg/L, 48 h, and two tri-herbal extract formulations (1:1:1 of (nerium + tobacco + piper and (nerium + tobacco + neem were found to be most effective, with LC90 values of 180.35 mg/L and 191.52 mg/L, respectively, in laboratory conditions. The synergistic effect of combined herbal extracts resulted in significant reduction in LC90 values of the individual extracts. The findings of this study demonstrate that the selective combinations of potent molluscicidal herbal extracts are effective for management of P. maculata under laboratory conditions.

  9. Uric acid deposits and estivation in the invasive apple-snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Abud, María A; Cueto, Juan A; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The physiological ability to estivate is relevant for the maintenance of population size in the invasive Pomacea canaliculata. However, tissue reoxygenation during arousal from estivation poses the problem of acute oxidative stress. Uric acid is a potent antioxidant in several systems and it is stored in specialized tissues of P. canaliculata. Changes in tissue concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and allantoin were measured during estivation and arousal in P. canaliculata. Both TBARS and uric acid increased two-fold during 45 days estivation, probably as a consequence of concomitant oxyradical production during uric acid synthesis by xanthine oxidase. However, after arousal was induced, uric acid and TBARS dropped to or near baseline levels within 20 min and remained low up to 24h after arousal induction, while the urate oxidation product allantoin continuously rose to a maximum at 24h after induction, indicating the participation of uric acid as an antioxidant during reoxygenation. Neither uric acid nor allantoin was detected in the excreta during this 24h period. Urate oxidase activity was also found in organs of active snails, but activity shut down during estivation and only a partial and sustained recovery was observed in the midgut gland. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and the origin of invasive apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata and P. maculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Su-Wen; He, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2018-01-19

    Species of Pomacea, commonly known as apple snails, are native to South America, and have become widely distributed agricultural and environmental pests in southern China since their introduction in the 1980s. However, only since 2010 have researchers recognized that at least two species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, are present in China. Although impacts of apple snails have been extensively documented, confusion still persists regarding current distributions and origin of the species in China. To resolve this confusion, we used phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods to analyze 1464 mitochondrial COI sequences, including 349 new sequences from samples collected in southern China and 1115 publicly available sequences from snails collected in the native and introduced ranges. Pomacea canaliculata was found at all sampled localities, while P. maculata was found at only five sampled localities in the Sichuan basin and Zhejiang province. Our data indicate that Chinese populations of P. canaliculata share an Argentinian origin, consistent with multiple introductions of this species elsewhere in Asia. In addition, just a single lineage of P. maculata is established in China, which shares with populations in Brazil.

  11. Invasive Pomacea snails as important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam: implications for outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Guo, Yun-Hai; Nguyen, Hung Manh; Sinuon, Muth; Sayasone, Somphou; Lo, Nathan C; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Andrews, Jason R

    2018-03-21

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes human eosinophilic meningitis and it is endemic in Southeast Asia, but little is known about its distribution in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. We conducted a multi-country survey for A. cantonensis in these countries to estimate its prevalence in snails along the Mekong River and the east coast of Vietnam. We identified Angiostrongylus species by morphological and molecular analysis. We found A. cantonensis in the invasive snail, Pomacea spp. The wide accessibility of Pomacea snails, along with their infection by A. cantonensis, indicates that this snail species could be used in surveillance for preventing outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Júnior, Esmar; De Barros, José Carlos N; Paresque, Karla; De Freitas, Rodrigo R

    2013-01-01

    The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densities (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. There was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities.

  13. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  14. Snails promote methane release from a freshwater lake ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eXu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic fauna, as ecosystem engineers, can strongly affect microbial-driven ecosystem biogeochemical cycling. However, the effects of benthic fauna, especially epifauna, on CH4 cycling remain still elusive. In this study, CH4 effluxes were both measured along a gradient of snail density in a freshwater lake ecosystem in China, and monitored in manipulated laboratory microcosms with and without snails. Field CH4 efflux was significantly increased with snail density. Likewise, the stimulating effects of freshwater snails on CH4 effluxes were evident in the homogenised indoor microcosms. These results show that snails can stimulate CH4 efflux in the freshwater lake ecosystem. Moreover, the average efflux of CH4 emitted from snails’ habitats has reached 15.33 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1. By comparing with those emitted from vegetated coastal marsh and alpine wetland, this data indicates that snails’ habitats are strong sources of CH4 in a freshwater ecosystem. This study suggests identifying and modeling epifauna activity as a function of CH4 cycling could improve the mechanistic understanding of wetland biogeochemical cycling responses to climate change.

  15. Using ensemble forecasting to examine how climate change promotes worldwide invasion of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juncheng; Chen, Lian; Li, Hong

    2017-08-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 most notorious invasive alien species. Knowledge about the critical climate variables that limit the global distribution range of the snail, as well as predictions of future species distributions under climate change, is very helpful for management of snail. In this study, the climatically suitable habitats for this kind of snail under current climate conditions were modeled by biomod2 and projected to eight future climate scenarios (2 time periods [2050s, 2080s] × 2 Representative Concentration Pathways [RCPs; RCP2.6, RCP8.5] × 2 atmospheric General Circulation Models [GCMs; Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)]). The results suggest that the lowest temperature of coldest month is the critical climate variable to restrict the global distribution range of P. canaliculata. It is predicted that the climatically suitable habitats for P. canaliculata will increase by an average of 3.3% in 2050s and 3.8% in 2080s for the RCP2.6 scenario, while they increase by an average of 8.7% in 2050s and 10.3% in 2080s for the RCP8.5 scenario. In general, climate change in the future may promote the global invasion of the invasive species. Therefore, it is necessary to take proactive measures to monitor and preclude the invasion of this species.

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P  0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot.

  17. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Colin H; Plantz, Allyson L; Shelton, Therese; Burks, Romi L

    2013-01-01

    Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea) provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number) of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and managers can quickly

  18. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  19. The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2008-05-01

    Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH.

  20. Modeling freshwater snail habitat suitability and areas of potential snail-borne disease transmission in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, Aslak; Kabatereine, N B

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS-based modeling of an intermediate host snail species environmental requirements using known occurrence records can provide estimates of its spatial distribution. When other data are lacking, this can be used as a rough spatial prediction of potential snail......-borne disease transmission areas. Furthermore, knowledge of abiotic factors affecting intra-molluscan parasitic development can be used to make "masks" based on remotely sensed climatic data, and these can in turn be used to refine these predictions. We used data from a recent freshwater snail survey from...... Uganda, environmental data and the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to map the potential distribution of snail species known to act as intermediate hosts of several human and animal parasites. The results suggest that large areas of Uganda are suitable habitats for many of these snail...

  1. Macro-invertebrate predatorsof freshwater pulmonate snails in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A range of African and alien macro-invertebrates has been reported preying on freshwater pulmonate snails, including those that serve as intermediate hosts for bloodflukes of the genus Schistosoma. Predation by five molluscivorous taxa is reviewed here: indigenous leeches (Glossiphoniidae), marsh fly larvae ...

  2. Snail abundance in freshwater canals in the eastern province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of three species of freshwater snails, namely; Biomphalaria Arabica; Planorbidae, Lymnaea auricularia; Lymnaeidae and Melanoides tuberculatus; Thiaridae in two different parallel canals (the concrete irrigation and the earthen drainage canals) in the eastern province ...

  3. Geographical distribution and habitats of the freshwater snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief account is given of the geographical distribution and habitats of Bulinus reticulatus as reflected by the 278 samples currently on record in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom University. The susceptibility of field specimens and their F1 generation offspring to miracidia of ...

  4. Aspects of Water Quality of Freshwater Systems Harbouring Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of some aspects of water quality of freshwater systems harbouring snail vectors of schistosome parasites was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Calcium ion concentration of the water bodies was a mean value of 31 mg.l-1. The range of temperature was 15 - 30OC. The occurrence of Biomphalaria pferifferi was attributed to ...

  5. Oxygen consumption and responses of the freshwater snail Bulinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A gradient or choice apparatus, based on the 'fluvarium' principle and suitable for testing the responses of the freshwater snail Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus to different partial oxygen tensions was used. In a gradual oxygen gradient established with this apparatus, B. (P.) globosus shows a significant preference for ...

  6. Bioindication of mercury, arsenic and uranium in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae): Bioconcentration and depuration in tissues and symbiotic corpuscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy-Diaz, Alejandra D; Arribére, María A; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Vega, Israel A

    2018-04-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a mollusk potentially useful as a biomonitor species of freshwater quality. This work explores the ability of snail tissues and symbiotic corpuscles to bioconcentrate and depurate mercury, arsenic, and uranium. Adult snails cultured in metal-free reconstituted water were exposed for eight weeks (bioaccumulation phase) to water with Hg (2 μgL -1 ), As (10 μgL -1 ), and U (30 μgL -1 ) and then returned to the reconstituted water for other additional eight weeks (depuration phase). Elemental concentrations in digestive gland, kidney, symbiotic corpuscles and particulate excreta were determined by neutron activation analysis. The glandular symbiotic occupancy was measured by morphometric analysis. After exposure, the kidney showed the highest concentration of Hg, while the digestive gland accumulated mainly As and U. The subcellular distribution in symbiotic corpuscles was ∼71%, ∼48%, and ∼11% for U, Hg, and As, respectively. Tissue depuration between weeks 8 and 16 was variable amongst elements. At week 16, the tissue depuration of U was the highest (digestive gland = 92%; kidney = 80%), while it was lower for Hg (digestive gland = 51%; kidney = 53%). At week 16, arsenic showed a differential pattern of tissue depuration (digestive gland = 23%; kidney = 88%). The symbiotic detoxification of the three elements in excreta was fast between weeks 8 and 10 and it was slower after on. At the end of the depuration, each element distributed differentially in digestive gland and symbiotic corpuscles. Our findings show that symbiotic corpuscles, digestive gland and kidney P. canaliculata are sensitive places for biomonitoring of Hg, As and U. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic Molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal®, 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  8. A Pilot Study Testing a Natural and a Synthetic Molluscicide for Controlling Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M; Jenkins, Jill A; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal(®), 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  9. [Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan

    2009-02-28

    The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text].

  10. Modeling freshwater snail habitat suitability and areas of potential snail-borne disease transmission in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, Aslak; Kabatereine, N B

    2006-01-01

    -borne disease transmission areas. Furthermore, knowledge of abiotic factors affecting intra-molluscan parasitic development can be used to make "masks" based on remotely sensed climatic data, and these can in turn be used to refine these predictions. We used data from a recent freshwater snail survey from...... Uganda, environmental data and the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to map the potential distribution of snail species known to act as intermediate hosts of several human and animal parasites. The results suggest that large areas of Uganda are suitable habitats for many of these snail...... species, indicating a large potential for disease transmission. The lack of parasitological data still makes it difficult to determine the magnitude of actual disease transmission, but the predicted snail distributions might be used as indicators of potential present and future risk areas. Some...

  11. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...

  12. Molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extraction against the freshwater snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Said Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against the snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria spp. and Physa marmorata. Methods: Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen spinach. Snails were incubated in chlorophyllin containing water with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 µg/mL. All samples were kept in darkness overnight for incubation. After incubation, three samples were irradiated with simulated solar radiation for 3 h. After irradiation, the vitality of the organisms was determined. Results: The photodynamically active chlorophyllin, at low concentrations, was able to kill snails within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Besides, it had a killing effect by about 70% and 100% on the snails’ eggs and the newly hatched snails, respectively, after 3 h exposure to solar radiation. Conclusion: The derivates of chlorophyll was a very interesting substance for photodynamic freshwater snail control. Hence, it might be a promising and cheap new strategy which probably had the potential to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.

  13. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method.

  14. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  15. Cloning, genomic organization and expression of two glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) genes from golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjongjirak, Chanprapa; Amparyup, Piti; Sittipraneed, Siriporn

    2008-06-01

    Two cellulase cDNAs (GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) were successfully isolated and characterized from stomach tissue of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), a kind of herbivorous mollusca. Sequencing analysis revealed full-length cDNAs of 1300 and 1277 bp in length, respectively. The open reading frame (ORF) of cellulase cDNA was 1188 and 1191 bp, encoding 395 and 396 amino acid, respectively. Sequence alignment revealed that GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 shared high identity with glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GHF10) and had an overall similarity of 98 and 82% to those of Ampullaria crossean cellulase EGX. A neighbour-joining tree showed a clear differentiation between each species and also indicated that GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 from P. canaliculata and A. crossean EGX are closely related phylogenetically. The genomic organization of cellulase GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes was also investigated. The GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes spanned over 4937 and 4512 bp, respectively. Both genes contained 9 exons interrupted by eight introns. The result verified the endogenous origin of the GHF10-Pc1 and GHF10-Pc3 genes. Analysis of RNA by RT-PCR from several ages of P. canaliculata revealed that neither gene was expressed in eggs. GHF10-Pc1 was also expressed in 1- and 10-day-old juvenile snails whereas GHF10-Pc3 was expressed only in 1-day-old juvenile snails. The result showed that two GHF10-Pc transcripts were developmentally expressed.

  16. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meejoo, S.; Udomkan, N.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

    We have studied paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the shells of today's univalve freshwater snails, Sinotaia ingallsiana (FS), Pila ampullaceal (PA), Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus which are abundant in Thailand. The FS, PA and AG shells in our study were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples was each then separately annealed for 2 hours in air atmosphere at 300°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C, 600°C and 900°C, respectively, while the FFS powder was characterized as received. The FS, PA and PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments higher than 450°C of the FS, PA and PCL powder samples resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of high temperature annealed FS, PA and PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but not yet completed, although they remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crust over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of FS, PA, PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Typical simulated ESR parameters of FS-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are gx=gy=2.078±0.001, gz=2.002±0.001, Ax=Ay=87.50±1.00 G, Az=89.00±1.00 G and D=115±1 G, respectively. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in FS, PA and PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1. It is thus possible to gain some insight of manganese incorporation into the freshwater shells during the biomineralization process.

  17. Histopathological effects of contaminated sediments on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata, Lamarck 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruatrachue, M; Sumritdee, C; Pokethitiyook, P; Singhakaew, S

    2011-06-01

    Pomacea canaliculata were exposed experimentally to contaminated sediments from a tributary of the Mae Klong River, Thailand, for 3 months. The highest concentration of Cr, Zn and Fe accumulated in the digestive gland while the gill exhibited the highest concentration of Cu. In addition, histopathological changes (increased mucus vacuoles, loss of cilia, dilation of cells in the epithelial cells of digestive tract organs, and an increase in the number of dark granules in the digestive cells) were observed. The gill exhibited loss of cilia, wider hemolymph space, and degeneration of columnar epithelial cells.

  18. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  19. Efficacy of euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P. Yadav

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}, which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish.

  20. Efficacy of Euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h) doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish.

  1. Assessment the Molluscicidal Properties of Azadirachtin Against Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea Canaliculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosdiyani Massaguni; Siti Noor Hajjar Mohd Latip

    2015-01-01

    Concern with the negative impact of synthetic pesticide on environment and human health have led this study in order to evaluate the molluscicidal efficacies of azadirachtin in neem seed crude extract on golden apple snail. Azadirachtin was extracted by maceration technique using four different solvents and the quantity of azadirachtin in extracts was compared to select the best solvent. Then, bioassays were performed on adult of golden apple snail to compare the molluscicidal activity of azadirachtin. A comparison of the extractive yields of different solvents indicated that the polarity of the solvents tested not significantly influence in enhanced the azadirachtin yields. The result on mortality rate of golden apple snail subjected to various concentration and solvent extracts indicated that neem seed crude extracts significantly killed the golden apple snail. The LC 50 values of the methanol extract (21.008 mg/ ml) were the lowest, indicating the highest potency, followed in order by ethanol extract (43.726 mg/ ml), acetone extract (48.110 mg/ ml) and water extract (53.654 mg/ ml). The mortality rate was correlated positively with the extract concentrations as the mortality of snail increased with the increase of extract concentration. Therefore, this study indicated that neem seed crude extracts possessed molluscicidal effect for controlling the golden apple snail. (author)

  2. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Fernández, Patricia E; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Heras, Horacio

    2014-06-01

    The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies. This defense

  3. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  4. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín S Godoy

    Full Text Available Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1 a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2 a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3 two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  5. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Martín S; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo; Castro-Vasquez, Alfredo; Vega, Israel A

    2013-01-01

    Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1) a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2) a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3) two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  6. Spatial variation in adult sex ratio across multiple scales in the invasive golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Fang, Miao; Yang, Yexin; Dick, Jaimie T A; Song, Hongmei; Luo, Du; Mu, Xidong; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-04-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behavior and life history and has implications for population demography, including the invasiveness of introduced species. ASR exhibits immense variation in nature, yet the scale dependence of this variation is rarely analyzed. In this study, using the generalized multilevel models, we investigated the variation in ASR across multiple nested spatial scales and analyzed the underlying causes for an invasive species, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. We partitioned the variance in ASR to describe the variations at different scales and then included the explanatory variables at the individual and group levels to analyze the potential causes driving the variation in ASR. We firstly determined there is a significant female-biased ASR for this species when accounting for the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of sampling. We found that, counter to nearly equal distributed variation at plot, habitat and region levels, ASR showed little variation at the town level. Temperature and precipitation at the region level were significantly positively associated with ASR, whereas the individual weight, the density characteristic, and sampling time were not significant factors influencing ASR. Our study suggests that offspring sex ratio of this species may shape the general pattern of ASR in the population level while the environmental variables at the region level translate the unbiased offspring sex ratio to the female-biased ASR. Future research should consider the implications of climate warming on the female-biased ASR of this invasive species and thus on invasion pattern.

  7. The maintenance of hybrids by parasitism in a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttel, Yonathan; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2014-11-01

    Hybrids have often been labelled evolutionary dead-ends due to their lower fertility and viability. However, there is growing awareness that hybridisation between different species may play a constructive role in animal evolution as a means to create variability. Thus, hybridisation and introgression may contribute to adaptive evolution, for example with regards to natural antagonists (parasites, predators, competitors) and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here we investigated whether parasite intensity contributes to the continuous recreation of hybrids in 74 natural populations of Melanopsis, a complex of freshwater snails with three species. We also examined, under laboratory conditions, whether hybrids and their parental taxa differ in their tolerance of low and high temperatures and salinity levels. Infections were consistently less prevalent in males than in females, and lower in snails from deeper habitats. Infection prevalence in hybrids was significantly lower than in the parental taxa. Low hybrid infection rates could not be explained by sediment type, snail density or geographic distribution of the sampling sites. Interestingly, infected hybrid snails did not show signs of parasite-induced gigantism, whereas all parental taxa did. We found that hybrids mostly coped with extreme temperatures and salinity levels as well as their parental taxa did. Taken together, our results suggest that Melanopsis hybrids perform better in the presence of parasites and environmental stress. This may explain the widespread and long-term occurrence of Melanopsis hybrids as evidenced by paleontological and biogeographic data. Hybridisation may be an adaptive host strategy, reducing infection rates and resisting gigantism. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  9. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, and manganese (Mn concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50 and concentrations (LC50 were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L−1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al. Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals.

  10. Tributyltin bioaccumulation and toxic effects in freshwater gastropods Pomacea canaliculata after a chronic exposure: field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María L; Piol, María N; Sbarbati Nudelman, Norma; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L -1 ). The aims of this study were to evaluate the extent of TBT accumulation, the tissue distribution, and the effects on selected biomarkers (activity of superoxide dismutasa: SOD, activity of catalase: CAT, levels of total glutathione: t-GSH, lipid peroxidation, and activity of acetylcholinesterase: AChE). Gonads presented the highest accumulation, followed by the cephalopedal region, albumin gland, and finally hepatopancreas. Both metabolites, DBT and MBT, were also found. All exposed female animals presented development of a penis reflecting the potential of TBT as an endocrine disrupting chemical for this gastropod species. Results on the selected biomarkers confirmed additional adverse effects induced by TBT. An increase in CAT activity and changes in t-GSH levels are indicative of alterations on the cellular redox status. The inhibition of AChE could reflect signs of neurotoxicity. Altogether, these results reveal a negative impact on the health of this gastropod population.

  11. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae): Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Juan A; Rodriguez, Cristian; Vega, Israel A; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes) were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules) and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all) L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules). Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets') occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently) and may mean that hyalinocytes

  12. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  13. Localization of ghrelin-like peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) and changing of its concentration during fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernsoungnern, Apichart; Ngernsoungnern, Piyada

    2016-04-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous hormone detected in the gastrointestinal tracts (GI) of various species. In the present study, ghrelin-like peptide (ghrelin-LP) was identified in the GI tract of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata. Using immunohistochemistry, the result revealed an immunoreactivity (-ir) of ghrelin-LP in regions of the GI tract. The ghrelin-LP-ir was observed in both opened-type and closed-type cells of the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. The highest density of ghrelin-LP immunoreactive cells was found in the esophagus and the least density was detected in the stomach. The highest percentages of the opened-type and closed-type cells were present in the esophagus and small intestine, respectively. In immunoblotting, the molecular weight of ghrelin-LP was related to the human ghrelin peptide (∼13kDa). Moreover, the concentration of ghrelin-LP was significantly higher in snails that were fasted for 24h compared with fed snails. The concentration decreased after refeeding. The present study could be useful for understanding the physiological role of ghrelin-LP in mollusk species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxygen consumption and responses of the freshwater snail Bulinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fig.3 Oxygen gradient chamber experiments with B. (P.) globosus at. 26°C. Graph A - Twenty snails with air in the mantle cavity tested for oxygen preferences. Graph B - Twenty snails tested without an air bubble in the mantle cavity. Each histogram represents the staying time of 20 snails per zone during a three hour period ...

  15. Bioinvasion Triggers Rapid Evolution of Life Histories in Freshwater Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Elodie; Lamy, Thomas; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Juillet, Nicolas; Ségard, Adeline; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Biological invasions offer interesting situations for observing how novel interactions between closely related, formerly allopatric species may trigger phenotypic evolution in situ. Assuming that successful invaders are usually filtered to be competitively dominant, invasive and native species may follow different trajectories. Natives may evolve traits that minimize the negative impact of competition, while trait shifts in invasives should mostly reflect expansion dynamics, through selection for colonization ability and transiently enhanced mutation load at the colonization front. These ideas were tested through a large-scale common-garden experiment measuring life-history traits in two closely related snail species, one invasive and one native, co-occurring in a network of freshwater ponds in Guadeloupe. We looked for evidence of recent evolution by comparing uninvaded or recently invaded sites with long-invaded ones. The native species adopted a life history favoring rapid population growth (i.e., increased fecundity, earlier reproduction, and increased juvenile survival) that may increase its prospects of coexistence with the more competitive invader. We discuss why these effects are more likely to result from genetic change than from maternal effects. The invader exhibited slightly decreased overall performances in recently colonized sites, consistent with a moderate expansion load resulting from local founder effects. Our study highlights a rare example of rapid life-history evolution following invasion.

  16. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  17. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Coen M; Hillier, LaDeana W; Jones, Catherine S; Loker, Eric S; Knight, Matty; Minx, Patrick; Oliveira, Guilherme; Raghavan, Nithya; Shedlock, Andrew; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Assis, Juliana G; Baba, Elio Hideo; Baron, Olga L; Bayne, Christopher J; Bickham-Wright, Utibe; Biggar, Kyle K; Blouin, Michael; Bonning, Bryony C; Botka, Chris; Bridger, Joanna M; Buckley, Katherine M; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Lima Caldeira, Roberta; Carleton, Julia; Carvalho, Omar S; Castillo, Maria G; Chalmers, Iain W; Christensens, Mikkel; Clifton, Sandra; Cosseau, Celine; Coustau, Christine; Cripps, Richard M; Cuesta-Astroz, Yesid; Cummins, Scott F; di Stephano, Leon; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Duval, David; Emrich, Scott; Feschotte, Cédric; Feyereisen, Rene; FitzGerald, Peter; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Galinier, Richard; Gava, Sandra G; Geusz, Michael; Geyer, Kathrin K; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Gordy, Michelle A; Gourbal, Benjamin; Grunau, Christoph; Hanington, Patrick C; Hoffmann, Karl F; Hughes, Daniel; Humphries, Judith; Jackson, Daniel J; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K; de Jesus Jeremias, Wander; Jobling, Susan; Kamel, Bishoy; Kapusta, Aurélie; Kaur, Satwant; Koene, Joris M; Kohn, Andrea B; Lawson, Dan; Lawton, Scott P; Liang, D.C.; Limpanont, Yanin; Liu, Sijun; Lockyer, Anne E; Lovato, TyAnna L; Ludolf, Fernanda; Magrini, Vince; McManus, Donald P; Medina, Monica; Misra, Milind; Mitta, Guillaume; Mkoji, Gerald M; Montague, Michael J; Montelongo, Cesar; Moroz, Leonid L; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Niazi, Umar; Noble, Leslie R; Oliveira, Francislon S; Pais, Fabiano S; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Peace, Rob; Pena, Janeth J; Pila, Emmanuel A; Quelais, Titouan; Raney, Brian J; Rast, Jonathan P; Rollinson, David; Rosse, Izinara C; Rotgans, Bronwyn; Routledge, Edwin J; Ryan, Kathryn M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Storey, Kenneth B; Swain, Martin; Tennessen, Jacob A; Tomlinson, Chad; Trujillo, Damian L; Volpi, Emanuela V; Walker, Anthony J; Wang, Tianfang; Wannaporn, Ittiprasert; Warren, Wesley C; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yoshino, Timothy P; Yusuf, Mohammed; Zhang, Si-Ming; Zhao, Min; Wilson, Richard K

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of

  18. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adema, Coen M; Hillier, Ladeana W; Jones, Catherine S

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome...

  19. Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adema, Coen M.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Jones, Catherine S.; Loker, Eric S.; Knight, Matty; Minx, Patrick; Oliveira, Guilherme; Raghavan, Nithya; Shedlock, Andrew; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Assis, Juliana G.; Baba, Elio Hideo; Baron, Olga L.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Bickham-Wright, Utibe; Biggar, Kyle K.; Blouin, Michael; Bonning, Bryony C.; Botka, Chris; Bridger, Joanna M.; Buckley, Katherine M.; Buddenborg, Sarah K.; Lima Caldeira, Roberta; Carleton, Julia; Carvalho, Omar S.; Castillo, Maria G.; Chalmers, Iain W.; Christensens, Mikkel; Clifton, Sandra; Cosseau, Celine; Coustau, Christine; Cripps, Richard M.; Cuesta-Astroz, Yesid; Cummins, Scott F.; di Stefano, Leon; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Duval, David; Emrich, Scott; Feschotte, Cédric; Feyereisen, Rene; FitzGerald, Peter; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Galinier, Richard; Gava, Sandra G.; Geusz, Michael; Geyer, Kathrin K.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Gordy, Michelle A.; Gourbal, Benjamin; Grunau, Christoph; Hanington, Patrick C.; Hoffmann, Karl F.; Hughes, Daniel; Humphries, Judith; Jackson, Daniel J.; Jannotti-Passos, Liana K.; de Jesus Jeremias, Wander; Jobling, Susan; Kamel, Bishoy; Kapusta, Aurélie; Kaur, Satwant; Koene, Joris M.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Lawson, Dan; Lawton, Scott P; Liang, Di; Limpanont, Yanin; Liu, Sijun; Lockyer, Anne E.; Lovato, TyAnna L.; Ludolf, Fernanda; Magrini, Vince; McManus, Donald P.; Medina, Monica; Misra, Milind; Mitta, Guillaume; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Montague, Michael J.; Montelongo, Cesar; Moroz, Leonid L.; Munoz-Torres, Monica C.; Niazi, Umar; Noble, Leslie R.; Oliveira, Francislon S.; Pais, Fabiano S.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Peace, Rob; Pena, Janeth J.; Pila, Emmanuel A.; Quelais, Titouan; Raney, Brian J.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Rollinson, David; Rosse, Izinara C.; Rotgans, Bronwyn; Routledge, Edwin J.; Ryan, Kathryn M.; Scholte, Larissa L. S.; Storey, Kenneth B.; Swain, Martin; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Tomlinson, Chad; Trujillo, Damian L.; Volpi, Emanuela V.; Walker, Anthony J.; Wang, Tianfang; Wannaporn, Ittiprasert; Warren, Wesley C.; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Yoshino, Timothy P.; Yusuf, Mohammed; Zhang, Si-Ming; Zhao, Min; Wilson, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a lophotrochozoan protostome, and provide timely and important information on snail biology. We describe aspects of phero-perception, stress responses, immune function and regulation of gene expression that support the persistence of B. glabrata in the field and may define this species as a suitable snail host for S. mansoni. We identify several potential targets for developing novel control measures aimed at reducing snail-mediated transmission of schistosomiasis. PMID:28508897

  20. Behaviour of freshwater snails (Radix balthica) exposed to the pharmaceutical sertraline under simulated predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgespeth, Melanie Lea; Karasek, Tomasz; Ahlgren, Johan; Berglund, Olof; Brönmark, Christer

    2018-03-01

    Due to their potential for affecting the modulation of behaviour, effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the environment are particularly interesting regarding interspecies interactions and non-consumptive effects (NCEs) induced by predator cues in prey organisms. We evaluated the effects of sertraline (0.4, 40 ng/L, 40 µg/L) over 8 days on activity and habitat choice in the freshwater snail Radix balthica, on snails' boldness in response to mechanical stimulation (simulating predator attack), and their activity/habitat choice in response to chemical cues from predatory fish. We hypothesised that sertraline exposure would detrimentally impact NCEs elicited by predator cues, increasing predation risk. Although there were no effects of sertraline on NCEs, there were observed effects of chemical cue from predatory fish on snail behaviour independent of sertraline exposure. Snails reduced their activity in which the percentage of active snails decreased by almost 50% after exposure to fish cue. Additionally, snails changed their habitat use by moving away from open (exposed) areas. The general lack of effects of sertraline on snails' activity and other behaviours in this study is interesting considering that other SSRIs have been shown to induce changes in gastropod behaviour. This raises questions on the modes of action of various SSRIs in gastropods, as well as the potential for a trophic "mismatch" of effects between fish predators and snail prey in aquatic systems.

  1. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  2. The origins, fate, and ecological significance of free amino compounds released by freshwater pulmonate snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J D; Eaton, P

    1998-01-01

    The mass-specific accumulation rates (MSAR) of both total (TFAC) and individual free amino compounds (FAC) in conditioned media were measured by HPLC, using the orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA) methods, in the following cases: (a) laboratory-reared freshwater snails (B. glabrata) with chemosterilized shells; (b) Biomphalaria glabrata with non-chemosterilized shells; (c) B. glabrata faeces; (d) isolated shells of B. glabrata; and (e) 10 other species of freshwater gastropods from the Lewes Brooks, East Sussex, U.K. The MSAR values for B. glabrata show that 95% of the TFAC's (predominantly ethanolamine, phosphoserine, and the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, aspartic acid, and glycine/threonine) originated from the snails themselves as the faeces and shells contributed only 5.0 and 0%, respectively. In contrast, epizootic organisms on the shells of all 10 snail species from the Lewes Brooks released significant amounts of FAC with the two smallest species (Planorbis vortex and Planorbis contortus) having the highest MSAR values. The MSAR for isolated B. glabrata mucus was 42.45 micromol x g(-1)h(-1). As 500 mg snails can release 16.67 mg of mucus daily, this could potentially result in the daily loss of 707.5 micromol of FAC. The cost/benefits of mucus secretion and the various anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and ecological mechanisms which allow freshwater snails to recover FAC's lost as a result of a high rate of urine production in their hypotonic environment, are discussed.

  3. Transcriptomic responses of the freshwater snail (Parafossarulus striatulus) following dietary exposure to cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei; Lei, Kun; Li, Zicheng; Wei, Zhanliang; Liu, Qing; Yang, Libiao; He, JianWu; An, Lihui; Qi, Hongli; Cui, Song

    2018-05-15

    Freshwater snails are promising bioindicators that can be used in ecotoxicological testing and ecological risk assessments. To screen molecular responses following mollusk exposure to algal blooms, whole transcriptome sequencing was performed with the freshwater snail (Parafossarulus striatulus) fed with blue algae (Microcystis aeruginosa). A total of 86,848 unigenes were assembled, and 10,413 unigenes were annotated in the TrEMBL, Pfam, KEGG, and SwissProt databases. In snails fed with both green and blue algae, a total of 276 differentially expressed unigenes were identified, though there were limited differences in snails fed with only green algae. In addition, ten randomly selected differentially expressed unigenes were analyzed in snails collected from Taihu Lake, China. The expression of four unigenes exhibited a trend consistent with that observed in transcriptome profiling of laboratory snails. The results of this study provide an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of ecotoxicology following the occurrence of algal blooms in lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Hung, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive...... measures to reduce transmission, e.g. control of intermediate hosts because transmission patterns are often complicated due to presence of reservoir final hosts. In order to implement control measures against the intermediate host snails with minimal impact on the freshwater ecosystems...... and their biodiversity, a profound knowledge on transmission patterns of the trematodes is required and this is partly related to distribution, habitat preferences, and seasonal variation in density of the intermediate host species. Identification of snail species can be problematic on the basis of morphological...

  5. Isolation of schistosomin, a neuropeptide which antagonizes gonadotropic hormones in a freshwater snail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, P. L.; Ebberink, R. H.; de Jong-Brink, M.; Joosse, J.

    1991-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying parasite-induced inhibitory effects on host reproduction were studied in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, infected with the schistosome parasite Trichobilharzia ocellata. This combination is used as a model system for host-parasite interactions involved in

  6. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Tham C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rogevich, Emily C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Rand, Gary M. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)], E-mail: randg@fiu.edu; Gardinali, Piero R. [Florida International University, Department of Chemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, FL 32960 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 {mu}g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

  7. Snail Snooping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

  8. The Apple Snail Pomacea maculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) as the intermediate host of Stomylotrema gratiosus (Trematoda: Stomylotrematidae) in Brazil: the first report of a mollusc host of a Stomylotrematid Trematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Cantanhede, Selma Patrícia D; Thiengo, Silvana C; de Melo, Alan L; Fernandez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Stomylotrematidae are intestinal parasites of birds. Despite the worldwide distribution and diversity of host species, the first intermediate host remains unknown. For a survey of parasites of Pomacea maculata , snails were collected from the municipality of São Vicente Férrer, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In the present study, the xiphidiocercariae shed from these snails were used in the experimental infection of the water bug Belostoma plebejum. The insect mortality was observed 30 days post-infection, and the metacercariae recovered in the body cavity of B. plebejum were identified as Stomylotrema gratiosus. This is the first report of an ampullariid snail as intermediate host of stomylotrematid trematodes.

  9. Zinc sensitivity of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea luteola L. , in relation to seasonal variations in temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-07-01

    The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and chemical toxicity to freshwater organisms. Temperature is one of the these factors having a marked influence on heavy metal toxicity to fishes and macroinvertebrates. There is a limited and scattered information available on temperature induced changes in acute toxicity of zinc compounds to freshwater pond snails. This information is essential because there are large temperature differences with season and latitudes and the aquatic organisms are subjected to seasonal temperature changes of 20-25/sup 0/C or even more. It is proposed to study the effect of seasonal changes in temperature on zinc toxicity to a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s) and are widely distributed in lakes, ponds and rivers of India.

  10. Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteolo L. , to heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1988-08-01

    The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy metals to freshwater snails, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of selected heavy metals to a freshwater pond snail Lymnaea luteolo Lamarck; a locally abundant species and play an important role in the aquatic food chain(s). Static bioassays were conducted with the salts of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in hard water.

  11. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck Exposed to Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos or Carbaryl Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa Putkome

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE are used in large amounts as insecticides in agriculture, and are thereby introduced into the evironment. By incubating golden apple snails in chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, or carbaryl, we determined the LD50’s to 3.7, 4.5 and 49 µM, respectively. AChE activities were measured in several organs; the highest activity was found in the gills. Following incubation in either of the three insecticides, the ED50’s for AChE inhibition in the gills were 0.37 µM, 0.22 µM, and 14 µM, respectively; there were no sex differences, but AChE inhibition was more marked in larger snails than in smaller ones, and incubation at 32 °C brought about a higher AChE inhibition than at 27 °C. The time course of AChE inhibition was studied in snails incubated at ED50 with either of the inhibitors. There was a 50% enzyme inhibition after about 6 min, 5 min, and 7 min, respectively. After 96 h incubation, enzyme inhibiton reached about 90% in all three groups. Following this exposure to inhibitor, the snails were transferred to fresh water; after 30 days there was virtually no recovery of AChE actvity in the snails exposed to chlorpyrifos or dichlorovos, whereas about 20% was recovered in snails exposed to carbaryl.

  12. Extracts of the unripe fruit of Ilex paraguariensis as a potential chemical control against the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Fabiano Carvalho de; Gosmann, Grace; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2018-02-22

    Plant extracts can provide a viable alternative to controlling many crop pests. This study sought to assess the efficacy of vegetable extracts of the unripe fruits of Ilex paraguariensis (yerba maté) for chemical control of the channeled apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) and of non-target species as the South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) under laboratory conditions. In P. canaliculata, the LC 50 of the decoction extract was 31.39 mg.L -1 and the LT 50 was over 26 h. The LC 50 of the butanol extract was 24.75 mg.L -1 and the LT 50 was in the range of 28 to 32 h. In juvenile R. quelen, the LC 50 of the decoction was 17.98 mg.L -1 and the LT 50 was in the range of 10-12 h. These extracts are particularly attractive considering the source of compounds and their effectiveness as molluscicides.

  13. Genetics of sex-ratio variation inferred from parent-offspring regressions and sib correlations in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Y

    2006-01-01

    The brood sex ratio in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata varies almost continuously from all male to all female, but the population sex ratio is nearly 1:1. In this study, regressions of the offspring sex ratio on the sex ratios of the parents' siblings as well as correlations in the brood sex ratios between sisters or brothers were investigated, in order to infer the genetic system that produces the sex-ratio pattern. There were significant positive relationships between the offspring sex ratio and the sex ratio of the mother's siblings (slope=0.28), and between the offspring sex ratios of two sisters (r=0.41). On the other hand, the father-offspring regression (slope=0.10), and the correlations between two brothers (r=-0.13) or between the brother and the sister (r=0.17) were not significant. These patterns differed from predictions using typical cytoplasmic sex factors, sex-ratio genes or sex-determining polygenes. Thus, the results suggest the involvement of either a small number of sex-determining genes or a more complicated system such as sex-ratio or sex-determining polygenes that act nonadditively.

  14. Furcocercous cercariae shed by the freshwater snails Pila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During July 2009 and 2010 surveys of snail-borne larval trematodes of the Okavango Delta floodplains and lagoons were undertaken. Cercaria mohemboense were shed by Pila occidentalis (Mousson, 1887) and Cercaria dubaensis and Cercaria indistinctus were shed by Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848), respectively.

  15. Freshwater snail distribution related to environmental factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This station which received domestic sewage from the neighbouring cities was characterized by the highest conductivity and pH and the lowest values of dissolved oxygen. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that snail densities were probably influenced by conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and canopy cover.

  16. Fasciola hepatica: Infection Status of Freshwater Snails Collected from Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyung; Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Park, Gab-Man; Cha, Guang-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis, mainly in cattle and sheep, and occasionally in humans. Few recent studies have determined the infection status of this fluke in Korea. In August 2015, we collected 402 samples of freshwater snails at Hoenggye-ri (upper stream) and Suha-ri (lower stream) of Song-cheon (stream) in Daegwalnyeong-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun in Gangwon-do (Province) near many large cattle or sheep farms. F. hepatica infection was determined using PCR on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 402 samples, F. hepatica 1TS-2 marker was detected in 6 freshwater snails; thus, the overall prevalence in freshwater snails was 1.5%. The prevalence varied between collection areas, ranging from 0.0% at Hoenggye-ri to 2.9% at Suha-ri. However, F. gigantica ITS-2 was not detected in the 6 F. hepatica -positive samples by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 6 F. hepatica ITS-2 PCR-positive samples were 99.4% identical to the F. hepatica ITS-2 sequences in GenBank, whereas they were 98.4% similar to F. gigantica ITS-2 sequences. These results indicated that the prevalence of F. hepatica in snail intermediate hosts was 1.5% in Gangwon-do, Korea; however the prevalence varied between collection areas. These results may help us to understand F. hepatica infection status in natural environments.

  17. Snail abundance in freshwater canals in the eastern province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ksu-network

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Recent Advances in Freshwater Biology. New Delhi. Anmol. Publication. Vol. 2. pp. 187-202. Al-Akel and Suliman. 12261. Supian Z, Ikhwanuddin AM (2002). Population dynamics of freshwater mollusks (Gastropod: Melanoides Tuberculatus) in crocker range park, Sabah. ASEAN Rev. Biodiv. Environ.

  18. Habitat structure effects on size selection of snail kites ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and limpkins ( Aramus guarauna ) when feeding on apple snails ( Pomacea spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Marcel O.; Souza, Andréa L. T.; Módena, Érica S.

    2006-07-01

    Consumer density can influence foraging patterns such as prey-size selection, but few studies have evaluated its effects in field conditions. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that habitat structure influences forager density, and that this in turn influences the size of prey consumed by two avian predators. The sizes of two apple snail species available to, and consumed by, snail kites and limpkins were determined at sites with high and low densities of snail kite foraging perches. Sites with more perches had higher densities of snail kites, but not of limpkins. Both predators consumed prey larger than those available in the marshes, but habitat structure influenced the probability of consumption of different prey sizes. Limpkins consumed larger prey at low-density sites when compared with high-density sites, in contrast to other studies that found no size selection. Thus, limpkins can present prey-size selectivity but the presence of other predators can influence the range of prey sizes consumed. When a wider range of prey sizes is available, limpkins can select larger prey; alternatively, higher densities of other predators can result in higher foraging risk, favoring the capture of smaller, easier to handle prey. Snail kites incorporated smaller prey to their diet at low-density sites than at high-density ones, probably due to the higher costs of carrying large prey, differential age distribution, or lower foraging risks. Thus, habitat structure can influence consumer density and foraging patterns in complex ways, influencing predator-prey interactions in natural systems.

  19. Effect of aluminium and lead on activity in the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truscott, R.; McCrohan, C.R.; Bailey, S.E.R.; White, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Time-lapse video was used to examine the effect of short- (19 h) and long-term (1 year) exposure to Al or Pb at neutral pH in static water conditions on the total distance moved by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Aluminium was found generally to depress activity, whereas Pb often increased activity over the first 19 h of exposure. Younger snails showed greater sensitivity to Al. Exposure to Al for up to 30 days caused hyperactivity, but thereafter and 1 year later activity was back to control levels, suggesting that the snails have become tolerant. Lead caused continued hyperactivity for up to 50 days, which, however, decreased after one year, suggesting some acclimatization over time. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Scope for growth in a tropical freshwater snail -- Implications for monitoring sublethal toxic stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P.C.C.; Lam, P.K.S. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Scope for growth (SfG), the difference between the energy input to an organism from its food and the output from respiratory metabolism, has been used as a bioassay for environmental stress in the temperate region. Here, the same technique was applied to a tropical freshwater snail, Brotia hainanensis (Thiaridae), to investigate whether the technique is applicable to biological systems at lower latitudes. In this study, the effects of copper and low pH on the SfG of the snails were examined. The results show that both copper and low pH can significantly reduce the SfG of individual snails through a decrease in the amount of energy absorbed, while the change in energy expenditure is not apparent. It was also found that the SfG assay is most informative at stress levels too low to be detected by the corresponding acute tests.

  1. Role of exogenous and endogenous silicon in ameliorating behavioural responses to aluminium in a freshwater snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranskyte, A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 1.124 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Jugdaohsingh, R. [The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Stuchlik, E. [Department of Hydrobiology, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Powell, J.J. [Departments of Nutrition and Medicine, King' s College London (United Kingdom); White, K.N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 1.124 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); McCrohan, C.R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, 1.124 Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cathy.mccrohan@man.ac.uk

    2004-12-01

    Aluminium accumulation by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis is correlated with behavioural depression which is ameliorated by addition of orthosilicic acid. We hypothesised that Si is relocated to the digestive gland in response to Al, leading to the formation of non-toxic hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS). Exposure to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} Al for 30 days was associated with an initial period of behavioural depression, followed by apparent tolerance and subsequent depression, suggesting saturation of the cellular detoxification pathway during prolonged exposure. Exogenous Si (7.77 mg l{sup -1}) completely ameliorated all behavioural effects of Al but did not prevent its accumulation. In the presence of added Al, significantly more of this Si was accumulated by the tissues, compared to controls and snails exposed to Si alone. In snails exposed to Al plus Si, Al and Si concentrations were significantly correlated, with a ratio around 3:1 Al:Si, consistent with the presence of the non-toxic HAS protoimogolite. - Capsule: Toxicity of aluminium to freshwater snails is ameliorated by orthosilicic acid.

  2. Inbreeding depression of mating behavior and its reproductive consequences in a freshwater snail

    OpenAIRE

    Janicke Tim; Vellnow Nikolas; Lamy Thomas; Chapuis Elodie; David Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is expected to impair male and female reproductive performance, but little is known on how inbreeding depression varies between sexes and different levels of competition. We studied inbreeding depression in mating behavior and its reproductive consequences in a hermaphroditic freshwater snail and demonstrate that inbreeding depresses mating success in both sex functions. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression does not differ between sex functions and is not affected by the...

  3. Distinct Bacterial Microbiomes in Sexual and Asexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand Freshwater Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; King, Kayla; Van Horn, David; Larkin, Katelyn; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies and the transition to asexuality can be associated with microbial symbionts. Whether such a link exists within mollusks has never been evaluated. We took the first steps towards addressing this possibility by performing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes associated with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail. A diverse set of 60 tissue collections from P. antipodarum that were genetically and geographically distinct and either obligately sexual or asexual were included, which allowed us to evaluate whether reproductive mode was associated with a particular bacterial community. 2624 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97% DNA similarity) were detected, which were distributed across ~30 phyla. While alpha diversity metrics varied little among individual samples, significant differences in bacterial community composition and structure were detected between sexual and asexual snails, as well as among snails from different lakes and genetic backgrounds. The mean dissimilarity of the bacterial communities between the sexual and asexual P. antipodarum was 90%, largely driven by the presence of Rickettsiales in sexual snails and Rhodobacter in asexual snails. Our study suggests that there might be a link between reproductive mode and the bacterial microbiome of P. antipodarum, though a causal connection requires additional study.

  4. A study of chlorophyll-like and phycobilin pigments in the C endosymbiont of the apple-snail pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Israel A; Dellagnola, Federico A; Hurst, Jorge A; Godoy, Martín S; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-08-01

    Pigments present in the brown-greenish C morph of an intracellular endosymbiont of Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Acetone extracts of the endosymbiotic corpuscles showed an absorption spectrum similar to that of chlorophylls. Three fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of the acetone extracts (C(I), C(II), and C(III)), were studied by positive ion fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). Results indicated the presence of (1) a sterol in the yellow colored C(I) fraction; (2) a mixture ofpheophorbides a and b in the major green fraction, C(II); and (3) a modified pheophorbide a in the smaller green fraction, C(III). Aqueous extracts of the C endosymbiont did not show evidence of the occurrence of C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or phycoerithrin (light absorption, fluorescence emission, and electrophoresis of the protein moieties) while cyanobacterial cells (Nostoc sp.) showed evidence of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. The possible phylogenetic and functional significance of the pigments present in the C endosymbiont is discussed.

  5. Development beyond the gastrula stage and digestive organogenesis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Architaenioglossa, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E; Winik, B C; Castro-Vazquez, A

    2009-04-01

    Development of Pomacea canaliculata from the gastrula stage until the first day after hatching is described. Trochophore embryos are developed after gastrulation, showing the prototroch as a crown of ciliated orange-brownish cells. However, no true veliger embryos are formed, since the prototroch does not fully develop into a velum. Afterward, the connection between the fore- and midgut is permeated and the midgut becomes full of the pink-reddish albumen, which is stored into a central archenteron's lake, from where it is accumulated into the large cells forming the midgut wall ("giant cells"). Electron microscopy of giant cells in late embryos showed that albumen is engulfed by large endocytic vesicles formed between the irregular microvilli at the top of these cells. By the end of intracapsular development, giant cells become gradually replaced by two new epithelial cell types which are similar to those found in the adult midgut gland: the pre-columnar and the pre-pyramidal cells. Pre-columnar cells have inconspicuous basal nuclei and are crowned by stereocilia, between which small endocytic vesicles are formed. Pre-pyramidal cells have large nuclei with 2-3 nucleoli and show a striking development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The genesis of the three cell lineages (giant, pre-columnar and pre-pyramidal cells) is hypothetically attributed to epithelial streaks that occur at both sides of the midgut since early stages of development.

  6. A faunistic survey of digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp have been reported in Tanzania as vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium respectively. Thus most schistosomiasis control efforts have focussed on elimination of these molluscs in freshwater systems or deworming infected persons. In addition almost there is limited ...

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yipeng; Zheng, Guowan; Dong, Shengzhang; Liu, Guangfu; Yu, Xiaoping

    2014-12-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, has strong tolerance to high temperature, facilitating its invasion in East and Southeast Asia. In the present study, three cDNAs encoding heat shock proteins (PocaHSP60, PocaHSP70, PocaHSP90) in P. canaliculata were cloned and characterized. The PocaHSP60 cDNA was 2447 bp, containing an ORF encoding a polypeptide of 574 amino acids. The PocaHSP70 cDNA was 2644 bp, containing an ORF encoding a polypeptide of 643 amino acids. The PocaHSP90 cDNA was 2546 bp, containing an ORF encoding a polypeptide of 726 amino acids. Genomic DNA analysis showed that PocaHSP60 had 11 introns in the coding region and PocaHSP90 had 7 introns but PocaHSP70 had no one. The expression changes of these three PocaHSPs in the gill, digestive gland, kidney and foot muscle of P. canaliculata exposed to high and low temperature were investigated. The results of quantitative PCR and western blotting showed that the expression level of PocaHSP90 was much higher than PocaHSP60 and PocaHSP70 at room temperature, and PocaHSP70 expression level was the lowest among them. Afterheat shock, PocaHSP70 expression increased rapidly, much more significantly than PocaHSP90 expression, and the effect of heat shock on the expression of PocaHSP70 and PocaHSP90 in the different tissues of P. canaliculata was not the same. Unlike PocaHSP70 and PocaHSP90, PocaHSP60 expression seemed not to be affected by heat shock, because its expression was moderately induced only in the foot muscle. However, cool shock had little effect on the expression change of above three PocaHSPs. These results indicated that HSPs might be related to the thermal resistance of P. canaliculata.

  8. Molecular characteristics of the HSP70 gene and its differential expression in female and male golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) under temperature stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Mei; Mu, Xi-Dong; Gu, Dang-En; Luo, Du; Yang, Ye-Xin; Xu, Meng; Luo, Jian-Ren; Zhang, Jia-En; Hu, Yin-Chang

    2014-07-01

    Heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of the most important heat-shock proteins that helps organisms to modulate stress response via over-expression. The HSP70 gene from Pomacea canaliculata was cloned using the RACE approach; the gene is 2,767 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 1,932 bp, which is encoded by a polypeptide of 643 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that the predicted amino acid sequence of the P. canaliculata HSP70 gene shared a relatively high similarity with that of other known eukaryotic species that display conserved HSP characteristics. The phylogeny demonstrated a separate clustering of the apple snail HSP70 with other constitutive members from other mollusk species. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the differential expression of HSP70 in both sexes of P. canaliculata at different temperature conditions. These results showed that HSP70 transcript levels decreased slightly under cold shock and increased significantly under heat-shock conditions in both sexes compared to normal temperatures (26 °C). Under cold-shock treatment, the sex effect was not significant. With heat treatment, HSP70 expression could be induced at 36 °C in both females and males, and it peaked at 42 and 39 °C in females and males, respectively. In addition, a clear time-dependent HSP70 expression pattern of the apple snail exposed to the same high temperature (36 °C) was observed at different time points. The maximal induction of HSP70 expression appeared at 12 and 48 h in males and females after heat shock, respectively. The maximal induction in females was significantly higher compared to males under heat stimulus. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that males were more susceptible to heat than females and provided useful molecular information for the ecological adaptability of P. canaliculata against extreme environmental stress.

  9. Types of trematodes infecting freshwater snails found in irrigation canals in the East Nile locality, Khartoum, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Nidal A. I.; Madsen, Henry; Ahmed, Abdel Aziz A. R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The planorbid freshwater snails of the two genera, Biomphalaria and Bulinus -have been vigorously studied due to the role they play as intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis. In Sudan specifically, most studies have focused on the chemical and ecological control of the two genera......, but few studies have looked at their biological control. This study explored the coexistence of other species of freshwater snails and the two genera along with their trematode infections in relation to a number of environmental factors in the East Nile locality, Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods: Freshwater...

  10. Temperature and light intensity affecting egg production and growth performance of the Apple Snail Pomacea patula [Baker, 1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron experimentos de desove del caracol dulceacuícola [Pomacea patula Baker, 1922] en tanques exteriores durante un año. Las observaciones incluyeron el desove de 30 hembras, total de huevos depositados y la eclosión de pequeños caracoles, todos por triplicado. Otros experimentos en el laboratorio con 30 hembras ovopositoras y sus respectivas masas de huevos bajo condiciones controladas (temperatura e intensidad luminosa fueron registrados por triplicado. Se comparan datos a diferentes temperaturas de agua y aire, entre 20 y 32°C, y a dos intensidades luminosas (60 y 300 lux en los sitios de desove. Una tercer serie de experimentos fueron llevados a cabo para determinar la tasa de crecimiento con 100 caracoles recién eclosionados por experimento con temperatura controlada (22 a 32°C y condiciones naturales de intensidad luminosa. Los resultados muestran, que el caracol tegogolo desovó principalmente de agosto a noviembre, cuando la temperatura del agua fue de 26°C o superior. La eficiencia de eclosión del huevo fue favorecida con temperatura media del aire. La ovoposición fue también afectada por la intensidad luminosa, ya que las hembras desovaron en lugares más intensamente iluminadas, cuando la temperatura del aire fue más baja; a 26°C o mayor, la preferencia se invirtió. Bajo condiciones de clima tropical, el tiempo de incubación de la larva tendió a ser menor y el desarrollo de los caracoles pequeños hasta adultos sexualmente maduros fue mayor; sin embargo, la supervivencia de la población utilizada para dicho estudio decreció

  11. Karyotype description of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), with an assessment of the taxonomic status of Pomacea patula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diupotex-Chong, María Esther; Cazzaniga, Néstor J; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel

    2004-12-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of the freshwater snail Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) were analyzed on gill tissue of specimens from the type locality (Lake Catemaco, Mexico). The diploid number of chromosomes is 2n = 26, including nine metacentric and four submetacentric pairs; therefore, the fundamental number is FN = 52, No sex chromosomes could be identified. The same chromosome number and morphology were already reported for P. flagellata, i.e., the other species of the genus living in Mexico. The basic haploid number for family Ampullariidae was reported to be n = 14 in the literature; so, its reduction to n = 13 is probably an apomorphy of the Mexican Pomacea snails. Lanistes bolteni, from Egypt, also shows n = 13, but its karyotype is much more asymmetrical, and seems to have evolved independently from P. flagellata and P. patula catemacensis. The nominotypical subspecies, P. patula patula (Reeve 1856), is a poorly known taxon, whose original locality is unknown. A taxonomical account is presented here, and a Mexican origin postulated as the most parsimonious hypothesis.

  12. Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. (Trematoda, Paramphistomatidae from Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Inés Hamann

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Catadiscus pomaceae sp. n. from the intestine of the prosobranch mollusc Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1801, is described. The host snail was collected from a lenitic biotope belonging to the Riachuelo basin (Corrientes province, Argentina during 1985-1986. So far the species of the genus Catadiscus Cohn, 1904 have been recorded in amphibians and reptiles. This is the first instance of a species of that genus parasitizing a mollusc.

  13. Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Pointier

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp., three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis. Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained restricted to some particular sites. The invasion processes were documented during the last 20 years and showed (i a rapid invasion of the island by several morphs of M. tuberculata at the beginning of the 80's; (ii the introduction of T. granifera in 1991 and M. amabilis in 1997; and (iii the rapid spread of these last two species throughout the island. In the years following its introduction, M. tuberculata was used in biological control experiments against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis, B. glabrata and B. straminea. Experiments were conducted with success in several groups of water-cress beds which constituted the latest transmission sites for schistosomiasis at the beginning of the 80's. A malacological survey carried out in 2000 all over the island showed the absence of B. glabrata but the presence of some residual populations of B. straminea. Long-term studies carried out in Martinique have shown that the thiarids are able to maintain relatively stable populations over a long period of time, thus preventing recolonization by the snail hosts. Within this context the invasion of the hydrographic system of Martinique by thiarid snails has resulted in an efficient and sustainable control of the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis.

  14. Molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide and its intermediate compounds against a freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola, the vector of animal schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sukumaran

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide was evaluated and compared with niclosamide (2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, ethanolamide salt against different stages of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola i.e., eggs, immature, young mature, and adults. Calculated values of lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 showed that both nicotinanilide and niclosamide as toxic against eggs, immature, and adults. The young mature stage of the snails was comparatively more tolerant to both molluscicides than the other stages. The toxicity of the intermediate compounds of nicotinanilide against the young mature stage of the snails showed them as ineffective. The mortality pattern of the snails exposed to LC90 concentration of these molluscicides showed niclosamide to kill faster (within 8 to 9 h than nicotinanilide (26 to 28 h. In view of the above studies it may be concluded that both molluscicides are toxic against all the stages of the L. luteola snails.

  15. Toxicity of phenol, pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate to a freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.K.; Rao, P.S.

    1982-07-01

    The freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea acuminata (L.) were exposed to various lethal concentrations of phenol, pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate to study their toxic effect by static bioassay procedure. The 96 hr median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) values were in mg/l 128.75 of phenol 0,16 of pentachlorophenol and 0.19 of sodium pentachlorophenate. The median period of survival showed increasing trend with decreasing toxic-concentrations. The relative potency suggests that the rank order of toxicant is PCP > NaPCP > Phenol.

  16. Assessing multigenerational effects of prednisolone to the freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Navdeep; Kumar, Anu; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2017-10-05

    Prednisolone (PDS), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid is widely prescribed for its exceptional anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have detected the environmental presence of PDS in water bodies which has led to an ecological concern for its toxicity to non-target aquatic biota. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to PDS on different life-cycle stages and generations of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta. This continuous exposure over a period of multiple generations resulted in generational impairments at measured endpoints. LOEC values (passessment and to monitor glucocorticoid pollution in aqueous ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and stability of the neurotoxin PV2 from the eggs of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassa, María Victoria; Ceolín, Marcelo; Dreon, Marcos S; Heras, Horacio

    2010-07-01

    There is little information on the egg proteins of gastropod mollusks. Here we focus on PV2, a novel neurotoxin from snail eggs, studying its size, shape, structure, and stability, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, electron microscopy and partial proteolysis. Results indicate that PV2 is a compact and well folded oligomer of 130x44 A. It is an octamer of four 98 kDa heterodimers composed of 67 and 31 kDa subunits. Subunits are held together by disulfide bonds. Dimers are assembled into native PV2 by non-covalent forces. The larger subunit is more susceptible to proteolysis, indicating it is less compactly folded and/or more exposed. Quenching of tryptophan fluorescence showed a single class of tryptophyl side chains occluded in hydrophobic regions. Native structure shows loss of secondary structure (alpha+beta) at 6 M urea or 60-70 degrees C; the effects on the quaternary structure suggest an unfolding without disassembling of the protein. The 3D model of PV2 presented here is the first for an egg proteinaceous neurotoxin in animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mucus secretion by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis limits aluminum concentrations of the aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugdaohsingh, R.; Thompson, R.P.H.; Powell, J.J. [St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Campbell, M.M.; Mccrohan, C.R.; White, K.N. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular mucopolysaccharide (EPS) is a significant component in many waters. Its role in the cycling and mobilization of metals is unclear. In vitro studies were conducted to examine the influence of EPS, secreted by the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, on soluble water Al concentrations at near-neutral pH. Snails maintained in aerated water of known ion content and added aluminum reduced Al in solution as compared to controls. Although snails accumulated Al into soft tissue, this only accounted for a small percentage of the total reduction. The remaining Al was recovered following acidification of the water. This observation was attributed to pedal EPS secreted by L. stagnalis which is chiefly insoluble and substrate bound. The Al that remained in solution was more labile, possibly due to the influence of soluble EPS. Further experiments with isolated EPS, confirmed that this poorly soluble film binds and reduces Al in solution. The influence of EPS on the solution chemistry and bioavailability of Al and possibly other metals may be important in natural waters.

  19. Chemoreception of hunger levels alters the following behaviour of a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Marie; Crane, Adam L

    2015-12-01

    Chemically-mediated orientation is essential for many animals that must locate sites containing resources such as mates or food. One way to find these areas is by using publically-available information from other individuals. We tested a freshwater snail, Physa gyrina, for chemoreception of conspecific cues and predicted they could discriminate between cues based on information regarding hunger levels. We placed 'tracker' snails into a 2-arm arena where they could either follow or avoid an area previously used by a 'marker' snail. The hunger levels of both trackers and markers was manipulated, being either starved or fed. Starved and fed trackers did not differ in their following response when markers were hungry, but starved trackers were significantly more likely to follow fed markers, compared to fed trackers that tended to avoid areas used by fed markers. This outcome suggests that P. gyrina uses conspecific chemical cues to find food and potentially in some situations to avoid intra-specific food competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  1. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  2. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the pest risk analysis on Pomacea insularum, the island apple snail, prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Panel considers the Spanish pest risk analysis (PRA) to be clear and to provide appropriate supporting evidence. However, (i) the environmental impact assessment is incomplete and (ii) the estimates for the potentially endangered area are too limited. The Panel points out that large areas...... of the organism for rice crops are major; (ii) the probability for establishment of the organism is very likely and (iii) the probability of spread is estimated as likely. The Panel disagrees with the Spanish PRA on the following points and considers (i) the effects on the environment to be massive under suitable...... environmental conditions in the PRA area and (ii) the probability of entry of the organism to be high. Regarding risk reduction options the Panel agrees with the Spanish PRA that no single risk reduction method is sufficient to halt the introduction and spread of Pomacea spp. snails in the PRA area. However...

  4. Laboratory observations on the biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata by a species of Pomacea (Ampullariidae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulinyi, Helene M.; Paulini, Ernest

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that medium-sized (30-50 mm in shell height) Pomacea sp. snails consumed the egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata deposited either on glass or on the leaves of Salvinia, and that they also caused a high mortality rate among the newly hatched B. glabrata. When the two species of snail were kept in the same tank, the Pomacea sp. caused a reduction in the B. glabrata egg density in proportion to their relative numbers and the presence of Pomacea sp. prevented colonies of B. glabrata from becoming established. The identity of the Pomacea sp. has not yet been satisfactorily established. PMID:4537485

  5. Identity, reproductive potential, distribution, ecology and management of invasive Pomacea maculata in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L.; Bernatis, Jennifer; Byers, James E.; Carter, Jacoby; Martin, Charles M.; McDowell, William G.; Van Dyke, Jess; Joshi, R. C.; Cowie, R. H.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    Established populations of introduced Pomacea maculata, a highly fecund, large species of apple snail native to South America, now occur throughout southeast Asia, in Spain and extensively across the southern United States. Substantial research on nonnative apple snails takes place in Southeast Asia and has frequently identified apple snails as P. canaliculata. That these Asian populations represent at least two Pomacea species, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, has been confirmed through anatomical and genetic

  6. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variability in the European freshwater snail Radix labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schniebs, K.; Glöer, P.; Vinarski, M.V.; Hundsdoerfer, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radix labiata is a widely distributed Palaearctic freshwater snail. This work aims to improve the knowledge of the intraspecific variability in the most important characters used for its determination. To find out which characters are really suitable to distinguish this species from other similar

  7. Response to phosphorus limitation varies among lake populations of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Krist

    Full Text Available Local adaptation--typically recognized as higher values of fitness-related traits for native vs. non-native individuals when measured in the native environment--is common in natural populations because of pervasive spatial variation in the intensity and type of natural selection. Although local adaptation has been primarily studied in the context of biotic interactions, widespread variation in abiotic characteristics of environments suggests that local adaptation in response to abiotic factors should also be common. Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a freshwater New Zealand snail that is an important model system for invasion biology and the maintenance of sexual reproduction, exhibits local adaptation to parasites and rate of water flow. As an initial step to determining whether P. antipodarum are also locally adapted to phosphorus availability, we examined whether populations differ in their responses to phosphorus limitation. We found that field-collected juvenile P. antipodarum grew at a lower rate and reached an important size threshold more slowly when fed a relatively low vs. a relatively high-phosphorus diet. We also detected significant across-population variation in individual growth rate. A marginally significant population-by-dietary phosphorus interaction along with a two-fold difference across populations in the extent of suppression of growth by low phosphorus suggests that populations of P. antipodarum may differ in their response to phosphorus limitation. Local adaptation may explain this variation, with the implication that snails from lakes with relatively low phosphorus availability should be less severely affected by phosphorus limitation than snails from lakes with higher phosphorus availability.

  8. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  9. Tissue accumulation of aluminium is not a predictor of toxicity in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Rachel C., E-mail: rachel.c.walton@manchester.ac.u [Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); McCrohan, Catherine R., E-mail: cathy.mccrohan@manchester.ac.u [Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R., E-mail: francis.livens@manchester.ac.u [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); White, Keith N., E-mail: keith.white@manchester.ac.u [Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The amount of toxic metal accumulated by an organism is often taken as an indicator of potential toxicity. We investigated this relationship in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, exposed to 500 mug l{sup -1} Al over 30 days, either alone or in the presence of phosphate (500 mug l{sup -1} P) or a fulvic acid surrogate (FAS; 10 mg l{sup -1} C). Behavioural activity was assessed and tissue accumulation of Al quantified. Lability of Al within the water column was a good predictor of toxicity. FAS increased both Al lability and behavioural dysfunction, whereas phosphate reduced Al lability, and completely abolished Al-induced behavioural toxicity. Tissue accumulation of Al was not linked to toxicity. Higher levels of Al were accumulated in snails exposed to Al + P, compared to those exposed to Al alone, whereas FAS reduced Al accumulation. These findings demonstrate that the degree of tissue accumulation of a metal can be independent of toxicity. - Total Al accumulation in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis does not provide a direct indication of its toxicity.

  10. Cost of resistance to trematodes in freshwater snail populations with low clonal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Yael; Kosman, Evsey; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2017-12-13

    The persistence of high genetic variability in natural populations garners considerable interest among ecologists and evolutionary biologists. One proposed hypothesis for the maintenance of high levels of genetic diversity relies on frequency-dependent selection imposed by parasites on host populations (Red Queen hypothesis). A complementary hypothesis suggests that a trade-off between fitness costs associated with tolerance to stress factors and fitness costs associated with resistance to parasites is responsible for the maintenance of host genetic diversity. The present study investigated whether host resistance to parasites is traded off with tolerance to environmental stress factors (high/low temperatures, high salinity), by comparing populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata with low vs. high clonal diversity. Since polyclonal populations were found to be more parasitized than populations with low clonal diversity, we expected them to be tolerant to environmental stress factors. We found that clonal diversity explained most of the variation in snail survival under high temperature, thereby suggesting that tolerance to high temperatures of clonally diverse populations is higher than that of populations with low clonal diversity. Our results suggest that resistance to parasites may come at a cost of reduced tolerance to certain environmental stress factors.

  11. DNA Barcode Identification of Freshwater Snails in the Family Bithyniidae from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Viyanant, Vithoon; Pierossi, Paola; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Tesana, Smarn

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater snails in the family Bithyniidae are the first intermediate host for Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini), the causative agent of opisthorchiasis. Unfortunately, the subtle morphological characters that differentiate species in this group are not easily discerned by non-specialists. This is a serious matter because the identification of bithyniid species is a fundamental prerequisite for better understanding of the epidemiology of this disease. Because DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence diversity in the 5’ region of the mitochondrial COI gene, has shown strong performance in other taxonomic groups, we decided to test its capacity to resolve 10 species/ subspecies of bithyniids from Thailand. Our analysis of 217 specimens indicated that COI sequences delivered species-level identification for 9 of 10 currently recognized species. The mean intraspecific divergence of COI was 2.3% (range 0-9.2 %), whereas sequence divergences between congeneric species averaged 8.7% (range 0-22.2 %). Although our results indicate that DNA barcoding can differentiate species of these medically-important snails, we also detected evidence for the presence of one overlooked species and one possible case of synonymy. PMID:24223896

  12. Evolutionary implications of a high selfing rate in the freshwater snail Lymnaea truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvé, S; Degen, L; Renaud, F; Goudet, J

    2003-10-01

    Self-compatible hermaphroditic organisms that mix self-fertilization and outcrossing are of great interest for investigating the evolution of mating systems. We investigate the evolution of selfing in Lymnaea truncatula, a self-compatible hermaphroditic freshwater snail. We first analyze the consequences of selfing in terms of genetic variability within and among populations and then investigate how these consequences along with the species ecology (harshness of the habitat and parasitism) might govern the evolution of selfing. Snails from 13 localities (classified as temporary or permanent depending on their water availability) were sampled in western Switzerland and genotyped for seven microsatellite loci. F(IS) (estimated on adults) and progeny array analyses (on hatchlings) provided similar selfing rate estimates of 80%. Populations presented a low polymorphism and were highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.58). Although the reproductive assurance hypothesis would predict higher selfing rate in temporary populations, no difference in selfing level was observed between temporary and permanent populations. However, allelic richness and gene diversity declined in temporary habitats, presumably reflecting drift. Infection levels varied but were not simply related to either estimated population selfing rate or to differences in heterozygosity. These findings and the similar selfing rates estimated for hatchlings and adults suggest that within-population inbreeding depression is low in L. truncatula.

  13. The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydeard Charles

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cosmopolitan freshwater snail Physa acuta has recently found widespread use as a model organism for the study of mating systems and reproductive allocation. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies suggest that Physa carolinae, recently described from the American southeast, is a sister species of P. acuta. The divergence of the acuta/carolinae ancestor from the more widespread P. pomilia appears to be somewhat older, and the split between a hypothetical acuta/carolinae/pomilia ancestor and P. gyrina appears older still. Results Here we report the results of no-choice mating experiments yielding no evidence of hybridization between gyrina and any of four other populations (pomilia, carolinae, Philadelphia acuta, or Charleston acuta, nor between pomilia and carolinae. Crosses between pomilia and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 progeny with reduced viability, while crosses between carolinae and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 hybrids of normal viability. A set of mate-choice tests also revealed significant sexual isolation between gyrina and all four of our other Physa populations, between pomilia and carolinae, and between pomilia and Charleston acuta, but not between pomilia and the acuta population from Philadelphia, nor between carolinae and either acuta population. These observations are consistent with the origin of hybrid sterility prior to hybrid inviability, and a hypothesis that speciation between pomilia and acuta may have been reinforced by selection for prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatry. Conclusions We propose a two-factor model for the evolution of postzygotic reproductive incompatibility in this set of five Physa populations consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation, and a second two-factor model for the evolution of sexual incompatibility. Under these models, species trees may be said to correspond with gene trees in American populations of the freshwater snail, Physa.

  14. The evolution of reproductive isolation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robert T; Wethington, Amy R; Lydeard, Charles

    2011-05-27

    The cosmopolitan freshwater snail Physa acuta has recently found widespread use as a model organism for the study of mating systems and reproductive allocation. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies suggest that Physa carolinae, recently described from the American southeast, is a sister species of P. acuta. The divergence of the acuta/carolinae ancestor from the more widespread P. pomilia appears to be somewhat older, and the split between a hypothetical acuta/carolinae/pomilia ancestor and P. gyrina appears older still. Here we report the results of no-choice mating experiments yielding no evidence of hybridization between gyrina and any of four other populations (pomilia, carolinae, Philadelphia acuta, or Charleston acuta), nor between pomilia and carolinae. Crosses between pomilia and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 progeny with reduced viability, while crosses between carolinae and both acuta populations yielded sterile F1 hybrids of normal viability. A set of mate-choice tests also revealed significant sexual isolation between gyrina and all four of our other Physa populations, between pomilia and carolinae, and between pomilia and Charleston acuta, but not between pomilia and the acuta population from Philadelphia, nor between carolinae and either acuta population. These observations are consistent with the origin of hybrid sterility prior to hybrid inviability, and a hypothesis that speciation between pomilia and acuta may have been reinforced by selection for prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatry. We propose a two-factor model for the evolution of postzygotic reproductive incompatibility in this set of five Physa populations consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation, and a second two-factor model for the evolution of sexual incompatibility. Under these models, species trees may be said to correspond with gene trees in American populations of the freshwater snail, Physa.

  15. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  16. No evidence for a critical salinity threshold for growth and reproduction in the freshwater snail Physa acuta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J. [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Science, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Vic (Australia)]. E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.au; Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Science, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Vic (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    The growth and reproduction of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae) were measured at various salinity levels (growth: distilled water, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 {mu}S/cm; reproduction: deionized water, 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 {mu}S/cm) established using the artificial sea salt, Ocean Nature. This was done to examine the assumption that there is no direct effect of salinity on freshwater animals until a threshold, beyond which sub-lethal effects, such as reduction in growth and reproduction, will occur. Growth of P. acuta was maximal in terms of live and dry mass at salinity levels 500-1000 {mu}S/cm. The number of eggs produced per snail per day was maximal between 100 and 1000 {mu}S/cm. Results show that rather than a threshold response to salinity, small rises in salinity (from low levels) can produce increased growth and reproduction until a maximum is reached. Beyond this salinity, further increases result in a decrease in growth and reproduction. Studies on the growth of freshwater invertebrates and fish have generally shown a similar lack of a threshold response. The implications for assessing the effects of salinisation on freshwater organisms need to be further considered. - Responses of snails to increasing salinity were non-linear.

  17. Distribution of metals and accumulation of lead by different tissues in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatt, F.B. [Nottingham Trent Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Life Sciences; Pyatt, A.J. [Univ. of Bradford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Archaeological Sciences; Pentreath, V.W. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of several metals in different body tissues of the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), collected from an uncontaminated environment, were measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Significant concentrations of the potentially toxic elements manganese, titanium, and copper were detected in all tissues, although they were not detectable in the water sampled at collection; bioaccumulation is thus evidenced. Highest concentrations of manganese and copper were present in the shell, while highest concentrations of titanium were present in the head and foot. Experimental snails were continuously exposed to lead chloride (lead at 5 ppm) for an experimental period of 3 weeks. Both elements were accumulated to different extents by the snail tissues but with high concentrations again in the head of the animals, and chloride also in the visceral hump. No significant alterations in the distribution of the other elements measured were observed in the lead chloride-exposed animals.

  18. Reduction of growth and haemolymph Ca levels in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed to cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Koene, Joris M; Heijerick, Dagobert G; Janssen, Colin R

    2008-09-01

    The ecological risk assessment and the development of water-quality criteria for Co are currently still hampered by insufficient knowledge about the toxicity of Co to freshwater organisms. A relevant group of organisms, for which no toxicity data with Co are available, is the class of the herbivorous pulmonate freshwater snails, which fulfil a pivotal role in the consumption and decomposition of aquatic plants and epihyton. We measured the growth rate of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed for 28 days to a series of Co concentrations. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for growth rate were 26 and 79 microg Co/L, respectively. Growth rate of snails exposed to 79 microg Co/L and higher concentrations was more impaired in the final 2 weeks of exposure than in the first 2 weeks of exposure. The reduced growth rate at 79 microg Co/L was accompanied by a reduced concentration of Ca in the haemolymph at the end of the exposure. Possible mechanisms of toxicity of Co to snail growth were suggested to be an impairment of Ca uptake and homeostasis and/or feeding inhibition. Although additional research is needed to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms, as well as the interrelatedness between them, the toxicity data currently presented can assist in risk assessment and water-quality criteria development.

  19. [Effect of industrial toxic pollutants on the activity and isoforms of acid DNase in the freshwater snail (Viviparus viviparus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A P; Konichev, A S; Tsvetkov, I L

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various toxic compounds (phenol, gasoline, detergents, halogenated benzenes, and copper salts) on the activity and multiple forms of acid DNase was investigated in the liver of the widespread freshwater snail species Viviparus viviparus L. Characteristic variations in the specific activity and isoform pattern of the enzyme depending on pollutant concentration and exposure time were revealed. It was shown that the pattern of DNase isoforms in V. viviparus could be an index of water pollution.

  20. Molecular characterization of freshwater snails in the genus Bulinus: a role for barcodes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emery Aidan M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and consistent methods are required for the identification and classification of freshwater snails belonging to the genus Bulinus (Gastropoda, Planorbidae which act as intermediate hosts for schistosomes of both medical and veterinary importance. The current project worked towards two main objectives, the development of a cost effective, simple screening method for the routine identification of Bulinus isolates and the use of resultant sequencing data to produce a model of relationships within the group. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence for a large section (1009 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 for isolates of Bulinus demonstrated superior resolution over that employing the second internal transcribed spacer (its2 of the ribosomal gene complex. Removal of transitional substitutions within cox1 because of saturation effects still allowed identification of snails at species group level. Within groups, some species could be identified with ease but there were regions where the high degree of molecular diversity meant that clear identification of species was problematic, this was particularly so within the B. africanus group. Conclusion The sequence diversity within cox1 is such that a barcoding approach may offer the best method for characterization of populations and species within the genus from different geographical locations. The study has confirmed the definition of some accepted species within the species groups but additionally has revealed some unrecognized isolates which underlines the need to use molecular markers in addition to more traditional methods of identification. A barcoding approach based on part of the cox1 gene as defined by the Folmer primers is proposed.

  1. Molecular characterization of freshwater snails in the genus Bulinus: a role for barcodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Richard A; Stothard, J Russell; Emery, Aidan M; Rollinson, David

    2008-06-10

    Reliable and consistent methods are required for the identification and classification of freshwater snails belonging to the genus Bulinus (Gastropoda, Planorbidae) which act as intermediate hosts for schistosomes of both medical and veterinary importance. The current project worked towards two main objectives, the development of a cost effective, simple screening method for the routine identification of Bulinus isolates and the use of resultant sequencing data to produce a model of relationships within the group. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence for a large section (1009 bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) for isolates of Bulinus demonstrated superior resolution over that employing the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) of the ribosomal gene complex. Removal of transitional substitutions within cox1 because of saturation effects still allowed identification of snails at species group level. Within groups, some species could be identified with ease but there were regions where the high degree of molecular diversity meant that clear identification of species was problematic, this was particularly so within the B. africanus group. The sequence diversity within cox1 is such that a barcoding approach may offer the best method for characterization of populations and species within the genus from different geographical locations. The study has confirmed the definition of some accepted species within the species groups but additionally has revealed some unrecognized isolates which underlines the need to use molecular markers in addition to more traditional methods of identification. A barcoding approach based on part of the cox1 gene as defined by the Folmer primers is proposed.

  2. Distribution, habitats and role as intermediate host of the freshwater snail, Bulinus forskalii, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. De Kock

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Bulinus forskalii, the snail intermediate host of the conical fluke of equids, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus as reflected by the 1 209 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection of South Africa. The 362 different loci on record represent an extensive distribution in KwaZulu-Natal Province, the Limpopo Province, the coastal areas of the Eastern Cape Province and the south-eastern part of the North West Province. Although it was recorded from all types of water-body represented in the database, the highest percentages of samples were recovered from dams (30.4 % and brooks (28.2 %. The majority of samples came from perennial habitats (59.1%, 60.7% from habitats with standing water, 54.0 % from habitats with clear water and 71.8 % from habitats of which the water was described as fresh. The majority of samples (39.5 % were collected in habitats of which the substratum was recorded as muddy. The highest percentage of samples, by far (81.5 %, was collected in habitats that fell within the mean yearly temperature interval ranging from 15-20 °C. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data in the database indicated that temperature and type of water-body played a decisive role in determining the presence of B. forskalii in a given area. The results of experimental exposure to miracidia of a local strain of both Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mattheei in the laboratory indicated that a local strain of B. forskalii was incompatible with both these strains of parasite. Research to clarify the role of B. forskalii in the transmission of both Calicophoron microbothrium and G. aegyptiacus in South Africa, is recommended.

  3. Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology. PMID:24278240

  4. [Species identification of freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis and analysis of its potential distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-heng; Gao, Shi-tong; Gu, Wen-biao; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yun-hai

    2015-06-01

    To identify the species classification of an ornamental Planorbidae from a flower market in Shanghai and analyze its potential distribution in China. In August 2013, six freshwater snail specimens were collected from the Wanshang flower market. The species was identified by morphology and molecular biology. An ecological niche model was constructed based on the native geographic presence occurrence data, and projected onto the whole of China to predict the potential distribution. Their shell external morphology suggested that the specimens belonged to Planorbella trivolvis (Say 1817) of Planorbidae, which is native in North America. The sequence data of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed its identification. A total of 2 294 georeferenced occurrence points in North America were carried out from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility databases and 614 records with coordinates were used to produce a North American native niche model by a maximum entropy method (Maxent). The projection on China results suggested high probabilities of occurrence mostly in Henan Province and its borderland with nearby provinces. P. trivolvis is similarly with Biomphalaria species from shell morphology. It is the first records of the species in China, and the field dispersal is not clear.

  5. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Zachar

    Full Text Available Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  6. Profound effects of population density on fitness-related traits in an invasive freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Nicholas; Neiman, Maurine

    2013-01-01

    Population density can profoundly influence fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence plays a key role in many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we evaluated how individual-level changes in population density affect growth rate and embryo production early in reproductive maturity in two different asexual lineages of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is an important model system for ecotoxicology and the evolution of sexual reproduction as well as a potentially destructive worldwide invader. We showed that population density had a major influence on individual growth rate and early-maturity embryo production, effects that were often apparent even when comparing treatments that differed in population density by only one individual. While individual growth rate generally decreased as population density increased, we detected a hump-shaped relationship between embryo production and density, with females from intermediate-density treatments producing the most embryos and females from low- and high-density treatments producing the fewest embryos. The two lineages responded similarly to the treatments, indicating that these effects of population density might apply more broadly across P. antipodarum. These results indicate that there are profound and complex relationships between population density, growth rate, and early-maturity embryo production in at least two lineages of this important model system, with potential implications for the study of invasive populations, research on the maintenance of sex, and approaches used in ecotoxicology.

  7. Characterizing a hybrid zone between a cryptic species pair of freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Simit; Schell, Tilman; Eifert, Constanze; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Pfenninger, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Characterizing hybrid zones and their dynamics is a central goal in evolutionary biology, but this is particularly challenging for morphologically cryptic species. The lack of conspicuous divergence between parental types means intermediate hybrid forms often go undetected. We aimed to detect and characterize a suspected hybrid zone between a pair of morphologically cryptic lineages of the freshwater snail, Radix. We sampled Radix from across a contact zone between two mitochondrial lineages (Radix balthica and an undescribed lineage termed 'MOTU3') and detected admixture between two nuclear genotype clusters, which were significantly but not categorically associated with the mitochondrial lineages. Using a model selection approach, we show that the admixture cline is best explained by an interaction between precipitation and temperature gradients over the area, rather than geographic distance. We thus hypothesize that the correlation with climatic gradients suggests environmental selection has played a role in maintaining the hybrid zone. In a 2050 climate change scenario, we furthermore predict an expansion of one of the nuclear clusters and a widening of the hybrid zone as the climate warms and dries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  9. Influence of copper sulphate on the water and electrolyte balance of the freshwater snail Bulinus (Bulinus) tropicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aardt, W.J. (Potchefstroom University for C.H.E. (South Africa). Dept. of Zoology); Coertze, D.J. (Durban-Westville Univ. (South Africa). Dept of Physiology)

    1981-01-01

    The water and electrolyte balance of Bulinus (Bulinus) tropicus, a freshwater pulmonate, was determined when subjected to different sublethal concentrations of copper sulphate. It was found that the lethal dose (LD/sub 50/), which is the dose lethal to 50% of the snails, is 1,0 ppm in water of pH 8,5. Increasing dosages disturb the ionic and water balance. Haemolymph concentrations of Na+, Ca/sup 2/+ and Cl- decrease markedly. The rates of ion influx and efflux for Ca/sup 2/+, Na+, Cl- and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, measured with their corresponding radioisotopes, were drastically changed. The results indicate that the physiological effects of copper are not limited to particular organs or tissues but probably occur throughout the snail body. The possible effects of copper sulphate on the integumental exchange mechanisms for Ca/sup 2/+, HCO/sub 3/-, Na+, K+ and Cl- are discussed.

  10. Uptake and distribution of copper sulfate and its effect on the respiration rate of the hemocyanin-producing freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolmarans, C.T.; Yssel, E.

    1988-08-01

    Copper sulfate was one of the earliest compounds suggested as a molluscicide and although several new compounds have since been developed, copper sulfate is still widely used against freshwater snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites causing bilharzia. However, the toxic effect that copper sulfate may have on these species has not yet been investigated adequately. This incomplete picture of the action of copper sulfate on freshwater snails is further complicated by the fact that some of these snail species have hemocyanin (a protein containing copper) as respiration pigment. Because of the existence of a copper metabolic pathway, these species may handle external copper differently from those species with hemoglobin as respiration pigment. In the present study, the uptake of external copper in the form of copper sulfate, as well as the effect of this ion on respiration rate, was investigated in Lymnaea natalensis, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. This snail possesses hemocyanin as respiratory pigment.

  11. Diet quality affects chemical tolerance in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Salice, Christopher J

    2017-12-20

    Organisms generally select high-quality diets to obtain maximal energy while devoting the least amount of time and energy. Diets, however, can vary in natural systems. In ecotoxicological testing, the effect of diet type on organismal responses to toxicants has not been explored despite the potential for dietary effects to influence toxicological endpoints. We first evaluated diet quality using growth rate and sensitivity to the fungicide pyraclostrobin of Lymnaea stagnalis fed lettuce (common laboratory diet), turtle pellets (high nutrient composition), and a combination diet of both food items. We also measured the macronutrient content of snails raised on the multiple diets to determine how diet may have impacted energy allocation patterns. Finally, we evaluated whether snails discernibly preferred a particular diet. Snails fed high-nutrient and combination diets grew larger overall than snails fed a lettuce-only diet. Snails fed the high-nutrient and combination diets, both juvenile and adult, were significantly more tolerant to pyraclostrobin than snails fed lettuce. When measured for macronutrient content, snails raised on high-nutrient and combination diets had significantly higher carbohydrate content than snails fed lettuce. Despite the strong effects of diet type, snails did not exhibit a clear diet choice in preference trials. Dietary composition clearly influences growth rate, sensitivity, and macronutrient content of Lymnaea stagnalis. These results suggest that the nutritional environment has potentially strong impacts on toxicant sensitivity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-10. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca Maltez, Heloisa [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Villanueva Tagle, Margarita [Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana (Cuba); Rosario Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-09-21

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  13. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Maltez, Heloisa; Villanueva Tagle, Margarita; Rosario Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  14. Distribution Of The Freshwater Snail Species Fagotia (Gastropoda, Melanopsidae In Ukraine According To Climatic Factors. I. Fagotia Esperi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytar V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy niche modeling was employed as a tool to assess potential habitat suitability for the freshwater snail F. esperi (Férussac, 1823 in Ukraine for both contemporary climatic conditions and conditions projected for 2050. Of the 19 bioclimatic predictor variables used in the modeling, the “mean temperature seosonality” “mean temperature of driest quarter” and “precipitation of warmest quarter” were the three most important in predicting habitat suitability and distribution of this mollusk species.

  15. Studies on the acute toxicity of some heavy metals to an Indian freshwater pond snail Viviparus bengalensis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.K.; Durve, V.S.; Khangarot, B.S.

    1981-05-01

    The Indian freshwater pond snail Viviparus bengalensis L. was exposed to lethal concentrations of selected heavy metals. In the static bioassays the 96 hr LC50 values in ppm were 0.088 for copper; 2.83 for zinc; 6.27 for chromium; 8.40 for cadmium and 39.83 for nickel. Decreased pH values were recorded at some of the higher concentrations of zinc, nickel and cadmium solutions. At the close of 24 hr of exposure zinc and cadmium solutions showed white precipitation and milky nature. The results of this experiment indicate that the rank order of these heavy metals was Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd > Ni.

  16. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  17. Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Anderson, Todd; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-11-01

    Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of a freshwater snail responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle, (2) acute cadmium exposure of adults, and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and acute cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of acute cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in cadmium-free conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments.

  18. Phosphorus availability in the source population influences response to dietary phosphorus quantity in a New Zealand freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Amy C; Bankers, Laura; Larkin, Katelyn; Larson, Michele D; Greenwood, Daniel J; Dyck, Marissa A; Neiman, Maurine

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether previously documented variation among populations in availability of dietary phosphorus (P) is linked to heterogeneity in growth rate of the New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum on a P-limited diet. We chose this system because P. antipodarum inhabits water bodies that vary in P availability and because P. antipodarum growth rate varies considerably in response to low P. We quantified specific growth rate and alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in a diverse array of juvenile P. antipodarum fed high vs. low-P diets. We found strong associations between P content of epilithon in the source lake and P. antipodarum growth rate on high vs. low-P diets, with snails collected from lakes with relatively low-P epilithon showing the greatest increase in growth rate on the high-P relative to low-P diet. We also found substantial intraspecific variation in growth response to P limitation. Expression of AP also varied among lineages and was negatively associated with C: P of lake epilithon but did not explain the relationship between C: P in the lake of origin and sensitivity to P limitation. Together, our results demonstrate a strong signature of the P environment in the lake of origin on how this snail responds to P limitation as well as preliminary evidence for intraspecific variation of AP expression in animals.

  19. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  20. The effect of temperature on the development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen 1935) in Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Wei-Gang; Steinmann, Peter; Wang, Xian-Hong; Jia, Tie-Wu

    2006-10-01

    Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis, clinically presented as eosinophilic meningitis, is a snail-borne parasitic disease. We studied the effects of different temperatures on the larval development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata. Six groups of snails were infected and each group was cultured under different temperature conditions. At predefined intervals, four snails from each group were dissected to examine the larval development. The development-time curve of each group was drawn according to the fraction of third-stage larvae present. The developmental time was defined as the time needed until 50% of the first-stage larvae developed into third-stage larvae. A linear regression model was established based on the time (D; in days) and the corresponding temperature (T; in degrees Celsius): DT = 15.04 x D + 262.53. The threshold temperature for larval development was 15.04 degrees C and the thermal constant was 262.53 degree-days. These parameters could be helpful in estimating the number of parasite generations in a year and the impact of climate change on the distribution of A. cantonensis.

  1. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  2. Hybridization and invasiveness in the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata: hybrid vigour is more important than increase in genetic variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, B; Jarne, P; Pointier, J P; David, P

    2005-05-01

    Many invasive taxa are hybrids, but how hybridization boosts the invasive process remains poorly known. We address this question in the clonal freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata from Martinique, using three parental and two hybrid lines. We combine an extensive field survey (1990-2003) and a quantitative genetic experiment to show that hybrid lines have outcompeted their parents in natural habitats, and that this increased invasiveness co-occurred with pronounced shifts in life-history traits, such as growth, fecundity and juvenile size. Given the little time between hybrid creation and sampling, and the moderate standing genetic variance for life-history traits in hybrids, we show that some of the observed trait changes between parents and hybrids were unlikely to arise only by continuous selection. We therefore suggest that a large part of hybrid advantage stems from immediate heterosis upon hybridization.

  3. Micro-distribution of freshwater snails before and after water flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulinus truncatus the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, is widely distributed in modern irrigation schemes in Morocco. These schemes have intermittent irrigation and canals dry out in between irrigation periods. The snail species is therefore associated with the 'siphon boxes' connecting canal segments, ...

  4. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  5. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Noumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

  6. The value of the freshwater snail dip scoop sampling method in macroinvertebrates bioassessment of sugar mill wastewater pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takougang, Innocent; Barbazan, Phillipe; Tchounwou, Paul B; Noumi, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

  7. Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata, as new paratenic hosts of Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalamisra, Chalit; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Dekumyoy, Paron

    2009-03-01

    Aquatic snails, Pila ampullacea and Pomacea canaliculata were experimentally found to be suitable paratenic hosts for advanced third-stage larvae (L3) of the nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum, the causative parasite of gnathostomiasis in humans. G. spinigerum (L3) were found to be encapsulated in the tissue of the snail's foot and its internal organs. The infection, intensity and survival of third-stage larvae of G. spinigerum in both species of aquatic snails are described. This is the first evidence to reveal that not only vertebrates but also invertebrates (snails) can serve as paratenic hosts to this parasite. Aquatic snails are one of several sources of human gnathostomiasis in Thailand.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of Carica papaya and Areca catechu against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Preetee; Singh, D K

    2008-04-15

    The molluscicidal activity of seed and lyophilized latex powder of Carica papaya and seed powder of Areca catechu against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The toxicity of these plant products was time and dose dependent. The toxicity of C. papaya lyophilized latex powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 8.38 mg/l) was more pronounced than that of A. catechu seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 12.32 mg/l) and C. papaya seed powder (LC(50) at 96 h: 61.56 mg/l). Ethanolic extracts of C. papaya seed and A. catechu seed were more toxic than their other extracts. The ethanolic extract of A. catechu seed (LC(50) at 24h: 17.21 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of C. papaya seed (LC(50) at 24h: 53.38 mg/l). The LC(50) of column-purified fraction of A. catechu seed at 96 h was 3.99 mg/l, whereas that of C. papaya seed was 7.06 mg/l. C. papaya and A. catechu may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  9. Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and the freshwater snail Galba truncatula from Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, W M; Hassan, A I; Snousi, S A M; El-Dakhly, Kh M; Holman, P J; Craig, T M; Aboelhadid, S M

    2018-01-01

    Infection by Fasciola species was investigated in seven districts of Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, through abattoir inspection of cattle livers for adult worms and sedimentation of faecal samples from local cattle to detect Fasciola eggs. In addition, lymnaeid snails collected from the study area were examined microscopically for developmental stages of Fasciola spp. Abattoir inspection revealed that 51 out of 458 cattle livers (11.1%) contained adult flukes, which were identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica. Examination of the cattle faecal samples revealed that 142 out of 503 (28.2%) contained Fasciola eggs. The collected snails, identified as Galba truncatula and Radix natalensis, showed larval stages of Fasciola in 71 out of 731 (9.7%) G. truncatula, while R. natalensis showed no infection. Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was carried out on DNA extracted from pooled infected snails and adult worms. The F. hepatica size amplicon (1031 bp) was obtained from both the infected G. truncatula and the adult worms isolated from cattle livers from different districts. The amplicon sequences were identical to the published sequences of F. hepatica mitochondrial cox1 gene. In conclusion, the zoonotic importance of Fasciola infection and appropriate hygienic measures must be taken into consideration in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Pomacea maculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianqian; Liu, Suwen; Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Liu, Jinpeng; Liu, Guangfu; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-07-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) is one of the most serious invasive alien species from the native range of South America. The mitochondrial genome of P. maculata (15 516 bp) consists of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) and a non-coding region with a 16 bp repeat unit. Most mitochondrial genes of P. maculata are distributed on the H-strand, except eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the L-strand. A phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a close relationship between P. maculata and another invasive golden apple snail species, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822).

  11. Epigenetic modification in neurons of the mollusc Pomacea canaliculata after immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Enzo; Accorsi, Alice; Rigillo, Giovanna; Malagoli, Davide; Blom, Joan M C; Tascedda, Fabio

    2013-11-06

    In human and rodents, the transcriptional response of neurons to stress is related to epigenetic modifications of both DNA and histone proteins. To assess the suitability of simple invertebrate models in studying the basic mechanisms of stress-related epigenetic modifications, we analyzed epigenetic modifications in neurons of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata after the injection of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The phospho-acetylation of histone H3, together with the induction of stress-related factors, c-Fos and HSP70, were evaluated in large and small neurons of the pedal ganglia of sham- and LPS-injected snails. Immunocytochemical investigations showed that after LPS injection, the immunopositivity towards phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 and c-Fos increases in the nuclei of small gangliar neurons. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase of phospho (Ser10)-acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 in nuclear extracts from 2h LPS-injected animals. c-Fos protein levels were significantly augmented 6h after LPS injection. Immunocytochemistry and western blot indicated that no changes occurred in HSP70 distribution and protein levels. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of epigenetic changes in molluscan neurons after an immune challenge and indicate the gastropod P. canaliculata as a suitable model for evolutionary and translational studies on stress-related epigenetic modifications. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genomes of eight freshwater snail species exposes pervasive paraphyly within the Viviparidae family (Caenogastropoda.

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    Ju-Guang Wang

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among snails (Caenogastropoda are still unresolved, and many taxonomic categories remain non-monophyletic. Paraphyly has been reported within a large family of freshwater snails, Viviparidae, where the taxonomic status of several species remains questionable. As many endemic Chinese viviparid species have become endangered during the last few decades, this presents a major obstacle for conservation efforts. Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes carry a large amount of data, so they can often provide a much higher resolution for phylogenetic analyses in comparison to the traditionally used molecular markers. To help resolve their phylogenetic relationships, the complete mitogenomes of eight Chinese viviparid snails, Viviparus chui, Cipangopaludina chinensis, C. ussuriensis, C. dianchiensis (endangered, Margarya melanioides (endangered, M. monodi (critically endangered, Bellamya quadrata and B. aeruginosa, were sequenced and compared to almost all of the available caenogastropod mitogenomes. Viviparidae possess the largest mitogenomes (16 392 to 18 544 bp, exhibit the highest A+T bias (72.5% on average, and some exhibit unique gene orders (a rearrangement of the standard MYCWQGE box, among the Caenogastropoda. Apart from the Vermetidae family and Cerithioidea superfamily, which possessed unique gene orders, the remaining studied caenogastropod mitogenomes exhibited highly conserved gene order, with minimal variations. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among 49 almost complete (all 37 genes caenogastropod mitogenomes, produced almost identical tree topologies. Viviparidae were divided into three clades: a Margarya and Cipangopaludina (except C. ussuriensis, b Bellamya and C. ussuriensis, c Viviparus chui. Our results present evidence that some Cipangopaludina species (dianchiensis and cathayensis should be renamed into the senior genus Margarya. The

  13. Acidic, neutral and alkaline forest ponds as a landscape element affecting the biodiversity of freshwater snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the number of areas remaining under the influence of acidity has increased. At all levels of ecosystems, biodiversity decreases with acidification, due to the elimination of species that are most sensitive to low pH. Forest ponds belong to a specific group that varied in location, a huge amount of leaf litter, and isolation from other aquatic environments. They are crucial in the industrial landscape with well-developed industry and human activity. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of water chemistry in explaining snail assemblage compositions and species richness in forest ponds of contrasting pH. Patterns in gastropod communities were determined from an analysis in 26 forest ponds with multivariate gradient analysis. Ponds ranged in a base mean pH from 3.0 to 9.0. pH has been found to be an important factor influencing gastropod fauna. Neutral ponds support diverse communities, typical of small water bodies. In two acidic pond types, snail fauna was different. Among the species characteristic for acidic ponds (pH pH. Current knowledge of pH-associated changes in aquatic ecosystems is still incomplete because anthropogenic acidification is a recent phenomenon. It is extremely important in forest habitats, since they react more intensively to climatic factors and are often used in landscape management and planning.

  14. Molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2011-04-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Terminalia chebula fruit powder against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The molluscicidal activity of T. chebula fruit powder (96 h LC(50):93.59 mg L(-1)) was more pronounced than that of S. mukorossi fruit powder (96 h LC(50):119.57 mg L(-1)). Ethanolic extracts of S. mukorossi and T. chebula fruit powder were more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of S. mukorossi fruit powder (24h LC(50):2.75 mg L(-1)) was more effective than the ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit powder (24h LC(50):124.06 mg L(-1)). The 96 h LC(50) of column-purified fraction of S. mukorossi fruit powder was 5.43 mg L(-1) whereas those of T. chebula fruit powder was 7.49 mg L(-1). Column, thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in S. mukorossi and T. chebula is saponin (96 h LC(50):1.31 mg L(-1)) and tannic acid (96 h LC(50):1.64 mg L(-1)), respectively. These plants may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail L. acuminata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avoidance of aluminum toxicity in freshwater snails involves intracellular silicon-aluminum biointeraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Keith N; Ejim, Abraham I; Walton, Rachel C; Brown, Andrew P; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J; McCrohan, Catherine R

    2008-03-15

    Silicon (Si) ameliorates aluminum (Al) toxicity to a range of organisms, but in almost all cases this is due to ex vivo Si-Al interactions forming inert hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS). We hypothesized a Si-specific intracellular mechanism for Al detoxification in aquatic snails, involving regulation of orthosilicic acid [Si(OH)4]. However, the possibility of ex vivo formation and uptake of soluble HAS could not be ruled out Here we provide unequivocal evidence for Si-Al interaction in vivo, including their intracellular colocalization. In snails preloaded with Si(0H)4, behavioral toxicity in response to subsequent exposure to Al was abolished. Similarly, recovery from Al-induced toxicity was faster when Si(OH)4 was provided, together with rapid loss of Al from the major detoxificatory organ (digestive gland). Temporal separation of Al and Si exposure excluded the possibility of their interaction ex vivo. Elemental mapping using analytical transmission electron microscopy revealed nanometre-scale colocalization of Si and Al within excretory granules in the digestive gland, consistent with recruitment of Si(OH)4, followed by high-affinity Al binding to form particles similarto allophane, an amorphous HAS. Given the environmental abundance of both elements, we anticipate this to be a widespread phenomenon, providing a cellular defense against the profoundly toxic Al(III) ion.

  16. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  17. [Reproductive aspects of Pomacea flagellata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) at Bacalar lagoon, Quintana Roo, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Rivera, José J; Ocaña, Frank A; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Carrillo, Rosa M de Jesús; Vargas-Espósitos, Abel A

    2016-12-01

    The freshwater snail Pomacea flagellata is native from Southeastern Mexico. Studies about this species are scarce and none has treated their reproduction. This snail has been exploited at Bacalar lagoon for many years, leading to a significant decrease in their abundance and currently, a permanent ban was proposed by the government. This work aimed to assess the temporal variations of mating frequency and the abundance of egg clutches of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon, as well as their relation with snails density and environmental variables. Sampling was done during the three climatic seasons: Rainy (July, August and September/2012), North or Cold fronts (December/2012 and January and February/2013) and Dry (March, April and May/2013) in 12 sampling stations located along the Bacalar lagoon. On each station a transect of 100 m length was set parallel to the edge, and the number of fresh egg clutches (pink color) laid over vegetation, rocks or manmade structures, were counted. In the water, three 50 x 2 m transects were set and the number of snails were counted as well as the mating frequency. Density of snails varied significantly among seasons, decreasing from the rainy to the dry season. There were no significant differences of snail abundance among months, nested in climatic seasons (ANOVA, p>0.05). During the rainy season the mating frequency was significantly higher than in the Norths, meanwhile in the dry season no mating were registered (Kruskal-Wallis, p˂0.05). Eggs clutches appeared from July to March. Density of egg clutches presented no differences between the Rainy and the North seasons (2.72 and 2.93 clutches/m, respectively), nonetheless during the dry season abundance of egg masses was significantly lower (0.1 clutches/m) (H, p˂0.05). Mating frequency was related with snail abundance (rs= 0.26; pBacalar lagoon is related with the warmer months and with higher rainfall. This finding is relevant to support the management of this resource in the

  18. Molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra against the freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata

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    Farheen Hanif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Morus nigra fruit, bark and leaf powder against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. Toxicity of fruit powder (96h LC50: 166.92 mg/L was more pronounced in comparison to bark powder (96h LC50: 173.17 mg/L and leaf powder (96h LC50: 173.69 mg/L. Ethanolic extracts of M. nigra fruit, bark and leaf was more toxic than their other organic solvent extracts. The molluscicidal activity of ethanolic extract of M. nigra fruit powder (24h LC50: 116.23 mg/L was more effective than the ethanolic extract of bark powder (24h LC50: 154.41 mg/L and leaf powder (24h LC50: 139.80 mg/L. The 96h LC50 of column-purified fraction of M. nigra fruit powder was, 10.03 mg/L whereas that of bark and leaf powder was 8.69 mg/L and 4.97 mg/L, respectively. Column and thin layer chromatography analysis demonstrates that the active molluscicidal component in M. nigra is quercetin (96h LC50: 1.11 mg/L, apigenin (96h LC50: 1.92 mg/L and morusin (96h LC50: 2.12 mg/L, respectively. Co-migration of quercetin (Rf 0.49, apigenin (Rf 0.51 and morusin (Rf 0.52 with column-purified fruit, bark and leaf of M. nigra on thin layer chromatography demonstrates same Rf value. The present study indicates that M. nigra may be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

  19. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  20. Field application of a set of cellular biomarkers in the digestive gland of the freshwater snail Radix peregra (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlet, Edwige [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ledy, Karine [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Giamberini, Laure [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: giamb@sciences.univ-metz.fr

    2006-04-20

    An active biomonitoring study was performed in the vicinity of two pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) released in two different streams in northeastern France. Freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (=Lymnaea peregra or Lymnaea pereger), were transplanted for 0, 3, 14 and 21 days at two to three sites located upstream and downstream from the mill discharge points in both rivers. Lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, as well as lipofuscin and neutral lipids, were tested using histochemical methods on cryostat sections of digestive gland tissues, and stereological data were obtained by image analysis. Evidence of structural changes in the lysosomal system was found in animals exposed to both effluents, comprising general stress responses such as enlarged and more numerous lysosomes; and also possible specific pluri-phasic effects. Modifications of the lysosomal and cytoplasmic contents of lipid-related materials were also described, namely enhanced lipofuscin deposit and neutral lipid depletion. The peroxisomal proliferation in exposed snails seems to show its implication in oxidative stress detoxication, without preventing higher lipoperoxidation, as indicated by the increased amounts of digestive lipofuscin. Structural changes of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, digestive lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents have potential for use as early cellular biomarkers in Radix peregra exposed to environmental stressors, which deserve further investigations.

  1. Influence of acclimation and exposure temperature on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, V.; Forbes, V.E.; Depledge, M.H. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Ecotoxicology Group)

    1994-09-01

    Forty-eight-hour acute toxicity tests were performed to determine the influence of acclimation temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) and exposure temperature (5, 15, and 20 C) on the toxicity of cadmium to the freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Mortality varied with cadmium concentration and treatment conditions, but did not conform to conventional sigmoid concentration-response relationships. Because the shapes of the concentration-response curves were treatment dependent, a nontraditional approach for data analysis was employed. Regardless of acclimation temperature, mortality increased with increasing exposure temperature, and at all exposure temperatures snails acclimated at 15 C were most susceptible to cadmium toxicity. Estimated LC50 values were within 1 to 4 mg Cd/L. Although the shapes of the concentration-response curves were different for each treatment, the slopes were generally quite steep, indicating a uniform response for the whole population. At a given Cd concentration, acclimation temperature and exposure temperature accounted for 57 and 40%, respectively, of the variation in mortality, and LC50s changed by a factor of four. The results indicate that changes in environmental variables can alter both the degree of response and the response distribution of a population, and that past as well as prevailing environmental conditions can influence organismic responses to toxicants.

  2. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Wang, Tianfang; Rotgans, Bronwyn A; McManus, Donald P; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  3. The neuropeptide schistosomin and haemolymph from parasitized snails induce similar changes in excitability in neuroendocrine cells controlling reproduction and growth in a freshwater snail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, P. L.; de Jong-Brink, M.; ter Maat, A.; Pieneman, A. W.; Lodder, J. C.; Kits, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    Infection of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis with the schistosome parasite Trichobilharzia ocellata results in inhibition of reproduction and in giant growth. Parasite-related effects on the neuroendocrine centres that control these processes were studied electrophysiologically. Haemolymph from infected

  4. Mode of origin differentially influences the fitness of parthenogenetic freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G

    2005-10-22

    How parthenogenetic lineages arise from sexual ancestors may strongly influence their persistence over evolutionary time. Hybrid parthenogens often have elevated heterozygosity and ploidy, thus making it difficult to disentangle the influence of reproductive mode, hybridity and ploidy on their relative fitness. By comparing the relative fitness of both hybrid and non-hybrid parthenogens to their sexual ancestors, further insight may be gained into how these three factors influence the maintenance of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. In the present study, hybrid and non-hybrid parthenogenetic and sexual snails (Campeloma sp.) were compared for the following characteristics: female size-fecundity curves, offspring size, survivorship, and growth. Compared to nearby sexual populations, triploid hybrid parthenogens from the Florida Gulf coast have similar fecundity and offspring size, five-times higher survivorship, and 60% higher growth. Relative to nearby sexual populations, non-hybrid parthenogenetic C. limum from the Atlantic coast have significantly higher fecundity, smaller offspring size, similar survivorship and slightly lower growth. Given the considerable fitness advantages of parthenogens, especially hybrid parthenogens, it is enigmatic as to why these parthenogens occupy marginal natural habitats.

  5. Environmental versus anthropogenic effects on population adaptive divergence in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bouétard

    Full Text Available Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using Q(ST-F(ST comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean F(ST = 0.291, five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment.

  6. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  7. Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Som; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Ni. We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) for this observed hypersensitivity. Consistent with previous experiments, juvenile snail growth in a 21-day exposure was reduced by 48% relative to the control when exposed to 1.3 μg l(-1) Ni (EC20 less than the lowest concentration tested). Ca(2+) homeostasis was significantly disrupted by Ni exposure as demonstrated by reductions in net Ca(2+) uptake, and reductions in Ca(2+) concentrations in the hemolymph and soft tissues. We also observed reduced soft tissue [Mg(2+)]. Snails underwent a significant alkalosis with hemolymph pH increasing from 8.1 to 8.3 and hemolymph TCO2 increasing from 19 to 22 mM in control versus Ni-exposed snails, respectively. Unlike in previous studies with Co and Pb, snail feeding rates were found to be unaffected by Ni at the end of the exposure. Snails accumulated Ni in the soft tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, and Ni uptake experiments with (63)Ni revealed a biphasic uptake profile - a saturable high affinity component at low exposure concentrations (36-189 nM) and a linear component at the high exposure concentrations (189-1,897 nM). The high affinity transport system had an apparent Km of 89 nM Ni(2+) and Vmax of 2.4 nmol g(-1)h(-1). This equates to a logK of 7.1, significantly higher than logK's (2.6-5.2) for any other aquatic organisms evaluated to date, which will have implications for Biotic Ligand Model development. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors that block Ca(2+) uptake pathways in snails did not inhibit Ni uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Ni does not occur via Ca(2+) uptake pathways. As with Cu and Pb, the exact mechanism for the significant disruption in Ca(2+) homeostasis and reduction in juvenile snail growth remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shell morphology of the freshwater snail Gundlachia ticaga (Gastropoda: Ancylidae from four sites in Ilha Grande, southeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Eduardo M. Lacerda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snail Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962 is widely distributed in Brazil, but its morphology has been poorly studied. We compared the shell morphology of samples from four sites (Vila do Abraão, Vila de Provetá, Parnaioca and Praia do Sul in Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro in order to evaluate differences within and among four populations. We used nine morphometric characters representing shell size and shape. To analyze shell morphology we considered aperture shape, sculpture of teleoconch, apex carving and position. The resulting dataset was correlated by Pearson´s linear correlation and shell differences among populations were tested using ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis. The results showed that there is significant variation among populations concerning shell shape and morphology. Shells from preserved localities (Praia do Sul and Parnaioca and shells from highly modified environments (Vila do Abraão and Vila de Provetá were the most similar to each other. Results from the visual assessment and from the discriminant analysis were almost identical. The shell indices are the most important variables in the differentiation of samples. The observed variation corroborates the hypothesis that G. ticaga displays phenotypic plasticity, which may lead to wrong identifications. Narrower shells with an elongate aperture could be misidentified as Ferrissia Walker, 1903 and, broader shells with a roundish aperture could be wrongly identified as Burnupia Walker, 1912. We confirmed that the absence of radial lines is not a good diagnostic character for G. ticaga. The analysis of the apical micro-sculpture and soft parts is essential for a correct identification.

  9. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female

  10. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  11. Distribution of freshwater snails in the river Niger basin in Mali with special reference to the intermediate hosts of schistosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Coulibaly, Godefroy; Furu, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Snail surveys were carried out in various parts of Mali. All areas surveyed are part of the Niger basin being either affluents or irrigation schemes fed by this river. The snail species present varied greatly between areas. The following potential hosts of schistosomes were recorded: Biomphalaria...... pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. forskalii and B. senegalensis. In the large irrigation schemes, i.e. 'Office du Niger' and Baguinéda, only B. pfeifferi and B. truncatus appear to be intermediate hosts. Snail distribution appeared to some extent to be focal and high snail...... densities appeared to be associated with human water contact activities, which apparently create favourable biotopes for the snails. This is probably due to an alteration of the vegetation and an increase of the trophic status of the site by contamination with food remnants and other debris. The larger...

  12. [Characteristics of Pomacea canaliculata reproduction under natural conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; He, Yue-Jin; Tan, Ji-Cai; Xu, Cheng-Xiang; Zhong, Lang; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Liao, Qian-Guo

    2012-02-01

    Abstract: A three-year breeding experiment was conducted in a paddy field in Zixing City of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the characteristics of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) reproduction under natural conditions. Under the natural conditions in southern Hunan Province, the snails could approximately reproduce three generations per year. The average sexual maturity periods of the first, the second, and the third generation of the female snails were 59.3, 45.4 and 213.0 days, respectively, and those of the male snails were 4.3 days earlier than the females'. The natural sex ratio of the females to the males was 1.54:1. The average copulation duration was 19.2 hours, but spawning did not always occur after each time of copulation. The number of the egg masses produced by the females per month was significantly positively correlated with the mean monthly air temperature (r = 0.756) , while the average incubation duration of the egg masses was significantly negatively correlated with the daily air temperature (gamma = -0.726x + 23.064, r = -0.980). The average incubation time of the egg masses was 20.7 days, average incubation rate was 44.1%, and the average life expectancy of the female and male snails was 2.40 and 1.98 years, respectively. A female snail in its lifetime could averagely spawn 13764 eggs and reproduce 6070 young snails.

  13. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  14. [Studies on susceptibility of Pomacea canaliculata of different developmental stages to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Lv, Shan; Zhu, Dan; Lin, Jin-xiang; Li, Li-sha; Li, You-song; Yin, Wei-gang

    2005-10-30

    OBJECTIVE To study the susceptibility of Pomacea canaliculata of different developmental stages to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. P. canaliculata snails breeding at laboratory were divided into four rank (I-IV) according to the weight, and infected with the first stage larvae of A. cantonensis from Fujian Province. Their mortality, infection rate, worm burden, and the size, development and distribution of larvae in snails were examined. Snails at different developmental stages were readily infected with A. cantonensis. The infection rate was between 76% and 100%, with no significant difference among the groups (P>0.05). Snails at earlier developmental stage showed higher mortality. The heaviest worm burden and the largest number of snails harboring more than 100 larvae were found in snails of rank III. In general the larvae in snails showed a synchronous development in the groups. Sizes of the third stage larvae in snails of various ranks were homogeneous. The period before the third stage larva emergence and the time for a peak percentage of the larvae exhibited no significant difference among the four ranks. The larvae widely distributed in various parts of snails, with more in the lung and foot, and larvae from snails of different ranks could all infect rats successfully. P. canaliculata of the four ranks can all be infected by the first stage larvae of A. cantonensis. Rank III snails may be better for studying the relationship between P. canaliculata and A. cantonensis. The potential role of young snails in angiostrongyliasis transmission should be recognized.

  15. Effects of repeated hemolymph withdrawals on the hemocyte populations and hematopoiesis in Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Alice; Ottaviani, Enzo; Malagoli, Davide

    2014-05-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod considered an invasive pest by several European, North American and Asiatic countries. This snail presents a considerable resistance to pollutants and may successfully face stressful events. Thanks to the unusual possibility to perform several hemolymph collections without affecting its survival, P. canaliculata is a good model to study the hematopoietic process and the hemocyte turnover in molluscs. Here we have analyzed the effects of repeated hemolymph withdrawals on circulating hemocyte populations and pericardial organs, i.e., the heart, the main vessels entering and leaving the heart and the ampulla, of P. canaliculata. Our experiments revealed that the circulating hemocyte populations were maintained constant after 3 collections performed in 48 h. The tissue organization of the heart and the vessels remained unaltered, whereas the ampulla buffered the effects of hemolymph collections acting as hemocyte reservoir, and its original organization was progressively lost by the repeated hemolymph withdrawals. The hematopoietic tissue of P. canaliculata was evidenced here for the first time. It is positioned within the pericardial cavity, in correspondence of the principle veins. Mitoses within the hematopoietic tissue were not influenced by hemolymph collections, and circulating hemocytes never presented mitotic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Martín, Pablo R.; Zhang, Chunxia

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans). P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk), although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey. PMID:29136660

  17. Predation risk affects growth and reproduction of an invasive snail and its lethal effect depends on prey size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available The behavior of invasive species under predation risk has been studied extensively, but their growth and reproductive responses have rarely been investigated. We conducted experiments with juveniles and adults of the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, and we observed changes in growth and reproduction in response to predation risk from a caged predator (Trachemys scripta elegans. P. canaliculata produced eggs earlier in the presence of predators and injured conspecifics compared with the control group (no risk, although the total number of egg masses laid by per female was exceeded by that of the controls after 15 days. Egg hatching success noticeably decreased under predation risk, and the incubation period was significantly prolonged; however, the oviposition height of the snails was not affected. A lethal effect of predation risk was detected in juvenile snails but not in adults. The growth of juvenile P. canaliculata was inhibited under predation risk, probably due to a reduction in food intake. Adult females exhibited a greater reduction in growth under predation risk than males, which likely resulted in part from the high reproductive investment of females in egg laying. These results indicate that P. canaliculata snails under predation risk face a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth and reproduction, where the lethal effect of predation risk is linked to the size of the prey.

  18. [Studies on the growth-development and infectivity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in dormant Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Lv, Shan; Zhu, Dan; Lin, Jin-Xiang; Li, Li-sha; Li, You-song

    2006-08-01

    To study the impact of dormancy of Pomacea canaliculata on the growth-development and infectivity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The intermediate host snails (P. canaliculata) were infected with the first stage larvae of A. cantonensis from the laboratory. One day after infection the snails were kept dormant under 25.0-25.5 degrees C, and a sample of the snails was selected and dissected to examine the larval growth-development at various interval. Twenty days after infection, they were placed in room with natural winter conditions. Every 10 days a sample of the snails was dissected for larval activity. The third-stage larval infectivity from each group was identified by infecting SD rats. Meanwhile the survival and weight change of snails in the two groups were recorded, and were compared with those snails cultured in water under the corresponding temperature conditions mentioned above. The time for first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in dormant snails to develop to third stage was shorter than that in the snails in aquarium. All the third stage larvae at various degree of activity recovered from snails in winter room conditions, including dormant snails and active snails in water, infected rats successfully. The dormant snails in winter room conditions stopped growing with decreased weight, but the survival rate was significantly lower than that of the snails in aquarium with the same condition along with an extending time of dormancy. The development of A. cantonensis larvae has not been affected when snails are kept dormant under 25.0-25.5 degrees C. The third stage larvae from snails at natural winter room temperature or in aquarium were all infective. As of the overwintering ways, it is better to keep the infected snails dormant than in the aquarium.

  19. Taxonomical study on a sample of land and freshwater snails from caves in central Brazil, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of land and freshwater snails, mainly pulmonates, was recently collected in caves in Goiás and Bahia states, Brazil. Twenty-one species were found in the material. The following species are reported for the first time for Goiás state: Cecilioides consobrina (Ferussaciidae, Dysopeas muibum and Stenogyra octogyra (Subulinidae, Entodina jekylli and Prohappia besckei (Scolodontidae; also reported for the first time for Bahia state, Pupisoma dioscoricola (Valloniidae. A new species from Goiás is described herein: Gastrocopta sharae sp. n. (Gastrocoptidae. The new records and species addressed here constitute important findings, helping to fill distributional gaps and improving the knowledge of the local molluscan fauna, an essential step for future conservation efforts.

  20. Effect of humic acid on water chemistry, bioavailability and toxicity of aluminium in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranskyte, A. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Jugdaohsingh, R. [Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); McCrohan, C.R. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Stuchlik, E. [Hydrobiological Station, Institute for Environmental Studies, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Powell, J.J. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL (United Kingdom); White, K.N. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: keith.white@manchester.ac.uk

    2006-03-15

    The influence of humic acid on the water chemistry of environmentally relevant concentrations of Al at neutral pH was studied, together with its effect on the bioavailability and toxicity of Al in Lymnaea stagnalis. Humic acid significantly reduced the loss of Al from the water and increased the fraction of filterable Al, although this was a relatively small fraction of total Al. Filterable Al concentration in the presence or absence of humic acid was independent of initial Al concentration. Humic acid only partly reduced toxicity, as observed by a reduction in behavioural suppression, and had no effect on the level of Al accumulated in tissues. These results suggest that humic acid maintains Al in a colloidal form that is bioavailable to L. stagnalis. However, these colloidal Al-humic acid species were less toxic since behavioural toxicity was reduced. Humic acid may play an important role in limiting the toxicity of Al to freshwater organisms. - Humic acid reduces aluminium toxicity in freshwater snails.

  1. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of freshwater snail (Radix balthica) to discover genes and pathways affected by exposure to oxazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Jean-Yves; Bonnafe, Elsa; Klopp, Christophe; Escudier, Frédéric; Geret, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in aquatic ecosystems due to the non-efficiency of waste water treatment plants. Therefore, aquatic organisms are frequently exposed to a broad diversity of pharmaceuticals. Freshwater snail Radix balthica has been chosen as model to study the effects of oxazepam (psychotropic drug) on developmental stages ranging from trochophore to hatching. In order to provide a global insight of these effects, a transcriptome deep sequencing has been performed on exposed embryos. Eighteen libraries were sequenced, six libraries for three conditions: control, exposed to the lowest oxazepam concentration with a phenotypic effect (delayed hatching) (TA) and exposed to oxazepam concentration found in freshwater (TB). A total of 39,759,772 filtered raw reads were assembled into 56,435 contigs having a mean length of 1579.68 bp and mean depth of 378.96 reads. 44.91% of the contigs have at least one annotation. The differential expression analysis between the control condition and the two exposure conditions revealed 146 contigs differentially expressed of which 144 for TA and two for TB. 34.0% were annotated with biological function. There were four mainly impacted processes: two cellular signalling systems (Notch and JNK) and two biosynthesis pathways (Polyamine and Catecholamine pathways). This work reports a large-scale analysis of differentially transcribed genes of R. balthica exposed to oxazepam during egg development until hatching. In addition, these results enriched the de novo database of potential ecotoxicological models.

  2. Apple snails and their endosymbionts bioconcentrate heavy metals and uranium from contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Israel A; Arribére, María A; Almonacid, Andrea V; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2012-09-01

    The differential ability of apple snail tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs to bioaccumulate several metals (Sb, As, Ba, Br, Zn, Cr, Fe, Hg, Se, and U) was investigated. Metal concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in several tissues, endosymbionts, and eggs from mature apple snails cultured in either drinking water or reconstituted water (prepared with American Society for Testing and Materials type I water). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in the midgut gland were found for Ba, Zn, Se, As, U, Br, and Hg (in decreasing order), while the highest in the kidney were for Ba, Br, and Hg. The foot showed the highest BCFs for Ba, Hg, Br, and Se (in decreasing order). Calcified tissues (uterus, shell) and eggs showed low BCFs, except for Ba. Both C corpuscles and gland tissue showed statistically higher BCFs than K corpuscles for Ba, Fe, U, Br, and Sb. The concentration of most of the studied elements was significantly lower in tissues and endosymbionts obtained from snails cultured in reconstituted water instead of drinking water. Snails cultured in reconstituted water and then exposed or not to Hg, As, and U (at the maximum contaminant level allowed by the US Environmental Protection Agency) also resulted in high levels accumulated in midgut gland, endosymbionts and kidney. Our findings suggest that the midgut gland (and the symbionts contained therein), the kidney, and the foot of Pomacea canaliculata may be useful bioindicators of Hg, As and U pollution in freshwater bodies and that the unrestricted use of ampullariid snails as human and animal food must be considered with caution.

  3. A preliminary checklist of the freshwater snails of Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) deposited in the BORNEENSIS collection, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Ting Hui; Dulipat, Jasrul; Foon, Junn Kitt; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Alexandra Zieritz,; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Sabah, a Malaysian state at the north-eastern tip of Borneo, is situated in one of the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots yet its freshwater gastropod diversity remains poorly known. An annotated checklist of the freshwater gastropods is presented, based on specimens deposited in the BORNEENSIS collection of the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia. A KMZ file is also provided, which acts as a repository of digital images and complete collection da...

  4. Population genetic structure of the freshwater snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) from selected habitats of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkize, Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Zishiri, Oliver Tendayi

    2016-09-01

    The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0.49±0.09. The majority of populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05), due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Such deviations may be due to founder events that were caused by bottlenecks that occurred as a result of frequent droughts and flooding that these snails' habitats are exposed to. Overall, the populations studied seem to be partially inbreeders/selfers with mean estimates of 0.24/0.38. A discernable genetic structure was elucidated among populations as evident by the mean pairwise FST of 0.58±0.13. There was no significant association between genetic and geographical distance among populations, an indication of limited gene flow. This increases the chances of populations losing alleles due to genetic drift. Populations in close proximity demonstrated high genetic differentiation (58.77% total variation) due to allelic differences between them. The sample populations fell into 12 clusters, however, the populations from uMkhanyakude and uThungulu exhibited no discernable genetic structure. Genetically, the Bhobhoyi site found within the uGu district was equidistant to the two main sampling regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A preliminary checklist of the freshwater snails of Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) deposited in the BORNEENSIS collection, Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Dulipat, Jasrul; Foon, Junn Kitt; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Alexandra Zieritz; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Sabah, a Malaysian state at the north-eastern tip of Borneo, is situated in one of the Earth's biodiversity hotspots yet its freshwater gastropod diversity remains poorly known. An annotated checklist of the freshwater gastropods is presented, based on specimens deposited in the BORNEENSIS collection of the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia. A KMZ file is also provided, which acts as a repository of digital images and complete collection data of all examined material, so that it can be shared and adapted to facilitate future research.

  6. Impact of the redox-cycling herbicide diquat on transcript expression and antioxidant enzymatic activities of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouetard, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.bouetard@rennes.inra.fr [INRA, UMR INRA-Agrocampus Ouest ESE 0985, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Besnard, Anne-Laure; Vassaux, Daniele; Lagadic, Laurent; Coutellec, Marie-Agnes [INRA, UMR INRA-Agrocampus Ouest ESE 0985, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    The presence of pesticides in the environment results in potential unwanted effects on non-target species. Freshwater organisms inhabiting water bodies adjacent to agricultural areas, such as ditches, ponds and marshes, are good models to test such effects as various pesticides may reach these habitats through several ways, including aerial drift, run-off, and drainage. Diquat is a non-selective herbicide used for crop protection or for weed control in such water bodies. In this study, we investigated the effects of diquat on a widely spread aquatic invertebrate, the holarctic freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Due to the known redox-cycling properties of diquat, we studied transcript expression and enzymatic activities relative to oxidative and general stress in the haemolymph and gonado-digestive complex (GDC). As diquat is not persistent, snails were exposed for short times (5, 24, and 48 h) to ecologically relevant concentrations (22.2, 44.4, and 222.2 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of diquat dibromide. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the transcription of genes encoding catalase (cat), a cytosolic superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod), a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (gpx), a glutathione reductase (gred), the retinoid X receptor (rxr), two heat shock proteins (hsp40 and hsp70), cortactin (cor) and the two ribosomal genes r18S and r28s. Enzymatic activities of SOD, Gpx, Gred and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were investigated in the GDC using spectrophoto/fluorometric methods. Opposite trends were obtained in the haemolymph depending on the herbicide concentration. At the lowest concentration, effects were mainly observed after 24 h of exposure, with over-transcription of cor, hsp40, rxr, and sod, whereas higher concentrations down-regulated the expression of most of the studied transcripts, especially after 48 h of exposure. In the GDC, earlier responses were observed and the fold-change magnitude was generally much higher: transcription of all target genes increased

  7. Reduction of growth and haemolymph Ca levels in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis chronically exposed to cobalt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Koene, J.M.; Heijerick, D.G.; Janssen, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological risk assessment and the development of water-quality criteria for Co are currently still hampered by insufficient knowledge about the toxicity of Co to freshwater organisms. A relevant group of organisms, for which no toxicity data with Co are available, is the class of the

  8. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  9. Effect of cysteine and humic acids on bioavailability of Ag from Ag nanoparticles to a freshwater snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Tasha Stoiber,; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Isabelle Romer,; Ruth Merrifeild,; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) will undergo transformations that will affect their bioavailability, toxicity and ecological risk when released to the environment, including interactions with dissolved organic material. The purpose of this paper is to determine how interactions with two different types of organic material affect the bioavailability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Silver uptake rates by the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were determined after exposure to 25 nmol l-1 of Ag as PVP AgNPs, PEG AgNPs or AgNO3, in the presence of either Suwannee River humic acid or cysteine, a high-affinity thiol-rich organic ligand. Total uptake rate of Ag from the two NPs was either increased or not strongly affected in the presence of 1 – 10 mg 1-1 humic acid. Humic substances contain relatively few strong ligands for Ag explaining their limited effects on Ag uptake rate. In contrast, Ag uptake rate was substantially reduced by cysteine. Three components of uptake from the AgNPs were quantified in the presence of cysteine using a biodynamic modeling approach: uptake of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs, uptake of a polymer or large (>3kD) Ag-cysteine complex and uptake of the nanoparticle itself. Addition of 1:1 Ag:cysteine reduced concentrations of dissolved Ag, which contributed to, but did not fully explain the reductions in uptake. A bioavailable Ag-cysteine complex (> 3kD) appeared to be the dominant avenue of uptake from both PVP AgNPs and PEG AgNPs in the presence of cysteine. Quantifying the different avenues of uptake sets the stage for studies to assess toxicity unique to NPs.

  10. Partial characterisation of high-molecular weight glycoconjugates in the trail mucus of the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, Simon; Howard, Marj; White, Keith N; McCrohan, Catherine R; Thornton, David J; Sheehan, John K

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the glycoconjugates in trail mucus of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The mucus was dissolved with 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride (GuHCl) and the major component was comprised of very high-M(r) glycoconjugates that were eluted in the void volume of a Sepharose CL-4B gel-filtration column. This high-M(r) material was pooled and thereafter subjected to density gradient centrifugation first in 4 M GuHCl/CsCl and subsequently 0.2 M GuHCl/CsCl to further remove non-glycosylated proteins and DNA. The harvested glycoconjugate pool chromatographed in the void volume of Sepharose CL-2B. However, reduction of disulfide bonds lowered the molecular size of approximately 80% of the void material yielding a major fragment and some minor smaller fragments in gel chromatography. The reduced glycoconjugates were digested with papain and yielded high molecular weight, proteinase-resistant glycopeptides. This fragmentation pattern is similar to that found for oligomeric gel-forming mucins in mammals and the amino acid composition (60% Ser/Thr) and sugar analysis of the glycopeptides is consistent with mucin-like molecules, there being no significant amounts of xylose or uronic acids. The residual 20% of the preparation, which apparently resisted reduction and protease digestion, had a similar amino acid composition to the bulk, but was somewhat different in sugar composition, containing some xylose and a significant amount of glucuronic acid. The two groups of molecules had very different morphologies in the electron microscope. Taken together, these data suggest that trail mucus is a complex mixture of at least two families of protein-glycoconjugate molecules based upon the gel-forming mucin and proteoglycan families, though we cannot rule out that polysaccharides may also be present.

  11. Bisphenol A (BPA) modulates the expression of endocrine and stress response genes in the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis

    2018-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can mimic the action of oestrogens by interacting with hormone receptors, is potentially able to influence reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. The freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics appropriate for aquatic toxicity testing in environmental studies. This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P. acuta were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in the transcriptional activity of the endocrine-related genes oestrogen receptor (ER), oestrogen-related receptor (ERR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR), as well as in genes involved in the stress response, such as hsp70 and hsp90. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BPA induced a significant increase in the mRNA levels of ER, ERR, and RXR, suggesting that these receptors could be involved in similar pathways or regulation events in the endocrine disruptor activity of this chemical at the molecular level in Gastropoda. Additionally, the hsp70 expression was upregulated after 5 and 72h of BPA exposures, but hsp90 was only upregulated after 5h of BPA exposure. Finally, we assessed the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity after BPA treatment and found that it was affected after 48h. In conclusion, these data provide, for the first time, evidences of molecular effects produced by BPA in the endocrine system of Gastropoda, supporting the potential of ER, ERR and RXR as biomarkers to analyse putative EDCs in ecotoxicological studies. Moreover, our results suggest that P. acuta is an appropriate sentinel organism to evaluate the effect of EDCs in the freshwater environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data reveal cryptic species within cryptic freshwater snail species-The case of theAncylus fluviatilisspecies complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martina; Weigand, Hannah; Weigand, Alexander M; Leese, Florian

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcoding utilizes short standardized DNA sequences to identify species and is increasingly used in biodiversity assessments. The technique has unveiled an unforeseeably high number of morphologically cryptic species. However, if speciation has occurred relatively recently and rapidly, the use of single gene markers, and especially the exclusive use of mitochondrial markers, will presumably fail in delimitating species. Therefore, the true number of biological species might be even higher. One mechanism that can result in rapid speciation is hybridization of different species in combination with polyploidization, that is, allopolyploid speciation. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of the polyploid freshwater snail Ancylus fluviatilis , for which allopolyploidization was postulated as a speciation mechanism. DNA barcoding has already revealed four cryptic species within A. fluviatilis (i.e., A. fluviatilis s. str., Ancylus sp. A-C), but early allozyme data even hint at the presence of additional cryptic lineages in Central Europe. We combined COI sequencing with high-resolution genome-wide SNP data (ddRAD data) to analyze the genetic structure of A. fluviatilis populations in a Central German low mountain range (Sauerland). The ddRAD data results indicate the presence of three cryptic species within A. fluviatilis s. str. occurring in sympatry and even syntopy, whereas mitochondrial sequence data only support the existence of one species, with shared haplotypes between species. Our study hence points to the limitations of DNA barcoding when dealing with organismal groups where speciation is assumed to have occurred rapidly, for example, through the process of allopolyploidization. We therefore emphasize that single marker DNA barcoding can underestimate the true species diversity and argue in strong favor of using genome-wide data for species delimitation in such groups.

  13. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Tasha L.; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Romer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO3 and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO3. Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (kuw, l g-1 d-1 ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  14. Gastrópodes límnicos do Campus de Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Freshwater snails of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento da malacofauna límnina do Campus de Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado nos últimos dois anos visando comparar as espécies hoje existentes com aquelas encontradas no início deste século. Foram pesquisadas 18 coleções hídricas numa extensão de 880.000m², sendo encontradas em 13 delas as seguintes espécies: Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria straminea, Lymnaea columella, Melanoides tuberculatus, Physa cubensis, Pomacea glauca e Pomacea lineata. Destacam-se o desaparecimento de Biomphalaria tenagophila, registrada por Lutz em 1918, a introdução de B. straminea e da espécie asiática M. tuberculatus. Nenhum molusco apresentou infecção por Schistosoma mansoni.A survey of freshwater gastropods of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out during the last two years aiming to compare the current species with those found at the beginning of this century. Among 18 breeding sites in 880,000m² of the surveyed area, 13 showed the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria straminea; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa cubensis; Pomacea glauca and Pomacea lineata. Notably, Biomphalaria tenagophila reported by Lutz in 1918, had disappeared and B. straminea and the Asiatic thiarid M. tuberculatus had been introduced. No specimens infected with Schistosoma mansoni were found.

  15. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society

  16. Variation in worm assemblages associated with Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) in sites near the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborenea, C; Brusa, E; Paola, A

    2006-12-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a common gastropod in freshwater habitats from Central and Northern Argentina, extending northwards into the Amazon basin. Several Platyhelminthes have been reported associated to P. canaliculata, sharing an intimate relationship with this gastropod host. The objectives of this study were to describe the symbiotic species assemblages associated to P. canaliculata in the study area, and to disclose differences among them. Samples were taken in three typical small streams and one artificial lentic lagoon, all connected with the Rio de la Plata estuary. The 81.53% were infested with different symbiotic (sensu lato) species. Among the Platyhelminthes, the commensal Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was highly prevalent in all samples, always in the mantle cavity. Four trematode taxa were recognized: (a) metacercariae of Echinostoma parcespinosum Lutz, 1924 in the mantle cavity and sporocysts in the digestive gland; (b) metacercariae of Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909) in the pericardial cavity; (c) unidentified xiphidiocercariae and (d) unidentified sporocysts and furcocercariae in the digestive gland. Nematode larvae and oligochaetes were found in two localities in the mantle cavity. Among the Annelida, Helobdella ampullariae Ringuelet, 1945 was found in the mantle cavity and lung of snails only from one locality. Our results show that although some of the symbionts are present in all localities, others are restricted to some particular ones, whether in their absolute numbers or in their relative abundance. Thus, each hosting population at the studied localities may be defined by the particular combination of symbionts that bears.

  17. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

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    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  18. [Development of PCR assay for detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Liu, He-xiang; Lv, Shan; Li, Li-sha; Lin, Jin-xiang; Li, You-song

    2006-10-01

    To establish a PCR assay for detecting the third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata. Polymerase chain reaction primers were designed by the software Lasergene, based on the specific cDNA of the third-stage larvae of A.cantonensis in Genbank. The total RNA was prepared from the third-stage larvae of A.cantonensis and of the snails by TRIzol one-step protocol. Amplification by RT-PCR was carried out following the kit protocol. RT-PCR assay revealed a clear differentiation between infected and negative snails. When a mixture of the total RNA from the negative snails and the third-stage larvae of A.cantonensis was tested by the PCR assay, the detectable level was 128 pg RNA, a concentration close to one third-stage larva of A.cantonensis, minimum concentration that could be found by naked eyes. The minimum detected total RNA concentration of the third-stage larvae of A.cantonensis was 105 pg by PCR assay. A PCR assay has been developed for detecting A.cantonensis larva in Pomacea canaliculata.

  19. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Tong, QunBo; Zhang, Yi; Lou, Di; Kong, QingMing; Lv, Shan; Zhuo, MingMing; Wen, LiYong; Lu, ShaoHong

    2011-10-25

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs) harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3). However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1) in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  1. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  2. Influence of hardness on the bioavailability of silver to a freshwater snail after waterborne exposure to silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Tasha; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Römer, Isabella; Tejamaya, Mila; Lead, Jamie R; Luoma, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The release of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the aquatic environment is likely, but the influence of water chemistry on their impacts and fate remains unclear. Here, we characterize the bioavailability of Ag from AgNO(3) and from AgNPs capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP AgNP) and thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG AgNP) in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, after short waterborne exposures. Results showed that water hardness, AgNP capping agents, and metal speciation affected the uptake rate of Ag from AgNPs. Comparison of the results from organisms of similar weight showed that water hardness affected the uptake of Ag from AgNPs, but not that from AgNO(3). Transformation (dissolution and aggregation) of the AgNPs was also influenced by water hardness and the capping agent. Bioavailability of Ag from AgNPs was, in turn, correlated to these physical changes. Water hardness increased the aggregation of AgNPs, especially for PEG AgNPs, reducing the bioavailability of Ag from PEG AgNPs to a greater degree than from PVP AgNPs. Higher dissolved Ag concentrations were measured for the PVP AgNPs (15%) compared to PEG AgNPs (3%) in moderately hard water, enhancing Ag bioavailability of the former. Multiple drivers of bioavailability yielded differences in Ag influx between very hard and deionized water where the uptake rate constants (k(uw), l g(-1) d(-1) ± SE) varied from 3.1 ± 0.7 to 0.2 ± 0.01 for PEG AgNPs and from 2.3 ± 0.02 to 1.3 ± 0.01 for PVP AgNPs. Modeling bioavailability of Ag from NPs revealed that Ag influx into L. stagnalis comprised uptake from the NPs themselves and from newly dissolved Ag.

  3. Effects of sediment-associated CuO nanoparticles on Cu bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Taowu; Gong, Shuangjiao; Tian, Bin

    2017-02-15

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) may pose high ecological risks to aquatic ecosystems. While sediments are the final destinations for CuO-NPs, little is known about the potential ecotoxicity of sediment-associated CuO-NPs on freshwater deposit-feeding macroinvertebrates. The gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa was chosen as an ecotoxicological test species. Adult snails were exposed to Cu (180μg/g dry weight (DW)) added to sediments in the form of CuO-NPs, CuO microparticles (CuO-MPs, size control), and CuSO 4 (solubility control) for 7, 14, and 28days, Cu burdens in different tissues and biomarkers of oxidative stress were determined to understand Cu accumulation differences among tissues, potential mechanisms of Cu uptake, time-effect relationships, particle size effects, and the relative contribution of toxicity from CuO-NPs and its soluble Cu ions. There was no difference in Cu ion concentrations in porewaters between the CuO-NPs and CuO-MPs treatments. In addition, relatively low Cu ion concentrations in porewater might indicate their remarkably low solubility. The hepatopancreas and gonad of B. aeruginosa are the primary target tissues for Cu accumulation. Cu accumulation in the hepatopancreas and gonad from CuSO 4 treatments was consistently higher than that from the CuO-NPs and CuO-MPs treatments. After long-term exposure, Cu accumulation was higher from CuO-NPs than from CuO-MPs, especially, the Cu accumulation rate from CuO-NPs was greater than that from CuSO 4 . Short-term exposure to the three Cu forms caused oxidative stress to the hepatopancreas. CuO-MPs did not cause oxidative damage. Long-term exposure to CuO-NPs and CuSO 4 resulted in oxidative damage. Overall, prolonged exposure to CuO-NPs will increase the ecotoxicity risk to B. aeruginosa. Although there was no difference in Cu accumulation between the CuO-NPs and CuO-MPs treatments after 14days of exposure, pronounced oxidative damage was caused by exposure to CuO-NPs but not to Cu

  4. [Gender differences of Pomacea canaliculata in cold tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Guo, Jing; Xu, Wu-Bing; Zhang, Jia-En; Zhao, Ben-Liang; Luo, Ming-Zhu

    2014-06-01

    In order to understand whether Pomacea canaliculata exhibits gender differences in cold resistance, the survival rate and supercooling point of both P. canaliculata females and males were investigated at low temperature. The changes in physiological and biochemical indices in the body of P. canaliculata before and after the winter were also examined. The results showed that the mean supercooling point of females was -6.83 degrees C, which was significantly lower than that of the males (-6.26 degrees C). With the arrival of winter, the amounts of bound water, glycerol, lipid and glycogen of P. canaliculata increased, while the amount of free water decreased. These indices except glycerol showed significant differences between males and females. More than 90% non-acclimated snails could survive at the temperature of 10 degrees C for 7 days. The survival rate of snails exhibited significant differences in sex and shell height after being transferred at 5 degrees C for 7 days. In addition, more females were recorded during field investigation. Based on these results, we concluded that the females had higher cold tolerance than the males. This finding would provide some references for further investigation of ecological adaptation, natural sex ratio and cold tolerance mechanisms of P. canaliculata.

  5. Dynamics of freshwater snails and Schistosoma infection prevalence in schoolchildren during the construction and operation of a multipurpose dam in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, Nana R; Winkler, Mirko S; Coulibaly, Jean T; Guindo-Coulibaly, Négnorogo; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2017-05-04

    The construction and operation of small multipurpose dams in Africa have a history of altering the transmission of water-based diseases, including schistosomiasis. The current study was designed to investigate the abundance and dynamics of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails and Schistosoma infections in humans during the construction and the first years of operation of a small multipurpose dam in Côte d'Ivoire. The study was carried out in Raffierkro and four neighbouring villages in central Côte d'Ivoire between 2007 and 2012. Snails were collected by two experienced investigators using scoops and forceps for 15 min at each site. Snails were identified at genera and, whenever possible, species level, and subjected to testing for cercarial shedding. Schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were examined once every year for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection, using urine filtration and duplication Kato-Katz thick smears, respectively. Additionally, 551 adults were examined for Schistosoma infection before (June 2007) and 359 individuals 2 years after dam construction (June 2009). Overall, 1 700 snails belonging to nine different genera were collected from 19 sampling sites. Bulinus (potential intermediate host snails of S. haematobium) and Pila were the most common genera, whereas Biomphalaria (potential intermediate host snail of S. mansoni), Lymnaea, Physa and Melanoides were found in two villages. During the first-year sampling period, 65 snails were collected, of which 13 (20%) were schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. In subsequent years, out of 1 635 snails collected, 1 079 (66%) were identified as potential intermediate host for schistosomiasis, but none were shedding cercariae. The prevalence of S. mansoni among adults in the study area was low (0.4% in 2007 and 0.3% in 2009), whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium declined from 13.9% to 2.9% in this two-year period. The low prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans and the absence of infected

  6. An integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of perivitelline fluid proteins in a freshwater gastropod laying aerial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Heras, Horacio; Chu, Ka Hou; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-02-23

    Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata, a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others. Comparison of gene expression levels between tissues showed that 22 PVF genes were exclusively expressed in albumen gland, the female organ that secretes PVF. Base substitution analysis of PVF and housekeeping genes between P. maculata and its closely related species Pomacea canaliculata showed that the reproductive proteins had a higher mean evolutionary rate. Predicted 3D structures of selected PVF proteins showed that some nonsynonymous substitutions are located at or near the binding regions that may affect protein function. The proteome and sequence divergence analysis revealed a substantial amount of maternal investment in embryonic nutrition and defense, and higher adaptive selective pressure on PVF protein-coding genes when compared with housekeeping genes, providing insight into the adaptations associated with the unusual reproductive strategy in these mollusks. There has been great interest in studying reproduction-related proteins as such studies may not only answer fundamental questions about speciation and evolution, but also solve practical problems of animal infertility and pest outbreak. Our study has demonstrated the effectiveness of an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach in understanding the heavy maternal investment of proteins in the eggs of a non-model snail, and how the reproductive proteins may have evolved during the transition from laying underwater eggs

  7. DAYA MAKAN, DIAPAUSE DAN MOBILITAS KEONG MAS (POMACEA CANALICULATA PADA BERBAGAI KEDALAMAN AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqualine Arriani Bunga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding rate, aestivation and mobility of golden snails (Pomacea canaliculata at different depths of water. The research was studied in Malaka District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, during the dry and the rainy season (October 2014 - March 2015. Studies on capacity of damage to the Ciherang rice seedlings were carried out for three weeks. The size of snails used in this experiment was 11-20; 21-30; and 31-40 mm. The numbers of seedlings that were planted were 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 seeds. The treatments were repeated 5 times. The numbers of seeds which are damaged by the snails then were tabulated and analyzed. Snails with the size of 11-20 mm damaged the seeds in 31.67%, followed by snails with the size of 21-30 mm and 31- 40 mm with potency of damaging were 64.76% and 97.38%, respectively. The size of snails affects the level of damage to rice seedlings when transplanting. Study about aestivation was conducted in five villages, namely Kamanasa, Wehali, Umakatahan, Harekakae and Kletek when the rice fields were fallow. The observation point was observed at the corner of the dike and along the dike, evaluated every 10 meters away. The results showed snails aestivate when the fields were dry. Studies on snail’s mobility conducted on the experiment arena on the mud in buckets, which planted with 20 paddy seedlings. The treatment depth of puddles in the experiment were without puddles, half, the same height and twice the height of snails shell. The treatments were repeated 10 times. Measurement of snail’s mobility was performed routinely every 2 hours, observed from the beginning when the snails were placed for 24 hours in advance. The results showed that the depth of the water significantly affected the mobility of snails. Without puddles, the mobility of snails was severely hampered in the mud. The mobility of the juvenile was significantly higher than the imago. The implication of this study was benefit to that the regulating the level

  8. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  9. A snail with unbiased population sex ratios but highly biased brood sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Yoichi; Suzuki, Yoshito

    2003-01-01

    Extraordinary sex ratio patterns and the underlying sex-determining mechanisms in various organisms are worth investigating, particularly because they shed light on adaptive sex-ratio adjustment. Here, we report an extremely large variation in the brood sex ratio in the freshwater snail, Pomacea canaliculata. In eight rearing series originating from three wild populations, sex ratios were highly variable among broods, ranging continuously from almost exclusively males to almost exclusively females. However, sex ratios were similar between broods from the same mating pair, indicating that sex ratio is a family trait. Irrespective of the large variations, the average sex ratios in all rearing series were not significantly different from 0.5. We argue that Fisher's adaptive sex-ratio theory can explain the equal average sex ratios, and the results, in turn, directly support Fisher's theory. Polyfactorial sex determination (in which sex is determined by three or more genetic factors) is suggested as the most likely mechanism producing the variable brood sex ratio. PMID:12614578

  10. Comparative proteomics and codon substitution analysis reveal mechanisms of differential resistance to hypoxia in congeneric snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Cheung, Siu Gin; Fang, Ling; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang; Zhang, Huoming; Wong, Chris K C; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2018-02-10

    Although high-throughput proteomics has been widely applied to study mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the conclusions from studies that are based on one species can be confounded by phylogeny. We compare the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (a notorious invasive species) and its congener Pomacea diffusa (a non-invasive species) to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differential resistance to hypoxia. A 72-h acute exposure experiment showed that P. canaliculata is more tolerant to hypoxia than P. diffusa. The two species were then exposed to three levels of dissolved oxygen (6.7, 2.0 and 1.0mgL -1 ) for 8h, and their gill proteins were analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS. The two species showed striking differences in protein expression profiles, with the more hypoxia tolerant P. canaliculata having more up-regulated proteins in signal transduction and down-regulated proteins in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evolutionary analysis revealed five orthologous genes encoding differentially expressed proteins having clear signal of positive selection, indicating selection has acted on some of the hypoxia responsive genes. Our case study has highlighted the potential of integrated proteomics and comparative evolutionary analysis for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to global environmental change in non-model species. Rapid globalization in recent decades has greatly facilitated species introduction around the world. Successfully established introduced species, so-called invasive species, have threatened the invaded ecosystems. There has been substantial interest in studying how invasive species respond to extreme environmental conditions because the results can help not only predict their range of expansion and manage their impact, but also may reveal the adaptive mechanisms underlying their invasiveness. Our study has adopted a comparative approach to study the differential physiological and proteomic responses of two

  11. Comparative proteomics and codon substitution analysis reveal mechanisms of differential resistance to hypoxia in congeneric snails

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Huawei

    2017-11-06

    Although high-throughput proteomics has been widely applied to study mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the conclusions from studies that are based on one species can be confounded by phylogeny. We compare the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (a notorious invasive species) and its congener Pomacea diffusa (a non-invasive species) to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differential resistance to hypoxia. A 72-h acute exposure experiment showed that P. canaliculata is more tolerant to hypoxia than P. diffusa. The two species were then exposed to three levels of dissolved oxygen (6.7, 2.0 and 1.0mgL−1) for 8h, and their gill proteins were analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS. The two species showed striking differences in protein expression profiles, with the more hypoxia tolerant P. canaliculata having more up-regulated proteins in signal transduction and down-regulated proteins in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evolutionary analysis revealed five orthologous genes encoding differentially expressed proteins having clear signal of positive selection, indicating selection has acted on some of the hypoxia responsive genes. Our case study has highlighted the potential of integrated proteomics and comparative evolutionary analysis for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to global environmental change in non-model species. SignificanceRapid globalization in recent decades has greatly facilitated species introduction around the world. Successfully established introduced species, so-called invasive species, have threatened the invaded ecosystems. There has been substantial interest in studying how invasive species respond to extreme environmental conditions because the results can help not only predict their range of expansion and manage their impact, but also may reveal the adaptive mechanisms underlying their invasiveness. Our study has adopted a comparative approach to study the differential physiological and proteomic

  12. Snail Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

  13. Species diversity of Plagiorchis Luhe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval trematodes digenea * partial lsrDNA sequences * great pond snail * maximum-likelihood * Lymnea stagnalis * life -cycle * platyhelminthes * differentiation * omphalometridae * phylogenies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  14. Assessment of mercury toxicity by the changes in oxygen consumption and ion levels in the freshwater snail, Pila globosa, and the mussel, Lamellidens marginalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, B.; Radhakrishnaiah, K.; Suresh, A. (Sri Krishnadevaraya Univ., Andhra Pradesh (India))

    1991-06-01

    There are many studies on mercury toxicity in freshwater fishes but very few on freshwater molluscs (Wright 1978) though they serve as bio-indicators of metal pollution. A few reports on marine gastropods and bivalves indicated the importance of these animals in metal toxicity studies. Hence, in the present study, the level of tolerance of the freshwater gastropod Pila globosa and of a freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis mercury at lethal and sublethal levels was determined and compared with the rate of whole animal oxygen consumption and the level of sodium, potassium and calcium ions in the hepatopancreas and the foot of these animals. As the period of exposure is one of the important factors in toxicity studies, the level of tolerance was determined at 120 hours of exposure and the other parameters were analyzed at 1, 3 and 5 days in lethal and at 1, 7 and 15 days in sublethal concentrations.

  15. Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: Eexample of the snail kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattau, Christopher E.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite acknowledging that exotic species can exhibit tremendous influence over native populations, few case studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of exotic prey species on native predators. We examined the effects of the recently introduced island apple snail (Pomacea insularum) on the foraging behavior and energetics of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. We conducted time-activity budgets: (i) on kites foraging for native Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) in major wetland units within the kites' range that had not been invaded by the exotic island apple snail and (ii) on kites foraging for exotic apple snails in Lake Tohopekaliga, the only major wetland utilized by the snail kite that had suffered a serious invasion of P. insularum. When foraging for P. insularum, snail kites dropped a greater proportion of snails, and they experienced increased handling times and decreased consumption rates; however, kites foraging for P. insularum also spent a smaller proportion of the day in flight. Estimates of net daily energy balances between kites feeding on P. insularum versus P. paludosa were comparable for adults, but juveniles experienced energetic deficiencies when feeding on the exotic snail. Due to this discrepancy, we hypothesize that wetlands invaded by P. insularum, such as Lake Tohopekaliga, may function as ecological traps for the snail kite in Florida by attracting breeding adults but simultaneously depressing juvenile survival. This study highlights the conservation implications and importance of elucidating the effects that exotic species have on native specialists, especially those that are endangered, because subtle influences on behavior may have significant population consequences. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: example of the snail kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattau, Christopher E.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite acknowledging that exotic species can exhibit tremendous influence over native populations, few case studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of exotic prey species on native predators. We examined the effects of the recently introduced island apple snail (Pomacea insularum) on the foraging behavior and energetics of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. We conducted time-activity budgets: (i) on kites foraging for native Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) in major wetland units within the kites' range that had not been invaded by the exotic island apple snail and (ii) on kites foraging for exotic apple snails in Lake Tohopekaliga, the only major wetland utilized by the snail kite that had suffered a serious invasion of P. insularum. When foraging for P. insularum, snail kites dropped a greater proportion of snails, and they experienced increased handling times and decreased consumption rates; however, kites foraging for P. insularum also spent a smaller proportion of the day in flight. Estimates of net daily energy balances between kites feeding on P. insularum versus P. paludosa were comparable for adults, but juveniles experienced energetic deficiencies when feeding on the exotic snail. Due to this discrepancy, we hypothesize that wetlands invaded by P. insularum, such as Lake Tohopekaliga, may function as ecological traps for the snail kite in Florida by attracting breeding adults but simultaneously depressing juvenile survival. This study highlights the conservation implications and importance of elucidating the effects that exotic species have on native specialists, especially those that are endangered, because subtle influences on behavior may have significant population consequences.

  17. Studies on acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck) with special reference to behavioral and hematological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Kishore; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Maiti, Arpan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Molluscs have long been regarded as promising bioindicator and biomonitoring subjects for heavy metals as molluscs are highly tolerant to heavy metals and exhibit high accumulation in their body. In spite of several previous studies about the impact of cadmium on molluscs, little information exists in literatures concerning the toxic effects of cadmium on Lymnaea acuminata, especially pertaining to behavioral and hematological changes as these are considered effective bioindicators and biomonitoring variables for detecting heavy metals in polluted water bodies. In the present study, the median lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride to snail, Lymnaea acuminata, were estimated to be 9.66, 7.69, 6.26, and 5.54 mg/L at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. For behavioral studies, variable test concentrations of cadmium from 0.00 to 10 mg/L were used. The clumping tendency, crawling activity, and touch reflex in the exposed snails were gradually decreased with higher concentrations at 72 and 96 h. For measuring the hemocyte numbers in the circulating hemolymph of snail during chronic cadmium exposure, two sublethal doses of cadmium (10 and 20% 96-h LC 50 -0.55 and 1.11 mg/L, respectively) were used. A significant variation (p < 0.05) from the control at all exposure times (7, 14, 21, and 28 days) was recorded at 1.11 mg/L concentration. The total count of circulating hemocytes was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to the controls at both concentrations of cadmium exposure at all time periods except 14 and 21 days exposure at 0.55 mg/L where values were non-significantly increased. In comparison between two sublethal doses, blood cells were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered at 1.11 mg/L cadmium treatment. Considering the behavioral and hematological data, it seems possible to forecast the physiological state of snails in cadmium-contaminated water bodies and these findings can be used in determining the safe disposal level of cadmium in aquatic

  18. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being g...

  19. [Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fu-Rong; Liu, He-Xiang; Lv, Shan; Hu, Ling; Zhang, Yi

    2010-10-30

    To establish a multiplex PCR assay for detecting Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in Pomacea canaliculata. A pair of specific primers was designed based on the sequences of the small subunit rDNA of A. cantonensis (GenBank jAY295804), in combination with 16s rDNA specific primers of P. canaliculata, a multiplex PCR was developed. The PCR was performed on positive and negative snails, and the amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. DNA template of 200 III stage larvae of A. cantonensis was diluted by negative snail DNA (1200 ng/microl, 120 ng/microl, 12 ng/microl, 1200 pg/microl, 120 pg/microl and 12 pg/microl), to find the minimum detectable level. Single blind method was used to evaluate the accuracy. After being detected by lung microscopy, 172 snails from field were tested by the multiplex PCR to assess the sensitivity and specificity. Agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing analysis indicated that the target sequences were efficiently amplified by the PCR assay (550 bp for P. canaliculata, 405 bp for A. cantonensis). The minimum detectable level was 120 pg/microl. The coincidence between the two methods stood for 84.3% (145/172), including 45 positives and 100 negatives. 24 snails were PCR positive and microscopy negative, 3 snails were PCR negative and microscopy positive. The sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was 93.8% and 80.6%, respectively. Its positive rate (40.1%, 69/172) was significant higher than that of lung-microscopy (27.9%, 48/172)(chi2 = 14.8, P < 0.01). A multiplex PCR method has been developed for the detection of A. cantonensis larvae in P. canaliculata.

  20. Active saponins from root of Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth. and their molluscicidal effects on Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChunPing; Zhang, Min; Lei, Bo; Gong, GuoShu; Yue, GuiZhou; Chang, XiaoLi; Sun, XiaoFang; Tian, Yue; Chen, HuaBao

    2017-06-01

    Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata; the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis. Our results showed that the molluscicidal activity of the root crude extract differed between P. canaliculata with different shell diameters after treatment for 72 h. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) was 5.511 mg L -1 against snails of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter and 12.383 mg L -1 against snails of 2.5 ± 0.2 cm diameter. Furthermore, two active ingredients isolated from root methanol extracts were identified as pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C. Both pedunsaponin A and pedunsaponin C showed strong molluscicidal activities, with LC 50 values of 3.893 and 4.252 mg L -1 , respectively, against snails with shell diameters of 1.5 ± 0.2 cm after treatment for 72 h. Pueraria peduncularis extracts exhibit high molluscicidal activity and have great potential value for exploring a molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Molecular identification of Pomacea canaliculata and P. insularum from rice paddy in different origins in China using mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qing-Qing; Li, Xiao-Yan; Fang, Yan-Qin; Jia, Yan-Qing; Mu, Xi-Dong

    2015-02-01

    To identify Pomacea canaliculata and P. insularum using a molecular approach, the partial sequences of mitochondrial (mt) adenosine triphosphate subunit 6 (patp6) genes of two apple snails species from eight provinces of China were obtained. The intra-specific variations in mt patp6 within P. canaliculata were 0-4.5%, and no sequence difference in this region was observed within P. insularum. However, high inter-specific variations between P. canaliculata and P. insularum were detected, with sequence differences of 8.9-10.1%. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of mt patp6 revealed that P. canaliculata and P. insularum were grouped in different clades, but the genetic trees could not reveal geographically genetic relationships of P. canaliculata isolates from different origins. These findings will provide basic information for further study of molecular epidemiology and control of Pomacea invasion in China as well as in the world.

  2. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Wang, Hao; Heras, Horacio; Dreon, Marcos S; Ituarte, Santiago; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n=34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition.

  4. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  5. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Timothy A; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H; Collins, Timothy M

    2007-01-01

    Background Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails. Results Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona), Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia) and Pomacea haustrum (Florida). The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north. Conclusion The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a monophyletic group. Clarifying

  6. The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Kenneth A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with examination of introduced populations and museum collections to clarify the identities, introduced distributions, geographical origins, and introduction histories of apple snails. Results Based on sampling to date, we conclude there are five species of non-native apple snails in the continental U.S. Most significantly, we recognize three species within what has been called the channeled apple snail: Pomacea canaliculata (California and Arizona, Pomacea insularum, (Florida, Texas, and Georgia and Pomacea haustrum (Florida. The first established populations of P. haustrum were discovered in the late 1970s in Palm Beach County Florida, and have not spread appreciably in 30 years. In contrast, populations of P. insularum were established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s, and in Georgia by 2005, and this species continues to spread rapidly. Most introduced P. insularum haplotypes are a close match to haplotypes from the Río Uruguay near Buenos Aires, indicating cold tolerance, with the potential to spread from Florida, Georgia, and Texas through Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Pomacea canaliculata populations were first discovered in California in 1997. Haplotypes of introduced P. canaliculata match native-range haplotypes from near Buenos Aires, Argentina, also indicating cold tolerance and the potential to establish farther north. Conclusion The term "channeled apple snail" is descriptive of a morphology found in many apple snail species. It does not identify a single species or a

  7. [A comparative study of three methods in detecting Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae in lung tissue of Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan; Zhu, Dan; Ang, Xian-Hong; Hu, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2007-02-28

    To compare the efficiency of three methods, lung-microscopy, tissue homogenate and enzyme digestion in the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae from the lungs of snails. 60 Pomacea canalicular infected by the first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were divided into 2 groups and the lung of each snail from the two groups was separated from the soft body. All the lungs were examined under microscope and larval nodes were counted. Each lung from one group was ground and that from the other was artificially digested by enzyme, the number of larvae in each lung was recorded. The efficiency of three methods was compared. Enzyme digestion was also used to estimate number of larvae in lung and in other body parts. By using enzyme digestion as the standard method, the detection rate of lung-microscopy, tissue homogenate and enzyme digestion was 96.7%, 93.4% and 100% respectively (chi2=2.069, P>0.05), while the lung-microscopy was significantly faster (Z=4.782, P<0.01). The number of larvae in snail lung was positively correlated with that in other part (r=0.847, P<0.01). The lung-microscopy in larvae detection is similarly efficient to the other two methods but faster, which is therefore more suitable for snail screening in the field.

  8. A prokineticin-like protein responds to immune challenges in the gastropod pest Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Alice; Benatti, Stefania; Ross, Eric; Nasi, Milena; Malagoli, Davide

    2017-07-01

    The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive pest originating from South America. It has already been found in Asia, the southern United States and more recently in the EU. Aiming to target the immune system of the snail as a way to control its spreading, we have developed organ-specific transcriptomes and looked for molecules controlling replication and differentiation of snail hemocytes. The prokineticin domain-containing protein Astakine 1 is the only cytokine known thus far capable of regulating invertebrate hematopoiesis, and we analyzed the transcriptomes looking for molecules containing a prokineticin domain. We have identified a prokineticin-like protein (PlP), that we called Pc-plp and we analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) its expression. In control snails, highest levels of Pc-plp were detected in the digestive gland, the ampulla (i.e., a hemocyte reservoir) and the pericardial fluid (i.e., the hematopoietic district). We tested Pc-plp expression after triggering hematopoiesis via multiple hemolymph withdrawals, or during bacterial challenge through LPS injection. In both cases a reduction of Pc-plp mRNA was observed. The multiple hemolymph withdrawals caused a significant decrease of Pc-plp mRNA in pericardial fluid and circulating hemocytes, while the LPS injection promoted the Pc-plp mRNA drop in anterior kidney, mantle and gills, organs that may act as immune barrier in molluscs. Our data indicate an important role for prokineticin domain-containing proteins as immunomodulators also in gastropods and their dynamic expression may serve as a biosensor to gauge the effectiveness of immunological interventions aimed at curtailing the spreading of the gastropod pest P. canaliculata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  10. [Morphology of III stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang

    2008-06-30

    To observe the morphologic characteristics of III stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis from Pomacea canaliculata. P. canaliculata, the intermediate host snail of A. cantonensis, was infected with I stage larvae of A. cantonensis in laboratory. After 61 days, III stage larvae of A. cantonensis were harvested from snail's lungs and muscle of head-foot, followed by HE stain to observe morphological characteristics. The whole body of III stage larva was curling with obtuse head. Its pharyngeal canal extends from the buccal hole on the top of the head to the intestines at the pharyngeal intestine joint place, with apex cauda and clear anal tube. The tegument of the III stage larva was eosin-stained, with a transparent sheath outside of tegument. Some of the larvae cauda showed in circular cylinder, and some larvae presented ventral gland with two very short uterine which used to be the feature only showed in early IV stage larva. Morphologically characteristics of the III stage larvae is helpful to better understand the life-cycle and the control of A. cantonensis.

  11. Utilization Of Golden Snail As Alternative Liquid Organic Fertilizer LOF On Paddy Farmers In Dairi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Golden snail Pomaceae canaliculata is a pest of rice plants and used as a food source to be processed into satay seasoning spices biscuits pastry candy crackers animal feed and fertilizer. In Lae Parira village the golden snail is very diverse. Because of this reason the preliminary study and utilization of golden snail used for of liquid organic fertilizer called LOF or and microorganisms local MOL. The golden snail is obtained from a livestock that is still alive and then washed boiled and removed from its shell. The golden snail meat is cut into small pieces separated from the intestine and other visceral organs. Flesh of golden snail give coconut water dilute brown sugar EM4 and fermentation until 10-14 days. The use of mashed LOF can be sprayed on the surface of the soil or all parts of the plant. For fertilization in rice plants the recommended dose of 250 ml15 liters of water is sprayed on the rice age 10 days after planting and repeated again at interval distance of 15 days. Fertilization on the plant recommended 200ml 15 liters of water sprayed on leaves and soil 7 days after planting and repeated every 7 days. The golden snail is potensial used for fertilizer in paddy plantation environmentally.

  12. Comparative profiling of hepatopancreas transcriptomes in satiated and starving Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Tian-Yin; Zhao, Fei-Yan

    2017-02-22

    Although Pomacea canaliculata is native to South and Central America, it has become one of the most abundant invasive species worldwide and causes extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. Conventional physical and chemical techniques have been used to eliminate P. canaliculata, but the effects are not ideal. Therefore, it is important to devise a new method based on a greater understanding of the biology of P. canaliculata. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying digestion and absorption in P. canaliculata are not well understood due to the lack of available genomic information for this species, particularly for digestive enzyme genes. In the present study, hepatopancreas transcriptome sequencing produced over 223 million high-quality reads, and a global de novo assembly generated a total of 87,766 unique transcripts (unigenes), of which 19,942 (22.7%) had significant similarities to proteins in the UniProt database. In addition, 296,675 annotated sequences were associated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment was performed for the unique unigenes, and 262 pathways (p-value < 10 -5 ) in P. canaliculata were found to be predominantly related to plant consumption and coarse fiber digestion and absorption. These transcripts were classified into four large categories: hydrolase, transferase, isomerase and cytochrome P450. The Reads Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis showed that there were 523 down-regulated unigenes and 406 up-regulated unigenes in the starving apple snails compared with the satiated apple snails. Several important genes are associated with digestion and absorption in plants: endo-beta-1, 4-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, cellulase EGX1, cellulase EGX3 and G-type lysozyme genes were identified. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that the expression patterns of these genes (except for the longipain gene) were consistent with the RNA-Seq results

  13. Molecular insights into land snail neuropeptides through transcriptome and comparative gene analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Kevin J; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Bell, Francesca; Kuballa, Anna V; Storey, Kenneth B; Cummins, Scott F

    2015-01-01

    Background Snails belong to the molluscan class Gastropoda, which inhabit land, freshwater and marine environments. Several land snail species, including Theba pisana, are crop pests of major concern, causing extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. A deeper understanding of their molecular biology is necessary in order to develop methods to manipulate land snail populations. Results The present study used in silico gene data mining of T. pisana tissue transcriptomes to predict 24,92...

  14. Ecological survey of freshwater ecosystems of Ovia, Edo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey for freshwater snails in streams, rivers and a lake in Ovia Southwest LGA of Edo State, Nigeria was carried out from June to November, 2013. Samples were collected by using sweep-net and by hand picking of snails within the open water habitat, at marginal areas and on submerged vegetation at edges of the ...

  15. [Population genetics of Pomacea spp. in mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Li, Shi-Zhu; Hu, Wei; Jürg, Utzinger; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-04-01

    To reveal the population structure of Pomacea spp. using genetic markers so as to provide the evidence for studying the invasion and expansion of it in the mainland of China. The genetics of 581 specimens of Pomacea spp. from 60 sites was analyzed by sequencing CO I gene. The diversity of nucleotide and haplotypes were calculated in DnaSP 5.10.01. The haplotype network analysis was performed in Network 4.2.0.1. A phylogenetic tree was produced based on the haplotypes from the present study and those available from GenBank in order to understand the taxonomic status of Pomacea spp. in China. A total of 556 sequences were acquired in the present study and produced 25 unique haplotypes. Six haplotypes frequently occurred in the specimens and accounted for 96.0%. The phylogenetic analysis identified two Pomacea species in China, i. e. P. canaliculata and P. insularum. The usage of haplotypes of P. insularum in China reversed from the existing pattern in other countries. The complexity of population structure of Pomacea spp. in the mainland of China indicates multi-original introduction and complicated expansion patterns.

  16. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation of Coxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in two species of snails consisted of Lymnaea palustris (L. palustris and Pomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata by using nested PCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods: A total of 160 snail samples consisted of 100 L. palustris and 60 P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails' DNA was extracted by a genomic DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence of C. burnetii's DNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37% samples were found positive for C. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from the L. palustris and there were no positive samples from P. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also, C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  17. UJI APLIKASI EKSTRAK KASAR BUAH PINANG, AKAR TUBA, PATAH TULANG, DAN DAUN NIMBA TERHADAP KEONG EMAS (POMACEA SP. DI RUMAH KACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Wibowo, Indriyati, dan Solikhin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Application test of crude extracts of pinang  fruit, tuba root, patah tulang, and neem leaf  on golden apple snail (Pomacea sp. in green house.  This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of four botanical crude extracts namely Areca catechu, Derris eliptica, Euphorbia tirucalli and Azadirachta indica on golden apple snails under green house condition.  All experiment units were arranged in randomized completely design consisting of some levels of concentration (titer. The result showed that low concentration of the crude extract of A. catechu fruit (0,5 g/l and crude extracts of D. elliptica root (1 g/l  were very toxic, indicated by all snails tested were died. Mortality of snails tested caused by crude extract of  A. indica was 100% at the concentration of  4 g/l, meanwhile crude extract of  E. tirucalli was only 84% at a higher concentration of crude extract (8 g/l occurring 96 hours after application.

  18. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H. KYLE, Alexis W. KROPF, Romi L. BURKS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While difficult to prevent introductions, scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic, invasive species. South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread. Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats, female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large, bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects. To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches, we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e. material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial attracted P. insularum females to lay clutches. In our fourth experiment, we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output. To further understand reproductive output, we quantified experimental clutch chara- cteristics (height above water, dimensions, mass, approximate volume, number of eggs, hatching efficiency. Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material, chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures. In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US, Pontederia cordata, snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic, invasive plant (wild taro, Colocasia esculenta. Unexpectedly, smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails. Therefore, hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production. Collectively, our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P. insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5: 630–641, 2011].

  19. [Geographic variations in freshwater molluscs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarskiĭ, M V

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of geographic variation is known in practically all taxa of living beings. However, the reality of this phenomenon in freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) has many times been questioned in the past. It was accepted that these animals do not demonstrate spatially-oriented variation, where specific "local race" is arisen in each specific habitat. Till the beginning of 1970s, there was no statistical evidence that geographic clines in freshwater molluscs really exist. However, a few species of freshwater molluscs has been studied in this respect so far, therefore it is almost impossible to draw any general patterns of geographical variation in this group of animals. Most species of freshwater molluscs studied to the date exhibit statistically significant decrease of their body size in the south-north direction. Perhaps, it may be explained by decrease of the duration of the growth season in high latitudes. Some species of freshwater snails demonstrate clinal changes in shell proportions. This allows to reject subspecies separation within these species since diagnostic characters of such "subspecies" may blur when geographic variation is taken into consideration. The data on geographic variation in anatomical traits in freshwater molluscs is much more scarce. At least one species of pond snails (Lymnaea terebra) demonstrates clinal variation in proportions of the copulative apparatus in the south-north direction. Further studies of geographic variation in freshwater molluscs should reveal whether it is truly adaptive, i.e. whether geographical clines have underlying genetic basis. Otherwise, the clines may arise as a result of direct modifying effect of a habitat.

  20. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  1. The estimation of growth dynamics for Pomacea maculata from hatchling to adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Karyn L.; Zhao, Lihong; Carter, Jacoby

    2017-01-01

    Pomacea maculata is a relatively new invasive species to the Gulf Coast region and potentially threatens local agriculture (rice) and ecosystems (aquatic vegetation). The population dynamics of P. maculata have largely been unquantified, and therefore, scientists and field-workers are ill-equipped to accurately project population sizes and the resulting impact of this species. We studied the growth of P. maculata ranging in weights from 6 to 105 g, identifying the sex of the animals when possible. Our studied population had a 4:9 male:female sex ratio. We present the findings from initial analysis of the individual growth data of males and females, from which it was apparent that females were generally larger than males and that small snails grew faster than larger snails. Since efforts to characterize the male and female growth rates from individual data do not yield statistically supported estimates, we present the estimation of several parameterized growth rate functions within a population-level mathematical model. We provide a comparison of the results using these various growth functions and discuss which best characterizes the dynamics of our observed population. We conclude that both males and females exhibit biphasic growth rates, and thus, their growth is size-dependent. Further, our results suggest that there are notable differences between males and females that are important to take into consideration in order to accurately model this species' population dynamics. Lastly, we include preliminary analyses of ongoing experiments to provide initial estimates of growth in the earliest life stages (hatchling to ≈6 g).

  2. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  3. Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfurt, R. K.; Boland, B. B.; Burks, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up to 8 ppt. Adult feeding on lettuce increased significantly at 8 ppt compared to 0 ppt (p = 0.002), while hatchling consumption of algae did not vary (p = 0.284). To see how these consumers responded to predators from the invaded ecosystem, we tested behavioural responses to predatory cues from fish, turtles, crayfish and adult applesnails. Results indicated that fish and crayfish prompted similar predator-avoidance behaviors in hatchlings (p's 0.05) between native (ramshorn) and exotic applesnails, whereas adult fish consumed more applesnails (x2, p < 0.001). Our current efforts focus on examining if predator presence or macrophyte choice alters applesnail feeding rates. Research providing insight into the basic ecology of applesnails can foster management efforts at the ecosystem scale.

  4. The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2= 12.90, df=1, P=0.0003), often by a factor of two to three. Within wet prairie habitats, we found greater snail densities in Panicum hemitomon as compared to Eleocharis cellulosa (??2=31.45, df=1, P=0.0001). Significantly fewer snails were found in dense E. cellulosa as compared to habitats with lower stem density (??2= 10.73, df=1, P=0.011). Our results indicate that wet prairie habitat supports greater snail densities than nymphaea-dominatd slough. Our results have implications for wetlands water management in that continuous inundation has been shown to convert wet prairie to slough habitat, and we suggest this should be avoided in support of apple snails and their predators. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Models of Snail Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian; Hosoi, Anette

    2003-11-01

    All snails move over a thin layer of mucus using periodic deformations of their muscular foot. This unusual mode of locomotion can be modeled as a thin film of viscous fluid sandwiched between a flexible membrane and a rigid substrate. We present theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of locomotion via viscous stresses generated in thin films. Study of snail locomotion led us to design and construct several mechanical models: RoboSnail 1 which mimics snail locomotion incorrectly, but still proves to be a valid propulsion device over a thin viscous fluid layer and RoboSnail 2 which mimics land snails and uses forward-propagating compression waves on the base of the foot. Experimental results from the prototype machines are compared with long wavelength numerical and theoretical models.

  6. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  7. The snail lemma

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The classical snake lemma produces a six terms exact sequence starting from a commutative square with one of the edge being a regular epimorphism. We establish a new diagram lemma, that we call snail lemma, removing such a condition. We also show that the snail lemma subsumes the snake lemma and we give an interpretation of the snail lemma in terms of strong homotopy kernels. Our results hold in any pointed regular protomodular category.

  8. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small-amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be nonzero for moderate values of the capillary number but vanishes in the limits of high and low capillary number. Physically, this force arises because the snail's foot deforms the free surface, thereby generating curvature pressures and lubrication flows inside the mucus layer that couple to the topography of the foot.

  9. Snail: More than EMT

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yadi; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2010-01-01

    Snail has moved into the fast lane of development and cancer biology with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) emerging as one of the hottest topics in medical science within the past few years. Snail not only acts primarily as a key inducer of EMT but also plays an important role in cell survival, immune regulation and stem cell biology. This review focuses on the regulation of Snail and discusses the EMT-dependent and -independent functions of Snail in development and disease. Unders...

  10. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  11. Contribution of Golden Apple Snail Flour to Enhance Omega- 3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Contents in Weaning Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsyha, D. D.; Wijayanti, H. S.; Nuryanto; Anjani, G.

    2018-02-01

    The case of undernourished children in Grobogan District (15.3%) is caused by children nutrients intake less than the Recommendation Dietary Allowance (RDA). To enhance children nutrients intake, be required formulation of weaning food using high-nutrient local food such as golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). Golden apple snail flour contains high contents of zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. This study aims to analyze the effect of golden apple snail flour substitution on nutrients content and organoleptic properties of weaning food (baby porridge). This is an experimental research by substitution of golden apple snail flour in the making of weaning food with four treatments of substitution (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%). Substitution of golden apple snails flour could affect the nutrient content levels of fat, zinc, iron (p=0.0001), carbohydrate (p=0.011), water (p=0.003), ash (p=0.001), omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Whereas, it could not affect the content of energy (p=0.678), protein (p=0.129) and fiber (p=0.482). Furthermore, the substitution could affect the organoleptic properties include color, texture and taste (p=0.0001) while not for the aroma (p=0.798). Based on nutrient content analysis, substitution of golden apple snail flour could enhance the zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents of weaning food.

  12. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the

  13. Snail Shell Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  14. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  15. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  16. Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper-diquat on apple snails in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Johnson, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The recent decline of apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) populations in canals surrounding Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southern Florida coincided with the use of copper-diquat for the control of the aquatic weed hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Field and laboratory studies were designed to assess the effects of copper-diquat on apple snails, which are the primary food of the endangered snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (formerly known as the Everglade kite). Acute toxicities (96-h LC50 values) of Cutrine-Plus and Komeen (chelated formulations of copper) to immature apple snails were 22 and 24 μg/L, respectively. Diquat was toxic at a concentration of 1,800 μg/L and did not increase the toxicity of copper when the chemicals were used in combination. Evaluation of field samples indicated that copper concentrations were higher in detritus than in water, plants and mud, and that there was a gradient of copper concentration from the canal to the interior, the highest residues being in samples from the canal. Copper associated with detritus (up to 150 μg/g) had no effect on growth or survival of apple snails in field cage and tank studies. Also, field applications of copper-diquat to hydrilla had no effect on survival of caged adult and immature snails. Copper from field applications was rapidly taken out of solution by plants and organic material in the water and subsequently incorporated into the bottom detritus. Although the effects of repeated applications of copper-diquat and high body burdens of copper (accumulated during exposure to herbicidal treatment) on survival and reproduction of apple snails are not known, the information available indicates that treatment of hydrilla with copper-diquat was probably not responsible for the decline in the apple snail population. Application at recommended rates should pose no threat to these snails in the organically rich waters of southern Florida.

  17. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  18. Biological control of snail hosts transmitting schistosomiasis by the water bug, Sphaerodema urinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Aly; El-Sherief, Hanaa; Gawish, Fathia; Mahmoud, Marwa

    2017-04-01

    The water bug, Sphaerodema urinator (Hemiptera : Belostomatidae), shares the same habitat of the freshwater snails in ponds, lakes, and streams. Studies conducted in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, shallow ponds and marches often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect predators. This study has been carried out to evaluate the predatory potential of S. urinator adult on two freshwater snails that serves as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. Laboratory evaluation of predation by S. urinator on these intermediate hosts revealed that the adult bug could kill and consume the two intermediate hosts: Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina. The number of snails consumed differed according to the snail type, size, and density. The times taken for searching and handling times were depending on the snail size, type, and vulnerability of the predator. The predation rate varied also with respect to snail type and density. Prey size is a major factor influencing predator preferences. This study indicated that the predator, S. urinator, may be a suitable bio-control agent in connection with Schistosoma intermediate hosts in the aquatic area.

  19. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  20. Current advances on the study of snail-snail interactions, with special emphasis on competition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rabelo de Freitas

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species.

  1. Carbohydrates and glycoforms of the major egg perivitellins from Pomacea apple snails (Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Pasquevich, M Y; Fernández, P E; Heras, H

    2010-09-01

    To better understand how glycans contribute to the multiple roles of perivitellins in embryo development, the carbohydrate moieties and glycoforms of the carotenoglycoproteins ovorubin and scalarin from the eggs of Pomaceacanaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) and Pomaceascalaris (d'Orbigny, 1835) were studied. All subunits of both proteins are glycosylated and appear to be glycoforms with isoelectric points ranging from approximately 5.3 to approximately 9.1. Complete deglycosylation reduced subunit heterogeneity to spots of similar molecular weight (approximately 27 and approximately 25 kDa in scalarin and ovorubin, respectively) but with varying IP. Serine phosphorylation, present in both perivitellins, explains part of the isoforms. Glycosylation patterns of scalarin were determined using biotinylated lectins, PNGaseF treatment and selective chemical deglycosylation, which revealed the presence of hybrid and oligomannose N-linked glycans in all subunits. Scalarin has terminal sialic acid residues possibly resistant to neuraminidase and O-linked residues derived from the T- and Tn antigens. Ovorubin displayed predominantly the same glycans, though in different amounts. Capillary gas chromatography (GC) showed galactose and mannose as the major monosaccharides followed by GlcNAc and fucose. An interesting feature was the important amount of sialylated and fucosylated structures found in both perivitellins determined by GC, spectroscopy and lectins. This is the first report of these structures in gastropods other than heterobranchs. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (snail repellent paint) on land snails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... environmental pollution during summer when pesticide application rates increase in orchards. X. derbentina ... compared to other pesticides, such as insecticides, seem to overshadow research into their ..... is applied to soil as a pellet that also contains food grade attractants to lure snails and slugs. It is not ...

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

    2008-09-01

    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  4. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  5. Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of freshwater biology particularly freshwater macroinvertebrates and their effect on water pollution, covering publications of 1976-77. A list of 158 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species"; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest "attack rates" a, shortest "handling times" h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach.

  7. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  8. First records of freshwater molluscs from the ecological reserve El Edén, Quintana Roo, México Primeros registros de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén, Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cózatl-Manzano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the freshwater molluscs at El Edén was unknown. This is the first treatment of them, allowing us to compare spatial and temporal species distribution. Eleven species of freshwater molluscs were found in 2 surveys carried in March (dry season and September (rainy season 1998 at the reserve El Edén. A total of 266 individuals were collected; 8 pulmonates, Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis, and Planorbula armigera; 2 prosobranchs, Pyrgophorus sp. and Pomacea flagellata; and one bivalve, Musculium transversum. Pulmonata dominate over Prosobranchia species in diversity. No significant differences were observed in diversity between dry and rainy seasons. However, species abundance recorded in both seasons was very low, probably due to a combination of inadequate food resources and disadvantageous climate (periodic conditions of drought and flooding. Further studies using a combination of different sampling methods and more frequent samplings are needed to confirm or identify these factors. We suggest that future studies should focus on cultivation of species with economic potential such as the apple snail Pomacea flagellata.La diversidad de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén se desconocía; este estudio constituye su primer registro. Asimismo, esta investigación permite comparar la distribución espacial y temporal de las especies registradas. Las recolectas se efectuaron en marzo (temporada de sequía y septiembre (lluvia de 1998. Se registran 11 especies (266 individuos en total, 8 pulmonados: Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis y Planorbula armigera; dos prosobranquios: Pyrgophorus sp. y Pomacea flagellata, y un bivalvo: Musculium transversum. Los pulmonados

  9. Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature adaptation in the freshwater snail, Helisoma trivolvis (Say), in an artifically heated reservoir in the southeastern United States. [Effects of thermal effluents from nuclear production reactor at Savannah River Plant on Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.H.

    1978-10-01

    Snails from a heated zone of Par Pond of the U.S. Savannah River Plant were compared with conspecifics from an unheated area of the same reservoir. The heated area averaged 5/sup 0/C warmer and was thermally more variable than the control area. This situation has existed for about twenty years. Variation in metabolic response to temperature was observed according to season and heated vs unheated area. A laboratory rearing experiment indicated that part of the observed variation was environmentally induced. Life cycle and growth rates were similar in the two collection areas. Three generations were produced annually in both areas and spawning was synchronous except that the summer spawning period was shorter in the heated area. Live weights expressed relative to shell size were also similar, and decreased in both areas during summer. It appears from these results that metabolic compensation for temperature can serve as an indicator of general thermal adaptability, but only if the degree of environmental plasticity is known for the species.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuming; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Shanliang; Xu, Haigen; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lian

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) is the first complete mtDNA sequence reported in the genus Pomacea. The total length of mtDNA is 15,707 bp, which containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 359 bp non-coding region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 71.7% (T: 41%, C: 12.7%, A: 30.7%, G: 15.6%). ATP6, ATP8, CO1, CO2, ND1-3, ND5, ND6, ND4L and Cyt b genes begin with ATG as start codon, CO3 and ND4 begin with ATA. ATP8, CO2-3, ND4L, ND2-6 and Cyt b genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ATP6, ND1, and CO1 end with TAG. A long non-coding region is found and a 23 bp repeat unit repeat 11 times in this region.

  12. Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae in wetlands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FB Bergmann

    Full Text Available The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s. The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts compared to those of other birds of prey.

  13. Effects of snails, submerged plants and their coexistence on eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Shuqing; Zhang Xiufeng; Tang Yali; Liu Zhengwen; Kettridge Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication resulting from nutrient loading to freshwater habitats is a severe problem, leading to degradation of ecosystems, including deterioration of water quality, water clarity and loss of biodiversity. Measures enacted to restore degraded freshwater ecosystems often involve the reintroduction of submerged plants and aquatic animals with beneficial ecological functions. In a mesocosm experiment, three treatments (planting with Vallisneria natans, introduction of the snail Bellamya aer...

  14. Lichen Endozoochory by Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

  15. Apical Shell Sculpture of some African Freshwater Limpets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Scanning Electron Microscope has been used to describe in detail the apical shell sculpture of sevenAfrican species (three genera) of freshwater limpet snails (Ancylidae). The apical sculpture of Ancylus fluviatilis (? syn. strigatus and ? brondeli) is striate, but quite different in basic pattern from the other three striate ...

  16. PENGARUH VARIASI KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK SERAI (Andropogon nardus TERHADAP MORTALITAS HAMA KEONG MAS (Pomaceacaniculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Putra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snails (Pomaceae canaliculata L or often referred to as snail mulberry is one type of freshwater snail that comes from the Americas. The spread of snails (Pomaceae canaliculata L. in Indonesia the spread widening due to breeding very fast. Besides, many snails are farmed in ponds so many move to the rice fields. Potential snails can cause crop damage ranges from 10-40%. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of extract of lemon grass (Andropogon nardus most appropriate for mortalty pest snails (Pomacea caniculata L.. This study was conducted in July to September 2014 in Biology Laboratorium State Islamic Institute (IAIN Raden Intan Lampung. This type of research is experimental. The method used in the study is the method of full randomized design (CRD with three repetitions each cup contains 12 heads snails. The concentration of treatment were 0% (as a control, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%. Based on the results of the study showed that:The concentration of the most effective in killing pests snails Pomacea caniculata L is 5%, which is able to kill 100% of pest snails Pomacea caniculata L for 24 hours. Sitronela compounds have the nature of a contact poison that can cause death due to loss of fluid continuously.Kata kunci: Mortalitas, ekstrak, kontak racun.

  17. Predicting the geo-spatial distribution of Bulinus snail vector of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulinus spp, are freshwater snails that serve as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma heamatobium which cause urinary schistosomiasis in human beings. The knowledge of their spatial distributions can be used to map the extent and risk of the disease in endemic areas. This paper therefore, presents the geo-spatial ...

  18. Relaxing effect of eugenol and essential oils in Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Erbice Bianchini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the potential relaxing and/or molluscicidal effects of eugenol and essential oils of Origanum majorana, Ocimum americanum, Hesperozygis ringens, and Piper gaudichaudianum in the gastropod Pomacea canaliculata. Compounds were tested at concentrations of 100, 250, 500, and 750µL L-1 to evaluate the relaxing effects. In the second experiment, animals were exposed to 10, 25, and 50µL L-1 of essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum for a period of 24h for the evaluation of molluscicidal effects. Eugenol and essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum showed relaxing effects at ≥250µL L-1, but the essential oils of H. ringens and P. gaudichaudianum did not promote relaxing or molluscicidal effects within the times and concentrations studied. Therefore, only eugenol and the essential oils of O. majorana and O. americanum can be used for relaxation purposes in P. canaliculata.

  19. Allelic variation in a single genomic region alters the microbiome of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Euan R O; Tennessen, Jacob A; Sharpton, Thomas J; Blouin, Michael S

    2018-03-16

    Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms which can have negative consequences for human health and agriculture. Understanding the transmission of these diseases requires a more complete characterization of the immunobiology of snail hosts. This includes the characterization of its microbiome and genetic factors which may interact with this important commensal community. Allelic variation in the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC) genomic region of Guadeloupean Biomphalaria glabrata influences their susceptibility to schistosome infection, and may have other roles in the snail immune response. In the present study, we examined whether a snail's GRC genotype has a role in shaping the bacterial diversity and composition present on or in whole snails. We show that the GRC haplotype, including the resistant genotype, has a significant effect on the diversity of bacterial species present in or on whole snails, including the relative abundances of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus. These findings support the hypothesis that the GRC region is likely involved in pathways that can modify the microbial community of these snails, and may have more immune roles in B. glabrata than originally believed. This is also one of few examples in which allelic variation at a particular locus has been shown to affect the microbiome in any species.

  20. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  1. Real Snail Mail

    OpenAIRE

    Isley, Vicky; Smith, Paul; boredomresearch,

    2008-01-01

    boredomresearch exhibited the Real Snail Mail installation in Process as Paradigm Exhibition, LABoral Centro de Arte y Creacion, Gijon Spain (23rd April - 30th Aug 2010). A group exhibition which is showing artwork that is continually evolving and in a state of flux. the exhibition includes artworks by Ralf Baecker, Gregory Chatonsky, Peter Flemming, Roman Kirschner, C.E.B. Reas, Antoine Schmitt and Ralf Schreiber. Vicky Isley & Paul Smith (aka boredomresearch) in 2009 developed an installati...

  2. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  3. Uptake and release of 65Zn and 124Sb by Biomphalaria alexandrina and Cleopatra bulimoides snails and their effects on the ultrastructure of the hermaphrodite gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloukhia, H.; Alian, A.

    1999-01-01

    The freshwater snails, are by far the most prevalent organisms among the local freshwater fauna, and represent an important group of mollusks, from the stand point of health and economy. This is due to he role played by many of them as hosts for certain parasites of man and his animals. These snails are rather considered pests and so their populations are currently controlled by several measures. On the other hand, various radioactive elements are increasingly detected in the aquatic environment, some of them may find their way to the freshwater ecosystems. So it became necessary to find any radiobioindicator from among the common aquatic biota that can be used to detect any radioactive disposal into the freshwater environment. This paper reports a radioactive tracer study on weather the previously mentioned snails can be used either in the biological treatment of low-level radioactive waste and/or as radiobioindicators

  4. Global shape and pH stability of ovorubin, an oligomeric protein from the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Ituarte, Santiago; Ceolín, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2008-09-01

    Ovorubin, a 300-kDa thermostable oligomer, is the major egg protein from the perivitellin fluid that surrounds the embryos of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. It plays essential roles in embryo development, including transport and protection of carotenoids, protease inhibition, photoprotection, storage, and nourishment. Here, we report ovorubin dimensions and global shape, and test the role of electrostatic interactions in conformational stability by analyzing the effects of pH, using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy, CD, and fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of SAXS data shows that ovorubin is an anisometric particle with a major axis of 130 A and a minor one varying between 63 and 76 A. The particle shape was not significantly affected by the absence of the cofactor astaxanthin. The 3D model presented here is the first for an invertebrate egg carotenoprotein. The quaternary structure is stable over a wide pH range (4.5-12.0). At a pH between 2.0 and 4.0, a reduction in the gyration radius and a loss of tertiary structure are observed, although astaxanthin binding is not affected and only minor alterations in secondary structure are observed. In vitro pepsin digestion indicates that ovorubin is resistant to this protease action. The high stability over a considerable pH range and against pepsin, together with the capacity to bear temperatures > 95 degrees C, reinforces the idea that ovorubin is tailored to withstand a wide variety of conditions in order to play its key role in embryo protection during development.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION Challenges to increased Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commercial production of snails has not kept pace with the demand for it in Ibarapa Local Government Areas (ILGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. A study was carried out to characterize the snail farmers, identify challenges to an increased snail production and suggest measures for sustainable snail production. Structured ...

  6. Transcriptome analysis between invasive Pomacea canaliculata and indigenous Cipangopaludina cahayensis reveals genomic divergence and diagnostic microsatellite/SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xidong; Hou, Guangyuan; Song, Hongmei; Xu, Peng; Luo, Du; Gu, Dangen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Jianren; Zhang, Jiaen; Hu, Yinchan

    2015-02-11

    Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive species worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind species displacement, adaptational abilities, and pesticide resistance, partly because of the lack of genomic information that is available for this species. Here, the transcriptome sequences for the invasive golden apple snail P. canaliculata and the native mudsnail Cipangopaludina cahayensis were obtained by next-generation-sequencing and used to compare genomic divergence and identify molecular markers. More than 46 million high quality sequencing reads were generated from P. canaliculata and C. cahayensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Our analysis indicated that 11,312 unigenes from P. canaliculata and C. cahayensis showed significant similarities to known proteins families, among which a total of 4,320 specific protein families were identified. KEGG pathway enrichment was analyzed for the unique unigenes with 17 pathways (p-value < 10(-5)) in P. canaliculata relating predominantly to lysosomes and vitamin digestion and absorption, and with 12 identified in C. cahayensis, including cancer and toxoplasmosis pathways, respectively. Our analysis also indicated that the comparatively high number of P450 genes in the P. canaliculata transcriptome may be associated with the pesticide resistance in this species. Additionally, 16,717 simple sequence repeats derived from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSRs) were identified from the 14,722 unigenes in P. canaliculata and 100 of them were examined by PCR, revealing a species-specific molecular marker that could distinguish between the morphologically similar P. canaliculata and C. cahayensis snails. Here, we present the genomic resources of P. canaliculata and C. cahayensis. Differentially expressed genes in the transcriptome of P. canaliculata compared with C. cahayensis corresponded to critical metabolic pathways, and genes specifically related to environmental stress response

  7. Chronic toxicity of lead to three freshwater invertebrates--Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosell, Martin; Gerdes, Robert M; Brix, Kevin V

    2006-01-01

    Chronic lead (Pb) toxicity tests with Brachionus calyciflorus, Chironomus tentans, and Lymnaea stagnalis were performed in artificial freshwaters. The no-observable-effect concentration (NOEC), lowest-observable-effect concentration (LOEC), and calculated 20% effect concentration (EC20) for the rotifer B. calyciflorus were 194, 284, and 125 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively. The midge C. tentans was less sensitive, with NOEC and LOEC of 109 and 497 microg dissolved Pb/L, respectively, and the snail L. stagnalis exhibited extreme sensitivity, evident by NOEC, LOEC, and EC20 of 12, 16, and freshwater organisms. The L. stagnalis results are in agreement with a previous report on pulmonate snails and should be viewed in the context of current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness adjusted water quality criteria of 8 microg Pb/L. The present findings and earlier reports indicate that freshwater pulmonate snails may not be protected by current regulatory standards. Measurements of whole-snail Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations following chronic Pb exposure revealed that Na+ homeostasis is disturbed by Pb exposure in juvenile snails in a complicated pattern, suggesting two physiological modes of action depending on the Pb exposure concentration. Substantially reduced growth in the snails that exhibit very high Ca2+ requirements may be related to reduced Ca2+ uptake and thereby reduced shell formation.

  8. Epiphragmin, the major protein of epiphragm mucus from the vineyard snail, Cernuella virgata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Graham, Lloyd D

    2007-10-01

    The organic fraction of epiphragm mucus from the snail Cernuella virgata (Mollusca: Helicidae) consists predominantly of protein (17-23 dry wt.%) rather than carbohydrate (mucus to serve as an adhesive. The C-terminal region of epiphragmin is a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) that is homologous to the fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) found in the hemolymph of freshwater snails. The material properties of epiphragm membranes resemble those of bovine ligament elastin. Wooden lap-joints bonded by rehydrated epiphragm fragments developed dry shear strength values of 1.4+/- 0.1 MPa.

  9. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  10. Effect of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum on feeding rate, digestive enzymes activity and ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas in Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also

  12. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen M.; Duc, Nguyen V.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling....... Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations...... the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam...

  13. Impacts of an invasive snail (Tarebia granifera) on nutrient cycling in tropical streams: the role of riparian deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Jennifer M; Snider, Sunny B; Macneill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N.

  14. Impacts of an invasive snail (Tarebia granifera on nutrient cycling in tropical streams: the role of riparian deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Moslemi

    Full Text Available Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N.

  15. Everglade kites feed on nonsnail prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Kale, H.W.

    1974-01-01

    The Everglade Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) of Florida has been called snail hawk or snail kite because it was thought to feed exclusively on the soft parts of the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) (Nicholson 1926, Howell 1932, Bent 1937, Snyder and Snyder 1969). Furthermore, the other three subspecies of this wide-ranging Neotropical raptor (Friedmann 1950) are known to feed only on species within the genus Pomacea (Haverschmidt 1962, 1970; Brown and Amadon 1968). We report here two different instances of kites feeding on nonsnail prey in Florida

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe) in freshwater snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscera), 83.99 – 373.93 (Shell), which suggest that ingestion may be the main uptake route of these essential metals. A holistic biomonitoring approach is therefore proposed for these impacted areas to guide regulators in a direction of improvement.

  17. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  18. distributional trends of four species of freshwater snails in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rivers. Topographically it is divided into an interior plateau and a diversified tract of country. • Paper read at Symposium on Malacology and Parasitology, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 1965. Zoologica Africana 2 (1): 95-109. 95. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a. y u n d er licen ce gra n ted b y th e P u b lish er (d a ted.

  19. MOLLUSKS IN RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Гудков

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuraniс elements accumulation in bivalveand gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1998–2010 was analyzed. Theresults of radiation dose as well as chromosome aberration rate estimation and analysis of hemolymphcomposition of molluscs was produced. The radiation absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3–85.0 μGy h–1. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27 % in embryotissues, and also change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered

  20. Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alba-Castellón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas.

  1. Effects of snails, submerged plants and their coexistence on eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication resulting from nutrient loading to freshwater habitats is a severe problem, leading to degradation of ecosystems, including deterioration of water quality, water clarity and loss of biodiversity. Measures enacted to restore degraded freshwater ecosystems often involve the reintroduction of submerged plants and aquatic animals with beneficial ecological functions. In a mesocosm experiment, three treatments (planting with Vallisneria natans, introduction of the snail Bellamya aeruginosa and a combined treatment with both plants and snails were compared with controls to evaluate their effects on trophic state. The total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP and chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations of planktonic and benthic algal samples were determined every two weeks, along with light intensity at the sediment surface. The plant-only treatment significantly reduced the TN levels and planktonic and benthic algal biomass and increased the light intensity at the sediment surface. The snail-only treatment reduced the concentrations of TN and reduced planktonic and benthic algal biomass. The combined treatment decreased the concentrations of TN and TP, reduced planktonic algal biomass and increased the light intensity on the sediment surface. The results indicate that while submerged plants and snails can both improve water quality, the most pronounced effect in aquatic ecosystems is achieved by their presence in combination. A combined reintroduction approach may provide enhanced benefits in restoring the eutrophic ecosystems, following the reduction of external nutrient loading.

  2. Turtles: Freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Bowden, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    With their iconic shells, turtles are morphologically distinct in being the only extant or extinct vertebrate animals to have their shoulders and hips inside their rib cages. By the time an asteroid hit the earth 65.5 million years ago, causing the extinction of dinosaurs, turtles were already an ancient lineage that was 70% through their evolutionary history to date. The remarkable evolutionary success of turtles over 220 million years is due to a combination of both conservative and effective life history traits and an essentially unchanging morphology that withstood the test of time. However, the life history traits of many species make them particularly susceptible to overharvest and habitat destruction in the modern world, and a majority of the world’s species face serious conservation challenges with several extinctions documented in modern times. The global plight of turtles is underscored by the fact that the percentage of imperiled species exceeds that of even the critically endangered primates.Freshwater turtles, with over 260 recognized species, have become a focus on a worldwide scale for many conservation issues. This article is a synthesis of a diverse body of information on the general biology of freshwater turtles, with particular emphasis on the extensive research on ecology, life history, and behavior that has been accomplished in the last half century. Much of the research has been applicable to the aforementioned conservation challenges. The studies presented include a combination of laboratory and field experiments and observational studies on this intriguing group of animals.

  3. Interaction between Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of snail intermediate host of human schistosome parasites has been suggested. In this study, the effect of Indoplanobis exustus a planorbid snail and possible competitor snail of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the fecundity and growth rate of the later was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in ...

  4. Population genetics of the Schistosoma snail host Bulinus truncatus in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F; Dar, Yasser; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Van den Broeck, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    The tropical freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus serves as an important intermediate host of several human and cattle Schistosoma species in many African regions. Despite some ecological and malacological studies, there is no information on the genetic diversity of B. truncatus in Egypt. Here, we sampled 70-100 snails in ten localities in Upper Egypt and the Nile Delta. Per locality, we sequenced 10 snails at a partial fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and we genotyped 25-30 snails at six microsatellite markers. A total of nine mitochondrial haplotypes were detected, of which five were unique to the Nile Delta and three were unique to Upper Egypt, indicating that snail populations may have evolved independently in both regions. Bayesian clustering and hierarchical F-statistics using microsatellite markers further revealed strong population genetic structure at the level of locality. Observed heterozygosity was much lower compared to what is expected under random mating, which could be explained by high selfing rates, population size reductions and to a lesser extent by the Wahlund effect. Despite these observations, we found signatures of gene flow and cross-fertilization, even between snails from the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt, indicating that B. truncatus can travel across large distances in Egypt. These observations could have serious consequences for disease epidemiology, as it means that infected snails from one region could rapidly and unexpectedly spark a new epidemic in another distant region. This could be one of the factors explaining the rebound of human Schistosoma infections in the Nile Delta, despite decades of sustained schistosomiasis control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Nutrient Value and Microbiological Safety of Pomacea lineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna Freire; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; da Paz, Andrea Maria Rolim; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Pomacea lineata is a fresh water shellfish that is utilized as food, medicinal portions, or licking remedies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological aspects of P. lineata and spawning. The samples were collected in the Jaguaribe River (Paraíba, Brazil) during the rainy and dry seasons. The biochemical composition, mineral composition, total mesophilic bacteria (TMB), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio presence were determined. Each 100 g of P. lineata presented 3.1 g of ashes; 9.4 g of proteins; 2.7 g of lipids; 0.6 g of carbohydrates; 1800.0 mg of calcium; 78.0 mg of phosphorus, and 58.4 mg of iron. Each 100 g of spawning presented 10.4 g of ashes; 4.5 g of proteins; 2.8 g of lipids; 1.3 g of carbohydrates; 3633.0 mg of calcium; 39.4 mg of phosphorus; and 4.6 mg of iron. Each 100 g of P. lineata provided 65.7 kcal and spawning 48.3 kcal. In the dry season P. lineata and spawning showed no TMB and TC, FC, S. aureus, Salmonella, or Vibrio. In the rainy season P. lineata and spawning presented increase in TMB and TC, FC, S. aureus, and Salmonella. The presence of Vibrio was not detected. P. lineata presented proteins, low lipid, and carbohydrate content, energy values close to those of lean meats, high contents of calcium and iron, and presented low contamination level with pathogenic bacteria. Since P. lineata substances may be useful in the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases without presenting toxic or cytotoxic effects already described in the literature, it may be considered as a potential functional food.

  6. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  7. Egg extract of apple snail for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janthima, Ratima; Khamhaengpol, Arunrat; Siri, Sineenat

    2018-03-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provides the alternative method with cost effectiveness and the eco-friendly process by using natural biomolecules as reducing and stabilizing agents. Alternative to the most studies of plant extracts, this work demonstrated a use of egg extract of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) for an eco-friendly production of AgNPs. The extract contained at least six proteins with the molecular weight in a range of 24-65 kDa that exhibited the reducing activity. The dispersive AgNPs were produced in the reaction containing only the extract and silver nitrate, as determined by the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak of silver at 412 nm. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical with the average diameter of 9.0 ± 5.9 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses confirmed the face-cubic centre (fcc) unit cell structure of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited the antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Results of this work clearly showed the potential use of the egg extract of apple snail for a green synthesis of small size AgNPs exhibiting the antibacterial activity.

  8. New Information on the Snail Fauna of “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park (Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The malacofauna in the Bulgarian nature parks situated in Stara Planina Mts. is poorly known. So far only one research in the area of Nature Park “Sinite kamani” was carried out in 2008. A total of 23 species of terrestrial snails were discovered and some data on their habitats were presented, but no freshwater snails were found. The author has suggested that many other species could be found in case of future studies. In the present paper we present some new terrestrial and aquatic species discovered on the territory of the park.

  9. The Medusa and the Snail

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. The Medusa and the Snail. Harini Nagendra. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 102-103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/05/0102-0103. Author Affiliations.

  10. Current concepts of snail control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Sturrock

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis control was impossible without effective tools. Synthetic molluscicides developed in the 1950s spearheaded community level control. Snail eradication proved impossible but repeated mollusciciding to manage natural snail populations could eliminate transmission. Escalating costs, logistical complexity, its labour-intensive nature and possible environmental effects caused some concern. The arrival of safe, effective, single-dose drugs in the 1970s offered an apparently better alternative but experience revealed the need for repeated treatments to minimise reinfection in programmes relying on drugs alone. Combining treatment with mollusciciding was more successful, but broke down if mollusciciding was withdrawn to save money. The provision of sanitation and safe water to prevent transmission is too expensive in poor rural areas where schistosomiasis is endemic; rendering ineffective public health education linked to primary health care. In the tropics, moreover, children (the key group in maintaining transmission will always play in water. Large scale destruction of natural snail habitats remains impossibly expensive (although proper design could render many new man-made habitats unsuitable for snails. Neither biological control agents nor plant molluscicides have proved satisfactory alternatives to synthetic molluscicides. Biologists can develop effective strategies for using synthetic molluscicides in different epidemiological situations if only, like drugs, their price can be reduced.

  11. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  12. First report of Temnocephala rochensis (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae outside Uruguay: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala rochensis Ponce de Léon, 1979, was the second of four species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 to be described as ectosymbiont of ampullariid apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. There have been no records of this Uruguayan species after its initial description. As part of the present study, 111 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected between 2003 and 2009. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. rochensis, occurring in single infestations, or concurrently with Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989. Specimens of T. rochensis showed a conspicuous red eye pigment which faded after ethanol fixation. Important taxonomic characters of the reproductive system were evidenced by several techniques, and documented photographically for the first time for this species: 1 the typical curved cirrus of the species showing very short and stout spines; 2 the vagina with the proximal portion dilated, forming a "vesicula intermedia"; and 3 the distal portion very muscular, as well as the large and symmetrical vaginal sphincter were documented in detail with Nomarski's DIC microscopy. Eggs were observed in the suture, in the spire, and in the umbilicus of the shell; they had a short peduncle or were sessile, always with short and curved, sometimes straight apical filaments. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had central nephridiopores. This is the first record of this species outside of Uruguay and in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Even with extended sampling efforts in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul, T. rochensis has not been found, showing a geographical distribution restricted to the southern region, close to its type locality of Laguna Negra, Uruguay.

  13. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Astaxanthin binding and structural stability of the apple snail carotenoprotein ovorubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos S; Ceolín, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2007-04-01

    Ovorubin (OR) is the major perivitellin of the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata. The astaxanthin (ASX) binding and structural stability of OR were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). The apo-OR (without astaxanthin) shows a single, high affinity binding site for ASX (K(D)=0.5 microM). The quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by ASX indicates that about 22% are near the carotenoid-binding site in a non-polar environment, as indicated by tryptophan resonance energy transfer to the ligand. Secondary structure (alpha+beta) was virtually not affected by cofactor removal. Holo-OR shows unusually high thermal stability. The removal of ASX does not affect the thermal or chemical stability of the quaternary structure. In conclusion, although subtle changes were observed, ASX is not essential for OR stability, unlike most invertebrate carotenoproteins. This supports the idea that OR plays an important physiological role in the storage, transport and protection of carotenoids during snail embryogenesis.

  15. Life table estimates of the invasive snail Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, occurring in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Chilka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The life table characteristics of the invasive snail Physa acuta were assessed in the laboratory using the individuals occurring in a newly colonised area in Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Using the changes in the shell length and the body weight of the snails as surrogate, the population growth of the snails was estimated along with longevity and the fecundity schedule. The cohort of P. acuta lived for a maximum of 22 weeks with a life expectancy (ex of 7.27 weeks and the age-specific survivorship being 0.825. Increment of the shell length of the snails complied with the von Bertalanffy growth equation, lt = 11.75(1 − exp−0.17(t−0.06, and the observed and the expected data of the length at time t (lt did not vary significantly (z score = 0.230; P = 0.818; n=20 pairs. Following attainment of sexual maturity between 28 and 42 days, oviposition continued till 20 weeks time, with 0.1-10 eggs laid by each individual. The eggs present per capsule remained between 01 and 11, whilst the net reproductive rate (R0, intrinsic rate of increase (rm and the finite rate of increase (λ were 116.07, 0.1 and 1.11, respectively. The observations are similar to those made earlier on the same species but from African and South American continents. The results of the present observation are pioneer in providing the initial studies about the life history of the invasive snail P. acuta in Indian context. Using the present information as a basis, further studies including long-term population monitoring should be initiated to understand the effects of the invasive snail P. acuta in the freshwater ecosystem of West Bengal, India.

  16. Snail1, Snail2, and E47 promote mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Boghaert, Eline; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2011-01-01

    While the roles of Snail transcription factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are well established, their functions in other morphogenetic processes are less understood. Here, Snail, Snail2, and E47 are shown to promote mammary gland branching morphogenesis, via activation of an EMT-like gene expression program.

  17. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): Physiological and molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  18. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  19. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen M; Duc, Nguyen V; Stauffer, Jay R; Madsen, Henry

    2013-05-16

    The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200 g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it

  20. Freshwater Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  1. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  2. Relationships between nutrient enrichment, pleurocerid snail density and trematode infection rate in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Nutrient enrichment is a widespread environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems. Eutrophic conditions caused by nutrient enrichment may result in a higher prevalence of infection by trematode parasites in host populations, due to greater resource availability for the molluscan first intermediate hosts. 2. This study examined relationships among land use, environmental variables indicating eutrophication, population density of the pleurocerid snail, Leptoxis carinata, and trematode infections. Fifteen study sites were located in streams within the Shenandoah River catchment (Virginia, U.S.A.), where widespread nutrient enrichment has occurred. 3. Snail population density had a weak positive relationship with stream water nutrient concentration. Snail population density also increased as human activities within stream catchments increased, but density did not continue to increase in catchments where anthropogenic disturbance was greatest. 4. Cercariae from five families of trematodes were identified in L. carinata, and infection rate was generally low (snail population density, nutrients or land use. 5. There were statistically significant but weak relationships between the prevalence of infection by two trematode families and physical and biological variables. The prevalence of Notocotylidae was positively related to water depth, which may be related to habitat use by definitive hosts. Prevalence of Opecoelidae had a negative relationship with orthophosphate concentration and a polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration. Transmission of Opecoelid trematodes between hosts may be inhibited by eutrophic conditions. 6. Leptoxis carinata appears to be a useful species for monitoring the biological effects of eutrophication and investigating trematode transmission dynamics in lotic systems.

  3. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrological modifications on freshwater fish communities ... transformation on eco-hydrology. Freshwater ecosystems and associated habitats harbor incred- ible biodiversity. They offer various ecosystem services and sustain human livelihoods. However, due to ... complete their life cycle exclusively in the freshwater ...

  4. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  5. Comparison of Freshwater Mollusc Assemblages between Dry and Rainy Season in Situ Gede System, Bogor, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priawandiputra, W.; Nasution, D. J.; Prawasti, T. S.

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, which reduced and damaged natural situ (freshwater ponds), also reduced fauna diversity in its aquatic ecosystem. Freshwater molluscs in the situ, one of the largest numbers of animals group with documented extinction, may also be impacted. The aims of this study were to record and to compare the abundance and species composition of freshwater molluscs between dry and rainy season in three situ. The freshwater molluscs were determined by twelve sampling points in Situ Gede (SG), Situ Panjang (SP) and Situ Burung (SB). Samplings were conducted once during dry season (August 2015) and rainy season (February 2016). Total abundance of molluscs encountered was 4321 individuals, which was comprised of 76 bivalve individuals (1.75 %) and 4245 gastropods individuals (98.44%). The abundance of molluscs were generally higher in rainy season than in dry season in all situ, while species richness showed the contrary. The species composition was significantly different between dry and rainy season in SP and SB but no significant differences was found in SG. From eight dominant species, there were six dominant species such as Filopaludina javanica, Melanoides tuberculata, Thiara scabra, Sermyla requeti, Pila scutata (gastropods) and Pilsbryoconcha exilis (bivalve) which were found in high numbers during dry season while two gastropod species (Pomacea canaliculata and Wattebledia crosseana) was numbered higher in rainy season than dry season.

  6. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.

  7. Serotonin Mediates Maternal Effects and Directs Developmental and Behavioral Changes in the Progeny of Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkin, Evgeny; Khabarova, Marina Yu; Melnikova, Victoria; Nezlin, Leonid P; Kharchenko, Olga; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Adameyko, Igor

    2015-08-18

    Many organisms survive in constantly changing environments, including cycling seasons. Developing embryos show remarkable instant adaptations to the variable environmental challenges they encounter during their adult life, despite having no direct contact with the changing environment until after birth or hatching. The mechanisms by which such non-genetic information is transferred to the developing embryos are largely unknown. Here, we address this question by using a freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) as a model system. This snail normally lives in a seasonal climate, and the seasons define its locomotion, feeding, and reproductive behavior. We discovered that the serotonergic system plays a crucial role in transmitting a non-genetic instructive signal from mother to progeny. This maternal serotonin-based signal functions in embryos during a short time window at exclusively early pre-neural developmental stages and modulates the dynamics of embryonic and juvenile growth, feeding behavior, and locomotion. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serotonin Mediates Maternal Effects and Directs Developmental and Behavioral Changes in the Progeny of Snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Ivashkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms survive in constantly changing environments, including cycling seasons. Developing embryos show remarkable instant adaptations to the variable environmental challenges they encounter during their adult life, despite having no direct contact with the changing environment until after birth or hatching. The mechanisms by which such non-genetic information is transferred to the developing embryos are largely unknown. Here, we address this question by using a freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis as a model system. This snail normally lives in a seasonal climate, and the seasons define its locomotion, feeding, and reproductive behavior. We discovered that the serotonergic system plays a crucial role in transmitting a non-genetic instructive signal from mother to progeny. This maternal serotonin-based signal functions in embryos during a short time window at exclusively early pre-neural developmental stages and modulates the dynamics of embryonic and juvenile growth, feeding behavior, and locomotion.

  9. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  10. Nutritional Assessment of Some Nigerian Land and Water Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Mineral analysis of the snail species revealed relatively high amount of minerals in the water snails compared to the land snails. ... Key words: Land and water snails, minerals, chemical composition, and nutritive qualities. Introduction major task facing ... be found in Europe, South East Asia and the. United States of America ...

  11. Characteristics of snail farmers and constraints to increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high quality of protein obtained from snails they have secured high demand in ... Characteristics of snail farmers and marketers. Characteristics. Percentage (%). Sex. Male. 40. Female. 60. Level of education. Primary and/or secondary. 82. Source of snails .... practices (with snails, bee keeping etc. as components) in view of ...

  12. Public Health Implications of Aquatic Snails around Fish Ponds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of aquatic snails around fish ponds in Okwe, Delta State was conducted to identify snails and their public health implications in the area. Snails were collected fortnightly within an hour of active snail search for a period of twelve months from randomly selected eight fish ponds using a scoop net attached to a long ...

  13. Miracidial infectivity of snail host ( Bulinus truncatus ) in the laboratory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miracidial infectivity rate of snail Bulinus truncatus collected from Agulu Lake was studied in the laboratory. The snails were maintained in the laboratory and eggs deposited were allowed to hatch and dates noted until snails of different ages were produced. These snails were consequently exposed to miracidia hatched ...

  14. Seasonal dynamics of snail populations in coastal Kenya: Model calibration and snail control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, D.; King, C. H.; Yoon, N.; Wang, X.; Alsallaq, R.

    2017-10-01

    A proper snail population model is important for accurately predicting Schistosoma transmission. Field data shows that the overall snail population and that of shedding snails have a strong pattern of seasonal variation. Because human hosts are infected by the cercariae released from shedding snails, the abundance of the snail population sets ultimate limits on human infection. For developing a predictive dynamic model of schistosome infection and control strategies we need realistic snail population dynamics. Here we propose two such models based on underlying environmental factors and snail population biology. The models consist of two-stage (young-adult) populations with resource-dependent reproduction, survival, maturation. The key input in the system is seasonal rainfall which creates snail habitats and resources (small vegetation). The models were tested, calibrated and validated using dataset collected in Msambweni (coastal Kenya). Seasonal rainfall in Msambweni is highly variable with intermittent wet - dry seasons. Typical snail patterns follow precipitation peaks with 2-4-month time-lag. Our models are able to reproduce such seasonal variability over extended period of time (3-year study). We applied them to explore the optimal seasonal timing for implementing snail control.

  15. Molecular insights into land snail neuropeptides through transcriptome and comparative gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kevin J; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Bell, Francesca; Kuballa, Anna V; Storey, Kenneth B; Cummins, Scott F

    2015-04-17

    Snails belong to the molluscan class Gastropoda, which inhabit land, freshwater and marine environments. Several land snail species, including Theba pisana, are crop pests of major concern, causing extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. A deeper understanding of their molecular biology is necessary in order to develop methods to manipulate land snail populations. The present study used in silico gene data mining of T. pisana tissue transcriptomes to predict 24,920 central nervous system (CNS) proteins, 37,661 foot muscle proteins and 40,766 hepatopancreas proteins, which together have 5,236 unique protein functional domains. Neuropeptides, metabolic enzymes and epiphragmin genes dominated expression within the CNS, hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Further investigation of the CNS transcriptome demonstrated that it might contain as many as 5,504 genes that encode for proteins destined for extracellular secretion. Neuropeptides form an important class of cell-cell messengers that control or influence various complex metabolic events. A total of 35 full-length neuropeptide genes were abundantly expressed within T. pisana CNS, encoding precursors that release molluscan-type bioactive neuropeptide products. These included achatin, allototropin, conopressin, elevenin, FMRFamide, LFRFamide, LRFNVamide, myomodulins, neurokinin Y, PKYMDT, PXFVamide, sCAPamides and several insulin-like peptides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of neural ganglia confirmed the presence of many of these neuropeptides. Our results provide the most comprehensive picture of the molecular genes and proteins associated with land snail functioning, including the repertoire of neuropeptides that likely play significant roles in neuroendocrine signalling. This information has the potential to expedite the study of molluscan metabolism and potentially stimulate advances in the biological control of land snail pest species.

  16. De Novo transcriptome analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicide treatment by next-generation sequencing: implications for biology and future snail interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN, the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS, has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism

  17. De Novo transcriptome analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after molluscicide treatment by next-generation sequencing: implications for biology and future snail interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin Ping; Xiong, Tao; Xu, Xing Jian; Jiang, Ming Sen; Dong, Hui Fen

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism will be of great

  18. Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigran, G; Damborenea, C; Tambussi, A

    2011-02-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species.

  19. Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Darrigran

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca Gastropoda shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina. This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or accidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005 were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species.

  20. The bioavailability of the transuranic elements 237Pu and 241Am for the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and their behaviour in selected natural surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to characterise the bioavailability of 237 Pu and 241 Am for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. in selected surface waters. The uptake, distribution and retention patterns were studied through the contamination route water-snail. The effects of a number of parameters, such as seasonal variation, water type (pH, conductivity, ionic composition) and presence of food, on the bioavailability of the transuranics were evaluated. Finally, an assessment was made concerning the chemical speciation of plutonium and americium in the selected freshwaters

  1. PENAMBAHAN CACING TANAH Lumbricus rubellus DAN KEONG MAS Pomacea canaliculata PADA PAKAN AYAM PETELUR DALAM PENINGKATAN KANDUNGAN OMEGA 3 PADA TELUR

    OpenAIRE

    Farmansyah, Muarif

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang Penambahan Cacing Tanah Lumbricus rubellus dan Keong mas Pomacea canaliculata Pada Pakan Ayam Petelur Dalam Peningkatan Kandungan Omega 3 Pada Telur bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan penambahan Cacing tanah Lumbricus rubellus dan Keong mas Pomaceacanaliculata L pada ayam petelur dalam meningkatkan kandungan omega 3. Komposisi pakan yang digunakan antara lain P1 = Pakan standar 80% + 15% cacing tanah lumbricus rubellus+ 5%keong mas Pomacea canaliculata L, P2 =...

  2. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Marine Radioecology Group, Center for Radiation Safety Technology and Metrology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Kotak Pos 7043 JKSKL Jakarta Selatan 12070 (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  3. Degree of Acetylization Chitosan Gonggong Snail Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiza, H.; Iskandar, I.; Aldo, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is generally derived from crustacean animal waste and animal skins other sea. One marine animals that have compounds that can be processed chitin chitosan is derived from the snail Gonggong marine waters of Riau Islands province. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of chitosan from the shells of snails asetilisasi Gonggong. This research is an experimental research laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the degree of chitosan shell snail deasetilisasi Gonggong is 70.27%.

  4. CRCP-Prey choice of corallivorous snails

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The snail, Coralliophila abbreviata, is a common generalist corallivore and can be a major contributor to Caribbean acroporid tissue mortality. Considering the...

  5. Archives: Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 23 of 23 ... Archives: Tropical Freshwater Biology. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Freshwater Biology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 23 of 23 Items ...

  6. The freshwater biodiversity crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group of native fishes, the cyprinids, still persist in many of the country's freshwaters. This paper combines review of ... Key words/phrases: Deforestation, Ethiopia, fish diversity, freshwater ecosystems, introduced species ...... Stomach pH, feeding rhythm and ingestion rate in Oreo- chromis niloticus L. (Pisces: Cichlidae) in ...

  7. Reproductive ecology of the giant African snail in South Florida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, Amy; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Weihman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population...... eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (... of egg producing snails, eventually resulting in local extinctions of this important pest....

  8. Effects of abnormal temperature and starvation on the internal defense system of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Molly K; Cruz, Brandon C; Buena, Kevin L; Nguyen, Hai; Sullivan, John T

    2016-07-01

    Climate change may affect the internal defense system (IDS) of freshwater snails, and as a result their capacity to transmit disease. We examined effects of short-term exposure to supra- and sub-optimal temperatures or starvation on 3 parameters of the IDS of the schistosome-resistant Salvador strain of Biomphalaria glabrata - hemocyte concentrations, cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO), and resistance to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Adult snails were exposed to 1 of 3 temperatures, 20°C, 27°C (controls), or 33°C, for 1 or 2weeks, with food. A fourth group was maintained at 27°C, but without food. Compared to the controls, starved snails had significantly higher hemocyte counts at both 1 and 2weeks, although mitotic activity in the APO was significantly lower at both time periods. Exposure to 20°C or 33°C for 1 or 2weeks did not affect hemocyte numbers. However, APO mitotic activity in snails exposed to 20°C was significantly higher at both 1 and 2weeks, whereas mitotic activity in snails exposed to 33°C was significantly lower at 1week but normal at 2weeks. None of the treatments altered the resistance phenotype of Salvador snails. In a follow-up experiment, exposure to 33°C for 4-5h, a treatment previously reported to both induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and abrogate resistance to infection, caused immediate upregulation of Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 expression, but did not alter resistance, and Hsp expression levels returned to baseline after 2weeks at 33°C. Results of this study indicate that abnormal environmental conditions can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the IDS in adult B. glabrata, and that some degree of acclimation to abnormal temperatures may occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of a goose-type lysozyme from sewage snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunhai; He, Hongxuan

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snail Physa acuta has been considered as an important invasive species and medical mollusc. Field investigation has shown that this snail could survive better than other snails in polluted water bodies. To understand the immune mechanisms of P. acuta, suppression subtractive hybridization hepatopancreas cDNA library has been constructed with bacterial challenge. In this study, a full-length cDNA of a novel goose-type lysozyme (PALysG) has been identified from P. acuta by EST and RACE technique. The conservative structure domains share high homology with other molluscan g-type lysozymes including the SLT domain, the substrate binding sites, the catalytic residues, three alpha-helices structures and six molluscan specific cysteines. Meanwhile, PALysG is the first record of goose-type lysozyme in Gastropoda. Real-time PCR indicated that PALysG mRNA had been expressed significantly at high levels in hepatopancreas for 8-48 h. PALysG recombinant protein displayed the lytic activity of g-type lysozyme with other organisms against Micrococcus lysodikicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for specific genotype-dependent immune priming in the lophotrochozoan Biomphalaria glabrata snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Rognon, Anne; Galinier, Richard; Boissier, Jérôme; Coustau, Christine; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the prevailing view in the field of invertebrate immunity was that invertebrates that do not possess acquired adaptive immunity rely on innate mechanisms with low specificity and no memory. Several recent studies have shaken this paradigm and suggested that the immune defenses of invertebrates are more complex and specific than previously thought. Mounting evidence has shown that at least some invertebrates (mainly Ecdysozoa) show high levels of specificity in their immune responses to different pathogens, and that subsequent reexposure may result in enhanced protection (recently called 'immune priming'). Here, we investigated immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan snail species Biomphalaria glabrata, following infection by the trematode pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. We confirmed that snails were protected against a secondary homologous infection whatever the host strain. We then investigated how immune priming occurs and the level of specificity of B. glabrata immune priming. In this report we confirmed that immune priming exists and we identified a genotype-dependent immune priming in the fresh-water snail B. glabrata. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P. Yadav

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1 and tertiary (1:1:1 combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity.

  12. Effects of single, binary and tertiary combinations with Jatropha gossypifolia and other plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC(50)/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity.

  13. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  14. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  15. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  16. H+ channels in embryonic Biomphalaria glabrata cell membranes: Putative roles in snail host-schistosome interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J Wright

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis, a widespread neglected tropical disease. Infection of freshwater snails Biomphalaria spp. is an essential step in the transmission of S. mansoni to humans, although the physiological interactions between the parasite and its obligate snail host that determine success or failure are still poorly understood. In the present study, the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge cell line, a widely used in vitro model for hemocyte-like activity, was used to investigate membrane properties, and assess the impact of larval transformation proteins (LTP on identified ion channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from Bge cells demonstrated that a Zn2+-sensitive H+ channel serves as the dominant plasma membrane conductance. Moreover, treatment of Bge cells with Zn2+ significantly inhibited an otherwise robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, thus implicating H+ channels in the regulation of this immune function. A heat-sensitive component of LTP appears to target H+ channels, enhancing Bge cell H+ current over 2-fold. Both Bge cells and B. glabrata hemocytes express mRNA encoding a hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1-like protein, although its function in hemocytes remains to be determined. This study is the first to identify and characterize an H+ channel in non-neuronal cells of freshwater molluscs. Importantly, the involvement of these channels in ROS production and their modulation by LTP suggest that these channels may function in immune defense responses against larval S. mansoni.

  17. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  18. Comparative Performance of three Edible Snail Species using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg production was highest with (15-25 eggs/clutch at lay) for garden snail and least with the giant land snail (8-12 eggs/clutch at lay). Percentage hatchability of eggs was 100% for the giant land snail and slightly less for both the garden snail and fulica (92.86 %). The incubation period varied from 21 - 23 days for garden ...

  19. Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

    2007-01-01

    Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail...

  20. The Planorbid Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Expresses a Hemocyanin-Like Sequence in the Albumen Gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth J Peña

    Full Text Available The parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni, causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis in South America, relies importantly on the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as intermediate host to achieve development of cercariae that infect humans. The recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO to integrate snail control in efforts to counter schistosomiasis transmission provides impetus for in depth study of B. glabrata biology. Our analysis indicates that two distinct hemocyanin-like genes (hcl-1 and hcl-2 are present in B. glabrata, a snail that uses hemoglobin for oxygen transport. Characterization of BAC clones yielded the full length hcl-1 gene, which is comprised of three functional unit (FU domains at the amino acid level. Database searches and in silico analyses identified the second hcl gene (hcl-2, composed of six FU domains. Both genes are unusual for lacking canonical residues and having fewer FU domains than typical molluscan hemocyanins that contain 7-8 FUs. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that Hcl-1 is expressed in a manner that correlates with reproductive maturity in the albumen gland (AG, an immune- and reproduction-relevant organ. Immune cross-reactivity with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (α-KLH antiserum and tandem-mass spectrometry validated the presence of Hcl-1 protein in the AG and egg mass fluid (EMF. The evolutionary conservation of hemocyanin-like sequences in B. glabrata in the presence of the oxygen carrier hemoglobin, combined with our results, suggest that the Hcl-1protein has a functional role in general and/or reproductive biology. Further investigations are needed to explore Hcl-1 as a potential target for snail control.

  1. Unusual snail species involved in the transmission of Fasciola hepatica in watercress beds in central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four freshwater pulmonate species (Lymnaea ovata, L. stagnalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis leucostomawere living in several watercress beds known for their relationships with human cases of fasciolosis, whereas L. truncatula was never found. The aims of these studies were to determine the prevalence of natural infections with Fasciola hepatica in snails and to verify if these species might ensure the full larval development of this trematode (with cercarial shedding] when they were experimentally subjected to F. hepatica only, or to co-infections with an other trematode species. Investigations were so carried out in six snail populations living in watercress beds (including three for P. acuta and in four others originating from three brooks or a pond (as controls. Snails naturally infected with F. hepatica were found in two watercress beds inhabited by L. ovata (prevalence of infection: 1.4 % and P. leucostoma (0.1 %, respectively. The L. ovata from the watercress bed could be infected at a higher size than those from the control population and the prevalence of this infection was greater in the bed population. Similar findings were noted for L. stagnalis. Despite single or dual infections, the results obtained with the four populations of P. acuta were unsuccessful. In contrast, the co-infections of young P. leucostoma with Paramphistomum daubneyi and F. hepatica resulted in the shedding of some F. hepatica cercariae. According to the authors, the occurrence of fasciolosis in these watercress beds would be the consequence of frequent natural encounters between parasite and snails (L. ovata, L. stagnalis, or of co-infections with P. daubneyi and F. hepatica (P. leucostoma. In watercress beds only colonized by P. acuta, a lymnaeid species would have ensured the larval development of F. hepatica but it would have been eliminated by P. acuta, as this last species was known to be invasive and could colonize open drainage ditches on siliceous soil.

  2. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Freshwater ecosystems and associated habitats harbor incrediblebiodiversity. They offer various ecosystem services andsustain human livelihoods. However, due to increasing developmentalpressure and rising water demand, these systemsare under huge threat. As a result, many aquatic species arefeared to become ...

  3. Determinants of production level of commercial snail farmers in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the determinants of productivity level among commercial snail farmers in Oyo State. A systematic sampling technique was employed to select one-hundred and forty–two snail farmers from the membership list provided by the Snail Farmers Association of Nigeria (SFAN), Oyo State Chapter.

  4. Toxicity appraisement of methaldehyde, ferricol®, snail repellent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different control methods have been applied to control the land snail (Xeropicta derbentina and Xeropicta krynickii) but the chemical method is realized to be the most effective method to control this pest. The main goal of this work was to determine the efficacy of methaldehyde Ferricol, Snail repellent tape and Snail ...

  5. Profitability of Snail Production in Osun State,Nigeria | Baba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the features and profitability of snail farming in Osun State. To achieve the study objectives, 20 snail farmers each were randomly selected from Osogbo, Iwo and Ife-Ijesa townships, where majority of snail farmers in the State were located. Data collected from the farmers were analysed using ...

  6. Growth performance of African Giant Land Snails (Archachatina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was set up to assess the sensory evaluation of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata) fed dried kola nut testa (DKT) and palm kernel cake mixture (PKC). A total of 72 snails were randomly distributed into four (4) dietary treatments which were replicated 3 times with 6 snails per replicate in a ...

  7. CYTOGENETIC STUDY OF FOUR SPECIES OF LAND SNAILS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chromosomal study of the four species of achatinid snails was carried out with the aim of determining their chromosome numbers as part of a preliminary attempt to understand the cytogenetics of land snails of Nigeria. The haploid chromosomes of various species of snails studied were obtained from their ovotestis ...

  8. Haemolymph Biochemical Parameters of the African Giant Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ++, Cu++ and Zn++ levels were higher (P<0.05) in the haemolymph of the African giant snail than in that of the big black snail. The uses and implications of these data in the management of these two wild snail species for meat and research are ...

  9. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to lead on the behavior of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, V.T.; Copeland, J. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The behavior of aquatic invertebrates may be useful as an indicator for the presence of toxicants in both freshwater and marine environments. The pond snail Helisoma trivolvis, the red ram`s horn, was exposed to low levels of lead (0.05 ppm). Chronic exposure significantly reduced the number of head movements but had no affect on radula movement or antenna twitches. Acute exposure resulted in curling of the foot that lasted 0.5 to 14.0 minutes. Electrochemical analysis of lead levels within treated snails indicated a higher concentration of lead in the tissue than that in the treated environment. Organ analysis of the digestive gland, 1 salivary gland, reproductive organs and the cerebral ganglion is currently being studied.

  10. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Jye Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7% and 233 (69.3%, respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  11. Web-spinning caterpillar stalks snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Haines, William P

    2005-07-22

    Moths and butterflies compose one of the most diverse insect orders, but they are overwhelmingly herbivorous. Less than 0.2% are specialized predators, indicating that lepidopteran feeding habits are highly constrained. We report a Hawaiian caterpillar that specializes on snails, a unique food source requiring an unusual feeding strategy. The caterpillar uses silk to restrain live prey. All caterpillars have silk glands, but none are known to use silk in this spiderlike fashion. Considering the canalization of caterpillar diets, evolution to attack and feed on snails is an anomaly. Hawaii s isolation and consequently disharmonic biota likely promote evolutionary experiments that occur nowhere else.

  12. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  13. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kolmakova, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007.

  14. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V S; Manukovsky, N S; Tikhomirov, A A; Kolmakova, A A

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Freshwater and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90 Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

  16. Freshwater Megafauna: Flagships for Freshwater Biodiversity under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Savrina F; Jähnig, Sonja C; Bremerich, Vanessa; Freyhof, Jörg; Harrison, Ian; He, Fengzhi; Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement; Zarfl, Christiane; Darwall, William

    2017-10-01

    Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich. Freshwater megafauna co-occur with up to 93% of mapped overall freshwater biodiversity. Fifty-eight percent of the 132 megafauna species included in the study are threatened, with 84% of their collective range falling outside of protected areas. Of all threatened freshwater species, 83% are found within the megafauna range, revealing the megafauna's capacity as flagship and umbrella species for fostering freshwater conservation.

  17. Freshwater gastropods in the Northern littoral mesoregion of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Andrade de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazilhave been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.

  18. 4 Prevalence of Snail.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    to infection (Webbe, 1981) and about 131 million infected in Sub-Saharan Africa alone. The disease is endemic in Ghana and its public health importance was reported by. McCullough (1954), who noted then that approximately 20% of the total population of. Prevalence of Snail Vectors of Schistosomiasis in the Kpong.

  19. Optimal stocking densities of snails [ Archachatina marginata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal stocking densities of breeding and fattening snails [Archachatina marginata Saturalis A.m.s (Swainson)] were determined through two experiments (five treatments, four replicates and randomised complete block design each) between April and December 1998.Experiment 1 had 3,6, 12, 17 and 22 A.m.s. adult ...

  20. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  1. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel. Rohini Balakrishnan. Research News Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 86-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/06/0086-0090 ...

  2. Toxicity of Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Kernel Extract on Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musman, Musri

    2010-12-01

    A number of tropical plant species have been recognised as molluscicidal plants, and Barringtonia racemosa (L.) is one of these. The toxicity effects of B. racemosa seed kernel extracts on Pomacea canaliculata were evaluated. The lethal concentration at 50% [LC50 (lower-upper limits)] values, in ppm/48 hours, were 70.71 (41.33-120.97), 94.39 (62.48-142.59), 186.84 (129.21-270.17), and 672.72 (366.57-1234.53) for the extracts withdrawn using dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), heptane (hp) solvents, respectively at 95% confidence interval (C. I.). All analyses were conducted using Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) program version 1.5. It is assumed that the observed biological effects of the extracts may be due to the saponins and flavonoids present in the seed. The dichloromethanic and methanolic extracts contain saponin and flavonoid substances. Therefore these extracts have shown more potent molluscicidal activity towards the tested organism compared to the remaining extracts. This observed biological activity suggests a promising role for B. racemosa in the control of P. canaliculata.

  3. CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Knjaz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic characteristics of freshwater fishery in Croatia are predominantly negative trend in the past twenty years. Even though the total fish pond area covers more than 12,000 hectares, only 6,200 hectares of carp ponds and 58,700 m2 of trout ponds have been exploited. In 2006 the production of total freshwater fish reached 6,547 tons, out of which the production of consumable fish amounted to 5,067 tons and the juveniles 1,480 tons. The export of freshwater fish to EU countries, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Monte Negro shows the positive trend and the Republic of Croatia continuously records a foreign trade surplus (987,000 US$. It must be pointed out, though, that the import of trout from Bosnia and Herzegovina significantly increased in the past three years which resulted in the decrease of the foreign trade surplus in that sector. The freshwater fishery in Croatia has been overly burdened by many problems

  4. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade

  5. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  6. Prognostic significance of snail expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Dalu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Hexi District, Tianjin (China); Liang, Jun [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Li, Rong [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Hexi District, Tianjin (China); Liu, Shihai [Department of Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Jigang [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chen, Dong [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Many patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) have a poor prognosis. Snail, a transcription factor and E-cadherin repressor, is a novel prognostic factor in many cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between snail and E-cadherin protein expression and the prognostic significance of snail expression in HC. We examined the protein expression of snail and E-cadherin in HC tissues from 47 patients (22 males and 25 females, mean age 61.2 years) using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Proliferation rate was also evaluated in the same cases by the MIB1 index. High, low and negative snail protein expression was recorded in 18 (38%), 17 (36%), and 12 (26%) cases, respectively, and 40.4% (19/47) cases showed reduced E-cadherin protein expression in HC samples. No significant correlation was found between snail and E-cadherin protein expression levels (P = 0.056). No significant correlation was found between snail protein expression levels and gender, age, tumor grade, vascular or perineural invasion, nodal metastasis and invasion, or proliferative index. Cancer samples with positive snail protein expression were associated with poor survival compared with the negative expresser groups. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing different snail protein expression levels to survival showed highly significant separation (P < 0.0001, log-rank test). With multivariate analysis, only snail protein expression among all parameters was found to influence survival (P = 0.0003). We suggest that snail expression levels can predict poor survival regardless of pathological features and tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemical detection of snail protein expression levels in routine sections may provide the first biological prognostic marker.

  7. Snail acetylation by histone acetyltransferase p300 in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rui; Zhang, Yinjie; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and dynamic molecular event in lung cancer metastasis that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. EMT transcriptional factors, such as Snail, play a central role in regulation of the EMT process. In this study, we sought to identify an association between p300 and Snail in lung cancer, as well as the engagement of p300 in Snail acetylation. Methods We transfected p300 small interfering RNA into lung cancer cells to detect S...

  8. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  9. Allelic variation partially regulates galactose-dependent hydrogen peroxide release from circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Euan R O; Blouin, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms that are detrimental to human and agricultural health. Understanding the immune responses of these snails could be vital for finding ways to block transmission of those parasites. Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility to schistosomes. Here we tested whether genes in that region, termed the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC), are involved in recognition of common pathogen-associated molecules that have been shown to be stimulants of the hydrogen peroxide defense pathway. We show that hemocytes extracted from individuals with one of the three GRC genotypes released less hydrogen peroxide than the other two genotypes, after stimulation with galactose. This difference was not observed after stimulation with several other microbial-associated carbohydrates, despite those ligands sharing the same putative pathway for hydrogen peroxide release. Therefore, we conclude that allelic variation in the GRC region may influence the recognition of galactose, rather than the conserved downstream steps in the hydrogen peroxide pathway. These results thus are consistent with the hypothesis that proteins produced by this region are involved in pathogen recognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of water and food in the entry of certain radionuclides into the organism of the pond snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the role of Elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich.) and the aquatic medium in accumulation of strontium-90, cesium-137, cerium-144, and ruthenium-106 by a freshwater aquatic gastropod, the pond snail Limnaea stagnalis L., under laboratory conditions. The mollusks were collected for investigation in boggy lakes in the Lithuanian SSR near Kurshkii Bay. Taking the radionuclide concentration in mollusks of variant I as 100% we find that from radioactive food mollusks accumulated strontium-90 and cerium-144 in the shells only at 2 and 5%, respectively, and in the body at 4 and 26%. Higher levels of accumulation in the mollusk body of cerium-144 and also of ruthenium-106 in the case of nourishment by radioactive Elodea are apparently connected with the high radionuclide CA in the food material, Elodea, and accumulation of these radionuclides in the mollusk gastrointestinal tract. It has been established that during accumulation of pond snails of cerium-144 from radioactive food the principal quantity is found in the gastrointestinal tract (Marchyulenene, 1969). Cerium-144 enters other organs and tissues of pond snails from radioactive food in considerably smaller quantities.

  11. DNA strand breaks detected in embryos of the adult snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and in neonates exposed to genotoxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Revel, Messika; Garric, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    We tested the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which is a species that has already been used for endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to determine whether early life stages of aquatic organisms are sensitive to genotoxic chemicals. For this purpose, we first developed the alkaline comet assay on adults, embryos, and neonates. The comet assay protocol was validated on both embryonic cells exposed in vitro to hydrogen peroxide and adult snails in the reproducing stage exposed to methyl methane sulfonate. During the latter experiment, DNA strand breaks were investigated on both embryonic cells and on adult gill cells. The second part of this study investigated the stability of DNA strand breaks in adult reproducing snails and neonates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and bisphenol A for 8 days. Hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strand breaks in vitro in isolated embryonic cells. Exposure of adult reproducing snails to methyl methane sulfonate for 24 h induced DNA strand breaks in embryos. Bisphenol A induced a significant increase in the DNA strand-break level in whole embryonic cells and whole neonate cells. Cd was genotoxic for both embryos and neonates during the exposure time and also after 7 days of depuration, suggesting that Cd could inhibit DNA repair enzymes. These preliminary results on this original model have encouraged us to consider the impact of genotoxic environmental contaminants on the F1 generation.

  12. Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman F Abou El Naga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased.

  13. Characterization of snail1 and pten transcriptional regulation by snail1: New insights into epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell resistance to apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Escrivà Izquierdo, María

    2008-01-01

    The product of the snail1 gene (SNAIL1) is a transcriptional repressor required for triggering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). SNAIL1 transcription is induced when epithelial cells are forced to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, ectopic expression of snail1 in epithelial cells promotes resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that this resistance to ã radiation-induced apoptosis caused by Snail1 is associated with the transcriptional inhibition of PTE...

  14. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 μg/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 μg/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 μg/mL, gastrulae at 124 μg/mL, trochophore at 180 μg/mL, and veliger at 222 μg/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity.

  15. The role of the proteinase inhibitor ovorubin in apple snail eggs resembles plant embryo defense against predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sebastián Dreon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fieldwork has thoroughly established that most eggs are intensely predated. Among the few exceptions are the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata which have virtually no predators. Its defenses are advertised by the pigmented ovorubin perivitellin providing a conspicuous reddish coloration. The nature of the defense however, was not clear, except for a screening for defenses that identified a neurotoxic perivitellin with lethal effect on rodents. Ovorubin is a proteinase inhibitor (PI whose role to protect against pathogens was taken for granted, according to the prevailing assumption. Through biochemical, biophysical and feeding experiments we studied the proteinase inhibitor function of ovorubin in egg defenses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mass spectrometry sequencing indicated ovorubin belongs to the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor family. It specifically binds trypsin as determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and cross-linking studies but, in contrast to the classical assumption, it does not prevent bacterial growth. Ovorubin was found extremely resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal proteolysis. Moreover feeding studies showed that ovorubin ingestion diminishes growth rate in rats indicating that this highly stable PI is capable of surviving passage through the gastrointestinal tract in a biologically active form. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of the interaction of an egg PI with a digestive protease of potential predators, limiting predator's ability to digest egg nutrients. This role has not been reported in the animal kingdom but it is similar to plant defenses against herbivory. Further, this would be the only defense model with no trade-offs between conspicuousness and noxiousness by encoding into the same molecule both the aposematic warning signal and an antinutritive/antidigestive defense. These defenses, combined with a neurotoxin and

  16. The Role of the Proteinase Inhibitor Ovorubin in Apple Snail Eggs Resembles Plant Embryo Defense against Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ituarte, Santiago; Heras, Horacio

    2010-01-01

    Background Fieldwork has thoroughly established that most eggs are intensely predated. Among the few exceptions are the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata which have virtually no predators. Its defenses are advertised by the pigmented ovorubin perivitellin providing a conspicuous reddish coloration. The nature of the defense however, was not clear, except for a screening for defenses that identified a neurotoxic perivitellin with lethal effect on rodents. Ovorubin is a proteinase inhibitor (PI) whose role to protect against pathogens was taken for granted, according to the prevailing assumption. Through biochemical, biophysical and feeding experiments we studied the proteinase inhibitor function of ovorubin in egg defenses. Methodology/Principal Findings Mass spectrometry sequencing indicated ovorubin belongs to the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor family. It specifically binds trypsin as determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cross-linking studies but, in contrast to the classical assumption, it does not prevent bacterial growth. Ovorubin was found extremely resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal proteolysis. Moreover feeding studies showed that ovorubin ingestion diminishes growth rate in rats indicating that this highly stable PI is capable of surviving passage through the gastrointestinal tract in a biologically active form. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of the interaction of an egg PI with a digestive protease of potential predators, limiting predator's ability to digest egg nutrients. This role has not been reported in the animal kingdom but it is similar to plant defenses against herbivory. Further, this would be the only defense model with no trade-offs between conspicuousness and noxiousness by encoding into the same molecule both the aposematic warning signal and an antinutritive/antidigestive defense. These defenses, combined with a neurotoxin and probably unpalatable

  17. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Spiecker, Lisa; Messerschmidt, Claudia; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Landfester, Katharina; Markl, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Rhogocytes, also termed "pore cells", occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing) freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing) freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized hemocyanin molecules

  18. On the Ultrastructure and Function of Rhogocytes from the Pond Snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kokkinopoulou

    Full Text Available Rhogocytes, also termed "pore cells", occur as solitary or clustered cells in the connective tissue of gastropod molluscs. Rhogocytes possess an enveloping lamina of extracellular matrix and enigmatic extracellular lacunae bridged by cytoplasmic bars that form 20 nm diaphragmatic slits likely to act as a molecular sieve. Recent papers highlight the embryogenesis and ultrastructure of these cells, and their role in heavy metal detoxification. Rhogocytes are the site of hemocyanin or hemoglobin biosynthesis in gastropods. Based on electron microscopy, we recently proposed a possible pathway of hemoglobin exocytosis through the slit apparatus, and provided molecular evidence of a common phylogenetic origin of molluscan rhogocytes, insect nephrocytes and vertebrate podocytes. However, the previously proposed secretion mode of the respiratory proteins into the hemolymph is still rather hypothetical, and the possible role of rhogocytes in detoxification requires additional data. Although our previous study on rhogocytes of the red-blooded (hemoglobin-containing freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata provided much new information, a disadvantage was that the hemoglobin molecules were not unequivocally defined in the electron microscope. This made it difficult to trace the exocytosis pathway of this protein. Therefore, we have now performed a similar study on the rhogocytes of the blue-blooded (hemocyanin-containing freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The intracellular hemocyanin could be identified in the electron microscope, either as individual molecules or as pseudo-crystalline arrays. Based on 3D-electron microscopy, and supplemented by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and stress response experiments, we provide here additional details on the structure and hemocyanin biosynthesis of rhogocytes, and on their response in animals under cadmium and starvation stress. Moreover, we present an advanced model on the release of synthesized

  19. Molecular detection of the infection with Fasciola hepatica in field-collected snails of Galba truncatula and Lymnaea stagnalis from West Azarbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhchali, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is considered as the most common cause of fasciolosis in both domestic livestock and human. This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of the larval stages of F. hepatica in the snails Galba truncatula and Lymnaea stagnalis in West Azarbaijan, Iran. Snail collection was performed through searching 28 freshwater habitats from May to December 2010. Following the identification of the two snail species, polymerase chain reaction (PCR was utilized to amplify the 28SrRNA gene of F. hepatica in the snails’ tissues. The amplified DNA fragment was subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. According to the RFLP patterns, 16.6% of the examined G. truncatula and 1.1% of L. stagnalis were infected by F. hepatica. While there was not detected infection with larval stages of F. gigantica in any examined snails. The RFLP analysis of 28SrRNA gene was proven to be a useful tool for detection of the infection and its transmission by the intermediate hosts, and can help with the establishment of suitable control programs against fasciolosis in livestock and human in any region of interest.

  20. Alguns dados bioecológicos de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, predador-competidor de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 Some bioecological data regarding Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 predator-competitor of intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas observações no laboratório e no campo, em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, com a finalidade de se obter informações biológicas e ecológicas sobre Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, molusco pilídeo, competidor-predador de hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon 1907.Observations carried out in the laboratory and the field (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil offered the following biological and ecological informations Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1853, mollusk pilid, predator and competitor of Schistosoma mansoni intermediary host.

  1. Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Comparative effect of snail shell, limestone and oyster shell as sources of dietary calcium on performance and egg quality characteristics of laying. ... egg production, internal and external qualities of eggs of hens. The 6-week ... Key words: Laying hens, oyster shell, limestone, snail shell, egg quality ...

  2. Effects of artificially induced aestivation on edible tropical land snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aestivated snails showed significant (p<0.05) weight loss of between 37-39% when compared with the control. Aestivated snails underwent reversible biochemical mechanism, becoming active upon sensory stimuli of contact with water at the end of experimentation. Animal Production Research Avancees Vol. 3 (1) 2007: ...

  3. Comparative Studies of two Fresh Water Snail Distributions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combinations of abiotic and biotic factors exert their influences on fecundity, hence population density of snail hosts living in fresh water. However, only few distinct relationships have been established in snail ecology due to lack of precise data and difficulty in defining and evaluating the significance of an individual ...

  4. Snail fauna and investigations into the incidence of schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study aimed at identifying the current snail fauna of Oguta Lake in Oguta 1 of Oguta LGA, Imo State, was carried out between May 2012 and January 2013. Four sites were surveyed using standard scoop method consisting of flat wire mesh and iron handle. The species of snails were identified based on shell morphology.

  5. Proximate and chemical composition of three species of snails in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to determine the proximate and chemical composition of three common species of snails in Nigeria. The species were Archachatina marginata (T1), Achatina achatina (T2), and Achatina fulica (T3). The three species constituted the three treatments and thirty-six adult snails were used for this trial ...

  6. Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Snail Farmers, Consumers And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic characteristic of snail farmers in Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) was evaluated in two out of the four zones that were available. The two zones selected were Ibadan/Ibarapa and Oyo zones, to determine the factors related to snail production, consumption and marketing in the ...

  7. Population biology of the common land snail Limicolaria flammea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A population study to determine the number of and distribution of the common land snail Limicolari flammea in a selected garden habitat is reported. A total snail population of 859 and 975 using the Lincoln index and Welch formula respectively were obtained for a farm garden measuring 1250m2 while the distribution of the ...

  8. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitats and patterns of vertical migration of the shell banding morphs of the snail Sitala jenynsi (Pfeiffer) were studied in Dar es Salaam and Wazo regions of central coastal Tanzania Both dimorphic and trimorphic populations were arboreal throughout the year. The snails occurred randomly within mid-heights 180 to ...

  9. Demographic characteristics related to consumption of snail meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and percentages) and inferential (chi-square) statistics. Findings of the study revealed that most of the respondents are male, single, between 20 and 30 years and have formal education. Also it was found that most respondents earn between N1, 000 and N10, 000 as income. Consumption level (number of snails) of snail ...

  10. Management of shells of giant African snails (Achatinidae) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: this study aimed to estimate the amount of snail's shells produced in the Abidjan City and the mode of management of empty shells for possible reuse. Methodology and Results: An investigation was carried out by a questionnaire on 120 snail retailers' in the markets of Abidjan. The data was stripped by Sphinx ...

  11. Management of shells of giant African snails (Achatinidae) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Conclusion and application of results: A better understanding of the snail's marketing chain is essential for eventual use of the shell by-product. ... reach the final consumer, the snail follows a circuit that includes a large number of ... information gathered was stripped by Sphinx Plus2 software. RESULTS.

  12. Predatory Poiretia (Stylommatophora, Oleacinidae) snails: histology and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helwerda, Renate A.

    2015-01-01

    The predatory behaviour of Poiretia snails is studied. One aspect of this behaviour is the ability to make holes in the shells of prey snails. The radula and the histology of the mucous glands support the assumption that Poiretia secretes acidic mucus to produce these holes. Observation of a

  13. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...

  14. Community ecology of tropical forest snails: 30 years after Solem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical

  15. Biochemical evaluation of aestivation and starvation in two snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... aestivation and starvation on endogenous metabolic reserves in haemolymph of two snail species namely: Bulinus globosus (Morelet) ... food uptake ceases, water loss occurs and the snails are not able to rid themselves of their ..... Heart rate and body weight alteration in juvenile specimens of the tropical ...

  16. Effects of feeding adult snails Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... The feeding trial assessed the performance, carcass and sensory evaluation of adult snails fed solely on leaves of Stylosanthes guianensis or Lablab purpureus as substitute for pawpaw leaf. Ninety-six (96) adult snails were used for the trial, and they were shared into three groups. Each group was ...

  17. A Practical Approach To Backyard Snail - Farming | Akinnusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The housing and feeding requirements necessary for quick multiplication of snails were studied using fifty mature African giant land snails of the species Archachatina marginata (Swainson). Their initial weights ranged from 250g to 450g. The feeding materials used were green pawpaw fruits and leaves (Carico papaya), ...

  18. Pengaruh beberapa Jenis Ekstrak Tanaman sebagai Moluskisida Nabati terhadap Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Kardinan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been carried out at the Pest and Disease Laboratory, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogar, in the 1997. Research consisted of three parts, those were; (I The toxicity of Dens elliptica, Blumea balsamifera, and methaldehyde, by determining the LC50 values, (2 Effect of the leaves of B.balsamifera, Euphorbia tirucalli and Tephrosia vogelii, (3 Effect of the most poisonous plant as ovicides. Result showed that D.elliptica was the most poisonous material to golden snail with its LC50 value was 400ppm, but it was still under the toxicity value of methaldehyde (11. 78 ppm. There was no significant difference among B.balsamifera, T.vogelii and E. canaliculata, but extract of B.balsarnifera tended to be better material among those plant extracts tested. The extract of D.elliptica did not affect egg hatching of golden snail.

  19. Two new species of furcocercous cercariae infecting the fresh water snail,Thiara tuberculata(Müller) in Kozhikode and Malappuram districts of Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil, N K; Janardanan, K P

    2017-12-01

    Two new species of furcocercous cercariae, Cercaria sp. XVI Malabar n. sp. and Cercaria sp. XVII Malabar n. sp. were recovered from the freshwater snail, Thiara tuberculata in the Malabar region of Kerala. Cercaria sp. XVI Malabar n. sp., a pharyngeate, longifurcate furcocercous cercaria with two pairs of penetration glands and 10 pairs of flame cells was recovered from T. tuberculata collected from Kundayithode in Kozhikode district and Nilambur in Malappuram district of Kerala. Cercaria sp. XVII Malabar n. sp., another pharyngeate, longifurcate cercaria with a rudimentary ventral sucker was recovered from the same snail host collected from Nilambur in Malappuram district. Sporocysts of Cercaria sp. XVI Malabar n. sp. developed in the hepatopancreas, while that of Cercaria sp. XVII Malabar n. sp. were found developing in both hepatopancreas and stomach wall. The present paper describes the new species of cercariae in detail and compares them with related species to establish their systematic position.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity of the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, compared to sympatric native snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Levri

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is likely to be important in determining the invasive potential of a species, especially if invasive species show greater plasticity or tolerance compared to sympatric native species. Here in two separate experiments we compare reaction norms in response to two environmental variables of two clones of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, isolated from the United States, (one invasive and one not yet invasive with those of two species of native snails that are sympatric with the invader, Fossaria bulimoides group and Physella gyrina group. We placed juvenile snails in environments with high and low conductivity (300 and 800 mS in one experiment, and raised them at two different temperatures (16 °C and 22 °C in a second experiment. Growth rate and mortality were measured over the course of 8 weeks. Mortality rates were higher in the native snails compared to P. antipodarum across all treatments, and variation in conductivity influenced mortality. In both experiments, reaction norms did not vary significantly between species. There was little evidence that the success of the introduced species is a result of greater phenotypic plasticity to these variables compared to the sympatric native species.

  1. Land Snail Extinctions at Kalaeloa, O`ahu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Dye

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that the interpretation of Polynesian influence drawn from the stratigraphic record of sub-fossil land snails at Kalaeloa (O'ahu, Hawai'i is based on a unique stratigraphic sequence at a single sinkhole. The interpretation was then applied to other land snail sequences, despite their lack of evidence for Polynesian influence. We present a reanalysis of the stratigraphic record to conclude that Polynesians had little, if any, effect on land snail populations in sinkholes. We show that directional change in land snail populations was underway before Polynesians colonised the islands. Decreases in the diversity of snail populations, possibly indicative of environmental stress, do occur near the end of the stratigraphic sequence. Based on available dating evidence, however, these changes probably took place in the post-Contact period when the regional environment was radically altered by sugar cane cultivation.

  2. Toxicology of freshwater cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H M; Arachchi, D N Magana; Abeysekara, T; Guneratne, L

    2016-07-02

    Many chemical contaminants in drinking water have been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans after prolonged exposure. Cyanobacteria are one of the most potent and diverse groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. One key component of cyanobacterial success in the environment is the production of potent toxins as secondary metabolites, which have been responsible for numerous adverse health impacts in humans. Anthropogenic activities have led to the increase of eutrophication in freshwater bodies' worldwide, causing cyanobacterial blooms to become more frequent. The present article will discuss about harmful cyanobacteria and their toxicology with special references to microcystin, nodularin, and cylindrospermopsin.

  3. A survey of snail farms in Cross River State, Nigeria | Ogogo | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of snail in the wild has become threatened, and information on the efficiency and effectiveness of ex - situ management of snails in many areas is urgently needed for consistent supply of snails. This work, therefore surveyed the practice and adoption of snail farming technology in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  4. How parasitism, stream substrate, and movement patterns mediate response to disturbance in the snail Elimia flava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, A. M.; Feminella, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    Snails in the genus Elimia are abundant in southeastern USA streams, and also serve as intermediate hosts to parasitic trematodes. Previous work indicated that high-flows decrease snail abundance and trematode prevalence, and others have shown substrate type and snail size affect likelihood of snail dislodgement. To investigate how parasitism, size, substrate, and snail behavior influenced dislodgement, we placed Elimia flava in artificial streams containing tile or gravel substrates, and then exposed them to progressively increasing flow velocities ( ~10, 40, 90 cm/s) for 5 minutes each. We recorded snail behavior and time to dislodgement, and then preserved snails to quantify their size and parasite load. Snails on tile dislodged significantly faster than snails on gravel, and snails with high parasite loads also dislodged faster than snails without parasites. Parasitism also appeared to affect movement patterns: snails showing predominantly downstream movement had higher parasite loads than those that did not. Behavior also affected dislodgement probability, as snails moving upstream or to the waterline remained on the substrate longer than snails not showing those behaviors. Parasitism, substrate composition, and snail movement are useful predictors of the likelihood of dislodgement, and parasitism and substrate may both increase snail vulnerability to flow disturbance.

  5. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  6. Behavior of technetium in freshwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    In a previous study, /sup 95m/Tc, as a pertechnetate, was released to a small, experimental, freshwater pond, and the concentrations were determined in biotic and abiotic components of the pond ecosystem. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails. Results from this study indicated that uptake through the food chain was an important source of technetium to the higher trophic levels (i.e., fish). In the current study, an experimental pond was spiked with /sup 95m/Tc in the pertechnetate form, and the concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were measured in the lower trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on measuring the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Fish were excluded from the pond to allow the development of a large zooplankton population. The concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in water decreased from 0.75 Bq/mL 1 h after the pond was spiked, to 0.21 Bq/mL at 20 d. Throughout the experiment, at least 98% of the /sup 95m/Tc in the water was in the dissolved fraction (0.4 ..mu..m). Zooplankton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, having concentration factors (Bq/g sample wet wt. divided by Bq/g water) ranging from 3 at 4 h to 36 at 20 d. Concentration factors ranged from 3 to 8 for benthic insects and from 1 to 62 for the aquatic macrophyte.

  7. Behavior of technetium in freshwater environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    In a previous study, /sup 95m/Tc, as a pertechnetate, was released to a small, experimental, freshwater pond, and the concentrations were determined in biotic and abiotic components of the pond ecosystem. A simple mathematical model was developed to predict the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in fish and snails. Results from this study indicated that uptake through the food chain was an important source of technetium to the higher trophic levels (i.e., fish). In the current study, an experimental pond was spiked with /sup 95m/Tc in the pertechnetate form, and the concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were measured in the lower trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on measuring the concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Fish were excluded from the pond to allow the development of a large zooplankton population. The concentration of /sup 95m/Tc in water decreased from 0.75 Bq/mL 1 h after the pond was spiked, to 0.21 Bq/mL at 20 d. Throughout the experiment, at least 98% of the /sup 95m/Tc in the water was in the dissolved fraction (0.4 μm). Zooplankton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, having concentration factors (Bq/g sample wet wt. divided by Bq/g water) ranging from 3 at 4 h to 36 at 20 d. Concentration factors ranged from 3 to 8 for benthic insects and from 1 to 62 for the aquatic macrophyte

  8. [Establishment of Oncomelania hupensis snail database based on smartphone and Google Earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-chun; Zhan, Ti; Zhu, Ying-fu

    2015-02-01

    To establish an Oncomelania hupensis snail database based on smartphone and Google Earth. The HEAD GPS software was loaded in the smartphone first. The GPS data of the snails were collected by the smartphone. The original data were exported to the computer with the format of KMIUKMZ. Then the data were converted into Excel file format by using some software. Finally, the results based on laboratory were filled, and the digital snail data were established. The data were converted into KML, and then were showed by Google Earth visually. The snail data of a 5 hm2-beach along the Yangtze River were collected and the distribution of the snails based on Google Earth was obtained. The database of the snails was built. The query function was implemented about the number of the total snails, the living snails and the schistosome infected snails of each survey frame. The digital management of the snail data is realized by using the smartphone and Google Earth.

  9. Effects of sewage sludge amendment on snail growth and trace metal transfer in the soil-plant-snail food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-11-01

    Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in a soil plant (Lactuca sativa) continuum were measured after sewage sludge amendment. The effects of sewage sludge on growth and trace metal bioaccumulation in snails (Cantareus aspersus) were investigated in a laboratory experiment specifically designed to identify contamination sources (e.g., soil and leaves). Application of sewage sludge increased trace metal concentrations in topsoil. However, except Zn, metal concentrations in lettuce leaves did not reflect those in soil. Lettuce leaves were the main source of Zn, Cu, and Cd in exposed snails. Bioaccumulation of Pb suggested its immediate transfer to snails via the soil. No apparent toxic effects of trace metal accumulation were observed in snails. Moreover, snail growth was significantly stimulated at high rates of sludge application. This hormesis effect may be due to the enhanced nutritional content of lettuce leaves exposed to sewage sludge.

  10. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  11. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  12. Metabolomics to explore imidacloprid induced toxicity in the central nervous system of the freshwater snail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufi, S.; Stel, J.M.; de Boer, J.; Lamoree, M.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Modern toxicology is seeking new testing methods to better understand toxicological effects. One of the most concerning chemicals is the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Although imidacloprid is designed to target insects, recent studies have shown adverse effects on nontarget species.

  13. occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the ruvu basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    relationships of other east African trematodes species not of medical or veterinary importance has accumulated (Fain. 1953, Vercammen-Grandjean 1960, Loker et ... through rice fields south of the playgrounds at the main campus of the University of Dar es Salaam. Only B. forskalii was obtained from this stream. Methods.

  14. Effects of engineered nanoparticles on survival, reproduction, and behaviour of freshwater snail, Physa acuta (Draparnaud, 1805)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the end of the 4 week experimental period. Egg laying frequency gradually increased during the first 2-w of the experiment, and the laying activities (number of egg masses and eggs per mass) remained relatively close in numbers in test chambers..., fungi and dead organic mat- ter) attached to rocks and stones. Although concentrations of 0.5 g kg�1 of c-alumina and a-alumina inhibits hatching or induce slow development, it did not prevent egg laying, which indicate that the eggs and embryos were...

  15. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  16. PENGARUH VARIASI KONSENTRASI BUAH MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia TERHADAP MORTALITAS HAMA KEONG MAS (Pomacea caniculata L. SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmanah Chomsun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This Reseach aims to study the effect of variation and dose morinda fruit that most effective applicable to mortality gold snail disease, to use product of research as design source study of biologi Junior High School class VIII. Researching on education Laboratory Muhammadiyah Metro of University at November 2012. The design of research employs analisis of varians non-parametrik with Kruskal-Wallis test with four treatments an three time replication. First treatments is control (not having dose, second consentration 50gr/L, third consentration 100gr/L, and fouth consentration 150 gr/L. Product of research to indicated morinda fruit effective to mortality gold snail  disease. Indication is transformation of occured such as descend activity of consume food and mobility, operculum to close, having mucus, not respons, and according  part soft of body to transformation of color to be chalky color or bad color, body of snail to exit for the hard outer layer of body skin, and the gold snail floating on a top suface. This condition indicate that a chemical composite saponin in morinda fruit to affect the process of chemical in a organism, central nerve, and respiration of gold snail. Kata Kunci: Buah mengkudu, mortalitas keong mas, sumber belajar biologi.

  17. Modelling the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails using Maxent in Ndumo area, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Manyangadze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa transmitted by freshwater snails. The distribution of schistosomiasis coincides with that of the intermediate hosts as determined by climatic and environmental factors. The aim of this paper was to model the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats for Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail species (intermediate hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. Methods Maximum Entropy (Maxent modelling technique was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitats for B. globosus and B. pfeifferi using presence-only datasets with ≥ 5 and ≤ 12 sampling points in different seasons. Precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI, pH, slope and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI were the background variables in the Maxent models. The models were validated using the area under the curve (AUC and omission rate. Results The predicted suitable habitats for intermediate snail hosts varied with seasons. The AUC for models in all seasons ranged from 0.71 to 1 and the prediction rates were between 0.8 and 0.9. Although B. globosus was found at more localities in the Ndumo area, there was also evidence of cohabiting with B. pfiefferi at some of the locations. NDWI had significant contribution to the models in all seasons. Conclusion The Maxent model is robust in snail habitat suitability modelling even with small dataset of presence-only sampling sites. Application of the methods and design used in this study may be useful in developing a control and management programme for schistosomiasis in the Ndumo area.

  18. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were

  19. Reproductive impacts of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) in the hermaphroditic freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Barsi, Alpar; Dugué, Maël; Collinet, Marc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Roig, Benoit; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2013-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) are emblematic endocrine disruptors, which have been mostly studied in gonochoric prosobranchs. Although both compounds can simultaneously occur in the environment, they have mainly been tested separately for their effects on snail reproduction. Because large discrepancies in experimental conditions occurred in these tests, the present study aimed to compare the relative toxicity of TBT and TPT under similar laboratory conditions in the range of 0 ng Sn/L to 600 ng Sn/L. Tests were performed on the simultaneous hermaphrodite Lymnaea stagnalis, a freshwater snail in which effects of TPT were unknown. Survival, shell length, and reproduction were monitored in a 21-d semistatic test. Frequency of abnormal eggs was assessed as an additional endpoint. Triphenyltin hampered survival while TBT did not. Major effects on shell solidity and reproduction were observed for both compounds, reproductive outputs being more severely hampered by TBT than by TPT. Considering the frequency of abnormal eggs allowed increasing test sensitivity, because snail responses to TBT could be detected at concentrations as low as 19 ng Sn/L. However, the putative mode of action of the 2 compounds could not be deduced from the structure of the molecules or from the response of apical endpoints. Sensitivity of L. stagnalis to TBT and TPT was compared with the sensitivity of prosobranch mollusks with different habitats and different reproductive strategies. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Effect of temperature on the predation rate of the pearl cichlid (Geophagus brasiliensis on the channeled applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariany Rabello da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on the intensity of predation upon snails. The experiment was run for 60 days using 15 cement tanks with water temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34°C in a completely randomized design with three replications. The pearl cichlids (n = 4 per tank were distributed in tanks with heaters, which increased the water temperature by 1°C h-1, in a room held at 17°C. The snails were selected (up to 3 mm and distributed among the tanks (n = 32 per tank. The period of exposure to predation was 18 h, and the index of predation was significantly lower at 18°C. Temperatures between 26 and 34 did not result in significant differences in predation. It was conclude that the pearl cichlids prey efficiently on snails at temperatures of 26°C and above.