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Sample records for fresh water samples

  1. Tritium concentration in fresh, brackish and sea-water samples in Rokkasho-Village, Japan, bordered by nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, S.; Kakiuchi, H.; Kondo, K.; Inaba, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify the concentration of tritium ( 3 H) in areas of fresh, brackish and sea water, bordered by nuclear fuel facilities at Rokkasho-Village, Aomori, Japan, water samples were collected from 2001 to 2004 at six points in those areas. Concentration ranges of tritium in fresh river water, brackish lake and seawater samples were 0.60 to 1.1 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.79 Bq x l -1 ), 0.20 to 0.87 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.41 Bq x l -1 ), and 0.08 to 0.25 Bq x l -1 (mean value 0.15 Bq x l -1 ), respectively. Relationships between tritium concentrations and salinity in the samples showed a clear negative correlation. Moreover, the seasonal variation of tritium in water from Rokkasho-Village was high in spring and low in fall. (author)

  2. Radiological study of brackish and fresh water food samples in Lagos and Ondo states, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.J.; Ojo, O.C.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of the average radioactivity concentration in brackish and fresh water food samples in Lagos and Ondo States of Nigeria was carried out using a very sensitive gamma spectroscopic system consisting of a 76 mm x 76 mm Nal (TI) scintillation detector coupled to a computerized ACCUSPEC installation. All the radionuclide detected are traceable to the naturally occurring 4 ''0K and ''2''3''2Th. The average concentrations of ''2''3''8U and ''2''3''2Th were found to be higher in brackish water food samples, 50.92±7.04 Bq/kg and 24.60± 6.47 Bq/kg respectively. The average concentration of ''4''0K was found to be higher in food samples got from freshwater, 738.94±84.81Bq/kg

  3. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  4. Environmental methodology. Sampling and preparing fresh water organisms. Measuring of emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, Luc; Philippot, J.C.; Baudin-Jaulent, Yvette.

    1982-05-01

    This paper provides some initial responses to questions asked by users of radioecological documents. By using aquatic plants and fish drawn ''in situ'' the authors' results often reveal very low activity levels; they make a point of knowing how to deal with such levels, since the fundamental objective is to interpret transfer mechanisms. The establishment of the environmental level of radioactivity requires that the write-ups produced demonstrate the use of reproducible methods, and contain results for which the extent of reliability is clearly specified. Aquatic plants and fish are, among all fresh water organisms, the most interesting links in the study of artificial and natural radioactivity. By systematically using concrete examples, this work reaffirms the precautions that should be taken in a site study. Once the objective is clearly defined, the properties to give to the sampling can be specified [fr

  5. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  6. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  8. A device for fresh water sampling before radioactive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, Henri; Picat, Philippe.

    1982-06-01

    On account of the many field operations carried out by the laboratory, a water sampling device has been developed. This portable autonomous device performs in situ water filtration and concentration on ion exchange resins and activated carbon columns. The device is described and the trapping performance for 8 radionuclides is given. A comparison is made with the so-called evaporation method. The effects of the treatment of the filtrating elements on the radioactive results are studied. This sampling method is very sensitive [fr

  9. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Fresh Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yang Mun; Kim, O Sik; Kim, Jin Nam; Kim, Cheol Su

    1985-02-01

    This book tells US summary of fresh water with evaporation system like basic principle and outline, multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect evaporation, other evaporation, evaporation plant by development merger, design of evaporation plant, reverse osmosis on summary, type and production of membrane, reverse osmosis device, reverse osmosis process, electrodialysis with outline of electrodialysis and polarization and energy, freezing preservation and corrosion and scale.

  11. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  12. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  13. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  14. Study on low pressure evaporation of fresh water generation system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Han Shik; Wibowo, Supriyanto; Shin, Yong Han; Jeong, Hyo Min [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong (Korea, Republic of); Fajar, Berkah [University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2012-02-15

    A low pressure evaporation fresh water generation system is designed for converting brackish water or seawater into fresh water by distillation in low pressure and temperature. Distillation through evaporation of feed water and subsequent vapor condensation as evaporation produced fresh water were studied; tap water was employed as feed water. The system uses the ejector as a vacuum creator of the evaporator, which is one of the most important parts in the distillation process. Hence liquid can be evaporated at a lower temperature than at normal or atmospheric conditions. Various operating conditions, i.e. temperature of feed water and different orifice diameters, were applied in the experiment to investigate the characteristics of the system. It was found that these parameters have a significant effect on the performance of fresh water generation systems with low pressure evaporation.

  15. A Green Preconcentration Method for Determination of Cobalt and Lead in Fresh Surface and Waste Water Samples Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt (Co and lead (Pb in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine as a chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents (oxine and Triton X-114, temperature, incubation time, and sample volume. After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0.26 μg L−1 and 0.44 μg L−1 were obtained for Co and Pb, respectively. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (SRM 1643e was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample.

  16. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H

    2000-02-01

    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  17. Determination of trace metals in natural fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, K.; Borg, H.; Korhonen, M.

    1989-06-01

    The determination method still most widely used is atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace. The natural levels of several elements are however too low to be accurately determined without any preconcentration. Besides, in sea water, the high salt content causes matric effects, which require time consuming separation steps as solvent extraction or ion exchange. The report describes two procedures for preconcentration of fresh water samples, freeze-drying and replicate injections in the furnace, respectively. The procedures are designed to be used on a routine basis. All water samples are collected in polypropylene bottles which are soaked before use in HCl 1+1, rinsed and allowed to stand until use filled with 0.1 M HNO 3 . The samples are preserved by addition of conc. HNO 3 (2 ml/l, sub boiling distilled). In the freeze-drying procedure, the samples are weighed and frozen in the pre-weighed polypropylene sampling bottles and evaporated to about one tenth of the original volume in the vaccum chamber of a freeze dryer. The samples are then weighed again for determination of the concentration factor and alayzed by graphite furnace AAS. When using the other procedure, the water samples are directly injected into the frunace for several times (2-8) before atomization and measurement of the absorption signal. The drying and ashing step is allowed to proceed after every injection. Comparisons of the two procedures have shown good agreement. The advantage of the replicate injection technique is primarily that the concentration factor is more esily controlled and repeated than by the freeze drying procedure. Further, the latter procedure sometimes suffers from precipitates being formed during the evaporation,especially in humic waters rich in iron. (12 figs., 7 tabs., 14 refs.)

  18. Influence of fresh water, nutrients and DOC in two submarine-groundwater-fed estuaries on the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aisling M; Cave, Rachel R

    2012-11-01

    Coastal fresh water sources, which discharge to the sea are expected to be directly influenced by climate change (e.g. increased frequency of extreme weather events). Sea-level rise and changes in rainfall patterns, changes in demand for drinking water and contamination caused by population and land use change, will also have an impact. Coastal waters with submarine groundwater discharge are of particular interest as this fresh water source is very poorly quantified. Two adjacent bays which host shellfish aquaculture sites along the coast of Co. Galway in the west of Ireland have been studied to establish the influence of fresh water inputs on nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in each bay. Neither bay has riverine input and both are underlain by the karst limestone of the Burren and are susceptible to submarine groundwater discharge. Water and suspended matter samples were collected half hourly over 13 h tidal cycles over several seasons. Water samples were analysed for nutrients and DOC, while suspended matter was analysed for organic/inorganic content. Temperature and salinity measurements were recorded during each tidal station by SBE 37 MicroCAT conductivity/temperature sensors. Long-term mooring data were used to track freshwater input for Kinvara and Aughinish Bays and compare it with rainfall data. Results show that Kinvara Bay is much more heavily influenced by fresh water input than Aughinish Bay, and this is a strong source of fixed nitrogen to Kinvara Bay. Only during flood events is there a significant input of inorganic nitrogen from fresh water to Aughinish Bay, such as in late November 2009. Fresh water input does not appear to be a significant source of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) to either bay, but is a source of DOC to both bays. C:N ratios of DOC/DON show a clear distinction between marine and terrestrially derived dissolved organic material. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Monolith Chromatography as Sample Preparation Step in Virome Studies of Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Kutnjak, Denis; Rački, Nejc; Rupar, Matevž; Ravnikar, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Viruses exist in aquatic media and many of them use this media as transmission route. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new doors in virus research, allowing also to reveal a hidden diversity of viral species in aquatic environments. Not surprisingly, many of the newly discovered viruses are found in environmental fresh and marine waters. One of the problems in virome research can be the low amount of viral nucleic acids present in the sample in contrast to the background ones (host, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, environmental). Therefore, virus enrichment prior to NGS is necessary in many cases. In water samples, an added problem resides in the low concentration of viruses typically present in aquatic media. Different concentration strategies have been used to overcome such limitations. CIM monoliths are a new generation of chromatographic supports that due to their particular structural characteristics are very efficient in concentration and purification of viruses. In this chapter, we describe the use of CIM monolithic chromatography for sample preparation step in NGS studies targeting viruses in fresh or marine water. The step-by-step protocol will include a case study where CIM concentration was used to study the virome of a wastewater sample using NGS.

  20. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Indus Basin of Pakistan to develop strategies for the safe exploitation of fresh upper groundwater layer through multi-strainer skimming wells in the areas having deeper saline groundwater. Results of detailed investigations are given in this paper. A methodology was designed for investigations and to study the movement of saline-fresh water interface. For this purpose deep observation wells were installed and water samples from various depths over a period of wells operational hours have been collected. Water quality of these samples was tested to evaluate the movement of saline-fresh water interface. Results indicated that there exists a relatively fresh water aquifer above the depth of 20m. Relatively impervious layer and clay lenses of variable thickness exists at various locations in the area. There is relatively less contribution from the lower aquifer as compared to the lateral movement of water to the well above the impervious layers. The skimming wells were operated for a different number of hours and water quality evaluated. The results show that the quality and quantity of the pumped groundwater can be improved with intermittent pumping for 4-6 hours per day under drought conditions and recovery of the water-table is quick. Moreover, the intermittent pumping maintained a minimum suction lift that helped get a relatively good discharge. Continuous long term pumping proved to be dangerous which can cause saline water intrusion. It is recommended to avoid long term pumping of skimming wells. Intermittent short hours operation can be helpful for safe exploitation of fresh water and make skimming well operation more cost effective. It is further added that 4-6 strainers make these skimming wells cost effective as compared to having a large number of strainers in a skimming well. (author)

  1. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light in combination of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to inactivate Salmonella on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuanghuan; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-09-18

    With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce. In general, the water-assisted UV treatment was found to be the most effective for both produce items. Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide were then tested to determine whether they could be used to enhance the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV treatment and prevent transfer of Salmonella via wash water by completely eliminating it. Neither of them significantly enhanced water-assisted UV inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes. Chlorine significantly improved the decontamination effectiveness of the water-assisted UV treatment for baby-cut carrots and lettuce, but not for spinach. In general, the single water-assisted UV treatment and the combined treatment of water-assisted UV and chlorine were similar or more effective than the chlorine washing treatment. In most of the cases, no Salmonella was detected in the wash water when the single water-assisted UV treatment was used to decontaminate tomatoes. In a few cases when Salmonella was detected in the wash water, the populations were very low,≤2CFU/mL, and the wash water contained an extremely high level of organic load and soil level. Therefore, the single water-assisted UV treatment could potentially be used as an environmentally friendly and non-chemical alternative to chlorine washing for tomatoes after validation in industrial scale. For lettuce, spinach and baby-cut carrots, the combined treatment of water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine

  2. Insight into the prevalence and distribution of microbial contamination to evaluate water management in the fresh produce processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Sampers, Imca; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-04-01

    This study provided insight into the degree of microbial contamination in the processing chain of prepacked (bagged) lettuce in two Belgian fresh-cut produce processing companies. The pathogens Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. Total psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial counts (TPACs) in water samples, fresh produce, and environmental samples suggested that the TPAC is not a good indicator of overall quality and best manufacturing practices during production and processing. Because of the high TPACs in the harvested lettuce crops, the process water becomes quickly contaminated, and subsequent TPACs do not change much throughout the production process of a batch. The hygiene indicator Escherichia coli was used to assess the water management practices in these two companies in relation to food safety. Practices such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection of washing baths, irregular refilling of the produce wash baths with water of good microbial quality, and the use of high product/water ratios resulted in a rapid increase in E. coli in the processing water, with potential transfer to the end product (fresh-cut lettuce). The washing step in the production of fresh-cut lettuce was identified as a potential pathway for dispersion of microorganisms and introduction of E. coli to the end product via cross-contamination. An intervention step to reduce microbial contamination is needed, particularly when no sanitizers are used as is the case in some European Union countries. Thus, from a food safety point of view proper water management (and its validation) is a critical point in the fresh-cut produce processing industry.

  3. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  4. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  5. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  6. Concentration of 137Cs by certain species of fresh water invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of experimental studies on 137 Cs accumulation by fresh-water invertebrates of various taxonomic groups are given. The invertebrate 137 Cs accumulative ability depends on the species belonging, age and sex of the animal. Radionuclide deposition by Cladocera depends on water temperature. Mollusc embryons need different quantities of cerium for their development. An appreciable role in 137 Cs extraction from fresh water is attributed to fry, adult Gammarus and Daphnia

  7. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  8. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  9. Basic study of water-cement ratio evaluation for fresh mortar using an ultrasonic measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza Haffies Ismail; Murata, Yorinobu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is for the basic study of ultrasonic evaluation method for the determination of the water-cement-ratio (W/C) in fresh concrete at the early age of hardening. Water-cement ratio is a important parameter to evaluate the strength of concrete for concrete construction. Using an ultrasonic pulse measurement technique, wave velocity and frequency variations depend on the age of concrete during hardening process could be evaluated. As a sample test, fresh mortar of water-cement ratio of 40 %, 50% and 60 % was poured into cylindrical plastic mould form (φ100 mm x 50 mm). For an ultrasonic pulse wave transmission technique, two wide band ultrasonic transducers were set on the top and bottom surface of mortar, and start measuring from 10 minutes after pouring water until 60 minutes of 5 minutes of intervals. As a result, it was confirmed that wave velocity and center frequency were changed with the age of mortar depends on the water-cement ratio. (author)

  10. Optimized operation of a solar driven thermoelectric dehumidification system for fresh water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)], Email: maj18@aub.edu.lb, email: farah@aub.edu.lb, email: ka04@aub.edu.lb

    2011-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing humanity is the scarcity of water resources; around 15% of people in the Arab world who do not have access to fresh water. A solar-driven thermoelectric system has been designed to dehumidify air and generate fresh water and combined with a solar distiller, which humidifies the air, the quantity of fresh water produced is further increased. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of this system. A case study was carried out in the Lebanese coastal humid climate zone on a residential space of 80m2 with water needs of 10 liters per day during summer months. Results showed that water requirements can be met with 5 thermoelectrically cooled channels and a solar distiller and that it would result in energy savings of from 17 to 45% during summer. This study demonstrated that the association of solar-driven thermoelectric systems and a solar distiller can provide fresh water at a low cost.

  11. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  12. Disposal of radioactive wastes into fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-03-01

    The fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh water will be influenced not only by the volume of the water available for dilution, but also by a number of other physical, chemical and biological factors like replacement of the water mass, turbulence and location of the currents, chemical composition of effluent and receiving water, suspended materials, thermal characteristics and density differences, precipitation and sedimentation, ion-exchange and adsorption, incorporation by living organisms, and special features characteristics of the type of water body involved, i.e. whether stream, lake, estuary or sub-surface. 50 refs, 8 figs, 24 tabs.

  13. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  14. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  15. On the substantion of permissible concentrations of plutonium isotopes in the water of fresh water and sea water NPP cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, M.I.; Gusev, D.I.; Stepanova, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Substantiation of maximum permissible concentration (PC) of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) in fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs of NPP with fast neutron reactors is given. The main criterion when calculating permissible plutonium content in water of surface reservoirs is the requirement not to exceed the established limits for radiation doses to persons resulted from water use. Data on coefficients of plutonium concentration in sea and fresh water hydrobionts are presented as well as on plutonium PC in water of fresh and sea water cooling reservoirs and bottom sediments of sea water cooling reservoirs. It is shown that doses to critical groups of population doesn't exceed potentially hazardous levels due to plutonium intake through food chains. But the calculation being carried out further should be corrected

  16. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Rainfall Distribution and the Possibility for Healthy and Fresh Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The information of rain water quality in Indonesia is rarely recorded, where as it is important for the region in which the source of fresh water is unavailable. Rain water composition is mostly ascertained by water vapour and ions which are available in the atmosphere during vapouration. In fact the rain water composition of coast region is sea water like and rain water chemical composition of urban are then become HNO3 and HSO4, while rain water of active vulcanic region eventuality has a high sulphur-wombed so that its quality sulphuric-acid. For the region in which the source of fresh water is unavailable the rain water is previously sterilized. Sterilization is consecutively done by adding salts, killing all bacteria, spores, and filltering.

  18. Is the fresh water fish consumption a significant determinant of the internal exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Sébastien; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Moussa, Oumar; Le Bizec, Bruno; Veyrand, Bruno; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    PFAS are man-made compounds that are highly spread in the environment. Human dietary exposure to such contaminants is of high concern as they may accumulate in the food chain. Different studies already demonstrated the importance of the fish consumption in the dietary exposure of these molecules and the potential increase of internal doses of PFAS following the consumption of PFAS. However, so far few study aimed to study the link between the consumption of fresh water fishes and the internal exposure to PFAS. Objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the internal exposure of populations that are potentially high consumers of fresh water fishes and (ii) to determine whether the consumption of fish caught from fresh water is a significant determinant of the internal exposure of PFAS. In this work, a large sample of adult freshwater anglers from the French metropolitan population (478 individuals) was constituted randomly from participants lists of anglers associations. Questionnaires provided social and demographic information and diet information for each subject. In addition, analyses of blood serum samples provided the internal concentration of 14 PFAS. The survey design allowed to extrapolate the data obtained on the 478 individuals to the freshwater angler population. Descriptive data regarding internal levels of PFAS were discussed at the population level, whereas identification of the determinants were done at the 478 individuals level as sufficient contrast was required in terms of fresh water fish consumption. Only molecules for which the detection frequency were above 80% in blood were considered, i.e., PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFHpS, and PFDA. Distribution profiles showed log-normal distribution and PFOS and PFOA were the main contributors of the PFAS sum. For PFOS, the results obtained on the 478 individuals showed that upper percentiles were higher as compared to upper percentiles obtained on occidental general population. This confirmed an over

  19. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  20. Determination of 99Tc in fresh water using TRU resin by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; de Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack; Dai, Xiongxin

    2017-10-02

    Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) determination at trace level by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging because there is no readily available appropriate Tc isotopic tracer. A new method using Re as a recovery tracer to determine 99 Tc in fresh water samples, which does not require any evaporation step, was developed. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were pre-concentrated on a small anion exchange resin (AER) cartridge from one litre of water sample. They were then efficiently eluted from the AER using a potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution. After the reduction of KMnO 4 in 2 M sulfuric acid solution, the sample was passed through a small TRU resin cartridge. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) retained on the TRU resin were eluted using near boiling water, which can be directly used for the ICP-MS measurement. The results for method optimisation, validation and application were reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA barcoding of selected UAE medicinal plant species: a comparative assessment of herbarium and fresh samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, Mohamed Rizk; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed; Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly difficult to extract and amplify DNA from herbarium samples as they are old and preserved using different compounds. In addition, such samples are subjected to the accumulation of intrinsically produced plant substances over long periods (up to hundreds of years). DNA extraction from desert flora may pause added difficulties as many contain high levels of secondary metabolites. Herbarium samples from the Biology Department (UAE University) plant collection and fresh plant samples, collected from around Al-Ain (UAE), were used in this study. The three barcode loci for the coding genes matK, rbcL and rpoC1-were amplified. Our results showed that T. terresteris , H. robustum , T. pentandrus and Z. qatarense were amplified using all three primers for both fresh and herbaium samples. Both fresh and herbarium samples of C. comosum , however, were not amplified at all, using the three primers. Herbarium samples from A. javanica , C. imbricatum , T. aucherana and Z. simplex were not amplified with any of the three primers. For fresh samples 90, 90 and 80% of the samples were amplified using matK, rbcL and rpoC1, respectively. In short, fresh samples were significantly better amplified than those from herbarium sources, using the three primers. Both fresh and herbarium samples from one species ( C. comosum ), however, were not successfully amplified. It is also concluded that the rbcL regions showed real potentials to distinguish the UAE species under investigation into the appropriate family and genus.

  2. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Determination of low-level Radium isotope activities in fresh waters by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Porras, Arnold; Condomines, Michel; Seidel, Jean Luc

    2017-01-01

    A new portable sampling system was developed to extract Radium isotopes from large volumes (up to 300 L) of fresh surface- and ground-waters of low Ra-activities (<5 mBq/L). Ra is quantitatively adsorbed on a small amount (6.5 g) of MnO_2-coated acrylic fibers, which are then dried and burned at 600 °C in the laboratory. The resulting Mn-oxide powder (about 2 cm"3 when compacted) is then analyzed through gamma-ray spectrometry which allows measurement of the whole Ra quartet ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "2"2"4Ra and "2"2"3Ra) in a single counting of a few days. The usual relative standard combined uncertainties (1σ) are 2–3% for "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"2"4Ra; and less than 10% for "2"2"3Ra. This method was applied to the analysis of Ra in karstic waters of the Lez aquifer, and surface- and ground-waters of the upper and middle Vidourle watershed (South of France). The analyzed waters have relatively low "2"2"6Ra activities (1–4 mBq/L) in both cases, regardless of the contrasted geology (Mesozoic limestone vs crystalline Variscan basement), but clearly distinct ("2"2"8Ra/"2"2"6Ra) ratios in agreement with the differences in Th/U ratios of the two drained areas. Short-lived Ra isotopes ("2"2"4Ra and "2"2"3Ra) appear to be mainly influenced by near-surface desorption/recoil processes for most of the sampling sites. - Highlights: • New portable system for sampling fresh- and ground-waters of low Ra activities. • Simultaneous measurement of all four radium isotopes through gamma-spectrometry. • Relative uncertainties are 2% to 3% for "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"2"4Ra; and <10 % for "2"2"3Ra. • ("2"2"8Ra/"2"2"6Ra) ratios are valuable tracers of water origin in karstic aquifers.

  4. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  5. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Nicola D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, Katerina [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-03-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  6. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs

  7. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-03-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 °C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  8. Trace metals behaviour during salt and fresh water mixing in the Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghermandi, G.; Campolieti, D.; Cecchi, R.; Costa, F.; Zaggia, L.; Zonta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation on trace metals behaviour in the estuarine system of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon) are described. Hydrodynamical and water chemical-physical measurements and PIXE concentrations analysis on size-fractionated samples emphasize the complexity of the processes occurring in the area of salt and fresh water mixing. Suspended load variations in the bottom layer of the water column, which may be mostly ascribed to resuspension, regulate the trace metal concentrations and seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of pollutants in shallow water areas of the estuary. The behaviour of dissolved metals is masked by the presence of suspended matter, but some relationships with chemical-physical variables are distinguishable, furnishing information on the processes affecting their concentration in the system. (orig.)

  9. Evolutionary bottlenecks in brackish water habitats drive the colonization of fresh water by stingrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, K N; Hauffe, T; Stelbrink, B; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

    2017-08-01

    Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood. Herein, we estimated the geographic pathways of freshwater colonization and inferred the mode of habitat transitions. Further, we assessed habitat-related speciation rates in a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework to understand factors driving the transition of stingrays into and the diversification within fresh water. Using South American and Southeast Asian freshwater taxa as model organisms, we found one independent freshwater colonization event by stingrays in South America and at least three in Southeast Asia. We revealed that vicariant processes most likely caused freshwater transition during the time of major marine incursions. The habitat transition rates indicate that brackish water species switch preferably back into marine than forth into freshwater habitats. Moreover, our results showed significantly lower diversification rates in brackish water lineages, whereas freshwater and marine lineages exhibit similar rates. Thus, brackish water habitats may have functioned as evolutionary bottlenecks for the colonization of fresh water by stingrays, probably because of the higher variability of environmental conditions in brackish water. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization

  11. Review: Impacts of permafrost degradation on inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicola; Salerno, Franco; Gruber, Stephan; Freppaz, Michele; Williams, Mark; Fratianni, Simona; Giardino, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is impacting the inorganic chemical characteristics of surface fresh water in permafrost areas and affecting aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of major ions (e.g., Ca2 +, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-) can increase following permafrost degradation with associated deepening of flow pathways and increased contributions of deep groundwater. In addition, thickening of the active layer and melting of near-surface ground ice can influence inorganic chemical fluxes from permafrost into surface water. Permafrost degradation has also the capability to modify trace element (e.g., Ni, Mn, Al, Hg, Pb) contents in surface water. Although several local and regional modifications of inorganic chemistry of surface fresh water have been attributed to permafrost degradation, a comprehensive review of the observed changes is lacking. The goal of this paper is to distil insight gained across differing permafrost settings through the identification of common patterns in previous studies, at global scale. In this review we focus on three typical permafrost configurations (pervasive permafrost degradation, thermokarst, and thawing rock glaciers) as examples and distinguish impacts on (i) major ions and (ii) trace elements. Consequences of warming climate have caused spatially-distributed progressive increases of major ion and trace element delivery to surface fresh water in both polar and mountain areas following pervasive permafrost degradation. Moreover, localised releases of major ions and trace elements to surface water due to the liberation of soluble materials sequestered in permafrost and ground ice have been found in ice-rich terrains both at high latitude (thermokarst features) and high elevation (rock glaciers). Further release of solutes and related transport to surface fresh water can be expected under warming climatic conditions. However, complex interactions among several factors able to influence the timing and magnitude of the impacts

  12. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  13. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  14. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  15. Differentiation of fresh and frozen-thawed fish samples using Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioğlu, Hasan Murat; Temiz, Havva Tümay; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2015-04-01

    The potential of Raman spectroscopy was investigated in terms of its capability to discriminate the species of the fish samples and determine their freshness according to the number of freezing/thawing cycles they exposed. Species discrimination analysis was carried out on sixty-four fish samples from six different species, namely horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), red mullet (Mullus surmuletus), Bluefish (Pomatamus saltatrix), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and flying gurnard (Trigla lucerna). Afterwards, fish samples were exposed to different numbers of freezing/thawing cycles and separated into three batches, namely (i) fresh, (ii) once frozen-thawed (OF) and (iii) twice frozen-thawed (TF) samples, in order to perform the freshness analysis. Raman data collected were used as inputs for chemometric analysis, which enabled us to develop two main PCA models to successfully terminate the studies for both species discrimination and freshness determination analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anezaki, S.

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs

  17. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  18. On-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by radioactive-wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemi, T.; Arai, M.; Enomoto, S.; Suzki, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The committee on nondestructive inspection for steel reinforced concrete structures in the Federation of Construction Materials Industries, Japan has published a proposed standard for on-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by the radioactive wave method. By applying a neutron technique, water amount in fresh concrete is estimated continuously from the energy consumption of neutron due to hydrogen. A standard is discussed along with results of verification tests. Thus, on-line monitoring for water amount is proposed

  19. Cytological comparison of gill chloride cells and blood serum ion concentrations in kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum spawners from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremanzadeh Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea and fresh water (Khoshkrood River environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature. Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

  20. Study on transport safety of fresh MOX fuel. Performance of the cladding tube of fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    It is important to know the ability of the cladding tube for fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure when they were hypothetically sunk into the sea for unknown reasons. In order to evaluate the ability of cladding tubes for MOX fresh fuel against external water pressure, external water pressure tests were carried out. Resistible limit of cladding tubes against external water pressure is defined when cladding tubes are deformed largely due to buckling etc. The test results show cladding tube of BWR type can resist an external water pressure of 69 MPa (a depth of water of 7,000 m) and that of PWR type fuel can resist an external water pressure of 54 MPa (a depth of water of 5,500 m). Moreover, leak tightness is maintained at an external water pressure of 73 MPa (a depth of water of 7,400 m) for BWR type cladding tubes and at an external water pressure of 98 MPa (a depth of water of 10,000 m) for PWR type cladding tubes. (author)

  1. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  2. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  3. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  4. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sulfate in the Fresh Water, King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, B.; Mayer, B.; Kaufman, A. J.; Park, S.; Kim, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) were measured for the sulfate of the fresh water near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Sejong station is located in the Barton peninsular of the King George Island. The geology around King Sejong station mainly composed of basalt-andesite, quart monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Lapilli tuff, conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone occur along the southern and eastern shore of the Barton peninsula. Lapilli tuff also occurs on the highland located on southeastern part of the Barton peninsula. The δ34S values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 13.7 to 16.3 per mil excluding 1 sample. These sulfur values are very narrow in their range compared with those from anthropogenic sources. These sulfur values are 5 to 7 per mil lower than those of typical present seawater. Considering the rocks occurring near the King Sejong station, these sulfur isotopic values do not seem to be related to any evaporites of certain age. In Antarctic region the natural source of sulfate dissolved in water could be originated from marine biogenic source (DMS), sea-salt, volcanic source, or other continental sources. Most of the δ34S values of sulfate at King Sejong station seems to indicate the dominance of marine biogenic origin for the source of sulfur. The δ18O values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 1.9 to 6.4 per mil excluding 1 sample. These oxygen isotope values are lower than those of the sulfate in the present seawater by 6 per mil. However, both sulfur and oxygen isotope values strongly represent the influence of the seawater sulfate. One sample have 2.6 and -1.1 per mil in its δ34S and δ18O values, respectively, that are quite different from the isotopic values of other samples. This sample was collected in the highland far from the King Sejong station. Therefore this sample might reflect the composition of

  5. Estimating Pasture Quality of Fresh Vegetation Based on Spectral Slope of Mixed Data of Dry and Fresh Vegetation—Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to apply a slope-based spectral method to both dry and fresh pasture vegetation. Differences in eight spectral ranges were identified across the near infrared-shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Slopes across these ranges were calculated and a partial least squares (PLS analytical model was constructed for the slopes vs. crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents. Different datasets with different numbers of fresh/dry samples were constructed to predict CP and NDF contents. When using a mixed-sample dataset with dry-to-fresh ratios of 85%:15% and 75%:25%, the correlations of CP (R2 = 0.95, in both and NDF (R2 = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively were almost as high as when using only dry samples (0.97 and 0.85, respectively. Furthermore, satisfactory correlations were obtained with a dry-to-fresh ratio of 50%:50% for CP (R2 = 0.92. The results of our study are especially encouraging because CP and NDF contents could be predicted even though some of the selected spectral regions were directly affected by atmospheric water vapor or water in the plants.

  6. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  7. Towards the proposal of an environmental quality standard for uranium in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents elements gathered by the IRSN to contribute to the determination of the standard of environmental quality related to uranium. After a presentation of values published by different bodies for the protection of the aquatic environment (water quality criteria), this report describes the determination of the fresh water chronic PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) of uranium: method, available chronic eco-toxicity data and selection principles, PNEC obtained by applying safety factors or by statistical approach, PNEC per bio-availability domain, practical elements for a correct use of a PNEC. It finally proposes a PNEC for fresh water

  8. The bioconcentration of 131I in fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg -1 /Bq L -1 , 0.00573 h -1 , and 12.42 Bq kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The relative concentrations of 131 I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of 131 I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  10. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  11. The minimization of the fresh water consumption for the paper chemicals; Tuoreveden kaeytoen minimointi paperikemikaalien kaeytoessae - MPKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoesoe, K. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    When reducing the consumption of fresh water in the paper making process there are two different things concerning the use of the paper chemicals. First, a lot of fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Secondly, the decreased use of fresh water is often detrimental to the efficiency of the paper chemicals, which leads to an extended need of these chemicals and therefore also to an increased use of fresh water. The aim of this study is to find out the possibilities concerning the choice of chemicals, the internal purification of the circulation water and the feeding procedure of chemicals to decrease the amount of fresh water needed for the dilution and feed of paper chemicals without harmful effects to the efficiency of chemicals. It will be investigated, how the sensitiveness of paper chemicals for impurities of the dilution or feed water depends on their different properties. Also the feasibility to reduce the dosage or increase the concentration of the chemical solution, which is dosed to the process, will be examined. (orig.)

  12. The minimization of the fresh water consumption for the paper chemicals; Tuoreveden kaeytoen minimointi paperikemikaalien kaeytoessae - MPKT 06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoesoe, K [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-12-31

    When reducing the consumption of fresh water in the paper making process there are two different things concerning the use of the paper chemicals. First, a lot of fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Secondly, the decreased use of fresh water is often detrimental to the efficiency of the paper chemicals, which leads to an extended need of these chemicals and therefore also to an increased use of fresh water. The aim of this study is to find out the possibilities concerning the choice of chemicals, the internal purification of the circulation water and the feeding procedure of chemicals to decrease the amount of fresh water needed for the dilution and feed of paper chemicals without harmful effects to the efficiency of chemicals. It will be investigated, how the sensitiveness of paper chemicals for impurities of the dilution or feed water depends on their different properties. Also the feasibility to reduce the dosage or increase the concentration of the chemical solution, which is dosed to the process, will be examined. (orig.)

  13. Thermal Balance in the Process of Fresh Water Production from Atmospheric Air Using the Sea Waves Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes and man-induced environmental load cause to a shortage of drinking quality fresh water. Upon that, fresh water sufficiency is one of the preconditions for quality assurance in adequate living standards as well as for domestic and foreign political stability especially in developing countries. A lot of technologies of fresh drinking water production are known today. Most of them involve significant power consumption and endanger to environment. As a rule these technologies use non-renewable hydrocarbons as power source. The author-developed technology of fresh drinking water obtaining from atmospheric air involves the use of clean renewable energy of the sea. This article bases the method of water production from the air. It is also describes technology implementation energy balance.

  14. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environment agriculture allows the production of fresh food indoors from global locations and contexts where it would not otherwise be possible. Growers in extreme climates and urban areas produce food locally indoors, saving thousands of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization of liquid desiccants in a closed indoor agriculture cycle provides the possibility of capturing plant-transpired water vapor. The regeneration/desalination of these liquid desiccants offers the potential to recover fresh water for irrigation and also to re-concentrate the desiccants for continued dehumidification. Through the utilization of solar thermal energy, the process can be completed with a very small to zero grid-energy footprint. The primary research in this dissertation focused on two areas: the dehumidification of indoor environments utilizing liquid desiccants inside membrane contactors and the regeneration of these desiccants using membrane distillation. Triple-bore PVDF hollow fiber membranes yielded dehumidification permeance rates around 0.25-0.31 g m-2 h-1 Pa-1 in lab-scale trials. A vacuum membrane distillation unit utilizing PVDF fibers yielded a flux of 2.8-7.0 kg m-2 hr-1. When the membrane contactor dehumidification system was applied in a bench scale controlled environment agriculture setup, the relative humidity levels responded dynamically to both plant transpiration and dehumidification rates, reaching dynamic equilibrium levels during day and night cycles. In addition, recovered fresh water from distillation was successfully applied for irrigation of crops and concentrated desiccants were successfully reused for dehumidification. If applied in practice, the liquid desiccant system for controlled environment agriculture offers the potential to reduce

  15. Quantifying the Global Fresh Water Budget: Capabilities from Current and Future Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The global water cycle is complex and its components are difficult to measure, particularly at the global scales and with the precision needed for assessing climate impacts. Recent advances in satellite observational capabilities, however, are greatly improving our knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget. Many components of the of the global water budget, e.g. precipitation, atmospheric moisture profiles, soil moisture, snow cover, sea ice are now routinely measured globally using instruments on satellites such as TRMM, AQUA, TERRA, GRACE, and ICESat, as well as on operational satellites. New techniques, many using data assimilation approaches, are providing pathways toward measuring snow water equivalent, evapotranspiration, ground water, ice mass, as well as improving the measurement quality for other components of the global water budget. This paper evaluates these current and developing satellite capabilities to observe the global fresh water budget, then looks forward to evaluate the potential for improvements that may result from future space missions as detailed by the US Decadal Survey, and operational plans. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest some priorities for the future, based on new approaches that may provide the improved measurements and the analyses needed to understand and observe the potential speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  16. Delineating fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS and groundwater quality data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.; Latif, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Mona project area, Bhalwal, district Sargodha to delineate fresh water and brackish water aquifers by GIS (Geographic Information System) and historic groundwater quality data of 138 deep tube wells installed in the study area. The groundwater quality zonations were made by overlapping maps of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) and RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate). Seven zones of groundwater quality consisting of good, marginal, hazardous and their combinations were identified. The results indicated redistribution of salts in the aquifer and rise in water table in some parts of the study area from 1965-1997. (author)

  17. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Analytical approach for predicting fresh water discharge in an estuary based on tidal water level observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Jiang, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the tidal wave propagates into an estuary, the tidally averaged water level tends to rise in landward direction due to the density difference between saline and fresh water and the asymmetry of the friction. The effect of friction on the residual slope is even more remarkable when accounting for

  19. Elimination of heparin interference during microarray processing of fresh and biobank-archived blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Brauers, Karen J J; de Kok, Theo M C M; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-07-01

    In the context of environmental health research, biobank blood samples have recently been identified as suitable for high-throughput omics analyses enabling the identification of new biomarkers of exposure and disease. However, blood samples containing the anti-coagulant heparin could complicate transcriptomic analysis because heparin may inhibit RNA polymerase causing inefficient cRNA synthesis and fluorophore labelling. We investigated the inhibitory effect of heparin and the influence of storage conditions (0 or 3 hr bench times, storage at room temperature or -80°C) on fluorophore labelling in heparinized fresh human buffy coat and whole blood biobank samples during the mRNA work-up protocol for microarray analysis. Subsequently, we removed heparin by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment and performed a quality control analysis of LiCl-treated biobank sample microarrays to prove their suitability for downstream data analysis. Both fresh and biobank samples experienced varying degrees of heparin-induced inhibition of fluorophore labelling, making most samples unusable for microarray analysis. RNA derived from EDTA and citrate blood was not inhibited. No effect of bench time was observed but room temperature storage gave slightly better results. Strong correlations were observed between original blood sample RNA yield and the amount of synthesized cRNA. LiCl treatment restored sample quality to normal standards in both fresh and biobank samples and the previously identified correlations disappeared. Microarrays hybridized with LiCl-treated biobank samples were of excellent quality with no identifiable influence of heparin. We conclude that, to obtain high quality results, in most cases heparin removal is essential in blood-derived RNA samples intended for microarray analysis. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ATMOSPHERIC COOLING TOWER USING FRESH AND SALTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling towers are extensively used to evacuate large quantities of heat at modest temperatures through a change of phase of the flowing cooling fluid. Based on this classical principle, the present study investigates the influence of salty water on the heat exchange produced. For that purpose, experiments are carried out using fresh and salty water. Furthermore, a comparison with the results produced through an approach involving the solution of energy equation involving the flow of air on an evaporating film of fluid. The detailed results show a preponderance of fresh water over the salty.

  1. Microbial Indicator Profiling of Fresh Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms and Packing Facilities in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Caballero, Cindy; Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; García, Rafael; Solís, Luisa; Burrowes, Vanessa; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan

    2016-07-01

    To compare microbiological indicator and pathogen contamination among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples along the production chain, 636 samples of produce (rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, and tomatoes) and environmental samples (rinsates from hands of workers, soil, and water) were collected at four successive steps in the production process (from the field before harvest through the packing facility) on 11 farms in northern Mexico during 2011 and 2012. Samples were assayed for enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, other Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) and microbial indicators (coliforms, other E. coli strains, and Enterococcus spp.). Salmonella was the only pathogen detected; it was found in one preharvest jalapeño sample (detection limits: 0.0033 CFU/ml in produce and hand samples, 0.0013 CFU/ml in water, and 0.04 CFU/g in soil). Microbial indicator profiles for produce, worker hands, and soil from jalapeño and tomato farms were similar, but cantaloupe farm samples had higher indicator levels (P soil (indicators were significantly more prevalent (70 to 89% of samples were positive; P = 0.01 to 0.02), and geometric mean levels were higher (0.3 to 0.6 log CFU/100 ml) than those in cantaloupe farm water (32 to 38% of samples were positive, geometric mean indicators were present during all production steps, but prevalence and levels were generally highest at the final on-farm production step (the packing facility) (P type and production step can inform the design of effective approaches to mitigate microbial contamination.

  2. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  3. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, F

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area

  4. Med-Ro Hybrid desalination as option to supply fresh water in BABEL Islands Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Sudi Ariyanto; June Mellawati; Budiarto

    2011-01-01

    Med-Ro hybrid desalination systems are combining both thermal (Med) and membrane (Ro) desalination processes with power generation systems. This configuration has more economical and operational benefits in comparison with single desalination plant. Hybrid configurations are characterized by flexibility in operation, specific energy consumption (33.50 kWh/m 3 ) is lower than Med (36.54 kWh/m 3 ) and high plant availability. The objective of study is to analyze the Med-Ro hybrid desalination as an option to add supply fresh water in Babel Islands Province, in terms of technology and economy aspects. The result of study showed that adopting nuclear power plants as dual-purpose for power generation and producing fresh water is has economic competitiveness than fossil-fired generation plants. Med-Ro hybrid configuration, with feed Ro from heat rejection of Med system is suitable as fresh water supply add option because increase of Ro feed temperature will increase flux. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using the Deep-3.2. Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro desalination with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of Med water cost (0.752 $/m ) . Water cost of hybrid Med-Ro with energy of NPP (0.581 $/m ) is lower than that of water cost of energy with fossil-fired generation plants (0.720 $/m 3 ). (author)

  5. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  6. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  7. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  8. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  10. Metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by several environmental stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kumiko; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)

  11. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  12. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorzelec Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland. To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  13. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Report on intercomparison IAEA/W-4 of the determination of trace elements in simulated fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1985-05-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison on the determination of trace elements in simulated fresh water. 20 trace elements were analyzed by 38 laboratories from 21 countries. The results of the reported comparison confirm the agreement of the nominal concentration values of trace elements in the IAEA/W-4 simulated fresh water with the determined values of these elements. They also confirm that concentrated solutions of this type can be stored in quartz ampoules without any noticeable changes due to the adsorption of trace components on the quartz wall of vessels for considerable time. The concentration values of trace elements could be certified and the material IAEA/W-4 simulated fresh water issued as a reference material. 84% of all results were obtained either by atomic absorption or by atomic emission spectroscopy

  15. Part of corrosion factor in metal cavitation-erosion failure in fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel', Yu.U.; Khaldeev, G.V.; Kichigin, V.I.; Pylaev, N.I.; Kuznetsov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of the study of the variation of the structure and of the electrochemical characteristics of the surface layer of a silicon-bearing iron and of 1Kh18N9T steel, immersed in fresh water, as a function of the intensity of a cavitation-erosion treatment. This treatment increases the rate of corrosion of the metal in fresh water, a growth in the mineralization of water enhancing the effect. Metallographic studies have shown that the most characteristic type of disintegration is the formation of pits on the metallic surface the distribution and the structure of which are governed by the microplastic deformation occurring in the cavitation work-hardening. A quantitative evaluation indicates that the ratio of the corrosion and the mechanical factors in the cavitation-erosion process depends not only on the intensity of the cavitation action, but also on the nature of the metal and its tendency to passivate

  16. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  17. Limnological study of fresh water of rawal dam, islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Ghafar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The limnological study of Fresh water of Rawal Dam was carried out for the first time from June 2000 to May 2001 during Research Project. C-PMNHIBio(311). Data was collected on physico-chemical properties of the Fresh water and the Algal Flora. The fluctuations of temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, salinity, T.D.S., Total hardness etc., were studied. From algal flora, a total. 291 algal species were found to belong to 108 genera 10 Phylum. From Cyanophyta, 68 species belongs to 21 genera with 23.37%, Volvocophyta 107 species belongs to 40 genera with 36.77%, Chlorophyta 18 species belongs to 13 genera with 6.19%, Bacillariophyta 66 species 19 genera with 22.67%, Chrysophyta 3 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.03%, Xanthophyta 5 species belongs to 5 genera with 1.72%, Vaucheriophyta 1 species belongs to 1 genus with 0.34%, Euglenophyta 16 species belongs to 4 genera with 1.72%, Dinophyta 5 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.72%, Charophyta 2 species belong to 1 genus with 0.7%, were recorded and classified by latest classification according to Shameel (2001). The present work shows the changes in physico-chemical factor along with algal flora in Rawal Dam during collection period and co-relation of different factors. (author)

  18. A statistical analysis of the freshness of postharvest leafy vegetables with application of water based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable freshness is very important for both restaurant and home consumers. In market, sellers frequently apply water to leafy vegetables to make them not lose weight and look fresh; however, these vegetables may not be stored for a long time as they appear. After a time limit, they may be quickly rotten. It is thus meaningful to investigate early and simple detection tools to measure leafy vegetable freshness while they are frequently applied water in selling. In this work, three types of newly harvested leafy vegetables were bought from a local farmer market and stored in the air with room temperature and roots submerging in water. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF from the vegetables was measured each half a day for three days. The obtained ChlF data were analyzed statistically and the correlation of ChlF parameters and vegetable freshness/storage time was obtained. The k-mean classification was also performed. It is found that Fo, Fj, Fm/Fo, and Fv/Fm can be used as an early detection tool to differentiate the freshness of leafy vegetables on which water is constantly applied in storage without visible difference. Keywords: Vegetable freshness, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Food measurement

  19. Transfer factor for 137Cs in fresh water aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Ramkumar, S.; John, Jaison T.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the most abundant radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and due to its long radiological half-life and chemical similarity to potassium it has greater biological significance. Radioactive waste materials generated at nuclear facilities are generally disposed within the plant premises under its administrative control for effective radiation protection practices. However trace quantities of radionuclides are released into the environment through liquid and gaseous releases under the guidelines of regulatory agencies. The concentration of these radioactive elements in the environment is not detectable under normal circumstances due to the large dispersion and dilutions available in the environment. But these radionuclides can get accumulated in environmental matrices like silt, weed etc. and indicate the presence of radioactivity in the environment. This paper presents the results of a face-controlled studies conducted at Environmental Survey Laboratories at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to estimate distribution of low-level radioactivity in the fresh water system. An attempt has been made to derive the Transfer Factor for 137 Cs in fish, weed, and silt and to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in water samples, which is otherwise not detectable under normal procedure of measurement. (author)

  20. Sorption of cobalt and zinc from fresh water and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus, R.; Weijden, C.H. van der; Das, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption of Cosup(II) and Znsup(II) from artificial fresh and sea water on to clay minerals is studied. The adsorption isotherms are measured at pH-values of 7 and 8. The specific adsorption of zinc is higher than that of cobalt. This is compatible with the higher average residence time of cobalt than that of zinc in the oceans

  1. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    Bacteria related to the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals have been detected in fresh and saline surface waters used for recreational purposes in coastal areas of Horry County, South Carolina, since the early 2000s. Specifically, concentrations of the facultative anaerobic organism, Enterococcus, have been observed to exceed the single-sample regulatory limit of 104 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of water. Water bodies characterized by these concentrations are identified on the 303(d) list for impaired water in South Carolina; moreover, because current analytical methods used to monitor Enterococcus concentrations take up to 1 day for results to become available, water-quality advisories are not reflective of the actual health risk.

  2. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  3. Development of latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces recovered from fresh and sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Somaya; Abeer Sheta; El Dine, Fatma Badr; Elwakeel, Yasser; AbdAllah, Nermine

    2017-01-01

    Criminal offenders have a fundamental goal not to leave any traces at the crime scene. Some may suppose that items recovered underwater will have no forensic value, therefore, they try to destroy the traces by throwing items in water. These traces are subjected to the destructive environmental effects. This can represent a challenge for forensic experts investigating fingerprints. The present study was conducted to determine the optimal method for latent fingerprints development on dry non-porous surfaces submerged in aquatic environments at different time interval. The quality of the developed fingerprints depending on the used method was assessed. In addition, two factors were analyzed in this study; the effects of the nature of aquatic environment and the length of submerged time. Therefore, latent fingerprints were deposited on metallic, plastic and glass objects and submerged in fresh and sea water for 1, 2, and 10 days. After recovery, the items were processed by black powder, small particle reagent and cyanoacrylate fuming and the prints were examined. Each print was evaluated according to fingerprint quality assessment scale. Cyanoacrylate developed latent prints found to have the highest mean visibility score after submersion in fresh and sea water for 1, 2 and 10 days. Mean visibility score of prints developed showed significant decline after 10 days of submersion. Prints submerged in fresh water showed significantly higher mean visibility score than those submerged in sea water using various methods of development and in all time intervals. The study demonstrated that it is possible to recover latent prints submerged in water on different studied dry non porous surfaces with the best visualization method using cyanoacrylate either in fresh or sea water. The duration of submersion affects the quality of fingerprints developed; the longer the duration, the worse the quality is. In addition, this study has revealed that the exposure to high salinity i

  4. Atmospheric moisture transport and fresh water flux over oceans derived from spacebased sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, W.

    2001-01-01

    preliminary results will be shown to demonstrate the application of spacebased IMT and fresh water flux in ocean-atmosphere-land interaction studies, such as the hydrologica balance on Amazon rainfall and Indian monsoon.

  5. Purification and partial characterization of haloperoxidase from fresh water algae Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, E F; Kline, P C; Wani, S; Woods, A E

    2000-02-01

    Many haloperoxidases have been purified from diverse organisms, including lichen, fungi, bacteria, and marine algae. In this study a haloperoxidase was purified from the fresh water algae, Cladophora glomerata, by homogenization and centrifugation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight was determined by SDS-PAGE and by size exclusion HPLC and found to be approximately 43 kDa. The isoelectric point was determined to be approximately 8.1 by isoelectric focusing. The UV spectrum of the peroxidase showed a strong absorbance in the Soret band indicating a heme protein, unlike vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases from marine algae. Fresh water algal haloperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of tyrosine at a pH of 3.1. This haloperoxidase also catalyzes the oxidation of guaiacol and oxidation of iodide as well as catalyzing a peroxide-dependent reaction in both the presence and absence of chloride and bromide ions.

  6. Biobanking of fresh frozen tissue from clinical surgical specimens: transport logistics, sample selection, and histologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Access to high-quality fresh frozen tissue is critical for translational cancer research and molecular -diagnostics. Here we describe a workflow for the collection of frozen solid tissue samples derived from fresh human patient specimens after surgery. The routines have been in operation at Uppsala University Hospital since 2001. We have integrated cryosection and histopathologic examination of each biobank sample into the biobank manual. In this way, even small, macroscopically ill-defined lesions can be -procured without a diagnostic hazard due to the removal of uncharacterized tissue from a clinical -specimen. Also, knowledge of the histomorphology of the frozen tissue sample - tumor cell content, stromal components, and presence of necrosis - is pivotal before entering a biobank case into costly molecular profiling studies.

  7. Dynamic Low-Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope Freeze Drying Observation for Fresh Water Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen, H.T.; Ghaly, W.A.; Zahran, N.F.; Helal, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    A new perpetration method for serving in dynamic examinations of the fresh water algae is developed in connection with the Low-Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (LV-SEM) freeze drying technique. Specimens are collected from fresh water of Ismailia channel then transferred directly to freeze by liquid nitrogen and dried in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope in the low vacuum mode. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the drying method presented the microstructure of algae. Dehydration in a graded ethanol series is not necessary in the new method. Dried algae specimen is observed in SEM high vacuum mode after conductive coating at higher resolution. Low-vacuum SEM freeze drying technique is a simple, time-saving and reproducible method for scanning electron microscopy that is applicable to various aquatic microorganisms covered with soft tissues.

  8. The model relationship of wastes for parameter design with green lean production of fresh water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastiadi Tamjidillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is about eliminating waste including the seven traditional, this writing suggested an observation on no value added of seven wastes influencing the process of fresh water production. The relationship value among waste was statistically verified to create an approach for continuous improvement action. Thus, the main goal of this research is to develop a methodology of relationship among wastes and eliminate them. In relationship among wastes, it could be known that the high value indicating how often it happened in the production process gave direct cause in the system of fresh water treatment. A recommendation to reduce the highest value of waste is by doing improvement on parameter setting to obtain an optimum mixing model between water supply, alum and stroke pump with Taguchi method. The interaction of relationship among these seven types of waste can be portrayed using fishbone diagram and a relationship model among wastes using PLS smart (partial least squares. The final relationship model with the highest value of waste was analyzed using off-line quality control to upgrade the quality of fresh water used as the basis to eliminate waste and find out the optimal parameter of mixing process in accordance with the health standard.

  9. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  10. Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Beaini, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Biomimicry offers innovative sustainable solutions for many dire resource-based challenges. The Namib Desert beetle (sp. Stenocara) invites us to explore how we can collect fresh water more energy-efficiently. The beetle's unique back features with alternating hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions, aid its survival in a water scarce desert environment. We investigated the feasibility for enhanced condensation by patterning a zinc oxide (ZnO) surface to mimic the beetle's back. ZnO was selected as t...

  11. A humane protocol for electro-stunning and killing of Nile tilapia in fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural, neural and physiological parameters were scored after electro-stunning of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three positions to an electric field in fresh water. An overall current density, 1.0 Arms/dm2, 50 Hz sinusoidal, applied for 1 s top-to-bottom in water (700 ¿S/cm), induced

  12. Radiological and hydrochemical study of thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea and Sperchios areas, Greece: insights into groundwater natural radioactivity and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, C; Mitropoulos, P; Argyraki, A

    2018-04-04

    A radiological and hydrochemical study has been conducted on thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea Island and eastern central Greece. Both areas are characterized by complex geology and are renowned since antiquity for their hot springs, that are exploited for therapeutic spa purposes until today. The aim of the study was to combine radiological and hydrochemical data in order to achieve a holistic water quality assessment with insights into the geology of the study areas. All samples were characterized with respect to their major and trace ion and element composition, as well as activity concentrations of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K. The samples demonstrated elevated natural radioactivity and U concentrations, especially in some locations of the Kamena Vourla area, reaching 179 Bq/L 222 Rn, 2.2 Bq/L 226 Ra, 2.9 Bq/L 228 Ra, and 17 μg/L U. The estimated circulation depth of thermal groundwater ranges between 250 m in central Greece and 1240 m in north Euboea study area, whereas the calculated water residence times range between 27 and 555 years. Our data suggest the possible presence of an unknown until know U-rich plutonic rock formation in Kamena Vourla area and immiscibility of the fresh and thermal groundwaters in the studied areas.

  13. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, M.K.; Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide ( 40 K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40 K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  14. Influence of cellulose ether particle size on water retention of freshly-mixed mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Patural , Laetitia; Govin , Alexandre; Grosseau , Philippe; Ruot , Bertrand; Deves , Olivier

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Cellulose ethers are polymers frequently introduced into mortar formulations in order to improve water retention capacity and workability of the freshly-mixed materials. Physico-chemical parameters of these admixtures (molecular weight, granulometry, substitution degrees, etc) seem to have a strong influence on mortar water retention capacity. In this paper, the influence of cellulose ether particle size was studied. Two behaviors were highlighted regarding the particl...

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  16. Relating the Electrical Resistance of Fresh Concrete to Mixture Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, K; Hong, R; Sherman, S; Bentz, D P; Jones, S Z

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of fresh concrete is critical for assuring the quality of our nation's constructed infrastructure. While fresh concrete arriving at a job site in a ready-mixed concrete truck is typically characterized by measuring temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content, here the measurement of the electrical resistance of a freshly cast cylinder of concrete is investigated as a means of assessing mixture proportions, specifically cement and water contents. Both cement and water contents influence the measured electrical resistance of a sample of fresh concrete: the cement by producing ions (chiefly K + , Na + , and OH - ) that are the main source of electrical conduction; and the water by providing the main conductive pathways through which the current travels. Relating the measured electrical resistance to attributes of the mixture proportions, such as water-cement ratio by mass ( w/c ), is explored for a set of eleven different concrete mixtures prepared in the laboratory. In these mixtures, w/c , paste content, air content, fly ash content, high range water reducer dosage, and cement alkali content are all varied. Additionally, concrete electrical resistance data is supplemented by measuring the resistivity of its component pore solution obtained from 5 laboratory-prepared cement pastes with the same proportions as their corresponding concrete mixtures. Only measuring the concrete electrical resistance can provide a prediction of the mixture's paste content or the product w*c ; conversely, when pore solution resistivity is also available, w/c and water content of the concrete mixture can be reasonably assessed.

  17. Properties of Concrete Exposed to Running Fresh Water for 24 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2008-01-01

    A total of nine concretes, comprising three cement types, incorporation of fly ash, superplasticized high strength concrete and high performance concrete with microsilica, have been monitored during 24 years of exposure to running fresh water under Danish outdoor climatic conditions....... The compressive strength development has been measured, and durability aspects have been assessed after 6 and 21 years of exposure, with very positive results....

  18. Strontium-90 sorption from fresh waters in the process of barium manganite modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhen'kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 extraction by barium manganite from fresh water (natural non-salty water in open ponds) may be increased adding to the solution the sulfate anion containing reagents that modify a sorbent and chemically bind a sorbate. Heterogeneous anion-exchanging reaction of barium manganite transformation into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and simultaneous coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microelement) occur as a result of it. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  20. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  1. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC total suspended solids (TSS total dissolved substances (TDS, total solids (TS, turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate & nitrate were examined. Results of the study indicated that water in Pennar river is highly contaminated and not safe for drinking. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, unscrupulous dumping of domestic wastes are the major causes of deterioration of water. Poor quality of drinking water was recorded as the major risk factor for the large-scale water-borne diseases in the area.

  3. Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila and Hartmannella vermiformis in fresh water environments and their interactions in biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, is widespread in natural fresh water environments and is also frequently found in man-made water systems. Microbial biofilms and protozoa are known to play a major role in the proliferation of L. pneumophila. Biofilms provide

  4. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or future conditions, to investigate the potential impact of a partial melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The most compelling examples of climatic changes potentially related to AMOC abrupt variations, however, are found in high resolution palaeo-records from around the globe for the last glacial period. To study those more specifically, more and more fresh water hosing experiments have been performed under glacial conditions in the recent years. Here we compare an ensemble constituted by 11 such simulations run with 6 different climate models. All simulations follow a slightly different design, but are sufficiently close in their design to be compared. They all study the impact of a fresh water hosing imposed in the extra-tropical North Atlantic. Common features in the model responses to hosing are the cooling over the North Atlantic, extending along the sub-tropical gyre in the tropical North Atlantic, the southward shift of the Atlantic ITCZ and the weakening of the African and Indian monsoons. On the other hand, the expression of the bipolar see-saw, i.e., warming in the Southern Hemisphere, differs from model to model, with some restricting it to the South Atlantic and specific regions of the southern ocean while others simulate a widespread southern ocean warming. The relationships between the features common to most models, i.e., climate changes over the north and tropical Atlantic, African and Asian monsoon regions, are further quantified. These suggest a tight correlation between the temperature and precipitation changes over the extra-tropical North Atlantic, but different pathways for the teleconnections between the AMOC/North Atlantic region

  5. Influence of conjunctive use of coffee effluent and fresh water on performance of robusta coffee and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakinkop, S R; Shivaprasad, P

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of treated coffee effluent irrigation on performance of established robusta coffee, nutrient contribution and microbial activities in the soil. The results revealed that the field irrigated with coffee effluent from aerobic tank having COD of 1009 ppm, did not affect the yield of clean coffee (1309 kg/ha) and it was statistically similar (on par) with the plots irrigated with fresh water (1310 kg/ha) with respect to clean coffee yield. Effluent irrigation increased significantly the population bacteria, yeast, fungi, actinomycetes and PSB (122, 52, 12, 34 and 6 x 104/g respectively)) in the soil compared to the soil irrigated with fresh water (87, 22, 5, 24 and 2 x 10(4)/g respectively). The organic carbon (2.60%), available nutrients in the soil like P (57.2 kg/ha), K (401.6 kg/ha, Ca (695.3 ppm), S (5.3 ppm),Cu (4.09 ppm) and Zn(4.78 ppm) were also increased due to effluent irrigation compared to fresh water irrigation. Thus analysis of coffee effluent for major and minor plant nutrients content revealed its potential as source of nutrients and water for plant growth.

  6. Pre-feasibility study of electron beam irradiation of fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finshi V, Silvia.

    1997-01-01

    A technical/economic evaluation of electron beam irradiation for the decontamination of liquids in the country is presented. Irradiation of fresh water is evaluated for the production of drinking water as a replacement for chlorine disinfection, which can lead to the formation of tri halo methanes. that are carcinogenic compounds. The technical literature states that the percentage of microorganisms removed by electro beam irradiation is high and similar to that found with chlorine disinfection. From an economic point of view, irradiation technology is not presently competitive as an alternative to conventional chlorination in terms of processing costs (US$0.23/m 3 ) instead of US$0.013/m 3 for conventional chlorination. Nevertheless, irradiation costs decreased sharply when unit costs for the accelerator machine are decreased with a resulting drop in capital costs

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes into fresh water. Report of an ad hoc panel of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh water will be influenced not only by the volume of the water available for dilution, but also by a number of other physical, chemical and biological factors like replacement of the water mass, turbulence and location of the currents, chemical composition of effluent and receiving water, suspended materials, thermal characteristics and density differences, precipitation and sedimentation, ion-exchange and adsorption, incorporation by living organisms, and special features characteristics of the type of water body involved, i.e. whether stream, lake, estuary or sub-surface.

  8. 17β-estradiol as precursors of Cl/Br-DBPs in the disinfection process of different water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanan; Pan, Zihan; Rong, Chuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Kefu

    2018-05-21

    During chlorine disinfection process, reactions between the disinfectant and 17β-estradiol (E2) lead to the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which can be a risk to both ecosystem and human health. The degradation and transformation products of E2 in sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) disinfection processes of different water samples were investigated. The reaction kinetics research showed that the degradation rates of E2 were considerably dependent on the initial pH value and the types of water samples. In fresh water, synthetic marine aquaculture water and seawater, the reaction rate constant was 0.133 min -1 , 2.067 min -1 and 2.592 min -1 , respectively. The reasons for the above phenomena may be due to the different concentrations of bromide ions (Br - ) in these three water samples which could promote the reaction between NaClO and E2. Furthermore, Br - could also cause the formation of brominated DBPs (Br-DBPs). The main DBPs, reaction centers and conceivable reaction pathways were explored. Seven halogenated DBPs have been observed including three chlorinated DBPs (Cl-DBPs) and four Br-DBPs. The active sites of E2 were found to be the pentabasic cyclic ring and the ortho position of the phenol moiety as well as C9-C10 position. The identified Cl/Br-DBPs were also confirmed in actual marine aquaculture water from a shrimp pond. The comparison of bio-concentration factors (BCF) values based on calculation of EPI-suite showed that the toxicities of the Br-DBPs were stronger than that of their chloride analogues. The absorbable organic halogens (AOX) analysis also suggested that the DBPs produced in the marine aquaculture water were more toxic than that in the fresh water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  10. Detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples by PCR amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Madsen, Lone; Bruun, Morten Sichlau

    2000-01-01

    investigation, the possible detection of Fl. psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples was examined using nested PCR with DNA probes against a sequence of the 16S rRNA genes. The DNA was extracted using Chelex(R) 100 chelating resin. The primers, which were tested against strains isolated from diseased...... fish, healthy fish, fish farm environments and reference strains, proved to be specific for Fl. psychrophilum. The obtained detection limit of Fl. psychrophilum seeded into rainbow trout brain tissue was 0.4 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 17 cfu mg(-1) brain tissue. The PCR-assay proved...... to be more sensitive than agar cultivation of tissue samples from the brain of rainbow trout injected with Fl. psychrophilum. In non-sterile fresh water seeded with Fl. psychrophilum the detection limit of the PCR- assay was 1.7 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 110 cfu ml(-1) water. The PCR...

  11. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of electrical stunning in fresh water of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and chilling in ice water for loss of consciousness and sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Kloosterboer, R.J.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate loss of consciousness and sensibility after electrical stunning in fresh water and live chilling in ice water for slaughter of African catfish using measurement of electrical brain and heart activity. To provoke immediate loss of consciousness and

  14. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  15. Location of leakages in the fresh water primary network distribution in the Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.G.; Perez, G.V.; Rodriguez, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the hydraulic net of Nuclear Centre in Salazar, Mexico was necessary the application of radioactive traces after very much efforts for locating the situation of leaks of water and not obtain satisfactory results for other methods. It was injected a small quantity of 24 Na 2 CO 3 in aqueous solution in the tank discharge which stores the fresh water. After the running water movement was followed for gamma radiation detection omitted by the 24 Na in grave digged each 100 meters along the pipes. In this work is presented the methodology used to locate two water leaks and the corresponding safety radiological considerations. (Author)

  16. Experimental investigation on a semi-circular trough-absorber solar still with baffles for fresh water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Nagarajan, P.K.; El-Agouz, S.A.; Jaiganesh, V.; Sathish Khanna, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to analyze the performance. • Baffles are placed in the absorber to increase the residence time of water with solar intensity. • Yield of fresh water from present solar still is 16.66% more than a conventional solar still. • Payback period of the present model is quicker. - Abstract: The main objective of this research is to increase the contact time of water in the basin to enhance yield of fresh water by using a semicircular absorber solar still with baffles. An experimental as well as theoretical investigation is carried out. The productivity and efficiency of present still are analyzed with the influence of the number baffles and the water flow rate. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed. The results indicate that, the daily yield of present solar still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 16.66%. The outlet water temperature present solar still is high subsequently, it can be coupled with multi-state of solar stills to increase productivity. Therefore, the present solar still can be sufficiently extended for other continuous solar desalination systems. Economic analysis concluded that, the payback period of the present model solar still is quicker while comparing it with other solar still

  17. Application of tidal energy for purification in fresh water lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rho-Taek Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve the quality of fresh water in the artificial lake after the reclamation of an intertidal flat at the mouth of a river, we suggest two novel methods of water purification by using tidal potential energy and an enclosed permeable embankment called an utsuro (Akai et al., 1990 in the reclaimed region. One method uses an inflatable bag on the seabed within an utsuro, while the other uses a moored floating barge out of a dyke. Each case employs a subsea pipe to allow flow between the inside and outside of the utsuro. The change in water level in the utsuro, which is pushed through the pipe by the potential energy outside, caused circulation in the artificial lake. In this paper, we analyzed the inflatable bag and floating barge motion as well as the pipe flow characteristics and drafts as given by a harmonic sea level, and compared the theoretical value with an experimental value with a simple small model basin. The numerical calculation based on theory showed good agreement with experimental values.

  18. Measurement of tissue free water tritium in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei; Zheng Xiaomin

    1993-01-01

    The authors introduced a method of extracting tissue free water tritium (TFWT) by the azeotropic distribution with toluene and of measuring the activity of the TFWT in biological samples by liquid scintillation counter. The TFWT recovery ratio of pine needles (fresh), green vegetables, radish, rice, pork (muscle) and milk is 0.90, 0.95, 0.96, 0.90, 0.52 and 0.85, and TFWT activity is 1.8, 3.2, 1.8, 2.7, 3.3 and 4.0 Bq/L-H 2 O, respectively

  19. Physicochemical transformation and algal toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in surface water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Luqing; Li, Jingyi; Yang, Kun; Liu, Jingfu; Lin, Daohui

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the behavior and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been conducted in artificial water with well-controlled conditions, which are dramatically different from natural waters with complex compositions. To better understand the fate and toxicity of NPs in the natural water environment, physicochemical transformations of four NPs (TiO_2, ZnO, Ag, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) and their toxicities towards a unicellular green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in four fresh water and one seawater sample were investigated. Results indicated that water chemistry had profound effects on aggregation, dissolution, and algal toxicity of the NPs. The strongest homoaggregation of the NPs was associated with the highest ionic strength, but no obvious correlation was observed between the homoaggregation of NPs and pH or dissolved organic matter content of the water samples. The greatest dissolution of ZnO NPs also occurred in seawater with the highest ionic strength, while the dissolution of Ag NPs varied differently from ZnO NPs. The released Zn"2"+ and especially Ag"+ mainly accounted for the algal toxicity of ZnO and Ag NPs, respectively. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration occurred generally for CNTs and Ag NPs, which contributed to the observed nanotoxicity. However, there was no significant correlation between the observed nanotoxicity and the type of NP or the water chemistry. It was thus concluded that the physicochemical transformations and algal toxicities of NPs in the natural water samples were caused by the combined effects of complex water quality parameters rather than any single influencing factor alone. These results will increase our knowledge on the fate and effects of NPs in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Transformation and algal toxicity of four NPs in five surface water samples were studied. • The transformation and toxicity were dependent on the types of NPs and water samples. • No single water parameter alone was

  20. Water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles is limited by water-soluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Itoh, Masayuki; Lee, Wen-Chien; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Qing Yang, Liu Dong; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between hygroscopic properties and chemical characteristics of Indonesian biomass burning (BB) particles, which are dominantly generated from peatland fires, was investigated using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. In addition to peat, acacia (a popular species at plantation) and fern (a pioneering species after disturbance by fire) were used for experiments. Fresh Indonesian peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic (mean hygroscopicity parameter, κ octanol-water partitioning method. κ values for the water extracts are high, especially for peat burning particles (A0 (a whole part of the water-soluble fraction): κ = 0.18, A1 (highly water-soluble fraction): κ = 0.30). This result stresses the importance of both the WSOC fraction and κ of the water-soluble fraction in determining the hygroscopicity of organic aerosol particles. Values of κ correlate positively (R = 0.89) with the fraction of m/z 44 ion signal quantified using a mass spectrometric technique, demonstrating the importance of highly oxygenated organic compounds to the water uptake by Indonesian BB particles. These results provide an experimentally validated reference for hygroscopicity of organics-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate estimation of environmental and climatic impacts driven by Indonesian BB particles on both regional and global scales.

  1. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  2. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P 3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  5. In-Situ Ion Analysis of Fresh Waters via an ISE Multiprobe and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological and geochemical sciences stand to substantially gain from capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and in-lab analysis. In-situ chemical instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, by reducing the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. We have pursued in-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup (>99%) of oxic natural fresh waters via an instrument combining an array of ion-selective electrode (ISE) hardware with an appropriate multivariate signal processing architecture. Commercially available electrochemical sensors promote low cost and a fast development schedule, as well as easy maintenance and reproduction. Data processing techniques are adapted from artificial intelligence and chemometrics to extract accurate information from the corresponding in-situ data matrix. This architecture takes into account temperature, conductivity, and non-linearity effects, as well as taking advantage of sensor cross-selectivities traditionally considered as interferences. Chemical and mathematical constraints, e.g. charge balance and total ionic strength, provide further system-level information. Maximizing data recovery from the sensor array allows use of the instrument without the standard additions or ionic strength adjustment traditionally-required with use of ISEs. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium ) and hydrogen ion in a simplified

  6. Bioavailability of calcium of fresh cheeses, enteral food and mineral water. A study with stable calcium isotopes in young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Guéronnière, V. dela; Schaafsma, G.; Bouley, C.; Luten, J.; Latgé, C.

    1996-01-01

    True fractional Ca absorption from six foods was measured in twelve normal healthy women, aged 20-29 years. The tested foods were commercially available fresh cheese, fresh cheese prepared by new technology and rich in Ca, similar cheese with added Fe, enteral food, mineral water alone and combined

  7. Effect of heat treatment oanas irradiation, and combined treatment on the shelf of fresh avocados (Persea americana L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto, Z.I.; Maha, Munsiah

    1987-01-01

    Effects of heat treatment, gamma irradiation, and combined treatments on the shelf-life of fresh avocados (Persea americana L.). Experiments to determine the effective irradiation conditions to prolong the shelf-life of fresh avocados were conducted at the centre for the Application of Isotopes washed and dried, then divided into 4 groups, namely for control (A), dipped in hot water at 40 0 C for 20 minutes (heat treatment, B), irradiated at a dose of 25 Gy (C), and combination of hot water dipping (40 0 C for 20 minutes) and irradiation at a 25 Gy (D). The samples were stored at room temperature. Evaluation on physical and chemical properties of the samples was done daily up to 10 days' storage. Parameters observed were texture, moisture and fat contents, percentage of weight loss, percentage of mature fruit, and subjective organoleptic evaluation. It was found that treated samples with and without combination treatment were still in good condition until 10 days of storage. It could be concluded that dipping in hot water, either alone or in combination with irradiation at a dose of 25 Gy could extend the shelf-life of fresh avocado up to 10 days at room temperature compared to only 5 days of the control. (author). 2 figs, 8 refs

  8. Assessing the Role of Dune Topography on a Fresh Water Lens of a Siliciclastic Barrier Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. P.; Carter, G. A.; Mooneyhan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carlton P. Anderson, Gregory Carter, and David Mooneyhan University of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Geospatial Center Department of Geography and Geology Carlton.p.anderson@eagles.usm.edu The Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) barrier island chain consist of dynamic depositional landforms that constantly undergo changes in their evolutionary processes through changes in sea level, sediment supply, and weather events. These complex landscapes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) provide a chance to study their geomorphological progressions, which have been produced by sea level rise and fluvial processes throughout the Holocene. Studies on the freshwater lens of barriers have mainly concentrated on carbonate island settings with minimal focus to barriers with siliciclastic geology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship beach dune topography plays in the development and sustainability of the fresh water lens of Cat Island, Mississippi. Cat Island offers the opportunity to research a siliciclastic barrier along the NGOM where minimal anthropogenic activities have taken place. To determine the effect dune topography has on the fresh water lens, a transect of permanent water wells were used in conjunction with test wells at different sites throughout the north spit of the island, to establish the water table height above the ellipsoid (WGS 84), with vertical accuracies of 2 cm. Cross-sectional profiles of the dunes were also performed utilizing purposeful transects that intersected fresh water ponds in the dune-swale systems. These ponds provide water table elevations at the surface which were interpolated across the dunes for areas that lacked permanent well sites. To obtain survey-grade accuracies, a Trimble TSC3 receiver coupled with a R8 antennae RTK system were used. Salinity measurements were taken at test sites to determine the salt-to-freshwater interface. Results provide insights into how dune topography influences the fresh water lens of a

  9. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  10. Identifikasi Penyakit Aeromonad pada Budi Daya Ikan Air Tawar di Bali (IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAD DISEASE IN FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE IN DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Amanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water and marine fish horticulture in Bali is often harmed by the outbreak of diseases such asthose caused by Aeromonas sp (aeromonad disease.Aims ofstudy were 1 to find out the primary agent ofthe aeomonad disease in the fresh water aquaculture in Bali based on conventional and molecularidentification, 2 to find out the genetic variability of Aeromonas species, 3 to determine the effectiveantibiotic against the agent. Samples of fishes were collected from 5 different locations of fresh wateraquaculture that had high number of morbidity and mortality. Many different fishes which showed clinicalsign such as skin lesion and exophthalmus were collected.Aeromonas hydrophila and A. salmonicida wereisolated and identified from fishes, they were then identified molecularly with DNA extraction, DNAamplification in 16S rRNA gene, purification and sequencing. Sequences of both Aeromonas species fromdifferent location were analysed to create the phylogenetic tree with Maximum Parsimony and NeighborJoining method. Sensitivity of 5 antibiotics to both species of Aeromonas were done to determine the bestantibiotic against the disease. Aeromonad disease were found only in 3 regions in Bali. As many as 10isolates of A.salmonicida and 11 isolates of A.hydrophila were examined. The histopathological examinationshowed dermatitis, epicarditis, retinitis, liver and kidney congestion in fish.There were two clusters ofA.salmonicida, subspecies smithiaand subspecies achromogenes.Aeromomas hydrophyla had a close relationwith A. veronii.Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida has not been found in Bali. Enrofloxacineand gentamycin was the best antibiotic for treating the Aeromonad disease which were more effective ascompared to3 other antibiot ics (Ampicillin, Doxycycline, and Eritromycin.

  11. Experimental study of 22Na fixation and decontamination by a fresh water moss: Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw). Dix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1976-01-01

    In investigating possible applications of radioecology research to sanitation control, the 22 Na uptake by a fresh-water moss: Platyhypnidium riparioides is examined. A silty/sandy sediment retains at most only 5% of the 22 Na introduced in the water. In case of radioactive discharge, the 22 Na remains essentially in solution in the water. Radioelement uptake by the mosses occurs rapidly, and an equilibrium condition is very quickly established with the water activity level. The concentration factor ranges from the 1.4 to 2 [fr

  12. The uptake of radiationless by some fresh water aquatic biota review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this paper reviews many studies carried out by the authors along the last thirty years. The behaviour of the radionuclides in the aquatic ecology of Ismailia Canal stream is of great interest for the evaluation of the possible hazards that may occur to man through the movement of such radionuclides via food chain. Laboratory investigations have been carried out in order to understand the accumulation and release of some radionuclide by some aquatic biota (aquatic macrophyte aquatic plants, some snails species and some fish species) inhabiting this fresh water stream. Different parameters such as water ph, contact time, water salinity, etc. were used in these investigations. The kinetic analysis of the uptake process of some radio nuclides by certain biota was performed. From this analysis, it was possible (through the statistical methods) to investigate that the uptake process proceeded through different steps with different rates depending on the radionuclide and the biota species. It was possible to conclude that some of the selected biota can be used as biological indicators for certain radionuclides

  13. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  14. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous

  15. Carbon dioxide degassing in fresh and saline water I: Degassing performance of a cascade column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to measure carbon dioxide degassing in a cascade column operating with both fresh (0‰) and saline water (35‰ NaCl) at 15 °C. The cascade column contained bio-block type packing material, was 1.7 m long in each dimension, and was tested both with and without countercurrent a...

  16. Method validation for control determination of mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Cadore, Solange; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of total mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) has been validated following international foodstuff protocols in order to fulfill the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan. The experimental parameters have been previously studied and optimized according to specific legislation on validation and inorganic contaminants in foodstuff. Linearity, sensitivity, specificity, detection and quantification limits, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), robustness as well as accuracy of the method have been evaluated. Linearity of response was satisfactory for the two range concentrations available on the TDA AAS equipment, between approximately 25.0 and 200.0 μg kg(-1) (square regression) and 250.0 and 2000.0 μg kg(-1) (linear regression) of mercury. The residues for both ranges were homoscedastic and independent, with normal distribution. Correlation coefficients obtained for these ranges were higher than 0.995. Limits of quantification (LOQ) and of detection of the method (LDM), based on signal standard deviation (SD) for a low-in-mercury sample, were 3.0 and 1.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. Repeatability of the method was better than 4%. Within-laboratory reproducibility achieved a relative SD better than 6%. Robustness of the current method was evaluated and pointed sample mass as a significant factor. Accuracy (assessed as the analyte recovery) was calculated on basis of the repeatability, and ranged from 89% to 99%. The obtained results showed the suitability of the present method for direct mercury measurement in fresh fish and shrimp samples and the importance of monitoring the analysis conditions for food control purposes. Additionally, the competence of this method was recognized by accreditation under the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  17. Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Loris; Ippolito, Antonio; Baruzzi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) against 14 strains of spoilage Pseudomonas of fresh cut vegetables under cold storage. The NEW, produced from solutions of potassium and sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate developed up to 4000 mg/L of free chlorine, depending on the salt and relative concentration used. The antimicrobial effect of the NEW was evaluated against different bacterial strains at 10(5) cells/ml, with different combinations of free chlorine concentration/contact time; all concentrations above 100 mg/L, regardless of the salt used, were found to be bactericidal already after 2 min. When catalogna chicory and lettuce leaves were dipped for 5 min in diluted NEW, microbial loads of mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were reduced on average of 1.7 log cfu/g. In addition, when lettuce leaves were dipped in a cellular suspension of the spoiler Pseudomonas chicorii I3C strain, diluted NEW was able to reduce Pseudomonas population of about 1.0 log cfu/g. Thanks to its high antimicrobial activity against spoilage microorganisms, and low cost of operation, the application of cycles of electrolysis to the washing water looks as an effective tool in controlling fresh cut vegetable microbial spoilage contamination occurring during washing steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  19. Comparative food-chain behavior and distribution of actinide elements in and around a contaminated fresh-water pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Trabalka, J.R.; Bogle, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of 233 234 U, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm in both native and introduced biota was studied at Pond 3513, a former low-level radioactive waste settling basin at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This system, which was decommissioned in 1976 after more than 30 years use, contains approximately 5 Ci of 239 240 Pu; inventories of other actinide isotopes are considerably less. Significantly higher concentrations of actinides in fish that were allowed access to sediments indicated that sedimentary particulates may be the primary source of transuranics to biota in shallow fresh-water ecosystems. Our study determined habitat, in particular the degree of association of an organism with the sediment-water interface, to be the primary factor in controlling transuranic concentrations in aquatic biota. In most of the biological samples analyzed, excluding samples suspected of being contaminated by sediment, 241 Am/ 239 Pu, 244 Cm/ 239 Pu, and 238 U/ 239 Pu ratios were greater than the respective ratio in sediment while 233 234 U/ 238 U, and 239 240 Pu/ 238 Pu ratios were not different from the respective ratios in sediment. The relative uptake of actinides from contaminated sediment by aquatic and terrestrial biota at this site was U > Cm greater than or equal to Am > Pu. The relative extractability of actinides from shoreline sediment was U > Cm approx. = Am > Pu; we also observed the same relative ranking for sediment-water exchange in situ. Concentrations of transuranics in water, terrestrial vegetation, and vertebrate carcasses were less than 10% of the recommended public exposure maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the ICRP

  20. Disinfection potential of ozone, ultraviolet-C and their combination in wash water for the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, María V; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María A; Gil, María I

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the disinfection efficacy of ozone (O(3)) and UV-C illumination (UV), and their combination (O(3)-UV) for reducing microbial flora of fresh-cut onion, escarole, carrot, and spinach wash waters collected from the industry. Furthermore, the influence of water physicochemical parameters on the decontamination efficacy and the effect of these technologies on physicochemical quality of wash water were analyzed. O(3), UV, and O(3)-UV were effective disinfection treatments on vegetable wash water, with a maximum microbial reduction of 6.6 log CFU mL(-1) after 60 min treatment with O(3)-UV. However, maximum total microbial reductions achieved by UV and O(3) treatments after 60 min were 4.0 and 5.9 log CFU mL(-1), lower than by O(3)-UV treatment. Furthermore, turbidity of wash water was reduced significantly by O(3) and O(3)-UV treatments, while UV treatment did not affect the physicochemical quality of the water. Conclusions derived from this study illustrate that O(3) and O(3)-UV are alternatives to other sanitizers used in the fresh-cut washing processes. The use of these technologies would allow less frequent changing of spent water and the use of much lower sanitizer doses. Nevertheless, in specific applications such as carrot wash water, where levels of undesirable microbial and chemical constituents are lower than other vegetable wash water, UV treatment could be an appropriate treatment considering cost-effectiveness criteria.

  1. Determination of mercury and copper in water samples by activation analysis using preconcentration on emission spectroscopic carbon powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    A simple preconcentration procedure for mercury and copper was examined in the activation analysis of water samples. The preconcentration using pure activated carbon has been reported in several papers. The authors found that the carbon powder for emission spectroscopic analysis showed the high purity equivalent to pure activated carbon. The influence of various parameters in adsorption conditions was studied by radioactive tracers 197 Hg and 64 Cu. It was confirmed that 100% of these elements were adsorbed on carbon powders as pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate complexes at an acidity of pH 6 - 8, the temperature of 50 0 C and the stirring time of 30 minutes. This method was applied to the activation analysis of the river water samples taken from the upper stream area of the Arakawa river and the ground water samples taken from the wells of the environs of Tokyo Megalopolis. The carbon powders which adsorbed these elements were filtered, dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The Hg concentrations of 0.01 - 0.1 ppb in river water and 0.03 - 1.4 ppb in ground water were obtained as well as the Cu concentrations of 0.3 - 3.0 ppb in ground water. The limits of determination of this method are 0.01 ppb Hg and 0.2 ppb Cu in the case of 1.1 sample of fresh water. (auth.)

  2. Contamination of Fresh Produce by Microbial Indicators on Farms and in Packing Facilities: Elucidation of Environmental Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Lickness, Jacquelyn Sunshine; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Newman, Kira L; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2017-06-01

    To improve food safety on farms, it is critical to quantify the impact of environmental microbial contamination sources on fresh produce. However, studies are hampered by difficulties achieving study designs with powered sample sizes to elucidate relationships between environmental and produce contamination. Our goal was to quantify, in the agricultural production environment, the relationship between microbial contamination on hands, soil, and water and contamination on fresh produce. In 11 farms and packing facilities in northern Mexico, we applied a matched study design: composite samples ( n = 636, equivalent to 11,046 units) of produce rinses were matched to water, soil, and worker hand rinses during two growing seasons. Microbial indicators (coliforms, Escherichia coli , Enterococcus spp., and somatic coliphage) were quantified from composite samples. Statistical measures of association and correlations were calculated through Spearman's correlation, linear regression, and logistic regression models. The concentrations of all microbial indicators were positively correlated between produce and hands (ρ range, 0.41 to 0.75; P contamination of soil and water and contamination of produce. This methodology provides a foundation for future field studies, and results highlight the need for interventions surrounding farmworker hygiene and sanitation to reduce microbial contamination of farmworkers' hands. IMPORTANCE This study of the relationships between microbes on produce and in the farm environment can be used to support the design of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce microbial contamination of fresh produce with associated reductions in foodborne illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Notes on the fishes of western New Guinea III. The fresh water shark of Jamoer lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1954, during a visit to Hollandia, western New Guinea, it was rumoured that sharks had been observed in the fresh water of Jamoer Lake, at a distance by effluent river of about 130 km from the Arafoera Sea. For further information on the locality, including a map of the area, I refer

  4. Thermal imaging of levitated fresh and salt water drops during laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cody; Biggs, Harrison

    2017-11-01

    Simulation of high energy laser propagation and scattering in the maritime environment is problematic, due to the high likelihood of turbulence, fog, and rain or sea spray within the beam path. Considering large water drops (diameters of approximately 1-mm), such as those found in a light rain, an incident high energy laser will lead to rapid evaporation of the water drop as it traverses the beam path. In this work we present surface temperature measurements of a water drop obtained using a FLIR IR camera. The drop is acoustically levitated, and subject to a continuous wave laser with a wavelength of 1070-nm and a mean irradiance of approximately 800 W/cm2. These measurements show that the steady-state surface temperature of the drop is well below the saturation temperature, and for pure substances the equilibrium temperature decreases with decreasing drop volume similar to observations with smaller aqueous aerosols. Temperature non-uniformity within the drop is also assessed from statistics of the surface temperature fluctuations. Preliminary results from irradiated salt water drops show notably different behavior from fresh water drops, including temperature spikes as the drop volume decreases and occasional nucleate boiling. Acknowledge support from ONR #N00014-17-WX-00031.

  5. Sampling problems and the determination of mercury in surface water, seawater, and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; van der Sloot, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of surface water for mercury comprises the determination of both ionic and organically bound mercury in solution and that of the total mercury content of the suspended matter. Eventually, metallic mercury has to be determined too. Requirements for the sampling procedure are given. A method for the routine determination of mercury in surface water and seawater was developed and applied to Dutch surface waters. The total sample volume is 2500 ml. About 500 ml is used for the determination of the content of suspended matter and the total amount of mercury in the water. The sample is filtered through a bed of previously purified active charcoal at a low flow-rate. The main portion ca. 2000 ml) passes a flow-through centrifuge to separate the solid fraction. One liter is used to separate ''inorganic'' mercury by reduction, volatilization in an airstream and adsorption on active charcoal. The other liter is led through a column of active charcoal to collect all mercury. The procedures were checked with 197 Hg radiotracer both as an ion and incorporated in organic compounds. The mercury is determined by thermal neutron activation, followed by volatilization in a tube furnace and adsorption on a fresh carbon bed. The limit of determination is approximately equal to 1 ng 1 -1 . The rate of desorption from and adsorption on suspended material has been measured as a function of a pH of the solution for Hg +2 and various other ions. It can be concluded that only the procedure mentioned above does not disturb the equilibrium. The separation of mercury from air is obtained by suction of 1 m 3 through a 0.22 μm filter and a charcoal bed. The determination is then performed as in the case of the water samples

  6. A rapid supercritical fluid extraction method for the qualitative detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in gamma-irradiated fresh and sea water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewfik, I.H.; Ismail, H.M.; Sumar, S.

    1999-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones are routinely used as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipids. However, current extraction procedures (soxhlet-Florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to GC-MS identification. A simple and rapid method for the isolation of these markers using carbon dioxide as a super critical fluid is described for low lipid content fish samples (fresh and sea water) irradiated up to 8kGy. The presence of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), a radiolytic marker, was confirmed in all irradiated fish samples at all doses. This was a clear indication that the fish samples had been irradiated and that both methods of isolation (florisil and supercritical fluid extraction) were capable of qualitatively extracting this marker. Supercritical fluid extraction is proposed as an alternative extraction procedure to the florisil chromatography method currently in use and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. Osmoregulatory physiology and rapid evolution of salinity tolerance in threespine stickleback recently introduced to fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divino, Jeffrey N; Monette, Michelle Y.; McCormick, Stephen; Yancey, Paul H.; Flannery, Kyle G.; Bell, Michael A.; Rollins, Jennifer L.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Schultz, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Post-Pleistocene diversification of threespine stickleback in fresh water offers a valuable opportunity to study how changes in environmental salinity shape physiological evolution in fish. In Alaska, the presence of both ancestral oceanic populations and derived landlocked populations, including recent lake introductions, allows us to examine rates and direction of evolution of osmoregulation following halohabitat transition.

  9. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  10. Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Vijay, J.G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Madhu, N.V.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Balachandran, K.K.

    et al.: Fresh water influence on nutrient stoichiometry in a tropical estuary, Southwest coast of India - 57 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt... estuary, Southwest coast of India - 58 - APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 6(1): 57-64. http://www.ecology.uni-corvinus.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623  2008, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary natural and anthropogenic factors influencing the geochemistry...

  11. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Certain Water Sources and Industrial Wastewater Samples in Dakahlia Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadaly, H.; El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical analysis included quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity, alkalinity , hardness sulphate, ph, total dissolved solids, chloride, as well as dissolved oxygen was carried out. The microbiological examination for different water sources and industrial wastewater samples was also conducted. some of heavy metals, Co 2+ Cu 2+ Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were determined in fresh water, while other metals, such as Cr 6+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ were measured in industrial wastewater. Results of the chemical analysis showed that all measured parameters were found within the limitation either national or international law, except some samples which showed higher values than the permissible limits for some measured parameters. The microbiological analysis exhibited presence of yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Most bacterial isolates were short rod, spore formers as well as coccoid shaped bacteria. The efficiency of water treatment process on the reduction of microbial load was also calculated. Regarding the pathogenic bacteria, data showed that neither water samples nor industrial wastewater contain pathogens when using specific cultivation media for the examination. Furthermore, data proved the possibility of recycling of the tested industrial wastewater on which some microorganisms can grow. Data showed that the percent of heavy metals removal can reach to more than 70% in some cases as a result to bacterial treatment of industrial wastewater

  12. Application of Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Logic Inference System for Predicting the Microbiological Pollution in Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharati, S.; Benmahammed, K.; Harzallah, D.; El-Assaf, Y. M.

    The classical methods for detecting the micro biological pollution in water are based on the detection of the coliform bacteria which indicators of contamination. But to check each water supply for these contaminants would be a time-consuming job and a qualify operators. In this study, we propose a novel intelligent system which provides a detection of microbiological pollution in fresh water. The proposed system is a hierarchical integration of an Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This method is based on the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth. The instantaneous result obtained by the measurements of the variations of the physical and chemical parameters occurred during bacteria growth-temperature, pH, electrical potential and electrical conductivity of many varieties of water (surface water, well water, drinking water and used water) on the number Escherichia coli in water. The instantaneous result obtained by measurements of the inputs parameters of water from sensors.

  13. Phyto remediation of 14C-fenvalerate insecticide contamination by fresh water weed potamogeton sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to throw some light on the possibility of the fresh water-weed P otamogeton sp for the phyto remediation of 14 C-fenvalerate residues. In addition, the effect of the insecticide on some physiological parameters was also investigated. At the beginning of the experiment(zero time), 14 C-fenvalerate from a previous experiment carried out earlier in an aquarium in the laboratory. The potamogeton plants (125 g) having newly grown roots were transplanted in the aquarium. The amount of 14 C-activity in water was remarkably decreased from 6.54μg/ml at zero time to 1.84μg/ml at the end of the experiment (384 h). In the soil, a slight decrease in 14 C-activity was recorded from 15.23μg/g at zero time to 13.7μg/g at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, 14 C-activity in the plant was increased during the mentioned period by about 19.1%. Control and treated samples showed an increase in both chlorophyll a and b up to 96 h then their values were decreased thereafter. The carotenoid fractions in the tested plants were increased gradually up to 96 h then decreased relative to the control samples. Soluble sugars in treated plants showed maximum increase at 48 h (129.8%) then decreased to 114.3% at 192 h and to 104.7% at 384 h but still had higher values than those at zero time. A slight and gradual increase in the protein content of the treated Potamogeton plants was occurred at the first 24 h, then started to decrease than the values of corresponding controls starting from 48 h to 384 h

  14. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley...... straw was first liquefied in fresh distilled water with the presence of K2CO3 catalyst at 300 C as the reference run. Afterwards, the aqueous phase which is obtained from liquefaction process in the previous run was recycled and used as the reaction medium from the second to the fourth run....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  15. A on-line method for the determination of lead and lead isotope ratios in fresh and saline waters by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halicz, Ludwik; Lam, J.W.H.; McLaren, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A previously reported on-line ICP-MS method for the determination of lead and other trace elements in seawater has been re-examined to determine its suitability for the determination of lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 207 Pb/ 208 Pb) in fresh and saline natural waters. A detection limit of 0.9 ng/1 for total lead (for a 5 ml sample) was achieved. Precision of isotope ratio data was 0.2-0.3% RSD at a Pb concentration of 1 μg/l, and was still better than 2% at concentrations of only 10-40 ng/1 in seawater certified reference materials (CRMs). For all three natural water CRMs examined, measured precision was very close to the limit predicted by counting statistics. (Author)

  16. Ecological and energy non-consuming technology for extending the freshness period of fish at positive temperatures and method for freshness control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Popescu, G. M.; Dobrin, D. N.; Cristescu, T. M.; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Ghe.

    2001-01-01

    As medium of preservation, unsalted water i.e. distillated water, deuterium depleted water, de-ionized water or mixtures of these were used. The following performance are reported: - Freshness period is of 18-24 hours at 30 deg. C, 5-18 days at 5-15 deg. C and 20-30 days at 0-5 deg. C. The method of freshness control was the measurement of unconventional tissue energies. The technology is advantageous because it is ecological, uses natural materials (unsalted water), can by applied in case of energetic crisis and contributes to the preservation of ozone layer. The technology implies very low costs and also extends by 2-6 times the shelf time the fish is kept at positive temperatures comparing with classical refrigeration method. (authors)

  17. Current state of knowledge of the concentration of mercury and other heavy metals in fresh water fish in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancera Rodriguez, Nestor Javier; Alvarez Leon, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water), therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents) in eight species of fresh waters fish: carassius auratus, oreochromis spp., piractus brachypomus, prochilodus magdalenae, astyanax fasciatus, colossoma bidens, gambusia affinis and grundulus bogotensis

  18. Titanium dioxide-based DGT technique for in situ measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Bennett, William W.

    2010-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique for measuring dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in fresh and marine waters is reported. The new method, which uses a commercially available titanium dioxide based adsorbent (Metsorb), was evaluated and compared to the well-established fer...

  19. KASUS DISTRIBUSI DAN PENGGUNAAN FORMALIN DALAM PENGAWETAN KOMODITI IKAN LAUT SEGAR (STUDI KASUS DI KOTA BANDAR LAMPUNG [Formaldehyde Distribution and Using for Preserving Fresh Fish (A Case Study in Bandar Lampung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Yusdianson Girsang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of formaldehyde in some fresh fish commodities and to trace formaldehyde distribution in Bandar Lampung City. The  formadelhyde tests were done  on the storage water of fresh fish samples. The study conducted in July to October 2013 was devided in two stages: a survey to fill out a questionnaire to a number of respondents, followed by sampling some storage water of fresh fish to be tested in the laboratory.  The tests were  carried out on 52 sampling points taken from the fishing boats in the fishing landing port (17 boats, fish supplier car from outside Bandar Lampung (6 cars as well as some

  20. Stability of purgeable VOCs in water samples during pre-analytical holding. Part 2: Analyses by an EPA regional laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bottrell, D.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that prevalent and priority purgeable VOCs in properly preserved water samples are stable for at least 28 days. For the purposes of this study, VOCs were considered functionally stable if concentrations measured after 28 days did not change by more than 10% from the initial values. An extensive stability experiment was performed on freshly-collected surface water spiked with a suite of 44 purgeable VOCs. The spiked water was then distributed into multiple 40-mL VOC vials with 0.010-in Teflon-lined silicone septum caps prefilled with 250 mg of NaHSO{sub 4} (resulting pH of the water {approximately}2). The samples were sent to a commercial [Analytical Resources, Inc. (ARI)] and EPA (Region IV) laboratory where they were stored at 4 C. On 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 71 days after sample preparation, analysts from ARI took 4 replicate samples out of storage and analyzed these samples for purgeable VOCs following EPA/SW846 8260A. A similar analysis schedule was followed by analysts at the EPA laboratory. This document contains the results from the EPA analyses; the ARI results are described in a separate report.

  1. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  2. Water uptake by fresh Indonesian peat burning particles is limited by water-soluble organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between hygroscopic properties and chemical characteristics of Indonesian biomass burning (BB particles, which are dominantly generated from peatland fires, was investigated using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer. In addition to peat, acacia (a popular species at plantation and fern (a pioneering species after disturbance by fire were used for experiments. Fresh Indonesian peat burning particles are almost non-hygroscopic (mean hygroscopicity parameter, κ < 0.06 due to predominant contribution of water-insoluble organics. The range of κ spans from 0.02 to 0.04 (dry diameter = 100 nm, hereinafter for Riau peat burning particles, while that for Central Kalimantan ranges from 0.05 to 0.06. Fern combustion particles are more hygroscopic (κ = 0. 08, whereas the acacia burning particles have a mediate κ value (0.04. These results suggest that κ is significantly dependent on biomass types. This variance in κ is partially determined by fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, as demonstrated by a correlation analysis (R = 0.65. κ of water-soluble organic matter is also quantified, incorporating the 1-octanol–water partitioning method. κ values for the water extracts are high, especially for peat burning particles (A0 (a whole part of the water-soluble fraction: κ = 0.18, A1 (highly water-soluble fraction: κ = 0.30. This result stresses the importance of both the WSOC fraction and κ of the water-soluble fraction in determining the hygroscopicity of organic aerosol particles. Values of κ correlate positively (R = 0.89 with the fraction of m∕z 44 ion signal quantified using a mass spectrometric technique, demonstrating the importance of highly oxygenated organic compounds to the water uptake by Indonesian BB particles. These results provide an experimentally validated reference for hygroscopicity of organics-dominated particles, thus contributing to more accurate

  3. DRY BIOMASS OF FRESH WATER ALGAE OF CHLORELLA GENUS IN THE COMBINED FORAGES FOR LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVETLANA GRIGOROVA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry biomass of algae is a good source of nutrients and biologically active substances, which in the last years attracted the interest of the specialists in their search for natural, ecologically and healthy sound foods for the animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition and the nutritive value of the dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus cultivated in Bulgaria and to establish its effect on the laying hen productivity and the morphological characteristics of the table eggs. The tested product was analyzed for its crude protein content – 55 % to available wet, crude fats – 9,6 %, crude fi bres – 6,4 %, xanthophylls – 0,6 g/kg, essential amino acids: lysine – 5,5 %, methionine – 1,2 %, triptophan – 1,2 %. Adding 2 % and 10 % of dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus to the combined forages for laying hens led to the improvement of the bird productivity and the morphological characteristics of the eggs and the egg yolk pigmentation was more intensive by 2,5 units by the Roche’s scale.

  4. Fresh meteoric versus recirculated saline groundwater nutrient inputs into a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Santos, Isaac R.; Tait, Douglas R.; Maher, Damien T.

    2016-01-01

    The role of groundwater in transporting nutrients to coastal aquatic systems has recently received considerable attention. However, the relative importance of fresh versus saline groundwater-derived nutrient inputs to estuaries and how these groundwater pathways may alter surface water N:P ratios remains poorly constrained. We performed detailed time series measurements of nutrients in a tidal estuary (Hat Head, NSW, Australia) and used radium to quantify the contribution of fresh and saline groundwater to total surface water estuarine exports under contrasting hydrological conditions (wet and dry season). Tidally integrated nutrient fluxes showed that the estuary was a source of nutrients to the coastal waters. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux rate for rivers likely due to the small catchment size, surrounding wetlands and high groundwater inputs. Fresh groundwater discharge was dominant in the wet season accounting for up to 45% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and 48% of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) estuarine exports. In the dry season, fresh and saline groundwater accounted for 21 and 33% of TDN export, respectively. The combined fresh and saline groundwater fluxes of NO_3, PO_4, NH_4, DON, DOP, TDN and TDP were estimated to account for 66, 58, 55, 31, 21, 53 and 47% of surface water exports, respectively. Groundwater-derived nitrogen inputs to the estuary were responsible for a change in the surface water N:P ratio from typical N-limiting conditions to P-limiting as predicted by previous studies. This shows the importance of both fresh and saline groundwater as a source of nutrients for coastal productivity and nutrient budgets of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Groundwater TDN and TDP fluxes account for 53 and 47% of surface water exports. • The estuary DIN export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux. • Fresh GW nutrient input dominated the wet season and saline GW the

  5. Iodine-125 in the fresh water environment in England; measurements along the pathway from sewage discharge to thyroid glands and determinations of absorbed dose to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.R.; Bowlt, C.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine-125 has been measured in the fresh water supply in England, particularly in the Thames Valley. 125 I discarded into the sewage drainage system, travels in the liquid effluent into rivers. When mains water is abstracted downstream from such discharges low levels of 125 I ( 125 I. However it was never possible to establish more than a semi-quantitative relationship between their activity levels and those of their surroundings. In general, levels of 125 I have shown a 3-4 fold increase in the fresh water environment during the 1980's. (Author)

  6. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  7. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Bae [Food and Risk Standardization Team, KFDA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased.

  8. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Han, Sang Bae

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased

  9. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  10. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanishkene, V.B.; Zlobin, V.S.; Zheleznyakova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90 Sr and 144 Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  11. IN-SITU IONIC CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH WATER VIA A NOVEL COMBINED MULTI-SENSOR / SIGNAL PROCESSING ARCHITECTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, A. V.; Hemond, H.

    2009-12-01

    The capability for comprehensive, real-time, in-situ characterization of the chemical constituents of natural waters is a powerful tool for the advancement of the ecological and geochemical sciences, e.g. by facilitating rapid high-resolution adaptive sampling campaigns and avoiding the potential errors and high costs related to traditional grab sample collection, transportation and analysis. Portable field-ready instrumentation also promotes the goals of large-scale monitoring networks, such as CUASHI and WATERS, without the financial and human resources overhead required for traditional sampling at this scale. Problems of environmental remediation and monitoring of industrial waste waters would additionally benefit from such instrumental capacity. In-situ measurement of all major ions contributing to the charge makeup of natural fresh water is thus pursued via a combined multi-sensor/multivariate signal processing architecture. The instrument is based primarily on commercial electrochemical sensors, e.g. ion selective electrodes (ISEs) and ion selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs), to promote low cost as well as easy maintenance and reproduction,. The system employs a novel architecture of multivariate signal processing to extract accurate information from in-situ data streams via an "unmixing" process that accounts for sensor non-linearities at low concentrations, as well as sensor cross-reactivities. Conductivity, charge neutrality and temperature are applied as additional mathematical constraints on the chemical state of the system. Including such non-ionic information assists in obtaining accurate and useful calibrations even in the non-linear portion of the sensor response curves, and measurements can be made without the traditionally-required standard additions or ionic strength adjustment. Initial work demonstrates the effectiveness of this methodology at predicting inorganic cations (Na+, NH4+, H+, Ca2+, and K+) in a simplified system containing

  12. Determination of radium-226 in fresh water, using alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrakdar, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Four radium isotopes are present in nature, i.e. Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228. The first three are alpha emitters while the last is a beta emitter. Because of the importance of the determination of Alpha isotope emitters in pure water (drinking water), this work focuses on the determination of radium-226 as it has the longest half-life (1600 years, in comparison to 11.4 day, 3.66 days for Ra-223 and Ra-224, respectively) using Alpha spectroscopy. This method has the capability to be applied in sampling fields and low detection limit which in turn makes the analysis of low-level radioactive environmental water samples, with hardness does not exceed 40 French Degree, satisfying for health and environment control programmes. However, counting the samples using Alpha spectroscopy has to be immediate (or within 48 hours). (author)

  13. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  14. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P macrophytes mixture reactor (number 105 ± 5.77 %; weight 41.07 ± 3.97 % ). ANOVA showed significant variation in cocoon production (F4 = 15.67, P macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida.

  15. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  16. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  17. Using a Combination of Spectral and Textural Data to Measure Water-Holding Capacity in Fresh Chicken Breast Fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to explore the potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging (400–1000 nm to classify fresh chicken breast fillets into different water-holding capacity (WHC groups. Initially, the extracted spectra and image textural features, as well as the mixed data of the two, were used to develop partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA classification models. Smoothing, a first derivative process, and principle component analysis (PCA were carried out sequentially on the mean spectra of all samples to deal with baseline offsets and identify outlier data. Six samples located outside the confidence ellipses of 95% confidence level in the score plot were defined as outliers. A PLS-DA model based on the outlier-free spectra provided a correct classification rate (CCR value of 78% in the prediction set. Then, seven optimal wavelengths selected using a successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to develop a simplified PLS-DA model that obtained a slightly reduced CCR with a value of 73%. Moreover, the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was implemented on the first principle component image (with 98.13% of variance of the hyperspectral image to extract textural features (contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneity. The CCR of the model developed using textural variables was less optimistic with a value of 59%. Compared to results of models based on spectral or textural data individually, the performance of the model based on the mixed data of optimal spectral and textural features was the best with an improved CCR of 86%. The results showed that the spectral and textural data of hyperspectral images together can be integrated in order to measure and classify the WHC of fresh chicken breast fillets.

  18. Fusion of spectra and texture data of hyperspectral imaging for the prediction of the water-holding capacity of fresh chicken breast filets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the fusion of spectra and texture data of hyperspectral imaging (HSI, 1000–2500 nm) for predicting the water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact, fresh chicken breast filets. Three physical and chemical indicators drip loss, expressible fluid, and salt-induced water gain were me...

  19. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  20. Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera-Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  1. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  2. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  3. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABANG SETYONO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternative supplementary biochemic food for growing up the fresh water lobster (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. This research denotes to know the influence of biochemic composition to the rapid grow of fresh water lobster on the stadium of post larva (PL of 60 within three months. This research used the complete random planning dealing with 4 treatments and each treatment would get 3 times cycle. The treatments cover, group K tested animal was treted with 100% mill food containing 30% of protein. Group A is given with food and biochemic food containing 13,34% of protein. Group B is the treated with mill food which is mixed with biochemic food containing 10,7% of protein. While group C was tested by treating them with mill food and biochemic food containing 13,58%. After all the above mentioned would be set up within 3:1 comparation. The variable of this research were the length of the abdomen, cephalothorax, total length, and the wet weight. The data analysis is using ANOVA system on 95% power test completed by of SPSS version 13. The result of the research shows that mentioned treatments give us the same influence toward the growth of fresh water lobster. The composition of biochemic food with the containing protein around 10,7%,13.34% and 13,38% has given the same effect to the lobster growth on post larva 60 level. There is strong correlation between abdomen and cephalothorax and between the total length and the lobsters weight.Key words: Cherax quadricarinatus, suplementary food, water quality.Abstrak. Priyono E, Astirin OP, Setyono P. 2009. Alternatif penambahan suplemen hayati untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan udang lobster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 123-130. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian suplemen hayati sehingga dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan lobster air tawar pada stadia post larva (PL 60 pada masa pertumbuhan 3

  4. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in Lateral Plate Quality in Threespine Stickleback from Fresh, Brackish and Marine Water: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wiig

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the drivers leading to adaptive phenotypic diversity within and among species. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus has become a model system for investigating the genetic and phenotypic responses during repeated colonization of fresh waters from the original marine habitat. During the freshwater colonization process there has been a recurrent and parallel reduction in the number of lateral bone plates, making it a suitable system for studying adaptability and parallel evolution.The aim of this study was to investigate an alternative evolutionary path of lateral plate reduction, where lateral plates are reduced in size rather than number.A total of 72 threespine stickleback individuals from freshwater (n = 54, brackish water (n = 27 and marine water (n = 9 were analysed using microcomputed tomography (μCT to determine variation in size, thickness and structure of the lateral plates. Furthermore, whole-body bone volume, and bone volume, bone surface and porosity of lateral plate number 4 were quantified in all specimens from each environment.The results showed a significant difference in plate size (area and volume among populations, where threespine stickleback from polymorphic freshwater and brackish water populations displayed lateral plates reduced in size (area and volume compared to marine stickleback.Reduction of lateral plates in threespine stickleback in fresh and brackish water occurs by both plate loss and reduction in plate size (area and volume.

  6. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  7. Transfer of 137Cs from cooking water to some green-stuffs samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radionuclide in contaminated freshwater may directly gain access to the human body by drinking fresh water and cooking food with such water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked food. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the individual ingredients to the concentration in the cooking water can be designated as the Transfer factor in cooking (TFC). The TFC's of 137 Cs in some green-stuffs have been determined and reported in this paper. (author)

  8. PENGARUH RASIO TEPUNG BERAS DAN AIR TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK KULIT LUMPIA BASAH [Effect of Flour to Water Ratio on Characteristics of Fresh Rice-Based Spring Rolls Wrappers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ingani Widjajaseputra1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flour to water ratio in batter compositions affected water availability which was needed to provide physical and chemical changes during fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers processing, such as gel forming of starches and heat-induced gels, flour’s components interactions in batter systems. Degree of water-starch, water-protein and protein–starch-water interactions were depend on water amount, temperature and duration of heating. The mechanical strength of spring rolls wrappers is one of problems when it is being used. The wrappers could be torn apart due to moisture absorption from the filling and the environment. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum flour to water ratio in formulation of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. The investigation was provided by Randomized Completely Block Design with single factor and three replicates. The factor was rice flour to water ratio in six levels (3.0:4.5; 3.0:5.0;3.0:5.5; 3.0:6.0; 3.0:6.5; and 3.0:7.0 the data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance with 95% degree of confident. Flour to water ratio greatly influenced elongation at break which is important in the utilization of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. Its ratio also influenced the size of swelled rice starch granules, pores size and moisture content of the products. Optimal ratio flour to water is 3.0:6.0 which produced the highest elongation at break.

  9. Fresh meteoric versus recirculated saline groundwater nutrient inputs into a subtropical estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat-Noori, Mahmood, E-mail: mahmood.sadat-noori@scu.edu.au [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Santos, Isaac R. [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); Tait, Douglas R. [National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Maher, Damien T. [School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-01

    The role of groundwater in transporting nutrients to coastal aquatic systems has recently received considerable attention. However, the relative importance of fresh versus saline groundwater-derived nutrient inputs to estuaries and how these groundwater pathways may alter surface water N:P ratios remains poorly constrained. We performed detailed time series measurements of nutrients in a tidal estuary (Hat Head, NSW, Australia) and used radium to quantify the contribution of fresh and saline groundwater to total surface water estuarine exports under contrasting hydrological conditions (wet and dry season). Tidally integrated nutrient fluxes showed that the estuary was a source of nutrients to the coastal waters. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux rate for rivers likely due to the small catchment size, surrounding wetlands and high groundwater inputs. Fresh groundwater discharge was dominant in the wet season accounting for up to 45% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and 48% of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) estuarine exports. In the dry season, fresh and saline groundwater accounted for 21 and 33% of TDN export, respectively. The combined fresh and saline groundwater fluxes of NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}, DON, DOP, TDN and TDP were estimated to account for 66, 58, 55, 31, 21, 53 and 47% of surface water exports, respectively. Groundwater-derived nitrogen inputs to the estuary were responsible for a change in the surface water N:P ratio from typical N-limiting conditions to P-limiting as predicted by previous studies. This shows the importance of both fresh and saline groundwater as a source of nutrients for coastal productivity and nutrient budgets of coastal waters. - Highlights: • Groundwater TDN and TDP fluxes account for 53 and 47% of surface water exports. • The estuary DIN export was 7-fold higher than the average global areal flux. • Fresh GW nutrient input dominated the wet season and

  10. KASUS DISTRIBUSI DAN PENGGUNAAN FORMALIN DALAM PENGAWETAN KOMODITI IKAN LAUT SEGAR (STUDI KASUS DI KOTA BANDAR LAMPUNG [Formaldehyde Distribution and Using for Preserving Fresh Fish (A Case Study in Bandar Lampung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Yusdianson Girsang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of formaldehyde in some fresh fish commodities and to trace formaldehyde distribution in Bandar Lampung City. The  formadelhyde tests were done  on the storage water of fresh fish samples. The study conducted in July to October 2013 was devided in two stages: a survey to fill out a questionnaire to a number of respondents, followed by sampling some storage water of fresh fish to be tested in the laboratory.  The tests were  carried out on 52 sampling points taken from the fishing boats in the fishing landing port (17 boats, fish supplier car from outside Bandar Lampung (6 cars as well as some fish sellers in 5 traditional market in Bandar Lampung (29 sellers. By conducting a laboratory test using Formaldehyde Test Kit, there were 2 samples that were purple (positively contain formaldehyde, which were taken from 2 boats in fish landing port of Lempasing. Then the assertion test was carried out to the positive samples using chromotropic acid (SNI 01 – 2894 – 1992. The results showed that the samples positively contained formaldehyde indeed, which was characterized by a bluish purple color. Based on the survey results and tracking, there was a distortion of formaldehyde distribution in Bandar Lampung, where domestic industries (including fisherman obtained formaldehyde illegally, either from End Users, a local manufacturer or drugstore/hospital/other health care facilities. Keywords: formaldehyde, fresh fish storage water, distribution distortion.

  11. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  12. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  13. Removal of ammonium ions by laboratory-synthesized zeolite linde type A adsorption from water samples affected by mining activities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakye-Awuah, Bright; Labik, Linus Kweku; Nkrumah, Isaac; Williams, Craig

    2014-03-01

    Ammonium ion adsorption by laboratory-synthesized zeolite (linde type A; LTA) was investigated in batch kinetics experiments. Synthesized zeolite LTA was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size analysis. Water samples were taken from the Nyam and Tano rivers in Ghana, and 0.8 g of zeolite was added to 100 ml portions of each sample. Portions of the samples were withdrawn every 30 min for 150 min and the concentration of ammonia in each sample was determined. The removal efficiency of zeolite LTA was evaluated by retrieving the zeolite from the water samples and adding to a fresh sample to repeat the process. Equilibrium data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Maximum adsorption capacities were 72.99 mg g(-1) for samples from the River Nyam and 72.87 mg g(-1) for samples from the River Tano. The equilibrium kinetic data were analysed using adsorption kinetic models: pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. Linear regression was used to estimate the adsorption and kinetic parameters. The results showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and suggest that zeolite LTA is a good adsorbent for the removal of nitrogen ammonia from water.

  14. FRESHEM - Fresh-saline groundwater distribution in Zeeland (NL) derived from airborne EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Bernhard; van Baaren, Esther; Dabekaussen, Willem; Delsman, Joost; Gunnik, Jan; Karaoulis, Marios; de Louw, Perry; Oude Essink, Gualbert; Pauw, Pieter; Steuer, Annika; Meyer, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    In a setting of predominantly saline surface waters, the availability of fresh water for agricultural purposes is not obvious in Zeeland, The Netherlands. Canals and ditches are mainly brackish to saline due to saline seepage, which originates from old marine deposits and salt-water transgressions during historical times. The only available fresh groundwater is present in the form of freshwater lenses floating on top of the saline groundwater. This fresh groundwater is vital for agricultural, industrial, ecological, water conservation and drinking water functions. An essential first step for managing this fresh groundwater properly is to know the present spatial fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution. As traditional salinity monitoring is labour-intensive, airborne electromagnetics (AEM), which is fast and can cover large areas in short time, is an efficient alternative. A consortium of BGR, Deltares and TNO started FRESHEM Zeeland (FREsh Salt groundwater distribution by Helicopter ElectroMagnetic survey in the Province of Zeeland) in October 2014. Within 3x2 weeks of the first project year, the entire area of about 2000 km2 was surveyed using BGR's helicopter-borne geophysical system totalling to about 10,000 line-km. The HEM datasets of 17 subareas were carefully processed using advanced BGR in-house software and inverted to 2.5 Million resistivity-depth models. Ground truthing demonstrated that the large-scale HEM results fit very well with small-scale ground EM data (ECPT). Based on this spatial resistivity distribution, a 3D voxel model for Chloride concentration was derived for the entire province taking into account geological model data (GeoTOP) for the lithology correction and local in-situ groundwater measurements for the translation of water conductivity to Chloride concentration. The 3D voxel model enables stakeholders to implement spatial Chloride concentration in their groundwater models.

  15. FAAS and k/sub 0/-INAA analysis protocols for the determination of essential and toxic metals in fresh and packed milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the intake adequacy of elements determined in fresh, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated and powder milk samples. The samples were analyzed for fourteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sn, Sr and Zn) by semi-absolute k/sub 0/ instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) with proper method validation. NAA and AAS methodologies were validated by analyzing three reference materials. The results of 10 elements (Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn) determined in IAEA-336 by k/sub 0/-INAA, iodine in NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves) by ENAA and 4 elements (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) by AAS are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The daily intakes were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) defined for male of age group 31-50 years. This comparison reveals that fresh milk is best in providing most of the essential elements (Ca, I, P, Zn, Mg). UHT treated and powder samples are slightly better in Cu and Fe. It can be said that fresh milk is good source of Ca, I, P and Zn but poor source of Fe. The daily intake of lead, identified in only two samples, was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) defined by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), which is 25 mu g/(kg body weight). Lead was evaluated for a person drinking 250 ml of milk/day and weighing 70 kg. It produced weekly intake of 3.1 mu g, a value well below the PTWI. (Orig./A.B.)

  16. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV. The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20 and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel.

  17. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  18. Following changes in total number of mesophilic bacteria and torry meter readings in samples of fresh trout packaged in modified atmosphere and vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, food must be healthy, subjected to minimal processing, and attractively packaged, as the expectations of consumers are ever higher. Consumers are highly sensitive to the use of additives in the food industry. There is a constant demand for fresh food that does not contain any unnecessarily added chemicals. In order to prevent spoilage of food items, an efficient and intelligent concept for preserving freshness has been developed - packaging in a modified atmosphere. Changes in a certain composition of the atmosphere within the packaging have resulted in a longer shelf life and a satisfactory quality of the food articles. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known and has been applied in practice in the food processing industry for more than one century. The objective of these investigations was to determine the growth of the total number of mesophilic bacteria in the meat of trout packaged in a vacuum and a modified atmosphere and torry meter reading results due to changes in the dielectric characteristics of the skin that take place during the period of storage of the fresh fish. California trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with an average weight of 293 g was used for the experimental part of the investigations. Four groups of fish samples were set up for the research. The first three groups of samples were packaged in a modified atmosphere with a different ratio of gases: Group I - 60%CO2+40%N2; Group II - 40%CO2+60%N2; Group III - 90%CO2+10%N2. Group IV comprised samples packaged in a vacuum. Investigations were carried out on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The total number of mesophilic bacteria in the examined samples was determined according to the method ISO 4833. Measurements of changes in the dielectric characteristics of the fish skin were performed using a torry meter apparatus (The Torry Fish Freshness Meter. The results have shown that packaging of fresh trout in a modified atmosphere (60% CO2 + 40% N2 and 40% CO2 + 60% N2

  19. Biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone in natural water environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimowska Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental degradation of poly(ε-caprolactone[PCL] in natural fresh water (pond and in The Baltic Sea is presented in this paper. The characteristic parameters of both environments were measured during experiment and their influence on the biodegradation of the samples was discussed. The loss of weight and changes of surface morphology of polymer samples were tested during the period of incubation. The poly(ε-caprolactone was more biodegradable in natural sea water than in pond. PCL samples were completely assimilated over the period of six weeks incubation in The Baltic Sea water, but after forty two weeks incubation in natural fresh water the polymer weight loss was about 39%. The results have confirmed that the investigated polymers are susceptible to an enzymatic attack of microorganisms, but their activity depends on environments.

  20. Fresh Versus Marine Submarine Groundwater Discharge: How 222Rn Might Help Distinguish These Two Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.; Roy, M.

    2008-05-01

    Pore water distributions of 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.83 d), obtained during two sampling trips 9-12 May 2005 and 6-8 May 2006, are used to determine spatial and temporal variations of fluid discharge from a seepage face located along the mainland shoreline of Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Porewater samples were collected from a 30 m transect of multi-level piezometers and analyzed for 222Rn via liquid scintillation counting; the mean of triplicate measurements was used to represent the porewater 222Rn activities. Sediment samples were collected from five vibracores (0, 10, 17.5, 20, and 30 m offshore) and emanation rates of 222Rn (sediment supported) were determined using a standard cryogenic extraction technique. A conceptual 222Rn transport model and subsequent numerical model were developed based on the vertical distribution of dissolved and sediment-supported 222Rn and applicable processes occurring along the seepage face (e.g. advection, diffusion, and nonlocal exchange). The model was solved inversely with the addition of two Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to increase the statistical reliability of three parameters: fresh groundwater seepage velocity (v), irrigation intensity (α0), and irrigation attenuation (α1). The first MC simulation ensures that the Nelder-Mead minimization algorithm converges on a global minimum of the merit function and that the parameters estimates are consistent within this global minimum. The second MC simulation provides 90% confidence intervals on the parameter estimates using the measured 222Rn activity variance. Fresh groundwater seepage velocities obtained from the model decrease linearly with distance from the shoreline; seepage velocities range between 0.6 and 42.2 cm d-1. Based on this linear relationship, the terminus of the fresh groundwater seepage is approximately 25 m offshore and total fresh groundwater discharge for the May-2005 and May-2006 sampling trips are 1.16 and 1.45 m3 d-1 m-1 of shoreline, respectively. We hypothesize

  1. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  2. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  3. Multimodal optical analysis discriminates freshly extracted human sample of gliomas, metastases and meningiomas from their appropriate controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Poulon, Fanny; Pallud, Johan; Varlet, Pascale; Hamzeh, H.; Abi Lahoud, Georges; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Ibrahim, Ali; Pages, Mélanie; Chretien, Fabrice; di Rocco, Federico; Dezamis, Edouard; Nataf, François; Turak, Baris; Devaux, Bertrand; Abi Haidar, Darine

    2017-02-01

    Delineating tumor margins as accurately as possible is of primordial importance in surgical oncology: extent of resection is associated with survival but respect of healthy surrounding tissue is necessary for preserved quality of life. The real-time analysis of the endogeneous fluorescence signal of brain tissues is a promising tool for defining margins of brain tumors. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of multimodal optical analysis to discriminate fresh samples of gliomas, metastases and meningiomas from their appropriate controls. Tumor samples were studied on an optical fibered endoscope using spectral and fluorescence lifetime analysis and then on a multimodal set-up for acquiring spectral, one and two-photon fluorescence images, second harmonic generation signals and two-photon fluorescence lifetime datasets. The obtained data allowed us to differentiate healthy samples from tumor samples. These results confirmed the possible clinical relevance of this real-time multimodal optical analysis. This technique can be easily applied to neurosurgical procedures for a better delineation of surgical margins.

  4. Investigation of inorganic constituents of commercial tea brands and fresh tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    The inorganic constituents including total hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides (Cr/sup -1/), sulphates (SO/sub 4/sup -2/), nitrates (NO/sub 3/sup -1/, nitrites (NO/sub 2/sup -1/ and phosphates (PO/sub 4/sup -3/) along with pH were monitored in various tea brands and fresh tea leaves available in Pakistan. The commercial 14 tea samples were collected from the local markets in Peshawar while fresh tea leaves was obtained directly from tea plants at the National Tea Research Center, Mansehra, Pakistan and analyzed for the above parameters. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water quality which showed that some parameters were higher than the WHO permissible levels indicating the environmental pollution threat in areas where the tea plants were grown Efforts have been made to draw any correlations with the reported constituents of the tea samples for the beneficial health effects or otherwise and their daily intake. The adverse effects of the tested parameters on human health have also been discussed. (author)

  5. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  6. Texture and quality properties of Chinese fresh egg noodles formulated with green seaweed (Monostroma nitidum) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H C; Wu, L-C

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fresh Chinese noodles made with different levels of green seaweed. Green seaweed powder was incorporated in proportions of 4%, 6%, and 8% in noodles, which were made with or without additional eggs. Proximate compositions, cooking properties, textural intensities, and sensory qualities of noodles were assessed. The addition of seaweed powder increased the crude fiber contents of raw fresh noodles; the fiber contents were 0.100%+/- 0.015 to 0.449%+/- 0.013 for noodles made with eggs from 0% to 8% additional seaweed and 0.247%+/- 0.018 to 0.344%+/- 0.021 for those without eggs. Higher cooking yields were found in the noodles, due to water absorption during cooking by the fibers and polysaccharides in the seaweed. Significantly higher cooking yields (P seaweed powder; water uptake readings measured 2.39 +/- 0.38 and 2.43 +/- 0.25 g H(2)O/g noodle for samples made without and with eggs, respectively. Higher water absorption by the seaweed led to softer and spongier textural intensities in the noodles. Breaking energy of cooked fresh egg noodles were 28.94 +/- 3.42 to 6.43 +/- 1.01 N x mm for 8% to 0% additional seaweed, and the intensities decreased as the amount of seaweed increased; the same pattern was observed in noodles without eggs, where readings were 8.66 +/- 1.02 to 3.49 +/- 0.25 N x mm. Capacities of extensibility measured 61.81 +/- 2.04 to 30.74 +/- 0.90 mm for fresh egg noodles with additional seaweed powder from 0% to 8%, and 47.46 +/- 2.41 to 28.36 +/- 2.25 mm for cooked fresh noodles without eggs. The results from Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that textural parameters were influenced not only by additional eggs and seaweed powder, but also by cooking properties.

  7. KASUS DISTRIBUSI DAN PENGGUNAAN FORMALIN DALAM PENGAWETAN KOMODITI IKAN LAUT SEGAR (STUDI KASUS DI KOTA BANDAR LAMPUNG Formaldehyde Distribution and Using for Preserving Fresh Fish (A Case Study in Bandar Lampung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Yusdianson Girsang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of formaldehyde in some fresh fish commodities and to trace formaldehyde distribution in Bandar Lampung City. The  formadelhyde tests were done  on the storage water of fresh fish samples. The study conducted in July to October 2013 was devided in two stages: a survey to fill out a questionnaire to a number of respondents, followed by sampling some storage water of fresh fish to be tested in the laboratory.  The tests were  carried out on 52 sampling points taken from the fishing boats in the fishing landing port (17 boats, fish supplier car from outside Bandar Lampung (6 cars as well as some fish sellers in 5 traditional market in Bandar Lampung (29 sellers. By conducting a laboratory test using Formaldehyde Test Kit, there were 2 samples that were purple (positively contain formaldehyde, which were taken from 2 boats in fish landing port of Lempasing. Then the assertion test was carried out to the positive samples using chromotropic acid (SNI 01 – 2894 – 1992. The results showed that the samples positively contained formaldehyde indeed, which was characterized by a bluish purple color. Based on the survey results and tracking, there was a distortion of formaldehyde distribution in Bandar Lampung, where domestic industries (including fisherman obtained formaldehyde illegally, either from End Users, a local manufacturer or drugstore/hospital/other health care facilities. Key word: formaldehyde, fresh fish storage water, distribution distortion.

  8. Inhalational anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hönemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the inhalation of anaesthesia use of low fresh gas flow (0.35-1 L/min has some important advantages. There are three areas of benefit: pulmonary - anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow improves the dynamics of inhaled anaesthesia gas, increases mucociliary clearance, maintains body temperature and reduces water loss. Economic - reduction of anaesthesia gas consumption resulting in significant savings of > 75% and Ecological - reduction in nitrous oxide consumption, which is an important ozone-depleting and heat-trapping greenhouse gas that is emitted. Nevertheless, anaesthesia with high fresh gas flows of 2-6 L/min is still performed, a technique in which rebreathing is practically negligible. This special article describes the clinical use of conventional plenum vaporizers, connected to the fresh gas supply to easily perform low (1 L/min, minimal (0.5 L/min or metabolic flow anaesthesia (0.35 L/min with conventional Primus Draeger® anaesthesia machines in routine clinical practice.

  9. Radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT) in serum of Pekin ducks: AVT concentrations after adaptation to fresh water and salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, J.; Schoun, J.; Simon-Oppermann, C.; Simon, E.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT), the antidiuretic principle in birds, was developed using the high cross-reactivity of AVT with an AVP antiserum raised in rabbits. This assay is specific for the measurement of AVT in serum of birds. The sensitivity and precision is such that serum AVT concentrations above 0.5 fmol/ml can be measured quantitatively. A serum AVT concentration of 5.1 +- 1.4 fmol/ml was found in normally hydrated, fresh water adapted ducks with a serum osmolality of 293.7 +- 2.2 mosmol/kg. When the same animals were acutely hydrated, no or [de

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodhini, R.; Narayanan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in various organs of the fresh water fish exposed to heavy metal contaminated water system. The experimental fish was exposed to Cr. Ni, Cd and Pb at sublethal concentrations for periods of 32 days. The elements Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr were assayed using Shimadzu AA 6200 atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were given as μg/g dry wt. The accumulation of heavy metal gradually increases in liver during the heavy metal exposure period. All the results were statistically significant at p Pb > Ni > Cr and Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr. Similarly, in case of kidney and flesh tissues, the order was Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni and Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. In all heavy metals, the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium proportion was significantly increased in the tissues of Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

  11. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-11-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovirus revealed that high percentages of virus particles, sometimes greater than 99%, were lost through adherence to containers, especially in less turbid waters. This effect was partially overcome by the use of polypropylene containers and by the absence of movement during incubation. Adherence to containers clearly demonstrated the need for labeled viruses to monitor losses in this type of study. Loss of viral infectivity in samples found to occur during freezing was avoided by addition of broth. Finally, microbial contamination of the cell cultures during infectivity assays was overcome by the use of gentamicin and increased concentrations of penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B.

  12. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kharousi, Zahra S.; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Al-Bulushi, Ismail M.; Shaharoona, Baby

    2016-01-01

    Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman) for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR) and bioc...

  13. Geochemistry of trace metals in a fresh water sediment: Field results and diagenetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, R.W.; Cappellen, P. van; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Berg, G.A. van den; Slomp, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment-water interface, especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments

  14. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fresh Properties and Flexural Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete Integrating Coal Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Norwati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of using coal bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in self-compacting concrete (SCC on its fresh properties and flexural strength. A comparison between SCC with various replacements of fine aggregates with coal bottom ash showed that SCC obtained flexural strength decrease on increase of water cement ratio from 0.35 to 0.45. The natural sand was replaced with coal bottom ash up to 30% volumetrically. The fresh properties were investigated by slump flow, T500 spread time, L-box test and sieve segregation resistance in order to evaluate its self-compatibility by compared to control samples embed with natural sand. The results revealed that the flowability and passing ability of SCC mixtures are decreased with higher content of coal bottom ash replacement. The results also showed that the flexural strength is affected by the presence of coal bottom ash in the concrete. In addition, the water cement ratios are influence significantly with higher binder content in concrete.

  16. Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Consumption of water contaminated causes health risk to the public and the ... Methods: Water samples were collected from tap, open springs, open dug wells and ... rights; however, many of the world's population lack ... Fresh water has become a scarce commodity due ... the tested parameters among the water sources.

  17. Comparative study of salinity tolerance of an oceanic sea skater, Halobates micans and its closely related fresh water species, Metrocoris histrio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekimoto, T.; Osumi, Y.; Shiraki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Emi, K.; Nakajo, M.; Moku, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Katagiri, C.; Harada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 14 (2014), s. 1141-1148 ISSN 2150-4091 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ocean ic sea skaters * fresh water halobatinae species * salinity tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49746

  18. Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Øystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn

    2014-09-01

    Climate variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

  19. Reaction of fresh water zooplankton community to chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic features of ecological community as a whole and cenosis of zooplankton organisms as part of it determine the intensity of the processes of self-purification of water and the formation of a particular body of water. Identifying features of the structure and composition of the zooplankton community of aquatic ecosystems exposed to different levels of radiation exposure, it is necessary to identify patterns of changes in zooplankton and hydro-biocenosis as a whole. Industrial reservoirs, the storage of liquid low-level radioactive waste 'Mayak' for decades, have high radiation load. A large range of levels of radioactive contamination (total volume beta-activity in water varies from 2.2x10{sup 3} to 2.3x10{sup 7} Bq/l, total volume alpha-activity - from 2.6x10{sup -1} to 3.1x10{sup 3} Bq/l) provides a unique opportunity to study ecosystems in a number of reservoirs with increasing impact of radiation factor. We studied five reservoirs that were used as the storage of low-and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste pond and one comparison water body. In parallel with zooplankton sampling water samples were collected for hydro-chemical analysis. 41 indicators were analysed in order to assess the water chemistry. To determine the content of radionuclides in the various components of the ecosystem samples were collected from water, bottom sediments and plankton. Sampling of zooplankton for the quantitative analysis was performed using the method of weighted average auto bathometer. Apshteyn's plankton net of the surface horizon was used for qualitative analysis of the species composition of zooplankton. Software package ERICA Assessment Tool 2012 was used for the calculation of the absorbed dose rate. Species diversity and biomass of zooplankton, the share of rotifers in the number of species, abundance and biomass decrease with the increase of the absorbed dose rate and salinity. The number of species in a sample decreases with the

  20. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  1. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  2. Development of VIS/NIR spectroscopic system for real-time prediction of fresh pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyun; Peng, Yankun; Zhao, Songwei; Sasao, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat will influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. The aim of the research was to develop a prototype for real-time detection of quality in meat. It consisted of hardware system and software system. A VIS/NIR spectrograph in the range of 350 to 1100 nm was used to collect the spectral data. In order to acquire more potential information of the sample, optical fiber multiplexer was used. A conveyable and cylindrical device was designed and fabricated to hold optical fibers from multiplexer. High power halogen tungsten lamp was collected as the light source. The spectral data were obtained with the exposure time of 2.17ms from the surface of the sample by press down the trigger switch on the self-developed system. The system could automatically acquire, process, display and save the data. Moreover the quality could be predicted on-line. A total of 55 fresh pork samples were used to develop prediction model for real time detection. The spectral data were pretreated with standard normalized variant (SNV) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to develop prediction model. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of the validation set for water content and pH were 0.810, 0.653, and 0.803, 0.098 respectively. The research shows that the real-time non-destructive detection system based on VIS/NIR spectroscopy can be efficient to predict the quality of fresh meat.

  3. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Tej Bali; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for ant...

  4. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  5. Measurement of actinides in samples from effluent air, primary coolant and effluent water of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.

    1977-01-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the alpha radioactivity of a number of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of some nuclear power stations, of water effluent samples from all german nuclear power stations and of samples from the primary coolant water of one nuclear power reactor was measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for alpha spectrometry of the samples in large area gridded ionization chambers were used; cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen, coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate, and evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on stainless steel plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the alpha radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242, Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. Detection limits of the procedures used for the analysis of the above stated transuranium nuclides were in the order of 0,1 fCi per m 3 for the aerosol samples and of 0.2 pCi per 1 for the liquid samples. For the effluent air and water samples in most cases specific activities near the detection limit or somewhat higher were found. On the basis of the measurements, an estimation of the annual actinides releases from nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  6. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  7. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  8. Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS) in Swedish marine and fresh water wildlife-a screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Karin; Olsson, Anders; Olsson, Mats; Bergman, Ake

    2004-07-01

    Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS) is a high production volume chemical (HPVC) applied in thermostable polymers. BCPS has been detected as an environmental contaminant both in Europe and in North America but it is still not a commonly studied pollutant. In this study, three Baltic Sea fish species; herring (Clupea harengus), salmon (Salmo salar) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Swedish coast, and one inland fish species, arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), were analysed to screen for the occurrence and distribution of BCPS. Salmon and arctic char, were sampled in the early 1970s as well as the late 1990s. Fish eating grey seal (Halichoerus gryphus) and guillemot (Uria aalge) from the Baltic Sea were included to screen for whether BCPS biomagnify or not. The representativeness of the analysed samples for studying bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants was compared through analysis of two well known persistent and bioaccumulating compounds, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and 4,4'-DDE. Pooled muscle and blubber samples based on 4-10 individuals were used for analysis, as well as individual samples of grey seal blubber. 2,4,4'-Trichlorodiphenyl sulfone, was synthesised and applied as an internal standard. BCPS was detected in all marine samples but in only one of the fresh water fish samples. The highest BCPS concentrations detected, 1600 and 1900 ng/g lipid weighet (l.w.), were found in muscle from Baltic guillemot. The results indicate that BCPS is bioaccumulated in both grey seal and guillemot, and that the guillemot has higher concentrations of BCPS than the grey seal (50-500 ng/g l.w.). The concentrations found in different species of fish from the Baltic Sea ranged between 15-37 ng/g l.w. and lower concentrations were found in freshwater species (n.d.-1.8 ng/g l.w.). The present study shows that BCPS is found in all investigated species of wildlife but, in most species, still at low concentrations. However, the guillemot has levels in the

  9. The impacts of oil lakes on the fresh groundwater lenses in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, K. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Water Resources Div., Safat (Kuwait)

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken in 1992-93 following the Gulf War to determine the extent of groundwater pollution resulting from the setting afire of hundreds of oil wells in Kuwait. The country's only natural water resource is groundwater, which is mostly brackish except for two locations where it exists as fresh lenses due to the high infiltration rate of the sandy Dibdibba Formation. However, the quality of the fresh groundwater lens at Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish was threatened when the ground surface became heavily polluted from the fires. The main goal of the study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals such as vanadium, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and hydrocarbons to estimate background levels of these contaminants in ground water in the Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish areas and to determine the impacts of hydrocarbon pollution on the quality of groundwater. Results show that concentration of certain pollutants in the water samples from wells close to the contaminated areas exceed international standards, while other monitored wells do not show pollution from oil spills. However, it was noted that non detection of pollution does not necessarily imply that the groundwater is not polluted. The sources of pollution include infiltration from oil lakes and contaminated water used for fire fighting, products of combustion at the ground surface, and surface leakage of oil from damaged oil well casings. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. {sup 137}Cs Absorption factors (Afs) some vegetable and protein samples in cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M A [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nakahara, M [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka City (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: The human race uses fresh water for cooking, drinking and washing purposes. The source of fresh water may be radioactively contaminated by various sources of contaminants. With the increased use of radioisotopes, nuclear testing, possible nuclear warfare and terror activities, the apprehension of widespread contamination of the surface and ground water is increasing day by day. In the case of widespread contamination of freshwater sources, people may be compelled to use the contaminated water. The radionuclides in fresh water may enter the human body through two major routes: drinking and cooking food with the water. During cooking, the radionuclide present in the water may be transferred to the various ingredients of the cooked dish. The degree of contamination in the ingredients during the cooking depends on the absorption power of the individual ingredients and on the level of radionuclide present in the water. The ratio of the concentration of the radionuclide absorbed in the ingredients to the concentration in the water can be designated as the 'Absorption factor' (Af). A consumer always has the choice of eating either the whole dish or a part of the dish. The Af of every consumed ingredient can be used to predict the radionuclide absorbed by the individual ingredients cooked with contaminated water, and as such to predict the dose to the consumer. The factor can also be used to assess the dispersion of radionuclide from the water used in cooking to the ingredients in the cooked dish. A better understanding of variables in the cooking that affect the Af in various ingredients is central to deriving the contamination level of the ingredients. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation on this topic has been conducted before. In order to assess this topic and for obtaining base line data, a research project was undertaken to determine the Afs of some vegetable and protein samples, and to investigate the effects of salinity and cooling on Af

  11. Isolation and determination of cultural characteristics of a new highly CO2 tolerant fresh water microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Lihong; Chen Weigong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh water microalgae, which has high CO 2 tolerance, were isolated and its cultural characteristics were investigated. The ZY-1 strain was identified as genus Chlorella. It showed maximum growth at 10% (v/v) CO 2 enriched air flowing condition, and a good growth rate in a broad range of physically controllable conditions, including CO 2 concentration up to 70% (v/v), CO 2 enriched air flow rate, temperature and pH value. The results indicated the feasibility of the ZY-1 strain for fixing CO 2 from stack gases

  12. Water sampling device for fuel rod failure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogami, Hideaki; Echigoya, Hironori; Matsuoka, Tesshi.

    1991-01-01

    The device of the present invention accurately samples coolants in a channel box as sampling water even if the upper end of the channel box of a fuel assembly is positioned at the same height or lower than the upper end of an upper lattice plate. An existent device comprises an outer cap, an inner cap, an air supply pipe and a water sampling tube. In addition, the device of the present invention comprises a sealing material disposed at the end of the outer cap for keeping liquid sealing with the upper lattice plate and a water level monitoring pipe extended to lower than the inner cap passing through the liquid sealing of the outer cap for sucking the atmosphere in the outer cap. Pressurized air is sent through the air supply pipe, to lower the water level of the coolants in the outer cap and the water level monitoring pipe sucks the pressurized air, by which the inside and the outside of the channel box are partitioned. Subsequently, if the sample water is sampled by a sampling tube, sampling water which enables accurate evaluation for radioactivity concentration in the fuel assembly can be obtained. (I.S.)

  13. The Accumulation and Retention of Zine-65 and Cobalt-60 by The Fresh Water Fish CLARIAS LAZERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Badawy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Some parameters affecting the accumulation and retention of 65 Zn and 60 Co radionuclides by the fresh water fish CLARIAS LAZERA from the contaminated filtered Ismail ia Canal water(FICW) have been investigated. It has been observed that the accumulated activity (KBq/g) increased with increasing exposure time with the contaminated FICW. This kind of bony fish has been shown to accumulate 65 Zn > 60 Co. The increase of the studied radionuclide carrier concentration in the canal water increased the fish uptake of both radionuclides. The increase of ph of the FICW decreased the accumulated activity by the fish. On the other hand, the retention of those radionuclides by this fish was investigated. It was possible from this study to give preliminary data for the calculation of the radiation dose that might be delivered to man eating the contaminated fish

  14. Microbial and Sensory Quality of Freshly Processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were also evaluated for difference and preference. The study showed that the reconstituted beverage had better microbiological quality with detectable difference between the two samples with the fresh sample being preferred. Key words: Millet grains, Kununzaki, microbial quality, sensory quality. J Food Tech ...

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  16. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-02

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Responses of fresh-cut products of four mango cultivars under two different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonu; Rao, Tadapaneni Venkata Ramana

    2017-05-01

    Due to availability of minimally processed products, the consumption of fresh produce has increased over recent years. The present study has been undertaken with the objective of screening of four mango cultivars ('Kesar', 'Rajapuri', 'Totapuri' and 'Ladvo') for evaluating the consequences of minimal processing on their quality attributes under storage at two different temperatures (5 ± 1 °C, 95% RH and 10 ± 1 °C, 87% RH) up to 12 days. The result of the study revealed significant impacts of low temperature storage on the quality parameters of fresh-cut mango cultivars. The evaluated bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, vitamin C and carotenoids were better retained in the samples stored at 5 °C as compared with that of 10 °C. Moreover, the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 5 °C showed lower water loss and microbial contamination. Sensory analyses revealed that the storage of fresh-cut mango cultivars at 10 °C influenced overall acceptability due to changes in their visual perception, though taste, odor and firmness were less affected. This study revealed a significant variation in the storability of fresh-cut mango cultivars with respect to the storage temperature. Among currently studied four cultivars of mango, slices of 'Totapuri' showed comparatively the least change in color, firmness and sensory properties during storage at 5 and 10 °C and it can be a potential cultivar for fresh-cut processing.

  18. Determination of distribution coefficient (Kd's) of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclide in fresh and marine coastal water sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S; Haleem, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of artificial and natural radionuclides in fresh and marine water sediment are used in modeling radionuclide dispersion in water system, and the radiation risk and environmental investigating of impact of radioactive emissions, due to routine operations of nuclear plants or disposal and burial of radioactive waste in the environment. In the present work, distribution coefficient of uranium, lead, polonium, radium (naturally occurring radionuclides that may be emitted into the Syrian environment by the phosphate and oil industry with relatively high concentrations) and caesium 137 and strontium 85, in fresh water sediment (Euphrates River, Orantos River and Mzzerib Lake) and marine coastal water (Lattakia, Tartous and Banias). Distribution coefficients were found to vary between (5.8-17.18)*10 3 , (2.2-8.11)*10 3 , (0.22-2.08)*10 3 , (0.16-0.19)*10 3 , (0.38-0.69)*10 3 and 49-312 for polonium, lead, uranium, radium, cesium and strontium respectively. Results have indicated that most measurement distribution coefficients in the present study were lower than those values reported in IAEA documents for marine coastal sediment. In addition, variations of Kd's with aqueous phase composition and sediment elemental and mineralogical composition and its total organic materials content have been studied, where liner correlation coefficients for each isotope with different parameters have been determined. The obtained data reported in this study can be used for radioactive contaminants dispersion and transfer in Syrian river, lake and coast to assess risks to public due to discharges of the phosphate and oil industry into the Syrian environment. (Authors)

  19. A Simple and Reproducible Method to Prepare Membrane Samples from Freshly Isolated Rat Brain Microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Abdullahi, Wazir; Reilly, Bianca G; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2018-05-07

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier tissue that responds to various pathophysiological and pharmacological stimuli. Such changes resulting from these stimuli can greatly modulate drug delivery to the brain and, by extension, cause considerable challenges in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Many BBB changes that affect pharmacotherapy, involve proteins that are localized and expressed at the level of endothelial cells. Indeed, such knowledge on BBB physiology in health and disease has sparked considerable interest in the study of these membrane proteins. From a basic science research standpoint, this implies a requirement for a simple but robust and reproducible method for isolation of microvessels from brain tissue harvested from experimental animals. In order to prepare membrane samples from freshly isolated microvessels, it is essential that sample preparations be enriched in endothelial cells but limited in the presence of other cell types of the neurovascular unit (i.e., astrocytes, microglia, neurons, pericytes). An added benefit is the ability to prepare samples from individual animals in order to capture the true variability of protein expression in an experimental population. In this manuscript, details regarding a method that is utilized for isolation of rat brain microvessels and preparation of membrane samples are provided. Microvessel enrichment, from samples derived, is achieved by using four centrifugation steps where dextran is included in the sample buffer. This protocol can easily be adapted by other laboratories for their own specific applications. Samples generated from this protocol have been shown to yield robust experimental data from protein analysis experiments that can greatly aid the understanding of BBB responses to physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological stimuli.

  20. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  2. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  3. Validation of the method spectrophotometer in the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Silva, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the spectrophotometer method described by Bateman et al. (1994) for the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna) and to evaluate the histamine concentration in samples of fresh tuna. To fulfill the recently exposed objectives, the figures of merit were determined like they are it: recovery limits of detection, sensibility and repetitive of the method spectrophotometry and applied the analysis at twenty samples of fresh tuna for copy of the Metropolitan area and three sample like reference of fresh tuna stored 4 degree centigrade by 15 days. The histamine recovery you determines enriching seven ours of fresh tuna with histamine to two levels different 0.613 mg/L and 2.21 mg/L. three samples were left without enriching and you subtract the average to the native histamine. You determines the one it limits of detection using the standard deviation to three levels of concentration of histamine 1.37 mg/L, 2.22 mg/L and 3.22 mg/L, the minimum quantity of hi stamina that you can determine for the method spectrophotometry settling down. The repetitive you determines using the standard deviation for 100 among the average of the histamine values, in seven you replies independent of the same sample. You determines the histamine content, in the fresh tuna Thunnus Tunna of the expends of the Metropolitan Area and in samples of reference stored 4 degrees centigrade by 15 days [es

  4. Efficacy of Peracetic Acid in Inactivating Foodborne Pathogens on Fresh Produce Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Hung, Yen-Con; Qi, Hang

    2018-02-01

    Washing treatment with effective sanitizer is one of the critical steps in ensuring fresh produce safety. This study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; VigorOx® 15 F&V), chlorine-based sanitizers (acidic electrolyzed water [AEO], near neutral electrolyzed water and bleach), lactic acid, and deionized (DI) water to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from fresh produce surfaces. A 5-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium DT104 was separately prepared and used for surface inoculation on produce samples (E. coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce, lemons, tomatoes, and blueberries; L. monocytogenes on romaine lettuce and cantaloupe; S. Typhimurium DT104 on lemons, tomatoes, cantaloupe, and blueberries). PAA at 45, 85, and 100 mg/L; AEO, NNEO, and bleach at 100 mg/L of free chlorine; lactic acid at 2%; and DI water were used for washing inoculated produce in an automated produce washer for 5 min. In general, PAA at 100 mg/L achieved the highest microbial inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 (lettuce, lemon, tomato, and blueberry at 2.2, 5.7, 5.5, and 6.7 log CFU/g, respectively), S. Typhimurium DT104 (lemon, tomato, cantaloupe, blueberry at 5.4, 6.8, 4.5, and 5.9 log CFU/g, respectively), and L. monocytogenes (lettuce and cantaloupe at 2.4 and 4.4 log CFU/g, respectively). Efficacy of sanitizers on produce with coarse surface (for example, lettuce and cantaloupe) was lower than produce with smooth texture (lemon, tomato, and blueberry). Cross-contamination of E. coli O157:H7 among romaine lettuce heads during simulated retail crisping process was greatly reduced by the application of PAA and NNEO. NNEO and PAA showed high efficacy in foodborne pathogen removal from fresh produce. Produce surface texture plays an important role in pathogen removal. NNEO and PAA effectively prevented cross-contamination during the crisping process. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  6. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  7. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to Natural sea water was run through the ballast water system and untreated samples were collected using paired sampling devices. Collected samples were analyzed in parallel by multiple analysts using several different analytic methods to quantify organism concentrations. To determine whether there were differences in the number of viable organisms collected across sampling devices, results were standardized and statistically treated to filter out other sources of variability, resulting in an outcome variable representing the mean difference in measurements that can be attributed to sampling devices. These results were tested for significance using pairwise Tukey contrasts. Differences in organism concentrations were found in 50% of comparisons between sampling skids and the plankton net for ≥ 50 μm, and ≥ 10 μm to < 50 μm size classes, with net samples containing either higher or lower densities. There were no differences for < 10 μm organisms. Future work will be required to explicitly examine the potential effects of flow velocity, sampling duration, sampled volume, and organism concentrations on sampling device performance.

  8. Promoting seafood consumption: An evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplementary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of family expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N = 641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  9. A metagenomic assessment of viral contamination on fresh parsley plants irrigated with fecally tainted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cassi, X; Timoneda, N; Gonzales-Gustavson, E; Abril, J F; Bofill-Mas, S; Girones, R

    2017-09-18

    Microbial food-borne diseases are still frequently reported despite the implementation of microbial quality legislation to improve food safety. Among all the microbial agents, viruses are the most important causative agents of food-borne outbreaks. The development and application of a new generation of sequencing techniques to test for viral contaminants in fresh produce is an unexplored field that allows for the study of the viral populations that might be transmitted by the fecal-oral route through the consumption of contaminated food. To advance this promising field, parsley was planted and grown under controlled conditions and irrigated using contaminated river water. Viruses polluting the irrigation water and the parsley leaves were studied by using metagenomics. To address possible contamination due to sample manipulation, library preparation, and other sources, parsley plants irrigated with nutritive solution were used as a negative control. In parallel, viruses present in the river water used for plant irrigation were analyzed using the same methodology. It was possible to assign viral taxons from 2.4 to 74.88% of the total reads sequenced depending on the sample. Most of the viral reads detected in the river water were related to the plant viral families Tymoviridae (66.13%) and Virgaviridae (14.45%) and the phage viral families Myoviridae (5.70%), Siphoviridae (5.06%), and Microviridae (2.89%). Less than 1% of the viral reads were related to viral families that infect humans, including members of the Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picornaviridae and Astroviridae families. On the surface of the parsley plants, most of the viral reads that were detected were assigned to the Dicistroviridae family (41.52%). Sequences related to important viral pathogens, such as the hepatitis E virus, several picornaviruses from species A and B as well as human sapoviruses and GIV noroviruses were detected. The high diversity of viral sequences found in the parsley plants

  10. Sampling method of environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This manual provides sampling methods of environmental samples of airborne dust, precipitated dust, precipitated water (rain or snow), fresh water, soil, river sediment or lake sediment, discharged water from a nuclear facility, grains, tea, milk, pasture grass, limnetic organisms, daily diet, index organisms, sea water, marine sediment, marine organisms, and that for tritium and radioiodine determination for radiation monitoring from radioactive fallout or radioactivity release by nuclear facilities. This manual aims at the presentation of standard sampling procedures for environmental radioactivity monitoring regardless of monitoring objectives, and shows preservation method of environmental samples acquired at the samplingpoint for radiation counting for those except human body. Sampling techniques adopted in this manual is decided by the criteria that they are suitable for routine monitoring and any special skillfulness is not necessary. Based on the above-mentioned principle, this manual presents outline and aims of sampling, sampling position or object, sampling quantity, apparatus, equipment or vessel for sampling, sampling location, sampling procedures, pretreatment and preparation procedures of a sample for radiation counting, necessary recording items for sampling and sample transportation procedures. Special attention is described in the chapter of tritium and radioiodine because these radionuclides might be lost by the above-mentioned sample preservation method for radiation counting of less volatile radionuclides than tritium or radioiodine. (Takagi, S.)

  11. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  12. Monthly variation in the Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and other safety issues in some marine and fresh water fish species in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.

    2014-07-01

    Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein in Ghana and the fisheries industry is vital to the economy of the country. Unfortunately, most of the aquatic systems in Ghana are being polluted with domestic and industrial wastes which results in bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species. The traditional method for preserving fish in the country is by hot smoking or smoke drying, through freezing may be preferred where facilities are available. The presence of high levels of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked fish as well as other fish products is a matter of public health concern in Ghana. Variations in the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both fresh and smoked marine fish, Sebastes marinus (red fish) and fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) caught off the coast of James Town in Accra and from the Volta river at Kpong respectively were monitored monthly from September 2013 to March 2014. Extension of two shelf life of the smoked fish species by gamma irradiation was also studied during 4 weeks of low temperature (5± 1 C ) storage by refrigeration. The total concentration of Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg) in the fish species as well as in their muscles, gills and bones were determined by Flame or Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The moisture content, pH, sensory analysis and population of aerobic mesophiles (on PCA), yeast and moulds (on OGYE), Escherichia coli (on EMB), Staphylococcus aureus (on BPA) and Salmonella (on XLD) in fresh fish, and smoked fish after treatment with 1, 2 and 3kGy of gamma irradiation and during storage were determined. Four patterns in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in both Sebastes marinus and Oreochromis niloticus were observed over the 6 months monitoring period. Fe, Cu, Co and Cr accumulated heavily in the fish species during September and October after which the

  13. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  15. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  16. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory quality of fresh-cut red beetroots in relation to sanization method and storage duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sanitization and storage on fresh-cut beetroots (Beta vulgaris L. were evaluated following sanitation – peeling - cutting (SPC, peeling – sanitation – cutting (PSC and peeling – cutting – sanitation (PCS methods with (Cl, or without (TW, 100 ppm chlorine solution, then packaged in polyethylene bag and stored at 5°C for up to 14 days. Chroma values of fresh-cut beetroots significantly declined whereas whiteness index and titratable acidity values increased, however, texture and total soluble solid contents showed no significant variation. Betalain contents decreased gradually and total phenol content showed inconsistence trend. PCS-Cl treated samples accounted for higher betalains decline and received lower visual quality scores despite its lower total aerobic bacterial count. Minimum microbial population was observed in PSC-Cl methodsalong with higher levels of betalain contents. Considering pigment retention, microbial and visual qualities, beetroots sanitized with chlorine water following PSC method was the best processingway for fresh-cut beetroots and therefore, PSC-Cl treatment could commercially be used for processing of fresh-cut beetroots.

  17. Use of Irradiation to Ensure Microbial Safety of Fresh-Cut Green Beans Sold In Egyptian Supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Nour, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty samples of fresh-cut green beans were collected from different local supermarkets. They were tested for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic plate count (TAPC) of these samples ranged from >105 to 108 cfu/g; and total yeasts and moulds ranged from 102 to 105 cfu/g. All tested fresh-cut green beans samples were contaminated with E. coli. Only 6 samples were free from Enterococcus faecalis, the other 24 (80%) samples contained Ent. faecalis in the range of 102 to 104 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 20 samples (66.6 %) at level of 102 to 104 cfu/g. Aeromonas hydrophila was found in 22 (73.3 %) samples in the range of 102 to 103 cfu/g. All tested fresh cut green beans samples were free from Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. The D10-values of the isolated pathogenic bacteria (Ent. faecalis, Staph. aureus, E. coli and A. hydrophila) in fresh-cut green beans were found to be 0.58, 0.42, 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. Fresh-cut green beans samples were irradiated at 1.5 and 3.0 kGy, and then stored at refrigeration temperature (4 degree C ± 1). Generally, these radiation doses greatly reduced all microbial counts of fresh-cut green beans. The percentage of reduction reached 97.07 and 99.88 in TAPC. Irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy was enough for complete elimination of E. coli and A. hydrophila but was not sufficient for elimination of Ent. faecalis, and Staph. aureus. Irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy completely eliminated Ent. faecalis, and Staph. aureus present. This irradiation dose had no effect on sensorial quality attributes of fresh-cut green beans samples and extended the shelf-life to 15 days against only 5 days for unirradiated samples

  18. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  19. Improving fresh groundwater supply - problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2001-01-01

    Many coastal regions in the world experience an intensive salt water intrusion in aquifers due to natural and anthropogenic causes. The salinisation of these groundwater systems can lead to a severe deterioration of the quality of existing fresh groundwater resources. In this paper, the

  20. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  1. Advances in Radiocarbon Measurement of Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janovics, R.; Molnar, M.; Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATO MKI), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Svetlik, I. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Wacker, L. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper two very different and novel methods for the {sup 14}C measurement of water samples are presented. The first method uses direct absorption into a scintillation cocktail and a following liquid scintillation measurement. Typical sample size is 20-40 L and overall uncertainty is {+-} 2% for modern samples. It is a very cost effective and easy to use method based on a novel and simple static absorption process for the CO{sub 2} extracted from groundwater. The other very sensitive method is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using a gas ion source. With a MICADAS type AMS system we demonstrated that you can routinely measure the {sup 14}C content of 1 mL of water sample with better than 1% precision (for a modern sample). This direct {sup 14}C AMS measurement of water takes less than 20 minutes including sample preparation. (author)

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water; April, 1978 to March, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and seaweed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea water obtained from April, 1978, to March, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, Cl (%), sample volume analyzed (l), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/l) are shown. The maximum values are 0.21 pCi/l of Sr-90 found in Osaka Bay in August, 1978, and 0.19 pCi/l of Cs-137 off Niigata Port in July, 1978. (Kako, I.)

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  4. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.; Kesidou, A.; Kalfa, A.; Moumtzis, A.; Karakoltsidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137 Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137 Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137 Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137 Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137 Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  6. Effect of Irradiation on the Hygienic, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Minimally Processed Fresh-Cut Carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, F.A.; Hammad, A.A.; SwaiIam, H.M.; Abu EI-Nour, S.A.; Serag, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Average total bacteria count (TAPC) in the collected 15 samples of fresh-cut carrot ranged from 1.4 x 10 4 to 2.4x10 6 cfu/ g; lactic acid bacteria (LAB) between 5.0xl0 2 and 2.4xl0 5 cfu/ g; total mould and yeast (TM and Y) ranged from 2 cfu/ g indicating high level of microbial load and most of these samples were unacceptable from the view point of microbial load. All examined fresh-cut carrot samples had coliforms at value ranged from 43 to 1100 MPN/g and contained Escherichia coli in the range of 9 to 460 MPN/ g indicating that most of these samples were unsatisfactory due to the presence of E. coli at level higher than 100 MPN/ g. Enterococcus faecalis count was below the detectable level (100 cfu/ g). Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the majority (80 %) of the tested fresh-cut carrot samples, and were present at 1.0x10 2 to 2.3x10 3 cfu/g. Aeromonas hydrophila was detected in only 5 (33.3) samples with average counts 1.0x10 2 to 4.5xl0 2 cfu/g. The presence of E. coli, Staph. aureus and A. hydrophila in some samples of fresh-cut carrots is to be viewed as a health hazard. On the other hand, no Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. was detected in any of the fifteen fresh-cut carrot samples. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy extended the refrigeration shelf life of fresh-cut carrots to almost 12 days. The shelf-life for unirradiated samples was about 6 days. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy was identified to be the optimum irradiation dose for irradiating fresh-cut carrots. This irradiation dose greatly reduced the T APC (by 99.95 %) and decreased LAB and TM and Y to below the detectable level (<10 cfu/ g). Fresh-cut carrot samples receiving 4 kGy irradiation doses were free from studied indicator microorganisms and from pathogens via

  7. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  8. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Sandoval

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  10. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  11. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  12. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  13. A comparative study on the effectiveness of ozonated water and peracetic acid in the storability of packaged fresh-cut melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botondi, Rinaldo; Moscetti, Roberto; Massantini, Riccardo

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water and peracetic acid were tested as sanitizers to enhance the storability of fresh-cut melon cubes. Sanitizers were also combined with suitable packaging materials (polypropylene and polylactic acid based plastic films). Fresh-cut melon cubes were stored at 4 °C for up to 7 days. Ozonated water and peracetic acid treatments were given by dipping cubes into 0.8 ppm O3 and 100 ppm Tsunami 100™ solutions, respectively, for 3 min. Both sanitizers exhibited efficiency in reducing the total microbial counts on melon cubes (acid treatment in combination with polypropylene film packaging, consequently developing off-odors starting from day 3. Strong color changes were noted in cubes stored in polylactic acid packaging after 7 days of storage, affecting the sensory quality of the melon cubes. Sensory evaluation (overall visual quality) indicated loss in flavor in the polypropylene packaging. The overall visual quality started to decline on 3rd day because of the development of translucency.Overall, the use of ozone in combination with polypropylene packaging provided the best solution to maintain the quality of melon cubes for up to 5 days of storage at 4 °C.

  14. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  15. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.

    2018-04-10

    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  16. Acidic electrolyzed water as a novel transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure reduction of bacterial loads on shelled fresh shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping eDu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW, a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products.

  17. Acidic Electrolyzed Water as a Novel Transmitting Medium for High Hydrostatic Pressure Reduction of Bacterial Loads on Shelled Fresh Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Suping; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xiao, Lili; Lou, Yang; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), a novel non-thermal sterilization technology, is widely used in the food industry. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of AEW as a new pressure transmitting medium for high hydrostatic pressure (AEW-HHP) processing on microorganisms inactivation on shelled fresh shrimp. The optimal conditions of AEW-HHP for Vibrio parahaemolyticus inactivation on sterile shelled fresh shrimp were obtained using response surface methodology: NaCl concentration to electrolysis 1.5 g/L, treatment pressure 400 MPa, treatment time 10 min. Under the optimal conditions mentioned above, AEW dramatically enhanced the efficiency of HHP for inactivating V. parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes on artificially contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, and the log reductions were up to 6.08 and 5.71 log10 CFU/g respectively, while the common HHP could only inactivate the two pathogens up to 4.74 and 4.31 log10 CFU/g respectively. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the same phenomenon. For the naturally contaminated shelled fresh shrimp, AEW-HHP could also significantly reduce the micro flora when examined using plate count and PCR-DGGE. There were also no significant changes, histologically, in the muscle tissues of shrimps undergoing the AEW-HHP treatment. In summary, using AEW as a new transmitting medium for HHP processing is an innovative non thermal technology for improving the food safety of shrimp and other aquatic products. PMID:27014228

  18. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  19. Validation of single-sample doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, M.D.; Weathers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have experimentally validated a single-sample variant of the doubly labeled water method for measuring metabolic rate and water turnover in a very small passerine bird, the verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We measured CO 2 production using the Haldane gravimetric technique and compared these values with estimates derived from isotopic data. Doubly labeled water results based on the one-sample calculations differed from Haldane values by less than 0.5% on average (range -8.3 to 11.2%, n = 9). Water flux computed by the single-sample method differed by -1.5% on average from results for the same birds based on the standard, two-sample technique (range -13.7 to 2.0%, n = 9)

  20. A Study on Foodborne Bacterial Cross-contamination During Fresh Chicken Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma Ebrahim AlZaabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens from undercooked poultry meat to ready-to-eat food has been shown to be responsible for a number of foodborne disease outbreaks. Various studies have indicated that bacterial cross-contamination occurs during food preparation where bacteria present on food contact other surfaces and cause illness. Objectives: This study evaluated the ability of bacteria to survive and cross-contaminate other foods during the preparation of fresh chicken. Salmonella spp. cross-contamination from chicken to cucumber and utensils under various food handling scenarios was determined. Methods: Two scenarios were tested: in scenario 1, cutting board and knife used for cutting chicken without washing step were sampled. In scenario 2, cutting board and knife was washed with tap water separately after cutting chicken, and subsequently used for cutting cucumber. In scenario 1, chicken, cutting board, knife, and hands were sampled, and in scenario 2, cucumber was tested. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH method, using published Salmonella specific gene probes was used for Salmonella detection in samples taken from cross-contamination scenarios. A culture-based detection by Hektoen enteric agar was used for the confirmation of Salmonella species. Results: All the samples analyzed were found to be positive for Salmonella spp. with different contamination levels. These results were further confirmed by culture based method. In scenario 1, Salmonella spp. was detected by Sal-1 and Salm-63 oligonucleotide probes in all four samples (chicken, cutting board, knife and hands. A high contamination level was observed in chicken samples in comparison to samples collected from cutting board, knife and hands. In scenario 2, Salmonella spp. was detected by Sal-1 and Salm-63 oligonucleotide probes in the cucumber with very low contamination level. Salmonella Enterica was also detected by Sal-3 and Sapath-3 in both scenarios but

  1. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  2. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  3. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  4. Regional-scale application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS: an example of assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on the fresh water ecosystem in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.monte@enea.i [ENEA CR Casaccia, via P. Anguillarese, 301, 00100 Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The present work illustrates the customisation and application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS (a MOdel-based computerised system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) to the fresh water environment in Italy. MOIRA-PLUS is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of contaminated water bodies by the application of multi-attribute analysis techniques. MOIRA-PLUS can be applied to complex networks of lakes, rivers and tributaries and can be straightforwardly customised utilising data and information from readily accessible sources such as official websites provided by scientific or government organisations. The present work shows an application of the decision system to 10 lakes and 18 rivers in Italy contaminated with {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Site-specific values of some aggregated transfer parameters were estimated for the most important Italian lakes. Although high values of fish and water consumptions were hypothesised, very low doses to public from the fresh water pathway following the accident were calculated. - Research highlights: {yields} MOIRA-PLUS is a computerised decision support system aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of the contaminated aquatic environment by the application of advanced multi-attribute analysis techniques. {yields} MOIRA-PLUS (release 4.1.2) allows the user to customise the migration model for the assessment of the behaviour of radionuclides in complex networks of water systems including, for instance, a main watercourse and several tributaries of different order. {yields} The test and the calibration of MOIRA-PLUS migration models applied to 18

  5. Regional-scale application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS: an example of assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on the fresh water ecosystem in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The present work illustrates the customisation and application of the decision support system MOIRA-PLUS (a MOdel-based computerised system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) to the fresh water environment in Italy. MOIRA-PLUS is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of contaminated water bodies by the application of multi-attribute analysis techniques. MOIRA-PLUS can be applied to complex networks of lakes, rivers and tributaries and can be straightforwardly customised utilising data and information from readily accessible sources such as official websites provided by scientific or government organisations. The present work shows an application of the decision system to 10 lakes and 18 rivers in Italy contaminated with 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Site-specific values of some aggregated transfer parameters were estimated for the most important Italian lakes. Although high values of fish and water consumptions were hypothesised, very low doses to public from the fresh water pathway following the accident were calculated. - Research highlights: → MOIRA-PLUS is a computerised decision support system aimed at evaluating the behaviour of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in fresh water ecosystems and at assessing the appropriateness of suitable strategies for the management of the contaminated aquatic environment by the application of advanced multi-attribute analysis techniques. → MOIRA-PLUS (release 4.1.2) allows the user to customise the migration model for the assessment of the behaviour of radionuclides in complex networks of water systems including, for instance, a main watercourse and several tributaries of different order. → The test and the calibration of MOIRA-PLUS migration models applied to 18 rivers and 10 lakes in

  6. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  7. Molecular diagnosis of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis from fresh tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Kamran; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash Mandya; Das, Ashim; Panda, Naresh; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate a PCR-based technique for the diagnosis of mucormycosis and the identification of fungi from fresh tissue specimens in patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM). Fifty cases of ROCM were included in the study. Conventional identification was performed using microscopy and culture. Molecular diagnosis was performed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA using pan-fungal ITS primers and semi-nested Mucorales-specific primers of the 18S region. The amplified products were sequenced to identify the agents. The utility of PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA was evaluated to identify the Mucorales. The ROCM cases were diagnosed by the demonstration of aseptate ribbon-like hyphae in biopsy specimens collected from the patients. Isolation was possible in 24 (48 %) samples. The ITS2 PCR confirmed mucormycosis in 27 cases (54 %; CI 59.4-68.2). By comparison, Mucorales-specific PCR was able to amplify DNA and the sequence enabled the identification of Mucorales speciesin all the patients. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA could only identify the agent to genus level. The molecular technique was able to identify Mucorales species in 26 (42 %) cases that were negative by culture. Mucorales-specific semi-nested PCR targeting the 18S region is a better technique than ITS2 PCR for diagnosis. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region helps in identification to genus level.

  8. Radioactivity and natural radionuclides distribution in river water, coastal water, sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) solms and their accumulation factor at Surabaya area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of radioactivity and natural radionuclides in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms from Surabaya River and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh & coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms. The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radio ecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) solms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radio nuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclide can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K"4"0 and Tl"2"0"8. Generally the distribution factors F_D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F_B. (author)

  9. Combinação de águas doce e salobra para produção de alface hidropônica Combination of fresh and brackish waters for hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales M. Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa cv. Verônica foram cultivadas em condição hidropônica objetivando-se avaliar dois tipos de emprego combinado de águas doce e salobras, quais sejam: usar as águas salobras para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e a água doce para repor a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc (Experimento I e usar a água doce para preparar a SN e as salobras para a reposição da ETc (Experimento II. Uma estrutura de pesquisa com 40 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT foi construída. Os níveis de salinidade da água testados foram: 0,585; 1,17; 1,755; 2,925 e 4,095 g L-1 de NaCl. A salinidade diminuiu a produtividade da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 10,9 e 3,91% para cada acréscimo unitário na salinidade da água (g L-1 de NaCl, considerando-se os Experimentos I e II, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os dois tipos de combinação de águas doce e salobras, o uso de águas salobras para repor a ETc pode aumentar a produtividade da alface em comparação com o uso dessas águas para preparar a SN.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. Verônica were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate two types of combination of brackish and fresh waters: using the brackish waters to prepare nutrient solution (NS and fresh water to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc (Experiment I and using the fresh water to prepare NS and the brackish waters to replace the ETc loss (Experiment II. A research structure was built up with 40 experimental units which simulated the nutrient film technique (NFT. The levels of water salinity were 0.585; 1.17; 1.755; 2.925 and 4.095 g L-1 NaCl. The lettuce yield (fresh shoot matter decreased 10.9 and 3.91% for each unit increase in water salinity (g L-1 NaCl in Experiments I and II, respectively. According to results obtained with the two types of combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish waters to replace

  10. Water management and reuse opportunities in a thermal power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rehab power plant located in the Northern part of Jordan is presented as a case study of industrial water management. This power plant consumes boiler feed water in the amount of 200 m3/d of the fresh ground water available from nearby wells and it produces 193 m3/d of wastewater. Fifty seven water samples were ...

  11. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  12. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, puranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, puranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (puranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Bono, Gioacchino

    2016-03-15

    The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized, particularly for competent authorities of the shrimp industry. However, there is a paucity of relevant literature on the relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and condition factor (CF)) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index, colour values and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationships between these parameters were determined using correlation and regression analyses. No significant correlation (P > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly the lack of post-mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree of any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured in this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (P > 0.05), SL and CF differed significantly (P shrimp. Across the farms studied, however, the biometric data were comparable. To best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the biometric and physicochemical properties of freshly harvested shrimp using a comparative approach, which is also applicable to other economically important aquaculture species. Overall, this work provides useful information for competent authorities/stakeholders of the fishery industry and serves as a baseline for preservative treatments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Rapid determination of environmental plutonium in large water samples by means of manganese dioxide Co-precipitation and extraction chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R.S.; Hoff, P.

    1999-01-01

    Plutonium activity determinations in environmental water samples are routinely performed in many laboratories. Due to the low plutonium concentrations and the complexity of the plutonium aqueous chemistry, these analysis involve cumbersome preconcentration and separation procedures and long measurement times. We describe a procedure where MnO 2 (s) is used as scavenger to preconcentrate Pu prior to separation by the transuranium specific extraction chromatographic resin TRU-Resin. The ability of MnO 4 - /MnO 2 (s) to destroy organic matter and oxidise plutonium is combined with the specific behaviour of the TRU-resin for transuranium elements. The method facilitates a rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium. With the use of this procedure, the laboratory work on one sample can be performed in one day with minimum attention. The overall yields from a 200 litre fresh- or seawater sample to a measurable Pu source are between 70-85%. (orig.)

  15. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  16. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  17. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  18. A Limited Survey of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Cuttlefish Ink and Mantle Used As Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, Daniele; Alberghini, Leonardo; Bissacco, Elisa; Contiero, Barbara; Giaccone, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10.8 mg/kg for frozen ink, and 0.41 mg/kg for fresh ink. The median Cr concentrations were 0.06 mg/kg for fresh mantle and frozen ink, 0.03 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for fresh ink. The median Fe concentrations were 4.08 mg/kg for frozen ink, 1.51 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 0.73 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the LOQ for fresh ink. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.62 mg/kg. The median Cd concentrations were 0.69 mg/kg for frozen ink and 0.11 mg/kg for frozen mantle, fresh mantle and fresh ink concentrations were below the LOQ, and in 11.3% of the tested samples, Cd concentrations were higher than the European Union limit. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was 35.75 times higher in frozen than in fresh products. Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in

  19. Radioactivity and Natural Radio nuclides Distribution in River Water, Coastal Water, Sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) Sloms and Their Accumulation Factor at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms from Surabaya river and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh and coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radioecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclides can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K-40 and TI-208. Generally the distribution factor F D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F B . (author)

  20. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  1. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables at Retail Levels in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wei, Shuai; Khan, Imran; Hussain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kounkeu, Paul-François Ngnitcho; Park, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Se-Hun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of fresh produce at retail level in Korea in order to periodically update information and establish available risks associated with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. The samples from different markets located in 3 provinces of South Korea were collected. The protocol in the Korean Food Standards Codex was applied and generic Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), and yeast and mold (YM) in 360 packaged and unpackaged fresh fruits and vegetables were analyzed. Presence of pathogens was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) after enrichment of samples. For all, the microbial counts ranged from 1.7 to 10.6 log cfu/g for AMB, 2.2 to 7.9 log cfu/g for coliforms, and 5.5 to 7.9 log cfu/g for YM. Three lettuce samples were contaminated by E. coli with a bacterial load ranging from 2 to 4 log cfu/g. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any fresh produce. Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus were found in 1 (0.6%), 3 (0.8%), and 5 (1.4%) fresh produce samples, respectively. Bacillus cereus (50.3%) and Clostridium perfringens (13.3%) had the highest prevalence. These results indicate the need for employing strict control measures and developing preventive strategies to improve the quality and safety of fresh produce in Korea. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Al-Kharousi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR and biochemical methods (VITEK 2. Enterobacteriaceae occurred in 60% of fruits and 91% of vegetables. Enterococcus was isolated from 20% of fruits and 42% of vegetables. E. coli and S. aureus were isolated from 22% and 7% of vegetables, respectively. Ninety-seven bacteria comprising 21 species were similarly identified by VITEK 2 and PCR to species level. E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant species; many are known as opportunistic pathogens which may raise concern to improve the microbial quality of fresh produce. Phylogenetic trees showed no relationship between clustering of the isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene and the original countries of fresh produce. Intercountry passage of opportunistic pathogens in fresh produce cannot be ruled out, which requires better management.

  3. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.; Mabrouk, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 10 7 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (10 3 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 10 5 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 10 3 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  4. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  5. Feeling Fresh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Feeling Fresh KidsHealth / For Teens / Feeling Fresh Print en español La higiene femenina As ... the other products that claim to make women feel cleaner and fresher. But do these work? And ...

  6. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-09-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 °C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  7. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanya, R. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India); Mishra, B.B. [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khaleel, K.M. [P.G. Department and Research Centre in Botany, Sir Syed College, Taliparamba 670142, Kerala (India)], E-mail: khaleelchovva@yahoo.co.in; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel [DMJM International (Cansult Maunsell/AECOM Ltd.), Consultant of Gardens Sector Projects, Alain Municipality and Eastern Emirates, P.O. Box 1419, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: abdul79jaleel@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-15

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 {sup o}C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  8. Shelf life extension of fresh turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B.B.; Khaleel, K.M.; Cheruth, Abdul Jaleel

    2009-01-01

    Gamma radiation processing was found to extend shelf life of fresh turmeric. A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10 o C storage temperature was found to keep peeled turmeric samples microbe free and acceptable until 60 days of storage. The control sample without radiation treatment spoiled within a week of storage. The changes in color, texture and moisture content of fresh turmeric due to radiation treatment were found to be statistically insignificant.

  9. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  10. Determination of trace elements in fresh cow's milk in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Elamin Mohammed Abd Allah

    2017-01-01

    Milk and its products are basic foodstuffs and constitute and important source of some vitamins and a lot of minerals. However, increasing or decreasing intake of theses minerals can be harmful. The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of macro and trace elements in fresh cow's milk namely, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb and Sr. A total of 40 samples of fresh cow's milk were collected from different dairy farms located around farms located around Khartoum state, 20 of them collected from cows drink ground water, while the other 20 samples their cows drink river water. Samples were then dried by freeze drying, and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system. A certified reference sample, obtained from International Atomic Energy Agency was used for quality control analysis, to ensure the reliability of the device. The results obtained were expressed as (mean±uncertainty). The obtained results revealed that some elements i, e, Cl, K, Ca showed clear variation in the levels of their concentrations, compared to the relevant previous studies, which sometime found to be higher and lower than the reported values. While the trace element such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br showed higher levels. It was observed that the milk samples of cows drink ground water had significantly higher concentration of Marco elements (Cl, K, Ca) than the milk of cows drink river water (at probability level of p-value<0.05). The elements concentration in the milk of cows drink ground water had also higher concentration of Cu and Br, and lower concentration of Fe, Zn, Pb, Rb and Sr than the milk of cows drink river water. However it is not statistically significant. Some elements such as: Cr, Mn and Ni present in high concentration in the milk of cows drink ground water, while they were not detected in the milk of cows drink river water. The statistical test one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (at probability level of p-value<0.05) showed

  11. Effect of incorporation of natural chemicals in water ice-glazing on freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during -18 °C frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Wei; Tang, Haiqing; Jiang, Li; Yu, Zhifang

    2017-12-14

    Microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation are two major factors causing freshness deterioration of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during frozen storage. To provide a remedy, the effects of several natural chemicals incorporated alone or in combination in traditional water ice-glazing on the freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury during frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. Pacific sauries were subjected to individual quick freezing followed immediately by dipping into cold tap water (control) or solutions containing nisin, chitosan, phytic acid (single-factor experiment) or their combinations ((L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal experiment) for 10 s at 1 °C and then packaged in polypropylene bags before frozen storage at -18 °C. The storage duration tested was up to 12 months. All ice-glazing treatments with individual chemicals could significantly (P shelf-life of Pacific saury could be extended up to 12 months at -18 °C. The study indicated that the combination treatment with natural chemicals could be commercially utilized to maintain the freshness and prolong the shelf-life of Pacific saury. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sampling procedure, receipt and conservation of water samples to determine environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Navarro, E.; Payeras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present document informs about essential goals, processes and contents that the subgroups Sampling and Samples Preparation and Conservation believe they should be part of the procedure to obtain a correct sampling, receipt, conservation and preparation of samples of continental, marine and waste water before qualifying its radioactive content.

  13. Bifunctional polymer hydrogel layers as forward osmosis draw agents for continuous production of fresh water using solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, Amir; Liu, Qi; Simon, George P; Wang, Huanting

    2013-11-19

    The feasibility of bilayer polymer hydrogels as draw agent in forward osmosis process has been investigated. The dual-functionality hydrogels consist of a water-absorptive layer (particles of a copolymer of sodium acrylate and N-isopropylacrylamide) to provide osmotic pressure, and a dewatering layer (particles of N-isopropylacrylamide) to allow the ready release of the water absorbed during the FO drawing process at lower critical solution temperature (32 °C). The use of solar concentrated energy as the source of heat resulted in a significant increase in the dewatering rate as the temperature of dewatering layer increased to its LSCT more rapidly. Dewatering flux rose from 10 to 25 LMH when the solar concentrator increased the input energy from 0.5 to 2 kW/m(2). Thermodynamic analysis was also performed to find out the minimum energy requirement of such a bilayer hydrogel-driven FO process. This study represents a significant step forward toward the commercial implementation of hydrogel-driven FO system for continuous production of fresh water from saline water or wastewaters.

  14. Influence of insecticidal derivative (cartap hydrochloride) from the marine polycheate on certain enzyme systems of the fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, V; Vijayavel, K; Balasubramanian, S Ezhilarasi; Balasubramanian, M P

    2005-04-01

    The activities of phosphatases and transaminases were studied in muscle and liver of the fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus on exposure to different sublethal concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mgl(-1)) of cartap hydrochloride (insecticidal derivative from marine polycheate) for 96 h. There was an overall decrease in phosphatases and transaminases activity in muscle and liver of the fish subjected to cartap hydrochloride.

  15. Evaluation of Parasitic Pollution in Fresh Unwashed Herbs Sold in Izeh City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Fresh herbs are a crucial part of a good diet. However, they can easily become contaminated with food-borne pathogens. Eating fresh unwashed or improperly washed herbs has a major role in transmission of some important parasitic diseases. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate parasitic pollution in fresh unwashed herbs sold in Izeh city, Iran. Materials and Methods Four hundred samples of fresh unwashed herbs were purchased from a distributor in Izeh city during January 2014 to April 2015. Detergent solution was added to 240 g of each sample. The mixture was shaken and washed solution was filtered through 0.2 µm bottle-top filter. The filtrate was discarded and filter was placed in a 50 mL conical screw cap tube. Then, the detergent solution was added. Following vortex, filter was discarded. The sediment was examined by light microscope after centrifuge. Finally, data descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Parasitic pollution was detected in 3.5% of the examined samples, including Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst (1.5%, Giardia spp. cyst (1%, Blastocystis spp. cyst (0.5% and Taenia spp. egg (0.5%. Conclusions Parasitic contamination of fresh herbs sold in Izeh may pose a health risk to consumers if eaten as unwashed or improperly washed.

  16. Salty vs. Fresh Water

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2012-01-01

    One possibility of obtaining sustainable energy from seawater is the use of osmosis. The key to this technology is the development of efficient membranes which allow water to pass through, but not salt. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Salty vs. Fresh Water

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2012-11-14

    One possibility of obtaining sustainable energy from seawater is the use of osmosis. The key to this technology is the development of efficient membranes which allow water to pass through, but not salt. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. The 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inspection to detect the nutrient elements in freshly cut carrot samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasari, N.; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to detect the nutrient elements contained in fresh carrot. Nd:YAG laser the wavelength of 1064 nm was employed in the experiments for ablation. Employing simple set-up of LIBS and preparing the sample with less step method, we are able to detect 18 chemical elements including some fundamental element of carrot, i.e Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, and Mn. By applying normalized profiles calculation on some of the element, we are able to compare the concentration level of each element of the outer and inner part of carrot.

  19. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  20. Microbiological variation amongst fresh and minimally processed vegetables from retail establishers - a public health study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sair, A.T.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh and minimally processed ready to eat vegetables are very attractive eatables amongst consumers as convenient, healthy and readily available foods, especially in the South Asian states. They provide numerous nutrients, phytochemicals, and vitamins but also harbor extensive quantity of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine microbiological variation amongst fresh vegetables that were commercially available to the public at numerous retail establishments in Pakistan in order to present an overview of the quality of fresh produce. A total of 133 samples, collected from local distributors and retailers were tested for aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic, coliform and yeast and mould counts. Standard plating techniques were used to analyze all samples. Mesophilic count ranged from 3.1 to 10.3 log CFU/g with lowest and highest counts observed in onions and fresh cut vegetables. Psychrotrophic microorganisms count was as high as mesophilic microorganisms. Maximum counts for coliform were found in fresh cut vegetables with 100% samples falling over 6 log CFU/g. These results were consistent with yeast and moulds as well. In our study, Escherichia coli was determined as an indicator organism for 133 samples of fresh and minimally processed vegetables. Fresh cut vegetables showed the highest incidence of presumptive E. coli (69.9%. The results showed a poor quality of fresh vegetables in Pakistan and point to the implementation of good hygiene practices and food safety awareness amongst local distributors, food handlers at retail establishments.

  1. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  2. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  3. Fresh heat is in demand; Frische Waerme ist beliebt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-10-22

    Increasingly, solar heat customers are getting their hot water fresh from the flow-through station, even in single-family dwellings. Stations are getting more compact, more intelligent, and also more efficient. So-called legionella filters should be used with caution.

  4. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS from six lung cancer cases (two adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, two large-cell carcinomas and from two normal lung samples. The cell content of resulting ETS was evaluated with immunocytological stainings and compared with the histologic pattern of the original specimens. By means of a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method we evaluated the reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol and we assessed the proteome coverage by comparing lysates from ETS samples with the direct lysate of corresponding fresh-frozen samples. Results Cytological analyses on cytospin specimens showed that the percentage of tumoral cells in the ETS samples ranged from 20% to 70%. In the normal lung samples the percentage of epithelial cells was less then 10%. The reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol was very good, with coefficient of variation at the peptide level and at the protein level of 13% and 7%, respectively. Proteomics analysis led to the identification of a significantly higher number of proteins in the ETS samples than in the FF samples (244 vs 109, respectively. Albumin and hemoglobin were among the top 5 most abundant proteins identified in the FF samples, showing a high contamination with blood and plasma proteins, whereas ubiquitin and the mitochondrial ATP synthase 5A1 where among the top 5 most abundant proteins in the ETS samples. Conclusion The method is feasible and reproducible. We could obtain a fair enrichment of cells but the major benefit of the method

  5. Socioeconomic Determinants of Income From Fresh and Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total sample size of 84 crayfish marketers were in all randomly selected across three major Cray ... determine the income derived from fresh crayfish marketing while household size and purchasing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Radioactivity of fresh water fish in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.; Rantavaara, A.

    1987-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident raised the deposition levels of radioactive substances in Finland. Fish were affected by radioactive substances in watersheds. Extensive study of areal and temporal changes in the radioactivity of freshwater fish was started soon after the accident. The aim of the study was to obtain new data on a situation involving fresh deposition and to estimate the importance of freshwater fish as a source of radiocesium for consumers. Attenuation was also paid to various factors affecting the radioactivity of fish. Samples were taken from about 200 lakes. In all, about 600 samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically. A few samples were also analysed radiochemically for beta-emitting 89 Sr and 90 Sr. The samples contained about ten different species of fish. The highest concentrations of radiocesium in fish were found in the areas of highest radioactive deposition in Finland. In areas with the same level of 137 Cs deposition, concentrations in fish depended on the size of the lake: the smaller the area of the lake in which the fish were caught the higher the concentration. Of the fish species studied, perches had the highest concentrations of radiocesium. Intake estimations were based on the average concentrations, weighted for catches, in each drainage area and in the whole country, and on the average intake of 137 Cs via freshwater fish. In Finland, the average intake of 137 Cs via freshwater fish in May-December 1986 was about 1200 Bq. The values obtained for different drainage basins varied from about 160 to 3400 Bq

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  8. Prevalence and contamination patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in catfish processing environment and fresh fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Pyla, Rajkumar; Kim, Tae-Jo; Silva, Juan L; Jung, Yean-Sung

    2010-08-01

    Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA-Seq-based toxicogenomic assessment of fresh frozen and formalin-fixed tissues yields similar mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Scott S; Phadke, Dhiral P; Mav, Deepak; Holmgren, Stephanie; Gao, Yuan; Xie, Bin; Shin, Joo Heon; Shah, Ruchir R; Merrick, B Alex; Tice, Raymond R

    2015-07-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathology specimens represent a potentially vast resource for transcriptomic-based biomarker discovery. We present here a comparison of results from a whole transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis of RNA extracted from fresh frozen and FFPE livers. The samples were derived from rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and a corresponding set of control animals. Principal components analysis indicated that samples were separated in the two groups representing presence or absence of chemical exposure, both in fresh frozen and FFPE sample types. Sixty-five percent of the differentially expressed transcripts (AFB1 vs. controls) in fresh frozen samples were also differentially expressed in FFPE samples (overlap significance: P < 0.0001). Genomic signature and gene set analysis of AFB1 differentially expressed transcript lists indicated highly similar results between fresh frozen and FFPE at the level of chemogenomic signatures (i.e., single chemical/dose/duration elicited transcriptomic signatures), mechanistic and pathology signatures, biological processes, canonical pathways and transcription factor networks. Overall, our results suggest that similar hypotheses about the biological mechanism of toxicity would be formulated from fresh frozen and FFPE samples. These results indicate that phenotypically anchored archival specimens represent a potentially informative resource for signature-based biomarker discovery and mechanistic characterization of toxicity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on quality of fresh chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yibin; Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Pei Ying; Wang Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on nutrient quality, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of fresh chilled pork were investigated. Fresh chilled pork whose fat to muscle ratio was 1 : 6 was grounded and packaged, and then irradiated at doses of 0, 2.0, 3.8, 6.2, 8.3 and 10.5 kGy. The contents of fat andprotein, chromaticity, sensory characteristics, lipid oxidation index of TBARS value, POV, diene value of irradiated and unirradiated samples were measured. The results showed that there were no significant differences (5% level) in content of proteinand fat between irradiated and control samples, but irradiation could significantly increase TBARS value and POV. EB irradiation enhanced the increase of total diene value. The samples treated with 3.8 and 6.2 kGy showed good color during storage. There were no significant differences in sensory characteristics among different EB doses. It is concluded that 4-6 kGy EB irradiation, which is effective for decontamination, shows no significant effect on qualities of fresh chilled pork. (authors)

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  12. The effect of drying on the nutritional composition of fresh and dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify some nutritional properties of Moringa Oeifera leaf and to compare the nutritional qualities of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa Oleifera.Two samples each of fresh and dried Moringa Oeifera leaves were used for the experiment and the mean values in their nutritional qualities compared.

  13. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  14. A Comparison of RNA-Seq Results from Paired Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded and Fresh-Frozen Glioblastoma Tissue Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Esteve-Codina

    Full Text Available The molecular classification of glioblastoma (GBM based on gene expression might better explain outcome and response to treatment than clinical factors. Whole transcriptome sequencing using next-generation sequencing platforms is rapidly becoming accepted as a tool for measuring gene expression for both research and clinical use. Fresh frozen (FF tissue specimens of GBM are difficult to obtain since tumor tissue obtained at surgery is often scarce and necrotic and diagnosis is prioritized over freezing. After diagnosis, leftover tissue is usually stored as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. However, RNA from FFPE tissues is usually degraded, which could hamper gene expression analysis. We compared RNA-Seq data obtained from matched pairs of FF and FFPE GBM specimens. Only three FFPE out of eleven FFPE-FF matched samples yielded informative results. Several quality-control measurements showed that RNA from FFPE samples was highly degraded but maintained transcriptomic similarities to RNA from FF samples. Certain issues regarding mutation analysis and subtype prediction were detected. Nevertheless, our results suggest that RNA-Seq of FFPE GBM specimens provides reliable gene expression data that can be used in molecular studies of GBM if the RNA is sufficiently preserved.

  15. Determination of Phthalates in Drinking Water Samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. ... esters are used in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride. (PVC). ... water, soil, air, food products and the human body. (Castillo et al.

  16. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  17. Study of the microbial ecology of wild and aquacultured Tunisian fresh fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulares, Mouna; Mejri, Lobna; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2011-10-01

    Eighty samples of fresh fish were collected in Tunisia and analyzed for microbial load. Quality and hygienic safety of the meat and intestines of wild and aquacultured fresh fish were determined. The mesophilic aerobic plate count and populations of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and other psychrotrophic bacteria ranged from 5.67 to 7.29, 4.51 to 6, and 5.07 to 6.21 log CFU/g, respectively. For all microbiological determinations, bacterial counts were lower in meat than in the intestines of fresh fish. For all samples lower microbial populations were found in most of the wild fish than in the aquacultured fish. No isolates of the pathogenic genera Salmonella and Listeria were detected in any sample. Among the 160 strains of biopreservative psychrotrophic LAB and the 150 strains of spoilage psychrotrophic gram-negative bacteria identified by biochemical and molecular methods, Lactobacillus (six species) and Pseudomonas (six species) predominated. Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Carnobacterium (C. piscicola and C. divergens), Aeromonas, and Photobacterium were the most common genera, and Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aeromonas hydrophila were the most common species. These findings indicate that the microbiological quality of fresh fish in Tunisia can be preserved by controlling pathogenic and psychrotrophic bacteria.

  18. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  20. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Franciscleudo B; Duarte,Priscila S; Puschmann,Rolf; Finger,Fernando L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾) and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitatio...

  1. Study of effective transport properties of fresh and aged gas diffusion layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomoiu, Magdalena; Tsotridis, Georgios; Bednarek, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) play an important role in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for the diffusion of reactant and the removal of product water. In the current study fresh and aged GDLs (Sigracet® GDL34BC) were investigated by X-ray computed tomography to obtain a representative 3D image of the real GDL structure. The examined GDL samples are taken from areas located under the flow channel and under the land. Additionally, a brand new Sigracet® GDL34BC was taken as a reference sample in order to find out the impact of fuel cell assembly on GDL. The produced 3D image data were used to calculate effective transport properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, diffusivity, permeability and capillary pressure curves of the dry and partially saturated GDL. The simulation indicates flooding by product water occurs at contact angles lower than 125° depending on sample porosity. In addition, GDL anisotropy significantly affects the permeability as well as thermal and electrical conductivities. The calculated material bulk properties could be next used as input for CFD modelling of PEM fuel cells where GDL is usually assumed layer-like and homogeneous. Tensor material parameters allow to consider GDL anisotropy and lead to more realistic results.

  2. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  3. Sources, distribution, and mobility of plutonium and radiocesium in soils, sediments and water of the Hudson River Estuary and watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 137 Cs measurements are reported for soil cores sampled within the watershed, for many sediment cores and surface dredge samples taken along the length of the Hudson River Estuary and for water samples collected on a continuous basis in both fresh and estuarine reaches. Accumulations of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs measured within sediment cores taken from discrete regions of the river-estuary were summed to arrive at total sediment inventories of 1.6 +/- 0.7 Ci and 53 +/- 20 Ci, respectively. The variability observed in the sediment accumulation of radionuclides is discussed in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the river-estuary. Plutonium-239,240 and 137 Cs were similary distributed in sediments and water sampled from fresh water reaches of the Hudson with activity ratios (i.e., 239 240 Pu/ 1 2number 7 Cs) ranging from 0.01 to 0.03. Distribution coefficients, which were determined both in vitro and in situ were similar for both nuclides (i.e., from 1 x 10 5 to 3 x 10 5 L.kg -1 ) in fresh water, but diverged significantly (as a result of increased 137 Cs solubility) in brackish waters that exhibited chlorinities in excess of 1-2 g Cl - .L -1 . The concentrations of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs observed in fresh water samples were primarily functions of the suspended load. Approximately 60-70% of the annual downstream transport of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs calculated during 1980 and 1981 (i.e., 4 +/- 0.5 mCi and 515 +/- 84 mCi, respectively) was associated with suspended particulates greater than or equal to 0.45 μm. An empirical model was developed to determine the rates of vertical migration of these nuclides in soils of the watershed

  4. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  5. From fresh to marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Stedmon, Colin; Heim, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within the Lena Delta region...... demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation...

  6. State-of-the-art radioecological models implemented in decision support systems for the management of the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    The present lecture summarises the main results of a review and assessment of state-of-the-art models implemented in computerised decision support systems aimed at assisting the management of fresh water ecosystems contaminated by radioactive substances. The approaches of the various models to simulate the complex behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment were discussed. A critical analysis of the whole sector was carried out in order to frame in a comprehensive perspective several complementary issues: model uncertainty, environmental variability, information incompleteness, multi-model approach, use of models for the decision making. (author)

  7. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  8. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  9. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water Department. Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleem, A S [Hot Lab. Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Sweif Branch, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs.

  10. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  11. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, J L; van Overbeek, L S; Nierop Groot, M N; van der Zouwen, P S; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2018-03-23

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) during processing on the reduction of Escherichia coli in the PWW and on processed fresh-cut 'Lollo Rossa' lettuce. The objective was to have a residual target concentration of either 5 or 3 mg/L ClO 2 in the washing tank (3.5 m 3 ) before and during 800 kg of lettuce processing (90 min). After 90 min., a nonpathogenic, non-Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) E. coli inoculum from an overnight culture broth (37 °C) was added to the tank resulting in an approximate final level of 10 6  CFU/mL. PWW and lettuce samples for microbiological and chemical analyses were taken before and after the input and supply halted. ClO 2 concentrations quickly decreased after ClO 2 input halted, yet a residual concentration of ≥2.5 mg/L and ≥2.1 mg/L ClO 2 , respectively for 5 and 3 mg/L pilots, was present 12 min after the supply halted. No detectable levels of E. coli (limit of detection 5 log) were determined in the water within 1 min after E. coli was added to the ClO 2 containing wash water. Results demonstrated that ClO 2 use at the semi-commercial pilot scale was able to reduce the E. coli peak contamination in the PWW. After storage (5 days, 4 °C), background microbial communities (i.e., fluorescent Pseudomonads and total heterotrophic bacteria) grew out on lettuce. Overall, ClO 2 decreased the potential for cross-contamination between batches compared to when no sanitizer was used. Chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled before entering the wash water ranged from 7.3-11.6 μg/kg. The chlorate levels of the lettuce sampled after being washed in the ClO 2 containing wash water, as well as after rinsing and centrifugation, ranged from 22.8-60.4

  12. Fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Felipe Just de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus on performance and body weight components of sheep. Thirty hair lambs, with 19 kg ± 0.35 kg initial weight, were randomly divided into five treatments, namely: Tifton 85 Hay (HA; Tifton 85 Hay + fresh spineless cactus (HAFC; Tifton 85 Hay + dehydrated spineless cactus (HADC; fresh spineless cactus (FC; dehydrated spineless cactus (DC. In addition to the spineless cactus and hay, the complete mixture contained soybean meal, mineral salt and limestone in all treatments. Animals were confined for 75 days and then slaughtered. The weight of body components was recorded. Dry matter intake, total digestible nutrients intake and voluntary water intake were higher (p 0.05 by treatments. The cold carcass weight, rib eye area, weight and yield of the skin, liver, kidney and large intestine were higher (p < 0.05 for the DC and HADC treatments. Partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus, in complete diets for sheep, increases the weight of the cold carcass and non-carcass components.

  13. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  15. [Detection of Cryptospordium spp. in environmental water samples by FTA-PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Qian; He, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Shou-Fu

    2011-02-01

    To establish a FTA-polymeras chain reaction (FTA-PCR) method in detection of Cryptospordium spp. in different sources of water. The semi automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Cryptospordium oocysts in environmental water samples was performed firstly, and then genomic DNA of Cryptospordium oocysts was extracted by FTA filters disk. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the DNA fragment of the 18 S rRNA gene from C. parvum. Plate DNA was amplified with primers in PCR. The control DNA samples from Toxoplasma gondii,Sarcocystis suihominis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Clonorchis sinensis were amplified simultaneously. All PCR products were detected by agar electrophoresis dyed with ethidium bromide. The 446 bp fragment of DNA was detected in all samples of C. parvum, C. andersoni, and C. baileyi, while it was not detected in control groups in laboratory. No positive samples were found from 10 samples collected from tape water in 5 districts of Shanghai City by FTA-PCR. Nine positive samples were detected totally from 70 different environmental water samples, there were 0 out of 15 samples from the source of tape water, 2 out of 25 from the Huangpu River, 5 out of 15 from rivers around the animal farmers, 1 out of 9 from output water of contaminating water treatment factory, 1 out of 6 from the out gate of living contaminating water. The 446 bp fragment was detected from all the amplified positive water samples. FTA-PCR is an efficient method for gene detection of Cryptospordium oocysts, which could be used in detection of environmental water samples. The contamination degree of Cryptospordium oocysts in the river water around animal farms is high.

  16. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  17. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  18. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiated Chitosan for Fresh Meat Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a food preservative of natural origin that has drawn the attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development. The effectiveness of 1% chitosan (CS) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) (chitosan subjected to γ irradiation, 50 or 100 kGy) dipping to preserve fresh beef slices during refrigerated storage was investigated. The microbiological quality, lipid and color stability were evaluated. The results revealed that dipping in 1% CS, COS 50 and COS 100 significantly (Ρ< 0.05) improved the microbiological quality and reduced lipid oxidation in beef samples compared to the control samples. On day 7, control samples were considered rejected from the microbiological and lipid oxidation point of view. Dipping in 1% COS 100 significantly (p< 0.05) influenced color properties compared with the other groups. It could be concluded that dipping in 1% COS improved quality parameters of fresh beef and could be used in preservation.

  19. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of Pisces family, namely Gobidae are an important component of aquatic ecosystems. With a wide range of adaptation, this group has mastered the different types of fish ponds from completely fresh to the ocean. However, some species are found both in one and in other waters, displaying different (and sometimes conflicting between a life strategy. Last relating to the four main components of the life of fish: water-salt metabolism, nutrition, respiration and reproduction. Mechanisms for implementing these different functions together. First, different concentrations of salts require different types of water- salt metabolism. Another equally important factor is the food base, which is also quite different, both in range and the nature of food. In the sea and reservoirs, over rivers, dissolved oxygen in the water is stratified, and very often in the summer and winter time is in short supply. For bulls, as the bottom of vertebrates, this fact is choking on a large scale. Moreover, in these bodies of water, there are a number of abiotic and biotic factors, which have different requirements in the process of reproduction. The totality of the above conditions vital for fish of Gobidae, makes the need for populations in the gene pool of potential adaptations to survive in those or other settings. Literature data of recent years, the enlargement of habitat bulls, indicating the presence of adaptations. In reservoirs in Ukraine in modern conditions the optimal conditions for Sandpiper observed in the Azov Sea. This contributes greatly to the optimal forage which has emerged over the last decade due to the desalination of sea and favorable conditions for reproduction. In the transition from marine to freshwater Sandpiper flagged fundamentally different and very diverse in every way possible. The difference in environmental conditions differently reflected in the life Bychkov fish, affecting their growth, development and other

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  1. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs

  2. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C. Pappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65 %, salt 1 % made from raw (RMC or pasteurized (PMC goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 °C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN and nitrogen fraction (% of TN contents, the degradation of intact αs- or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 °C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 °C. All cheese samples (25 g were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (<100 CFU/g in all PMC samples. Consequently, pasteurization of raw goat milk’s and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  3. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign spent nuclear fuel storage facilities and their possible impact on SRS storage basins, twenty-three water samples were analyzed from 12 different countries. Fifteen of the water samples were analyzed and described in an earlier report (WSRC-TR-97-00365 [1]). This report describes nine additional samples received from October 1997 through March 1998. The samples include three from Australia, two from Denmark and Germany and one sample from Italy and Greece. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate-reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to all other foreign samples analyzed to date and monthly samples pulled from the receiving basin for off-site fuel (RBOF), at SRS. Of the nine samples analyzed, four samples from Italy, Germany and Greece had considerably higher microbiological activity than that historically found in the RBOF. This microbial activity included high levels of enzyme diversity and the presence of viable organisms that have been associated with microbial influenced corrosion in other environments. The three samples from Australia had microbial activities similar to that in the RBOF while the two samples from Denmark had lower levels of microbial activity. These results suggest that a significant number of the foreign storage facilities have water quality standards that allow microbial proliferation and survival

  4. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, F.; Uchino, T.; Akimoto, K.; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  5. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  6. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and hygroscopicity of fresh and aged cooking organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Tasoglou, Antonios; Liangou, Aikaterini; Cain, Kerrigan P.; Jahn, Leif; Gu, Peishi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-03-01

    Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is potentially a significant fraction of organic particulate matter in urban areas. COA chemical aging experiments, using aerosol produced by grilling hamburgers, took place in a smog chamber in the presence of UV light or excess ozone. The water solubility distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and corresponding hygroscopicity of fresh and aged COA were measured. The average mobility equivalent activation diameter of the fresh particles at 0.4% supersaturation ranged from 87 to 126 nm and decreased for aged particles, ranging from 65 to 88 nm. Most of the fresh COA had water solubility less than 0.1 g L-1, even though the corresponding particles were quite CCN active. After aging, the COA fraction with water solubility greater than 0.1 g L-1 increased more than 2 times. Using the extended Köhler theory for multiple partially soluble components in order to predict the measured activation diameters, the COA solubility distribution alone could not explain the CCN activity. Surface tensions less than 30 dyn cm-1 were required to explain the measured activation diameters. In addition, COA particles appear to not be spherical, which can introduce uncertainties into the corresponding calculations.

  8. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Eleni C; Bontinis, Thomas G; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Samelis, John

    2017-12-01

    The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact α s - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 o C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 o C. All cheese samples (25 g) were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes . Coagulase-
-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (pasteurization of raw goat milk's and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  9. Biotechnological Approach To Preserve Fresh Pasta Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2017-12-01

    Fresh pasta is highly susceptible to microbial contamination because of its high water activity and nutrient content. In this study, a new biopreservation system was examined that consists of an active sodium alginate solution containing Lactobacillus reuteri and glycerol, which was added during the production process of pasta. Our aim was to extend the fresh pasta shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin, thereby avoiding the use of thermal treatments that generally compromise food sensory characteristics. Two experimental studies were carried out with the product packaged under either ordinary or modified atmospheric conditions. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to determine the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. The use of the active solution with L. reuteri and glycerol during the production process of pasta improved both microbial and sensory quality, particularly when combined with modified atmosphere.

  10. Analysis of fresh fallout from Chinese tests by beta counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes beta counting techniques used in the analysis of fresh radioactive fallout samples from nuclear weapon tests. Fresh fallout samples have been collected by swiping the exposed portion of the engine covers of commercial aircrafts arriving at Bombay from New York after Chinese tests on September 26, 1976 and September 17, 1977. Activities of short-lived radionuclides such as Ag 111, Sr 89, Mo 99, U 237 and Np 239 were determined using these techniques. The results obtained from this analysis is discussed in brief in relation to the kind of fissile material, the extent of thermonuclear reaction in the weapon and the mode of detonation. (orig.) [de

  11. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María I; Aguayo, Encarna; Kader, Adel A

    2006-06-14

    The influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. Fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees C. The postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fresh-cut pineapple, cantaloupe, and strawberry. On the other hand, fresh-cut watermelon and mango pieces were still marketable after 9 days at 5 degrees C. Losses in vitamin C after 6 days at 5 degrees C were spoil before any significant nutrient loss occurs.

  12. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska's oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near‐surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow‐control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009

  13. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  14. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45 days) with fresh or saline water (200 mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  16. Analytical study on the determination of boron in environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.J.; Gimenez, E.; Hernandez, F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical study on the determination of boron in environmental water samples was carried out. The curcumin and carmine standard methods were compared with the most recent Azomethine-H method in order to evaluate their analytical characteristics and feasibility for the analysis of boron in water samples. Analyses of synthetic water, ground water, sea water and waste water samples were carried out and a statistical evaluation of the results was made. The Azomethine-H method was found to be the most sensitive (detection limit 0.02 mg l -1 ) and selective (no interference of commonly occurring ions in water was observed), showing also the best precision (relative standard deviation lower than 4%). Moreover, it gave good results for all types of samples analyzed. The accuracy of this method was tested by the addition of known amounts of standard solutions to different types of water samples. The slopes of standard additions and direct calibration graphs were similar and recoveries of added boron ranged from 99 to 107%. (orig.)

  17. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  19. Combined effect of ultrasound and essential oils to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Gülçin; Demirel Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer

    2016-06-01

    Salads prepared from contaminated fresh produce have a high risk of causing food-borne illnesses. Essential oils obtained from plants have antimicrobial activity and may provide a natural approach to reduce the pathogens on fresh produce. Additionally, ultrasound treatments have been shown to reduce the microbial counts on different foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of cinnamon and lemon essential oils in vitro and in food applications. Mixtures of lettuce, parsley and dill were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and then dip-treated for 5 min in one of the following treatments: sterile tap water, chlorinated water, 1% lemon essential oil, 2% cinnamon essential oil or 2% cinnamon essential oil + ultrasound. The samples were stored at 4 ℃ and collected at d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post inoculation. The 1% lemon (4 log) and 2% cinnamon (2 log) essential oil washes provided partial inhibition against L. monocytogenes by d 1. The combined application of 2% cinnamon oil and ultrasound resulted in only 0.85 log inhibition by d 1; however, the number of L. monocytogenes increased during storage and became nearly equal to the control at d 9. Therefore, different combinations of essential oils with other antimicrobials or novel technologies are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Development of Export Performance Scale for Fresh Vegetable-Fruit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Keskinkılınç

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a scale for assessing the performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector. As a first step, a qualitative interviews was conducted to the sample consists of the managers working in export companies. As a result of the interviews major problems of exporters were grouped. In the second phase of the study a questionnaire was formed and a survey was conducted to the larger sample. Subsequently, validity and reliability of the scales were determined by means of explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analysis respectively. The theoretical contribution of this research is the development of a method for evaluation of export performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector.

  1. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenchuan Kuo; Shuying Lai; Chingchung Huang; Yuming Lin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226 Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226 Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226 Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226 Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq 1 -1 . The 226 Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg -1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg -1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226 Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 μSv. (author)

  2. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  3. Production of anatoxin-a by cyanobacterial strains isolated from Portuguese fresh water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, Joana; Rellán, Sandra; Gago-Martinez, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2009-11-01

    The occurrence of anatoxin-a in several freshwater systems in Portugal and its production by Portuguese cyanobacterial strains, after cultivation in laboratory, were studied. Surface water samples from 9 water bodies, for recreational and human consumption usage, were surveyed for anatoxin-a presence and for obtaining cultures of pure cyanobacterial strains. Anatoxin-a analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) followed by Mass Spectrometry (MS) confirmation. No anatoxin-a was detected in all the natural water samples (limit of detection (LOD) = 25 ng l(-1)) but among the 22 isolated cyanobacterial strains, 13 could produce anatoxin-a in laboratory conditions (LOD = 3 ng g(-1) dw). This proportion of anatoxin-a producing strains (59.1%) in laboratory is discussed considering the hypothesis that anatoxin-a is a more frequent metabolite in cyanobacteria than it was thought before and making its occurrence in Portuguese freshwaters almost certain. Therefore, health and ecological risks caused by anatoxin-a in Portugal, should be seriously considered.

  4. Assessment of microbiological quality of retail fresh sushi from selected sources in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Sunniva; Mehli, Lisbeth; Bruheim, Torkjel; Vadstein, Olav; Jakobsen, Anita Nordeng

    2015-05-01

    Retail fresh sushi is gaining popularity in Europe. This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of selected samples of fresh sushi with a shelf life of 2 to 3 days offered as complete meals in Norwegian supermarkets. Analysis of aerobic plate counts in 58 sushi samples from three producers revealed large variations in microbiological quality, and 48% of the analyzed sushi boxes were rated as unsatisfactory (> 6.0 log CFU/g). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. was detected in 71% of the samples. In a follow-up study, we collected products and raw materials directly from the production facility of one producer and observed a significant decrease (P food products.

  5. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  6. Mass transfer of H2O between petroleum and water: implications for oil field water sample quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, R.A.; Ostvold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Water mass transfer can occur between water and petroleum during changes in pressure and temperature. This process can result in the dilution or concentration of dissolved ions in the water phase of oil field petroleum-water samples. In this study, PVT simulations were undertaken for 4 petroleum-water systems covering a range of reservoir conditions (80-185 o C; 300-1000 bar) and a range of water-petroleum mixtures (volume ratios of 1:1000-300:1000) to quantify the extent of H 2 O mass transfer as a result of pressure and temperature changes. Conditions were selected to be relevant to different types of oil field water sample (i.e. surface, downhole and core samples). The main variables determining the extent of dilution and concentration were found to be: (a) reservoir pressure and temperature, (b) pressure and temperature of separation of water and petroleum, (c) petroleum composition, and (d) petroleum:water ratio (PWR). The results showed that significant dilution and concentration of water samples could occur, particularly at high PWR. It was not possible to establish simple guidelines for identifying good and poor quality samples due to the interplay of the above variables. Sample quality is best investigated using PVT software of the type used in this study. (author)

  7. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) stored under controlled atmosphere and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Marcy, Joseph; Welbaum, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that represents a high risk for consumers because it can grow under refrigeration conditions and can also develop acid tolerance. Fresh blueberries are hand-picked, packed, and transported under refrigeration without receiving a microbial inactivation treatment. The aim of this work was to study the survival of L. monocytogenes in fresh highbush blueberries stored at 4 or 12 °C under different controlled atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2, 15% CO2, 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage [CAS]); or ozone gas (O3), 4 ppm at 4 °C or 2.5 ppm at 12 °C, at high relative humidity (90 to 95%) for a total of 10 days. Fresh blueberries inside a plastic clamshell were spot inoculated with the bacteria and were stored at 4 or 12 °C in isolated cabinets under air, CAS, and O3 atmospheric conditions. Samples were evaluated on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 for microbial growth using modified Oxford agar. CAS did not delay or inhibit L. monocytogenes growth in fresh blueberries after 10 days. O3 achieved 3- and 2-log reductions when compared with air treatment at 4 and 12 °C, respectively. Low concentrations of O3 together with proper refrigeration temperature can ensure product safety throughout transportation. O3 is a strong antimicrobial that safely decomposes to oxygen and water without leaving residues and can be used as an alternative method to prevent bacterial growth during a long transport period.

  8. Water sampling device for detecting fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yukio.

    1997-01-01

    A notched portion is formed at the lower end of an outer cap, and an extensible air bag is disposed being in contact with the inner side of the notched portion. A compressed air is sent into the outer gap through an air supply pipe to urge coolants thereby lowering the water level. A portion of the compressed air gets out of the outer gap from the notched portion, and if air bubbles are observed on the surface of coolants in a pressure vessel of a reactor, the outer cap is confirmed to be attached to the upper lattice plate. Compressed air is supplied to the air bag to close the notched portion. Then, coolants are sucked from a water level confirmation pipe. The level of coolants is further lowered, and the compressed air is sucked from the water level confirmation pipe instead of the coolants. Then, the level of the coolants at the inner side of the inner cap is confirmed to be made lower than the upper end of the channel box of a reactor fuel assembly. Then, coolants in the channel box are sampled, as a specimen water, through a water sampling pipe. (I.N.)

  9. Stratigraphic controls on fluid and solute fluxes across the sediment-water interface of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Lazareva, Olesya; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crespo, Kyle; Chan, Clara S.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow stratigraphic features, such as infilled paleovalleys, modify fresh groundwater discharge to coastal waters and fluxes of saltwater and nutrients across the sediment–water interface. We quantify the spatial distribution of shallow surface water–groundwater exchange and nitrogen fluxes near a paleovalley in Indian River Bay, Delaware, using a hand resistivity probe, conventional seepage meters, and pore-water samples. In the interfluve (region outside the paleovalley) most nitrate-rich fresh groundwater discharges rapidly near the coast with little mixing of saline pore water, and nitrogen transport is largely conservative. In the peat-filled paleovalley, fresh groundwater discharge is negligible, and saltwater exchange is deep (∼1 m). Long pore-water residence times and abundant sulfate and organic matter promote sulfate reduction and ammonium production in shallow sediment. Reducing, iron-rich fresh groundwater beneath paleovalley peat discharges diffusely around paleovalley margins offshore. In this zone of diffuse fresh groundwater discharge, saltwater exchange and dispersion are enhanced, ammonium is produced in shallow sediments, and fluxes of ammonium to surface water are large. By modifying patterns of groundwater discharge and the nature of saltwater exchange in shallow sediments, paleovalleys and other stratigraphic features influence the geochemistry of discharging groundwater. Redox reactions near the sediment–water interface affect rates and patterns of geochemical fluxes to coastal surface waters. For example, at this site, more than 99% of the groundwater-borne nitrate flux to the Delaware Inland Bays occurs within the interfluve portion of the coastline, and more than 50% of the ammonium flux occurs at the paleovalley margin.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  11. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  12. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  13. From fresh to marine waters: characterization and fate of dissolved organic matter in the Lena River delta region, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eGonçalves-Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM within the Lena Delta region and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation to salinity indicating removal. In the bottom water layer the DOM decrease within salinity was less. We propose there is a removal of DOM occurring primarily at the surface layer, which is likely driven by photodegradation and flocculation.

  14. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  15. ARE MACRO AND MICRO ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING MANAGEMENT OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES? A CASE FROM IRAN WITH PESTLE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atighechian, Golrokh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Jahangiri, Katayoun

    2016-07-24

    Oil spill in fresh water can affect ecological processes and accordingly it can influence human health. Iran, due to having 58.8 % of the world oil reserves, is highly vulnerable to water contamination by oil products. The aim of this study was to determine environmental factors affecting the management of the oil spill into one of the river in Iran using the PESTLE analysis. This was a qualitative case study conducted in 2015 on an oil spill incident in Iran and its roots from a disaster management approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Seventy managers and staffs with those responsible or involved in oil spill incident management were recruited to the study. Qualitative content analysis approach was employed for the data analysis. Document analysis was used to collect additional information. Findings of the present study indicated that different factors affected the management of the event of oil spill onto one of the central river and consequently the management of drink water resources. Using this analysis, managers can plan for such events and develop scenarios for them to have better performance for the future events.

  16. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energies (>12 keV).***

  17. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 ...

  18. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  19. Natural radionuclide dose and lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of fish and water from fresh water reservoirs near the proposed uranium mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Selvaraj, Rajaram

    2017-06-01

    Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined. The uranium concentration in the sediment and water was in BDL (water samples of the analyzed radionuclides are 238 U-10 Bq/l, 210 Po-0.1 Bq/l, 226 Ra-1 Bq/l, and 210 Pb-0.1 Bq/l. The radionuclides in our water samples were approximately 50 times far below the recommended limit. The ingestion of water and fish would not pose any significant radiological impact on health or cancer risk to the public, implicating that the fishes from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam reservoir are safe for human consumption except the fisherman community.

  20. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The 228 Ra and 226 Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background γ-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of 228 Ra (0.5-2 Bq/kg-fresh) and 226 Ra (0.5-1.2 Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = ∼1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in 228 Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area

  1. Inactivation of human norovirus and Tulane virus in simple mediums and fresh whole strawberries by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks and human NoV in irrigation water can potentially lead to viral internalization in fresh produce. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel intervention strategies to target internalized viral pathogens while maintainin...

  2. Ultraviolet irradiated water containing humic substances inhibits bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, V.; Hongve, D.

    1994-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water by u.v. irradiation has been observed to reduce the biofilm formation in the pipes in a pilot plant. An apparently inhibitory effect that persists in the water after the u.v. treatment has been studied in the laboratory. Reduced numbers of viable bacteria and reduced bacterial metabolism were observed when irradiated waters were inoculated with fresh bacteria. Approximately 60% of the heterotrophic bacteria in the water samples were inactivated within a 1 h contact time with freshly u.v. disinfected water. The uptake rates of labelled tracer substances were significantly reduced when the bacteria were exposed to irradiated water. The inhibitory effect seems to last for at least 1 week. High concentrations of organic matter seem to counteract the inhibitory effect. No relationship was found between u.v. dose and effect within the dose range tested. The observed effects may be explained by the action of oxidizing reagents such as hydroxyl radicals, produced in photochemical reactions between u.v. irradiation and humic substances in the water. (author)

  3. The feasibilities to use circulation water as feed water of the paper chemicals; Kiertovesien kaeyttoemahdollisuudet kemikaalien syoettoevesinae - MPKT 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manner, H.; Ryoesoe, K.; Harju, E.; Viik, H.; Toeyry, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    A lot of water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Usually only fresh water is used for this purpose. In this project the use of fresh water was investigated at seven paper machines. The amount of fresh water used for the dilution of chemicals was 0,45-2,6 m{sup 3}/t paper. Most of this part of the fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the retention aid and the starch. Neutral size and fixing agents need a lot of water, as well. Different kinds of dissolved and colloidal substances in dilution water can interfere the function of paper chemicals. It could be clearly seen that anionic substances in feed water of the cationic polyelectrolytes are very detrimental. Also some salts can be detrimental for instance in dilution water of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size. These contaminants can also lead to depositions in supply equipments. For this reason it is very important to remove or at least minimize the amount of anionic polyelectrolytes and for instance Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions from the feed water of the paper chemicals. This can be done by using membrane filtration. The fresh water can be replaced by membrane filtered circulation water but some loss of efficiency of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size can, however, be seen. As the feed water of the bentonite circulation water can instead be used without any harmful effect. The nanofiltered circulation water seem to be fairly as useful as fresh water for dilution of paper chemicals. (orig.)

  4. The feasibilities to use circulation water as feed water of the paper chemicals; Kiertovesien kaeyttoemahdollisuudet kemikaalien syoettoevesinae - MPKT 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manner, H; Ryoesoe, K; Harju, E; Viik, H; Toeyry, M [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1999-12-31

    A lot of water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Usually only fresh water is used for this purpose. In this project the use of fresh water was investigated at seven paper machines. The amount of fresh water used for the dilution of chemicals was 0,45-2,6 m{sup 3}/t paper. Most of this part of the fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the retention aid and the starch. Neutral size and fixing agents need a lot of water, as well. Different kinds of dissolved and colloidal substances in dilution water can interfere the function of paper chemicals. It could be clearly seen that anionic substances in feed water of the cationic polyelectrolytes are very detrimental. Also some salts can be detrimental for instance in dilution water of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size. These contaminants can also lead to depositions in supply equipments. For this reason it is very important to remove or at least minimize the amount of anionic polyelectrolytes and for instance Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions from the feed water of the paper chemicals. This can be done by using membrane filtration. The fresh water can be replaced by membrane filtered circulation water but some loss of efficiency of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size can, however, be seen. As the feed water of the bentonite circulation water can instead be used without any harmful effect. The nanofiltered circulation water seem to be fairly as useful as fresh water for dilution of paper chemicals. (orig.)

  5. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Ramteke, P W

    2014-03-01

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113±0.05g/L and 489±23mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of chitosan ethers on fresh state properties of lime mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyšvařil, M.; Žižlavský, T.

    2017-10-01

    The fresh state properties of mortars are eminently important since determine the material workability and also have a great influence on its hardened state characteristics. In this paper, the behaviour of fresh lime mortars modified by etherified derivatives of chitosan (hydroxypropylchitosan (HPCH) and carboxymethylchitosan (CMCH)) is assessed with the purpose of exploring a new application of such derivatives as lime mortar admixtures. The rheological parameters (relative yield stress, consistency coefficient and fluidity index) and viscoelastic properties were correlated with flow table tests, relative density measurements, water retention abilities of mortars and air content in mortars. Results were seen to be strongly dependent on substituents of the chitosan. Non-ionic derivative (HPCH) had a plasticizing influence on the mortars; the ionic CMCH showed the thickening effect. The effect of chitosan ethers was found to be dosage-dependent. CMCH had low impact on water retention, while HPCH displayed high water retention capability. It was concluded, that the ionic derivative (CMCH) is very similar by its viscosity enhancing effect to starch ether.

  7. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Kivanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  8. Development of a non-thermal accelerated pulsed UV photolysis assisted digestion method for fresh and dried food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.; Pina, C.; Aguilar, L.F.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple, fast digestion procedure for fresh and dried foods, using high-power pulsed UV photolysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, is being developed. The homogenized food samples were mixed with H 2 O 2 or with a mixture of H 2 O 2 and HNO 3 , and irradiated for short times with a 248-nm UV excimer laser. After centrifugation, a clear, colorless solution was obtained and aliquots were deposited on Teflon filters for XRF and/or PIXE analyses. Standard reference materials (NIST Peach Leaves; Typical Diet) were also analyzed to compare recoveries and detection limits. Improvements in detection limits were observed, but a few trace elements (<1 ppm) were not reproducibly detected (Fe, Sr). This method proved to be practical for the accelerated digestion of food samples and preparing analytes in short-time intervals. In combination with PIXE and XRF, it allows high-sensitivity multi-elemental analyses for screening the nutritional elements and for food safety purposes regarding the potential presence of toxic elements. Further development to optimize and validate this procedure for a broader range of analytes is in progress

  9. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  10. Uranium content measurement in drinking water samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, R.K.; Walia, T.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of uranium has been assessed in drinking water samples collected from different locations in Bathinda district, Punjab, India. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells. Uranium is determined using fission track technique. Uranium concentration in the water samples varies from 1.65±0.06 to 74.98±0.38 μg/l. These values are compared with safe limit values recommended for drinking water. Most of the water samples are found to have uranium concentration above the safe limit. Analysis of some heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in water is also done in order to see if some correlation exists between the concentration of uranium and these heavy metals. A weak positive correlation has been observed between the concentration of uranium and heavy metals of Pb, Cd and Cu

  11. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  12. Determination of chromium in water samples by neutron activation analysis after preconcentration on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Sloot, H A [Stichting Reactor Centrum Nederland, Petten

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of chromium in sea- and fresh water. Chromium is concentrated on activated carbon from a neutral solution after a previous reduction of chromate with sodium sulfite at pH 1.5. The adsorption conditions, acidity, concentrations, amount of carbon, stirring-time, sample-volume, salinity, the influence of storage on the ratio of tervalent to hexavalent chromium, were investigated. The final determination of the total chromium content is performed by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. By preconcentration on activated carbon, a differentiation between tervalent and hexavalent chromium is possible. A separate determination of both species is not yet feasible due to the high carbon blank and to the necessity of measuring the adsorption percentage on carbon. The lower limit of determination, which depends on the value of the carbon blank, is 0.05 ..mu..g Cr/l with a precision of 20%. The determination is hampered by the considerable blank from the carbon. The use of activated carbon prepared from recrystallized sugar will probably improve the lower limit of determination and possibly allow the determination of chromate.

  13. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  14. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  15. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  16. Determination of silver in fresh water by atomic absorption spectrometry following flotation preconcentration by iron(III) collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundeva, K.; Stafilov, T. [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, St. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1997-08-01

    Colloid precipitate flotation of silver from fresh water is applied for preconcentration and separation. Optimal conditions using hydrated iron(III) oxide and iron(III) tetramethylenedithiocarbamate as collectors were investigated. Various factors affecting the silver recovery, including collector mass, nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH of the working medium, electrokinetic potential of the collector particle surfaces, type of surfactant, induction time etc., were checked. Within the optimal pH range (5.5-6.5) silver was separated quantitatively (94.9- 100.0%) with 30 mg Fe(III) as collector. The content of silver was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and compared to that from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The detection limit of silver by the method described is 0.01 {mu}g/L. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Impact of ionisation on the conservation of fresh stuffed pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhaou, Thouraya

    2012-01-01

    Fresh stuffed pasta are highly appreciated by consumers due to their specific taste and flavor. However, they are perishable foodstuffs having a short shelf life. The aim of this work was to extend their shelf life using three doses of ionizing gamma 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Studing the impact of this treatment on the microbiological (FAMT, E-coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Sallmonelle, yeasts and molds), physicochemical (pH, water content and water activity), sensory (color) and cooking qualities (swelling, cooking loss and spalling) of the product showed the effectiveness of its doses toward the spoilage and pathogenic flora. However, organoleptic and cooking qualities were significantly affected by the doses 3 and 5 kGy. Only the dose 1 kGy could improve the microbiological quality without influencing the organoleptic and culinary qualities of the product. The shelf life prediction according to ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Testing) method of different samples confirmed the effectiveness of the dose 1 kGy which gave the highest shelf life value (62 days). As the shelf life of un-ionized product is 45 days, the 1 kGy dose has allowed extending the shelf life of 17 days.

  18. Impact of fruit texture on the release and perception of aroma compounds during in vivo consumption using fresh and processed mango fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Adeline; Boulanger, Renaud; Lebrun, Marc; Maraval, Isabelle; Valette, Jérémy; Guichard, Élisabeth; Gunata, Ziya

    2018-01-15

    Two fresh (fresh cubic pieces, fresh puree) and two dried (dried cubic pieces, dried powder) products were prepared from a homogenous mango fruit batch to obtain four samples differing in texture. The aromatic profiles were determined by SAFE extraction technique and GC-MS analysis. VOCs released during consumption were trapped by a retronasal aroma-trapping device (RATD) and analysed by GC-MS. Twenty-one terpenes and one ester were identified from the exhaled nose-space. They were amongst the major mango volatile compounds, 10 of which were already reported as being potential key flavour compounds in mango. The in vivo release of aroma compounds was affected by the matrix texture. The intact samples (fresh and dried cubic pieces) released significantly more aroma compounds than disintegrated samples (fresh puree, dried powder). The sensory descriptive analysis findings were in close agreement with the in vivo aroma release data regarding fresh products, in contrast to the dried products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (pCDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (pCDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (pCDOM source in black water spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; Kant, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

  2. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  3. Mobilities of radionuclides in fresh and fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Ittner, T.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1982-12-01

    Sorption and migration of technetium, cesium and americium on fracture surfaces and fresh surfaces of granites taken from drilling cores from the Finnsjoen and Studsvik areas and the Stripa mine are reported. The three elements were used as reference elements with different chemistry and behaviour in water; under the conditions used in the experiments technetium exists as the heptavalent TcO -4 -ion, cesium as the non-complexed monovalent cation Cs + and americium as the strongly hydrolysed Am(OH)super (3-x) (x-1-4). The waters used were synthetic groundwaters representative of waters from the drilling holes. After the exposure of the fracture samples to spiked groundwater solutions for a period of three up to six months the penetration depths and concentration profiles were analysed and autoradiographs of cesium and americium distribution vs depth were taken. The sorption of technetium was found to be negligible. The transport of TcO -4 depends on accessibility to fractures and micro-fissures in the rock. Cesium is sorbed through an ion-exchange process. Migration of cesium depends not only on the transport in water into fractures and micro-fissures, but also on migration through mineral veins with a high CEC. Americium is strongly sorbed on most solid surfaces and did not migrate significantly during the contact time of three months. The diffusivity in granite was found to be around 10 - 13 m 2 /s for cesium; preliminary values for technetium and americium were 10 - 12 m 2 /s and less than 10 - 16 m 2 /s, respectively. (Authors)

  4. The determination of radiocaesium in sea and fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.W.

    1975-10-01

    The caesium is adsorbed on to a cartridge of silica gel impregnated with ammonium molybdophosphate from 50 litres of filtered water, adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid. The cartridge is then placed in a well crystal detector and gamma counted. An additional separation step is required if zirconium-95/niobium-95 contamination has occurred, as shown by gamma spectrometric analysis of the cartridge. The measurement of caesium-137 and caesium-134 is by conventional γ-spectrometry. The output of the analysing system is ASCII paper tape, and a PDP-8 computer is used to convert this spectral information to activity of caesium-137 and -134 in pCi l -1 at the time of sample collection. (U.K.)

  5. Pesticide residues analysis in water samples of Nagarpur and Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Nabi, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides used to protect the crops from pest attack in the agricultural fields pose harmful effect to the non-target organisms such as human and many other aquatic and terrestrial organisms either directly or indirectly through food chain. The present study was conducted to monitor a total of seven pesticide residues under organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in three different sources of pond water, paddy field water and tube-well water from Nagarpur Upazila and paddy field water in the company of Dhaleshwari and Gazikhali river water from Saturia Upazila, Bangladesh. A total of 40 water samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon was detected in eight water samples at a concentration ranging from 4.11 to 257.91 μg/l whereas, malathion was detected only in one water sample at a concentration of 84.64 μg/l and chlorpyrifos pesticide was also detected only in one water sample and the concentration was 37.3 μg/l. Trace amount of carbaryl was identified but it was below the detection limit. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with DDT or its metabolites (DDE and DDD). The water samples contaminated with the suspected pesticides were above the acceptable limit except for the fish pond samples of Sahabatpur and Dubaria union. To control the misuse of pesticides and to reduce the possible health risk, appropriate control systems of pests such as integrated pest management system should be implemented immediately by the authorities of the country.

  6. Nitrous oxide in fresh water systems: An estimate for the yield of atmospheric N2O associated with disposal of human waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, W. A.; Elkins, J. W.; Kolb, C. E.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Duran, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The N2O content of waters in the Potomac and Merrimack Rivers was measured on a number of occasions over the period April to July 1977. The concentrations of dissolved N2O exceeded those which would apply in equilibrium with air by factors ranging from about 46 in the Potomac to 1.2 in the Merrimack. Highest concentrations of dissolved N2O were associated with sewage discharges from the vicinity of Washington, D. C., and analysis indicates a relatively high yield, 1.3 to 11%, for prompt conversion of waste nitrogen to N2O. Measurements of dissolved N2O in fresh water ponds near Boston demonstrated that aquatic systems provide both strong sources and sinks for atmospheric N2O.

  7. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. *Correspondence. ... All the water samples exceeded the standard limit of the most probable ... or disinfection and this could lead to outbreak of water borne diseases. ... The bottle was brought up to a surface.

  8. Migration of fresh and cryopreserved human spermatozoa in polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M C; Wix, L S; Foote, R H; Feldschuh, R; Feldschuh, J

    1982-05-01

    The ability of freshly collected and frozen human spermatozoa to migrate in round capillary tubes containing specially formulated polyacrylamide gel was investigated, using 33 ejaculates from 27 donors. Each semen sample was divided; one portion was left undiluted, and the other portion was diluted to 50 x 10(6) sperm/ml. Glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant. The percentage of motile sperm cells was determined before and after freezing. Fresh semen contained a higher percentage of motile cells, which migrated farther than those of cryopreserved-thawed semen. Various correlations between the percentage of motile sperm and migration distance ranged from 0.57 to 0.62. There was a low positive correlation of migration distance with sperm cell concentration per milliliter, r = 0.25 to 0.34; and thus adjusting semen samples to a standard sperm concentration improved the accuracy of the test only slightly. The regression coefficient of migration distance on the percentage of motile sperm in fresh semen was 0.65, indicating that for each 10% increase in sperm motility, migration distance is predicted to increase 6.5 mm. Five batches of polyacrylamide gel gave uniform results, and the application of this stable gel to fertility investigations is discussed.

  9. Effect-directed analysis of fresh and dried elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) via hyphenated planar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, S; Mirgos, M; Morlock, G E

    2015-12-24

    A healthy diet is an important factor in a healthy lifestyle that is becoming increasingly important in today's society. The fruits of European elder (Sambucus nigra L.) are a rich source of bioactive compounds like anthocyanins. In this study, dried and fresh fruits of four cultivated and six wild growing plants were investigated for their anthocyanin pattern and content as well as their bioactive compounds. After separation on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, formic acid and water, the plates were quantitatively evaluated by densitometry and also subjected to various (bio)assays to investigate the samples for compounds acting as radical-scavengers, antimicrobials, estrogens, and acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase inhibitors. The mean contents for the two most abundant anthocyanins in European elderberries, confirmed by HPTLC-ESI-MS, ranged from 159 to 647mg/100g in fresh and from 166 to 2764mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and from 112 to 521mg/100g in fresh and 95 to 226mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-glucoside. Additionally, the anthocyanin content was higher in berries of cultivars than of wild growing plants. The anthocyanins' radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect against Aliivibrio fischeri were confirmed. Further, a radical scavenging compound affecting A. fischeri and acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was tentatively assigned by its protonated molecule at m/z 456 as either ursolic or oleanolic acid by HPTLC-ESI-MS. HPTLC hyphenated with bioassays and mass spectrometry was selected as method of choice for fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and bioprofiling of elderberry samples as well as quantitation and confirmation of bioactive compounds therein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  11. Absorption, distribution, dynamics of 14C-chlorpyrifos in several kinds of animals and plants in fresh water ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui

    1998-01-01

    The absorption, distribution, dynamics of chlorpyrifos in five fresh water organisms were studied. The results showed that all organisms tested absorbed 14 C-chlorpyrifos rapidly in simulation ecosystem for 4 h of exposure. The concentration factors (CF) of 14 C-chlorpyrifos in the organisms were in order of Gambusia affinis>Bellarnya purificata>Planorbis sp.>Lenna polyrrhiza>Naslurtium officincles on the 2nd day of the experiment. The absorption of 14 C-chlorpyrifos by three kinds of animals showed that the 14 C-radioactivity reached peaks after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to the pesticide. the concentration factors of Gambusia affinis (48 h), Bellarnya purificata (48 h) and Planorbis sp. (24 h) were 375, 249.69 and 30 respectively. The absorption peaks expressed in concentration factors in Lenna polyrrhiza and Naslurtium officincles, were 28.54 and 7.78 at 4 and 24 h respectively. After the absorption peaks, the radioactivity in all experimental animals and plants decreased with increase of time. After 4 h, the radioactivity in water rapidly decreased to 67% of the original and it decreased to about one half of the original after 24 h. Then the radioactivity of 14 C in water slightly increased due to the excreta of the organisms

  12. Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Tax, R.B.; Nissan, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs

  13. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  15. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures

  16. Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

  17. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  18. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in a river used for fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... source of water for large scale fresh produce irrigation and herd .... Duncan's multiple range tests were used to compare the means of parameters for the .... Longitudinal study of faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in.

  19. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Controlling water quality is critical in preventing cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Process wash water (PWW) quality can be controlled by implementing chemical disinfection strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pilot-scale efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) during

  20. Low Prevalence of Human Pathogens on Fresh Produce on Farms and in Packing Facilities: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia E. Van Pelt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness burdens individuals around the world and may be caused by consuming fresh produce contaminated with bacterial, parasite, and viral pathogens. Pathogen contamination on produce may originate at the farm and packing facility. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of human pathogens (bacteria, parasites, and viruses on fresh produce (fruits, herbs, and vegetables on farms and in packing facilities worldwide through a systematic review of 38 peer-reviewed articles. The median and range of the prevalence was calculated, and Kruskal–Wallis tests and logistic regression were performed to compare prevalence among pooled samples of produce groups, pathogen types, and sampling locations. Results indicated a low median percentage of fresh produce contaminated with pathogens (0%. Both viruses (p-value = 0.017 and parasites (p-value = 0.033, on fresh produce, exhibited higher prevalence than bacteria. No significant differences between fresh produce types or between farm and packing facility were observed. These results may help to better quantify produce contamination in the production environment and inform strategies to prevent future foodborne illness.

  1. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  2. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project (http://www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  4. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of 2,240...

  5. Determination of amino acids and protein content in fresh and commercial royal jelly from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balkanska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from different regions of Bulgaria were analyzed. The results obtained show that proline (Pro, lysine (Lys, methionine (Met, aspartic acid (Asp, cysteine (Cys, histidine (His were major free amino acids (FAAs in RJ. The average content of Pro was 2.3 mg/g. The FAA content ranged from 5.5 to 6.2 mg/g of RJ. The most abundant total amino acids (TAAs were aspartic acid (Asp, glutamic acid (Glu, lysine (Lys, leucine (Leu, serine (Ser and proline (Pro. The average TAA content in fresh and commercial RJ were 129±10 and 114±8 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained for TAA content were used to establish a range for amino acid composition of Bulgarian RJ. The content of proteins was higher in fresh RJ than in commercial samples and this difference was significant (p<0.05. The following ranges were observed for fresh and commercial samples 14.7–17.3 and 12.5–14.9 mg/g, respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.16

  6. Acrosin release and acrosin activity during incubation in capacitating media using fresh and frozen-thawed dog sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica de los Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of time and temperature on acrosin release from the acrosomal cap and the activity of this enzyme during in vitro capacitation in fresh and frozen/thawed dog sperm. Sperm-rich fractions of six ejaculates from three dogs were processed as fresh and frozen samples. Each sperm sample was incubated in canine capacitation medium (CCM for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h at 20°C and at 37°C. After incubation, the samples were assessed by the indirect immunofluorescent staining technique. The probability of having unlabeled sperm (PUS, indicating acrosin loss, was modelled by a binomial distribution using logistic regression. There was a linear relationship between PUS and time at both temperatures (p<0.001; however, a major percentage of unlabeled sperm was observed in frozen/thawed samples soon after incubation, indicating that the release of acrosin was affected by capacitation time, mainly in frozen samples. Temperature influenced acrosin release only in cryopreserved sperm (p<0.05. Acrosin activity was measured by digestion halos on slides coated with gelatin-substrate film during each time period; a significant increase in the number of large halos was observed in fresh samples throughout the experiment, whereas frozen/thawed sperm showed a decreased rate of halo diameters during culture. Thus, there appears to differences between fresh and frozen dog sperm in terms of acrosin release and the level of acrosin activity in the course of in vitro capacitation.

  7. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  8. Investigations of the detection of α-radioactivity in samples of effluent water primary circuit and exhaust air of nuclear power plants in the FRG in the years 1973-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1976-05-01

    Since the middle of 1973 the α-radioactivity of aerosol filters from the stack monitoring system and since the middle of 1974 the α-radioactivity in samples from the primary cycle of the KRB was monitored. Effluent water samples of all nuclear power reactors of the FRG were also examined from the middle of 1973 till 1974. Furthermore, aerosol filters sampled in 1973 and 1974 from various places at the KRB and some aerosol filters from the stack monitoring systems of KWW (1973), KWO (1974) and KKS (1975) were also measured. Essentially, the following procedures of sample preparation for α-spectrometry of the samples in large-area gridded ionization chambers were used: cold ashing of the aerosol samples in 'excited' oxygen; coprecipitation of the alpha emitters from the effluent water samples with iron hydroxide and subsequent cold ashing of the precipitate; evaporation of the samples from the primary cycle on SS plates. The following transuranium nuclides, or some of them, were found in the samples of the primary coolant and in several aerosol filter samples: Pu-239/240, Pu-238 and/or Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244. Cm-242 contributes most to the α-radioactivity in fresh samples. In the effluent water samples Cm-242. Pu-239/240 and Pu-238 and/or Am-241 were identified in some cases, in one case also Cm-244. The aim of these investigations is to establish procedures for the measurement and surveillance of α-emitting nuclides in the emissions of power reactors in order to study the contribution of transuranium nuclides to the radiation exposure of the population living in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. (orig.) [de

  9. The Effectiveness of FRESH Technique to Teach Descriptive Paragraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Faisal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at knowing the effectiveness of FRESH technique in teaching descriptive paragraph. The method of this study was quasi experimental method. This study was conducted at one of the state madrasah aliyah in academic year 2012/2013. The total sample of this study was 78 respondents divided into two groups: the control class with no treatment and the experimental class with FRESH technique. The data collection technique used essay tests for pre-test and post-test. The evaluation covered content, organization, vocabulary, style, and mechanic. After data analyses, the students in the experimental class had better achievement than those in the control class. The result of t-test computation was 1.968, with t-table value = 1.664 at the significant level α = 0.05. The t-test result was higher than the value of t-table (1.968 > 1.664. It meant that the hypothesis was accepted or FRESH technique was effective in teaching descriptive paragraph to the students of that school in academic year 2012/2013.

  10. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des

  11. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  12. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  13. Criticality safety of storage barrels for enriched uranium fresh fuel at the RB research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Study on criticality safety of fresh low and high enriched uranium (LEU and HEU) fuel elements in the storage/transport barrels at the RB research reactor is carried out by using the well-known MCNP computer code. It is shown that studied arrays of tightly closed fuel barrels, each entirely loaded with 100 fresh (HEU or LEU) fuel slugs, are far away from criticality, even in cases of an unexpected flooding by light water.(author)

  14. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-02

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria

  15. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  17. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa and carrots (Daucus carota was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min in tap water (W, chlorine water (CW, chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L in combination with: (a vacuum (V: 10 mbar or (b positive pressure application (P: 3 bar. The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  18. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-07-23

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  19. Influence of an Extended Domestic Drinking Water System on the Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Zlatanović

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water and fire safety are strongly bonded to each other. Actual drinking water demand and fire flows are both delivered through the same network, and are both devoted to public health and safety. In The Netherlands, the discussion about fire flows supplied by the drinking water networks has drawn fire fighters and drinking water companies together, searching for novel approaches to improve public safety. One of these approaches is the application of residential fire sprinkler systems fed by drinking water. This approach has an impact on the layout of domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs, as extra plumbing is required. This study examined the influence of the added plumbing on quality of both fresh and 10 h stagnant water in two full scale DDWSs: a conventional and an extended system. Overnight stagnation was found to promote copper and zinc leaching from pipes in both DDWSs. Microbial numbers and viability in the stagnant water, measured by heterotrophic plate count (HPC, flow cytometry (FCM and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, depended on the temperature of fresh water, as increased microbial numbers and viability was measured in both DDWSs when the temperature of fresh water was below the observed tipping point (15 °C for the HPC and 17 °C for the FCM and ATP measurements respectively and vice versa. A high level of similarity between water and biofilm communities, >98% and >70–94% respectively, indicates that the extension of the DDWS did not affect either the microbial quality of fresh drinking water or the biofilm composition.

  20. Metabolic fingerprinting of fresh lymphoma samples used to discriminate between follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Ignasi; Sanz, Carolina; Barbera, Angels; Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Garcia-Dorado, David; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert

    2009-11-01

    To investigate if proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling was able to differentiate follicular lymphoma (FL) from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to study which metabolites were responsible for the differences. High-resolution (1)H NMR spectra was obtained from fresh samples of lymph node biopsies obtained consecutively at one center (14 FL and 17 DLBCL). Spectra were processed using pattern-recognition methods. Discriminant models were able to differentiate between the two tumor types with a 86% sensitivity an