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Sample records for frequent slovenian germ-line

  1. Rapid detection of most frequent Slovenian germ-line mutations in BRCA1 gene using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.; Stegel, V.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Detection of inherited mutations in cancer susceptibility genes is of great importance in some types of cancers including the colorectal cancer (mutations of APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis - FAP, mutations in mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - HNPCC), malignant melanoma (mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 genes) and breast cancer (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes). Methods. This article presents the technical data for the detection of five mutations in BRCA1 gene in breast cancer patients and their relatives. The mutations - 1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 310G>A, 5382insC - were determined by the real-time PCR and the melting curve analysis. Results and conclusion. In comparison to direct sequencing, this method proved to be sensitive and rapid enough for the routine daily determination of mutations in DNA isolated from the peripheral blood. (author)

  2. Epigenetic reprogramming in the porcine germ line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Sara Maj Hyldig; Croxall, Nicola; Contreras, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epigenetic reprogramming is critical for genome regulation during germ line development. Genome-wide demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells (PGC) is a unique reprogramming event essential for erasing epigenetic memory and preventing the transmission of epimutations to the next...... an increased proportion of cells in G2. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic reprogramming occurs in pig migratory and gonadal PGC, and establishes the window of time for the occurrence of these events. Reprogramming of histone H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 detected between E15-E21 precedes the dynamic...... DNA demethylation at imprinted loci and DNA repeats between E22-E42. Our findings demonstrate that major epigenetic reprogramming in the pig germ line follows the overall dynamics shown in mice, suggesting that epigenetic reprogramming of germ cells is conserved in mammals. A better understanding...

  3. Germ line mechanics – and unfinished business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are usually made early in the development of an organism. These are the mother of all stem cells that are necessary for propagation of the species, yet use highly diverse mechanisms between organisms. How they are specified, and when and where they form, are central to developmental biology. Using diverse organisms to study this development is illuminating for understanding the mechanics these cells use in this essential function, and for identifying the breadth of evolutionary changes that have occurred between species. This essay emphasizes how echinoderms may contribute to the patch-work quilt of our understanding of germ line formation during embryogenesis. PMID:26970000

  4. Understanding Mammalian Germ Line Development with In Vitro Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Míguez-Forján, Jose M; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Medrano, Jose V

    2015-09-15

    Germ line development is crucial in organisms with sexual reproduction to complete their life cycle. In mammals, knowledge about germ line development is based mainly on the mouse model, in which genetic and epigenetic events are well described. However, little is known about how germ line development is orchestrated in humans, especially in the earliest stages. New findings derived from human in vitro models to obtain germ cells can shed light on these questions. This comprehensive review summarizes the current knowledge about mammalian germ line development, emphasizing the state of the art obtained from in vitro models for germ cell-like cell derivation. Current knowledge of the pluripotency cycle and germ cell specification has allowed different in vitro strategies to obtain germ cells with proven functionality in mouse models. Several reports during the last 10 years show that in vitro germ cell derivation with proven functionality to generate a healthy offspring is possible in mice. However, differences in the embryo development and pluripotency potential between human and mouse make it difficult to extrapolate these results. Further efforts on both human and mouse in vitro models to obtain germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may help to elucidate how human physiological events take place; therefore, therapeutic strategies can also be considered.

  5. Germ-line gene therapy and the medical imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Ronald; Davis, Lawrence H

    1992-06-01

    Somatic cell gene therapy has yielded promising results. If germ cell gene therapy can be developed, the promise is even greater: hundreds of genetic diseases might be virtually eliminated. But some claim the procedure is morally unacceptable. We thoroughly and sympathetically examine several possible reasons for this claim but find them inadequate. There is no moral reason, then, not to develop and employ germ-line gene therapy. Taking the offensive, we argue next that medicine has a prima facie moral obligation to do so.

  6. FLI-1 Flightless-1 and LET-60 Ras control germ line morphogenesis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dentler William L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the C. elegans germ line, syncytial germ line nuclei are arranged at the cortex of the germ line as they exit mitosis and enter meiosis, forming a nucleus-free core of germ line cytoplasm called the rachis. Molecular mechanisms of rachis formation and germ line organization are not well understood. Results Mutations in the fli-1 gene disrupt rachis organization without affecting meiotic differentiation, a phenotype in C. elegans referred to here as the germ line morphogenesis (Glm phenotype. In fli-1 mutants, chains of meiotic germ nuclei spanned the rachis and were partially enveloped by invaginations of germ line plasma membrane, similar to nuclei at the cortex. Extensions of the somatic sheath cells that surround the germ line protruded deep inside the rachis and were associated with displaced nuclei in fli-1 mutants. fli-1 encodes a molecule with leucine-rich repeats and gelsolin repeats similar to Drosophila flightless 1 and human Fliih, which have been shown to act as cytoplasmic actin regulators as well as nuclear transcriptional regulators. Mutations in let-60 Ras, previously implicated in germ line development, were found to cause the Glm phenotype. Constitutively-active LET-60 partially rescued the fli-1 Glm phenotype, suggesting that LET-60 Ras and FLI-1 might act together to control germ line morphogenesis. Conclusion FLI-1 controls germ line morphogenesis and rachis organization, a process about which little is known at the molecular level. The LET-60 Ras GTPase might act with FLI-1 to control germ line morphogenesis.

  7. Identification of genes expressed in the hermaphrodite germ line of C. elegans using SAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yongjun; Wong, Kim; Ehlers, Peter; Kohara, Yuji; Jones, Steven J; Marra, Marco A; Holt, Robert A; Moerman, Donald G; Hansen, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Background Germ cells must progress through elaborate developmental stages from an undifferentiated germ cell to a fully differentiated gamete. Some of these stages include exiting mitosis and entering meiosis, progressing through the various stages of meiotic prophase, adopting either a male (sperm) or female (oocyte) fate, and completing meiosis. Additionally, many of the factors needed to drive embryogenesis are synthesized in the germ line. To increase our understanding of the genes that might be necessary for the formation and function of the germ line, we have constructed a SAGE library from hand dissected C. elegans hermaphrodite gonads. Results We found that 4699 genes, roughly 21% of all known C. elegans genes, are expressed in the adult hermaphrodite germ line. Ribosomal genes are highly expressed in the germ line; roughly four fold above their expression levels in the soma. We further found that 1063 of the germline-expressed genes have enriched expression in the germ line as compared to the soma. A comparison of these 1063 germline-enriched genes with a similar list of genes prepared using microarrays revealed an overlap of 460 genes, mutually reinforcing the two lists. Additionally, we identified 603 germline-enriched genes, supported by in situ expression data, which were not previously identified. We also found >4 fold enrichment for RNA binding proteins in the germ line as compared to the soma. Conclusion Using multiple technological platforms provides a more complete picture of global gene expression patterns. Genes involved in RNA metabolism are expressed at a significantly higher level in the germ line than the soma, suggesting a stronger reliance on RNA metabolism for control of the expression of genes in the germ line. Additionally, the number and expression level of germ line expressed genes on the X chromosome is lower than expected based on a random distribution. PMID:19426519

  8. Identification of genes expressed in the hermaphrodite germ line of C. elegans using SAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cells must progress through elaborate developmental stages from an undifferentiated germ cell to a fully differentiated gamete. Some of these stages include exiting mitosis and entering meiosis, progressing through the various stages of meiotic prophase, adopting either a male (sperm or female (oocyte fate, and completing meiosis. Additionally, many of the factors needed to drive embryogenesis are synthesized in the germ line. To increase our understanding of the genes that might be necessary for the formation and function of the germ line, we have constructed a SAGE library from hand dissected C. elegans hermaphrodite gonads. Results We found that 4699 genes, roughly 21% of all known C. elegans genes, are expressed in the adult hermaphrodite germ line. Ribosomal genes are highly expressed in the germ line; roughly four fold above their expression levels in the soma. We further found that 1063 of the germline-expressed genes have enriched expression in the germ line as compared to the soma. A comparison of these 1063 germline-enriched genes with a similar list of genes prepared using microarrays revealed an overlap of 460 genes, mutually reinforcing the two lists. Additionally, we identified 603 germline-enriched genes, supported by in situ expression data, which were not previously identified. We also found >4 fold enrichment for RNA binding proteins in the germ line as compared to the soma. Conclusion Using multiple technological platforms provides a more complete picture of global gene expression patterns. Genes involved in RNA metabolism are expressed at a significantly higher level in the germ line than the soma, suggesting a stronger reliance on RNA metabolism for control of the expression of genes in the germ line. Additionally, the number and expression level of germ line expressed genes on the X chromosome is lower than expected based on a random distribution.

  9. The ethics of germ line gene manipulation--a five dimensional debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lucy

    2002-10-01

    Contributors to the debate surrounding the ethics of germ line gene manipulation have by and large concentrated their efforts on discussions of the potential risks that are associated with the use of this technology. Many international advisory committees have ruled out the acceptability of germ line gene manipulation at least for the time being. The purpose of this work is to generate much needed discussion on the many other ethical issues concerning the implementation of not only germ line gene manipulation but also other related biotechnologies. In this paper I systematically investigate and analyse the most salient issues put forward by proponents and opponents alike. I argue that if germ line manipulation proves to be a safe and effective procedure, then the principle of beneficence imposes on the medical profession a moral duty to pursue the technology.

  10. Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development, but do accumulate in the small micromere lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Voronina, Ekaterina; Stack, Christie; Aldrich, Maryanna; Cameron, Andrew R; Wessel, Gary M

    2006-12-01

    Two distinct modes of germ line determination are used throughout the animal kingdom: conditional-an inductive mechanism, and autonomous-an inheritance of maternal factors in early development. This study identifies homologs of germ line determinants in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to examine its mechanism of germ line determination. A list of conserved germ-line associated genes from diverse organisms was assembled to search the S. purpuratus genome for homologs, and the expression patterns of these genes were examined during embryogenesis by whole mount in situ RNA hybridization and QPCR. Of the 14 genes tested, all transcripts accumulate uniformly during oogenesis and Sp-pumilio, Sp-tudor, Sp-MSY, and Sp-CPEB1 transcripts are also uniformly distributed during embryonic development. Sp-nanos2, Sp-seawi, and Sp-ovo transcripts, however, are enriched in the vegetal plate of the mesenchyme blastula stage and Sp-vasa, Sp-nanos2, Sp-seawi, and Sp-SoxE transcripts are localized in small micromere descendents at the tip of the archenteron during gastrulation and are then enriched in the left coelomic pouch of larvae. The results of this screen suggest that sea urchins conditionally specify their germ line, and support the hypothesis that this mechanism is the basal mode of germ line determination amongst deuterostomes. Furthermore, accumulation of germ line determinants selectively in small micromere descendents supports the hypothesis that these cells contribute to the germ line.

  11. Spondyloepiphseal dysplasia congenita in siblings born to unaffected parents: ? germ line mosaicism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulla, W.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Germ line mosaicism has been used to explain the birth of more than one child affected with a dominantly inherited disorder born to unaffected parents. Furthermore, it has been confirmed clinically in families where recurrence in siblings was originally thought to be autosomal recessive, but were affected individuals have reproduced affected offspring. Firm evidence of germ line mosaicism using mutation analysis by molecular methods exists for some autosomal disorders. We present two siblings with spondyloepipheseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) born to unaffected parents. This suggests the presence of germ line mosaicism in this entity. Patient 1 was born at 32 weeks gestation to a G1P1 Puerto Rican mother. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. The neonate, a short-limbed dwarf, died at 15 hours of age from respiratory distress and a compromised thoracic cavity. Patient 2, the sibling of patient 1 was born at 37 weeks gestation after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of short-limbed dwarfism. The diagnosis of SEDC was made and, after review of the sibling`s postmortem X-rays, it was felt that she was similarly affected. The family history reveals no history of dwarfism or consanguinity. The SEDC is described as an autosomal dominant form of dwarfism with variable presentation including some cases that have been lethal in the neonatal period. SEDC is now believed to represent a family of collagen II mutations. Sporadic cases that have arisen in families with no history have been ascribed to new heterozygous mutations. Other families in which SEDC and SEMD recurred without a family history most likely represent germ line mosaicism. In these cases molecular studies should be pursued to document a collagen II mutation. We believe that germ line mosaicism is the most plausible explanation for recurrence in our family.

  12. Genetic modification of the human germ line: The reasons why this project has no future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Modification of the human germ line has remained a distant but valuable objective for most biologists since the emergence of genetics (and even before). To study the historical transformations of this project, I have selected three periods - the 1930s, at the pinnacle of eugenics, around 1974 when molecular biology triumphed, and today - and have adopted three criteria to estimate the feasibility of this project: the state of scientific knowledge, the existence of suitable tools, and societal demands. Although the long-awaited techniques to modify the germ line are now available, I will show that most of the expectations behind this project have disappeared, or are considered as being reachable by highly different strategies. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria as a model system for studying germ line formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Milani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI of mitochondria occurs when both mothers and fathers are capable of transmitting mitochondria to their offspring, in contrast to the typical Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI. DUI was found in some bivalve molluscs, in which two mitochondrial genomes are inherited, one through eggs, the other through sperm. During male embryo development, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in proximity of the first cleavage furrow and end up in the primordial germ cells, while they are dispersed in female embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MitoTracker, microtubule staining and transmission electron microscopy to examine the mechanisms of this unusual distribution of sperm mitochondria in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum. Our results suggest that in male embryos the midbody deriving from the mitotic spindle of the first division concurs in positioning the aggregate of sperm mitochondria. Furthermore, an immunocytochemical analysis showed that the germ line determinant Vasa segregates close to the first cleavage furrow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In DUI male embryos, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in a stable area on the animal-vegetal axis: in organisms with spiral segmentation this zone is not involved in cleavage, so the aggregation is maintained. Moreover, sperm mitochondria reach the same embryonic area in which also germ plasm is transferred. In 2-blastomere embryos, the segregation of sperm mitochondria in the same region with Vasa suggests their contribution in male germ line formation. In DUI male embryos, M-type mitochondria must be recognized by egg factors to be actively transferred in the germ line, where they become dominant replacing the Balbiani body mitochondria. The typical features of germ line assembly point to a common biological mechanism shared by DUI and SMI organisms. Although the molecular dynamics of the segregation of sperm mitochondria in DUI species are unknown

  14. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution. PMID:21637523

  15. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  16. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Proliferation of Endogenous Retroviruses in the Early Stages of a Host Germ Line Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire–dam–progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5′- and 3′-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5′-LTR sequence was identical to the 3′-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200–49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. PMID:25261407

  18. Transgenic mice produced by retroviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, Makoto; Brinster, Clayton J.; Orwig, Kyle E.; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Avarbock, Mary R.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2001-01-01

    Male germ-line stem cells are the only cell type in postnatal mammals that have the capability to self-renew and to contribute genes to the next generation. Genetic modification of these cells would provide an opportunity to study the biology of their complex self-renewal and differentiation processes, as well as enable the generation of transgenic animals in a wide range of species. Although retroviral vectors have been used as an efficient method to introduce genes into a variety of cell ty...

  19. Germ-line origins of mutation in families with hemophilia B: The sex ratio varies with the type of mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.; Bottema, C.D.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)); Cohen, M.P. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Sexauer, C.L. (Children' s Hospital, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Previous epidemiological and biochemical studies have generated conflicting estimates of the sex ratio of mutation. Direct genomic sequencing in combination with haplotype analysis extends previous analyses by allowing the precise mutation to be determined in a given family. From analysis of the factor IX gene of 260 consecutive families with hemophilia B, the authors report the germ-line origin of mutation in 25 families. When combined with 14 origins of mutation reported by others and with 4 origins previously reported by them, a total of 25 occur in the female germ line, and 18 occur in the male germ line. The excess of germ-line origins in females does not imply an overall excess mutation rate per base pair in the female germ line. Bayesian analysis of the data indicates that the sex ratio varies with the type of mutation. The aggregate of single-base substitutions shows a male predominance of germ-line mutations (P < .002). The maximum-likelihood estimate of the male predominance is 3.5-fold. Of the single-base substitutions, deletions display a sex ratio of unity. Analysis of the parental age at transmission of a new mutation suggests that germ-line mutations are associated with a small increase in parental age in females but little, if any, increase in males. Although direct genomic sequencing offers a general method for defining the origin of mutation in specific families, accurate estimates of the sex ratios of different mutational classes require large sample sizes and careful correction for multiple biases of ascertainment. The biases in the present data result in an underestimate of the enhancement of mutation in males. 62 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Mismatch repair deficiency does not enhance ENU mutagenesis in the zebrafish germ line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitsma, Harma; de Bruijn, Ewart; van de Belt, Jose; Nijman, Isaac J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-07-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents such as N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) are very potent mutagens. They act by transferring their alkyl group to DNA bases, which, upon mispairing during replication, can cause single base pair mutations in the next replication cycle. As DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins are involved in the recognition of alkylation damage, we hypothesized that ENU-induced mutation rates could be increased in a MMR-deficient background, which would be beneficial for mutagenesis approaches. We applied a standard ENU mutagenesis protocol to adult zebrafish deficient in the MMR gene msh6 and heterozygous controls to study the effect of MMR on ENU-induced DNA damage. Dose-dependent lethality was found to be similar for homozygous and heterozygous mutants, indicating that there is no difference in ENU resistance. Mutation discovery by high-throughput dideoxy resequencing of genomic targets in outcrossed progeny of the mutagenized fish did also not reveal any differences in germ line mutation frequency. These results may indicate that the maximum mutation load for zebrafish has been reached with the currently used, highly optimized ENU mutagenesis protocol. Alternatively, the MMR system in the zebrafish germ line may be saturated very rapidly, thereby having a limited effect on high-dose ENU mutagenesis.

  1. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, D; Li, F P; Strong, L C; Fraumeni, J F; Nelson, C E; Kim, D H; Kassel, J; Gryka, M A; Bischoff, F Z; Tainsky, M A

    1990-11-30

    Familial cancer syndromes have helped to define the role of tumor suppressor genes in the development of cancer. The dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is of particular interest because of the diversity of childhood and adult tumors that occur in affected individuals. The rarity and high mortality of LFS precluded formal linkage analysis. The alternative approach was to select the most plausible candidate gene. The tumor suppressor gene, p53, was studied because of previous indications that this gene is inactivated in the sporadic (nonfamilial) forms of most cancers that are associated with LFS. Germ line p53 mutations have been detected in all five LFS families analyzed. These mutations do not produce amounts of mutant p53 protein expected to exert a trans-dominant loss of function effect on wild-type p53 protein. The frequency of germ line p53 mutations can now be examined in additional families with LFS, and in other cancer patients and families with clinical features that might be attributed to the mutation.

  2. The Slovenian bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian bibliography is our national bibliography. We want to show the criteria of the selection of the particular materials, which are included in the Slovenian bibliography. We described the bibliographic description and classification of the records with UDC and the descriptors. The printing and the CD-ROM issues of the Slovenian bibli¬ography are described. We compared UNESCO guidelines for the national bibliography on the field of the selection, bibliographic description and classification, arrangement of the records and the useful of the national bibliography.

  3. Optimized gene editing technology for Drosophila melanogaster using germ line-specific Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xingjie; Sun, Jin; Housden, Benjamin E; Hu, Yanhui; Roesel, Charles; Lin, Shuailiang; Liu, Lu-Ping; Yang, Zhihao; Mao, Decai; Sun, Lingzhu; Wu, Qujie; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Xi, Jianzhong; Mohr, Stephanie E; Xu, Jiang; Perrimon, Norbert; Ni, Jian-Quan

    2013-11-19

    The ability to engineer genomes in a specific, systematic, and cost-effective way is critical for functional genomic studies. Recent advances using the CRISPR-associated single-guide RNA system (Cas9/sgRNA) illustrate the potential of this simple system for genome engineering in a number of organisms. Here we report an effective and inexpensive method for genome DNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster whereby plasmid DNAs encoding short sgRNAs under the control of the U6b promoter are injected into transgenic flies in which Cas9 is specifically expressed in the germ line via the nanos promoter. We evaluate the off-targets associated with the method and establish a Web-based resource, along with a searchable, genome-wide database of predicted sgRNAs appropriate for genome engineering in flies. Finally, we discuss the advantages of our method in comparison with other recently published approaches.

  4. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ezra Hawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  5. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-07-15

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-line mutant proteins observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, second primary neoplasms, or familial breast cancer to block the growth of malignant cells and compared the structural properties of the mutant proteins to that of the wild-type protein. Six of seven missense mutations disrupted the growth inhibitory properties and structure of the wild-type protein. One germ-line mutation retained the features of the wild-type p53. Genetic analysis of the breast cancer family in which this mutation was observed indicated that this germ-line mutation was not associated with the development of cancer. These results demonstrate that germ-line p53 mutations observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and with second malignancies have inactivated the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The inability of the germ-line p53 mutants to block the growth of malignant cells can explain why patients with these germ-line mutations have an increased risk for cancer. The observation of a functionally silent germ-line mutation indicates that, before associating a germ-line tumor suppressor gene mutation with cancer risk, it is prudent to consider its functional significance.

  6. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-line mutant proteins observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, second primary neoplasms, or familial breast cancer to block the growth of malignant cells and compared the structural properties of the mutant proteins to that of the wild-type protein. Six of seven missense mutations disrupted the growth inhibitory properties and structure of the wild-type protein. One germ-line mutation retained the features of the wild-type p53. Genetic analysis of the breast cancer family in which this mutation was observed indicated that this germ-line mutation was not associated with the development of cancer. These results demonstrate that germ-line p53 mutations observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and with second malignancies have inactivated the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The inability of the germ-line p53 mutants to block the growth of malignant cells can explain why patients with these germ-line mutations have an increased risk for cancer. The observation of a functionally silent germ-line mutation indicates that, before associating a germ-line tumor suppressor gene mutation with cancer risk, it is prudent to consider its functional significance. Images PMID:1631137

  7. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Skinner

    Full Text Available A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren. The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13 and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16. A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided.

  8. Germ line transmission of a yeast artificial chromosome spanning the murine [alpha][sub 1](I) collagen locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W.M.; Dausman, J.; Beard, C.; Jaenisch, R. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Johnson, C.; Lawrence, J.B. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States))

    1993-03-26

    Molecular complementation of mutant phenotypes by transgenic technology is a potentially important tool for gene identification. A technology was developed to allow the transfer of a physically intact yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) into the germ line of the mouse. A purified 150-kilobase YAC encompassing the murine gene Col1a1 was efficiently introduced into embryonic stem (ES) cells via lipofection. Chimeric founder mice were derived from two transfected ES cell clones. These chimeras transmitted the full length transgene through the germ line, generating two transgenic mouse strains. Transgene expression was visualized as nascent transcripts in interphase nuclei and quantitated by ribonuclease protection analysis. Both assays indicated that the transgene was expressed at levels comparable to the endogenous collagen gene. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective ...... of paternal germ-line repeat sequence instability of the expanded SCA2 locus.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.231....

  10. The DEAD-box protein MEL-46 is required in the germ line of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasaki, Ryuji; Puoti, Alessandro; Streit, Adrian

    2009-06-17

    In the hermaphrodite of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the first germ cells differentiate as sperm. Later the germ line switches to the production of oocytes. This process requires the activity of a genetic regulatory network that includes among others the fem, fog and mog genes. The function of some of these genes is germline specific while others also act in somatic tissues. DEAD box proteins have been shown to be involved in the control of gene expression at different steps such as transcription and pre-mRNA processing. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene mel-46 (maternal effect lethal) encodes a DEAD box protein that is related to the mammalian DDX20/Gemin3/DP103 genes. mel-46 is expressed throughout development and mutations in mel-46 display defects at multiple developmental stages. Here we focus on the role of mel-46 in the hermaphrodite germ line. mel-46(yt5) mutant hermaphrodites are partially penetrant sterile and fully penetrant maternal effect lethal. The germ line of mutants shows variable defects in oogenesis. Further, mel-46(yt5) suppresses the complete feminization caused by mutations in fog-2 and fem-3, two genes that are at the top and the center, respectively, of the genetic germline sex determining cascade, but not fog-1 that is at the bottom of this cascade. The C. elegans gene mel-46 encodes a DEAD box protein that is required maternally for early embryogenesis and zygotically for postembryonic development. In the germ line, it is required for proper oogenesis. Although it interacts genetically with genes of the germline sex determination machinery its primary function appears to be in oocyte differentiation rather than sex determination.

  11. The clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome due to germ-line PMS2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Leigha; Clendenning, Mark; Sotamaa, Kaisa; Hampel, Heather; Green, Jane; Potter, John D; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Lindor, Noralane M; Young, Joanne; Winship, Ingrid; Dowty, James G; White, Darren M; Hopper, John L; Baglietto, Laura; Jenkins, Mark A; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2008-08-01

    Although the clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) has been well described, little is known about disease in PMS2 mutation carriers. Now that mutation detection methods can discern mutations in PMS2 from mutations in its pseudogenes, more mutation carriers have been identified. Information about the clinical significance of PMS2 mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling. Here, we report the clinical characteristics of a large series of PMS2 mutation carriers. We performed PMS2 mutation analysis using long-range polymerase chain reaction and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for 99 probands diagnosed with Lynch syndrome-associated tumors showing isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. Penetrance was calculated using a modified segregation analysis adjusting for ascertainment. Germ-line PMS2 mutations were detected in 62% of probands (n = 55 monoallelic; 6 biallelic). Among families with monoallelic PMS2 mutations, 65.5% met revised Bethesda guidelines. Compared with the general population, in mutation carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer was 5.2-fold higher, and the incidence of endometrial cancer was 7.5-fold higher. In North America, this translates to a cumulative cancer risk to age 70 years of 15%-20% for colorectal cancer, 15% for endometrial cancer, and 25%-32% for any Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. No elevated risk for non-Lynch syndrome-associated cancers was observed. PMS2 mutations contribute significantly to Lynch syndrome, but the penetrance for monoallelic mutation carriers appears to be lower than that for the other mismatch repair genes. Modified counseling and cancer surveillance guidelines for PMS2 mutation carriers are proposed.

  12. A germ cell determinant reveals parallel pathways for germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainpal, Rana; Nance, Jeremy; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2015-10-15

    Despite the central importance of germ cells for transmission of genetic material, our understanding of the molecular programs that control primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and differentiation are limited. Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. xnd-1 mutant embryos display a novel 'one PGC' phenotype as a result of G2 cell cycle arrest of the P4 blastomere. Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. Maternal XND-1 proteins are found in the P4 lineage and are exclusively localized to the nucleus in PGCs, Z2 and Z3. Zygotic XND-1 turns on shortly thereafter, at the ∼300-cell stage, making XND-1 the earliest zygotically expressed gene in worm PGCs. Strikingly, a subset of xnd-1 mutants lack germ cells, a phenotype shared with nos-2, a member of the conserved Nanos family of germline determinants. We generated a nos-2 null allele and show that nos-2; xnd-1 double mutants display synthetic sterility. Further removal of nos-1 leads to almost complete sterility, with the vast majority of animals without germ cells. Sterility in xnd-1 mutants is correlated with an increase in transcriptional activation-associated histone modification and aberrant expression of somatic transgenes. Together, these data strongly suggest that xnd-1 defines a new branch for PGC development that functions redundantly with nos-2 and nos-1 to promote germline fates by maintaining transcriptional quiescence and regulating germ cell proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. A landscape of germ line mutations in a cohort of inherited bone marrow failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluteau, Olivier; Sebert, Marie; Leblanc, Thierry; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Quentin, Samuel; Lainey, Elodie; Hernandez, Lucie; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Lengline, Etienne; Itzykson, Raphael; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Boissel, Nicolas; Vasquez, Nadia; Da Costa, Mélanie; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Cuccuini, Wendy; Raimbault, Anna; De Jaegere, Louis; Adès, Lionel; Fenaux, Pierre; Maury, Sébastien; Schmitt, Claudine; Muller, Marc; Domenech, Carine; Blin, Nicolas; Bruno, Bénédicte; Pellier, Isabelle; Hunault, Mathilde; Blanche, Stéphane; Petit, Arnaud; Leverger, Guy; Michel, Gérard; Bertrand, Yves; Baruchel, André; Socié, Gérard; Soulier, Jean

    2018-02-15

    Bone marrow (BM) failure (BMF) in children and young adults is often suspected to be inherited, but in many cases diagnosis remains uncertain. We studied a cohort of 179 patients (from 173 families) with BMF of suspected inherited origin but unresolved diagnosis after medical evaluation and Fanconi anemia exclusion. All patients had cytopenias, and 12.0% presented ≥5% BM blast cells. Median age at genetic evaluation was 11 years; 20.7% of patients were aged ≤2 years and 36.9% were ≥18 years. We analyzed genomic DNA from skin fibroblasts using whole-exome sequencing, and were able to assign a causal or likely causal germ line mutation in 86 patients (48.0%), involving a total of 28 genes. These included genes in familial hematopoietic disorders ( GATA2 , RUNX1 ), telomeropathies ( TERC , TERT , RTEL1 ), ribosome disorders ( SBDS , DNAJC21 , RPL5 ), and DNA repair deficiency ( LIG4 ). Many patients had an atypical presentation, and the mutated gene was often not clinically suspected. We also found mutations in genes seldom reported in inherited BMF (IBMF), such as SAMD9 and SAMD9L (N = 16 of the 86 patients, 18.6%), MECOM/EVI1 (N = 6, 7.0%), and ERCC6L2 (N = 7, 8.1%), each of which was associated with a distinct natural history; SAMD9 and SAMD9L patients often experienced transient aplasia and monosomy 7, whereas MECOM patients presented early-onset severe aplastic anemia, and ERCC6L2 patients, mild pancytopenia with myelodysplasia. This study broadens the molecular and clinical portrait of IBMF syndromes and sheds light on newly recognized disease entities. Using a high-throughput sequencing screen to implement precision medicine at diagnosis can improve patient management and family counseling. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-...

  15. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  16. Germ-line PHD1 and PHD2 mutations detected in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma-polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunzhang; Zhuang, Zhengping; Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Shankavaram, Uma; Sun, Michael G; Bullova, Petra; Zhu, Roland; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Kourlas, Peter J; Merino, Maria; Kebebew, Electron; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated genetic/pathogenetic factors associated with a new clinical entity in patients presenting with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) and polycythemia. Two patients without hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A) mutations, who presented with similar clinical manifestations, were analyzed for other gene mutations, including prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations. We have found for the first time a germ-line mutation in PHD1 in one patient and a novel germ-line PHD2 mutation in a second patient. Both mutants exhibited reduced protein stability with substantial quantitative protein loss and thus compromised catalytic activities. Due to the unique association of patients' polycythemia with borderline or mildly elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, we also performed an in vitro sensitivity assay of erythroid progenitors to EPO and for EPO receptor (EPOR) expression. The results show inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO in these patients, indicating increased EPOR expression/activity. In addition, the present study indicates that HIF dysregulation due to PHD mutations plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and associated polycythemia. The PHD1 mutation appears to be a new member contributing to the genetic landscape of this novel clinical entity. Our results support the existence of a specific PHD1- and PHD2-associated PHEO/PGL-polycythemia disorder. • A novel germ-l i n e PHD1 mutation causing heochromocytoma/paraganglioma and polycythemia. • Increased EPOR activity and inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO.

  17. Radiation-induced germ-line mutations detected by a direct comparison of parents and children DNA sequences containing SNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, M.; Hongo, E.; Higashi, T.; Wu, J.; Matsumoto, I.; Okamoto, M.; Kawano, A.; Tsuji, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Germ-line mutation is detected in mice but not in humans. To estimate genetic risk of humans, a new approach to extrapolate from animal data to humans or to directly detect radiation-induced mutations in man is expected. We have developed a new method to detect germ-line mutations by directly comparing DNA sequences of parents and children. The nucleotide sequences among mouse strains are almost identical except SNP markers that are detected at 1/1000 frequency. When gamma-irradiated male mice are mated with female mice, heterogeneous nucleotide sequences induced in children DNA are a candidate of mutation, whose assignment can be done by SNP analysis. This system can easily detect all types of mutations such as transition, transversion, frameshift and deletion induced by radiation and can be applied to humans having genetically heterogeneous nucleotide sequences and many SNP markers. C3H male mice of 8 weeks of gestation were irradiated with gamma rays of 3 and 1 Gy and after 3 weeks, they were mated with the same aged C57BL female mice. After 3 weeks breeding, DNA was extracted from parents and children mice. The nucleotide sequences of 150 STS markers containing 300-900 bp and SNPs of parents and children DNA were determined by a direct sequencing; amplification of STS markers by Taq DNA polymerase, purification of PCR products, and DNA sequencing with a dye-terminator method. At each radiation dose, a total amount of 5 Mb DNA sequences were examined to detect radiation-induced mutations. We could find 6 deletions in 3 Gy irradiated mice but not in 1 Gy and control mice. The mutation frequency was about 4.0 x 10 -7 /bp/ Gy or 1.6 x 10 -4 /locus/Gy, and suggested the non-linear increase of mutation rate with dose

  18. Analysis of the cytoskeleton organization and its possible functions in male earthworm germ-line cysts equipped with a cytophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małota, Karol; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We studied the organization of F-actin and the microtubular cytoskeleton in male germ-line cysts in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy along with both chemically fixed tissue and life cell imaging. Additionally, in order to follow the functioning of the cytoskeleton, we incubated the cysts in colchicine, nocodazole, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. The male germ-line cells of D. veneta are interconnected via stable intercellular bridges (IB), and form syncytial cysts. Each germ cell has only one IB that connects it to the anuclear central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. During the studies, we analyzed the cytoskeleton in spermatogonial, spermatocytic and spermatid cysts. F-actin was detected in the cortical cytoplasm and forms distinct rings in the IBs. The arrangement of the microtubules changed dynamically during spermatogenesis. The microtubules are distributed evenly in whole spermatogonial and spermatocytic cysts; however, they primarily accumulate within the IBs in spermatogonia. In early spermatids, microtubules pass through the IBs and are present in whole cysts. During spermatid elongation, the microtubules form a manchette while they are absent in the cytophore and in the IBs. Use of cytoskeletal drugs did not alter the general morphology of the cysts. Detectable effects-the occurrence of nuclei in the late spermatids and manchette fragments in the cytophore-were observed only after incubation in nocodazole. Our results suggest that the microtubules are responsible for cytoplasmic/organelle transfer between the germ cells and the cytophore during spermatogenesis and for the positioning of the spermatid nuclei.

  19. Lexical Sentiment Analysis in Slovenian Texts

    OpenAIRE

    VOLČANŠEK, MATEJA

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to create a sentiment dictionary for the Slovenian language which can be used in lexical methods for automatic sentiment analysis. We start from a sentiment dictionary for the English language, translate it semi-automatically to Slovenian and curate its content. We test the performance of using the translated dictionary for automated lexical sentiment analysis on a corpus of 5000 manually annotated Slovenian news articles gathered from the main Slovenian news por...

  20. Effects of chemical and physical agents on recombination events in cells of the germ line of male and female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würgler, F E

    1991-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can induce mutations as well as recombination in the genetic material. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was one of the first assay systems to test physical and chemical agents for recombinogenic effects. Such effects can be observed in cells of the germ line as well as in somatic cells. At present information is available on 54 agents, among them 48 chemicals that have been tested in cells of the germ line of males and/or females. Effects on meiotic recombination in female germ cells cannot simply be classified as positive or negative since for a number of agents, depending on the chromosome region studied, recombination frequencies may be increased, unaffected or decreased. The male germ line of D. melanogaster represents a unique situation because meiotic recombination does not occur. Among 25 agents tested in male germ cells 24 did induce male recombination, among them alkylating, intercalating and cross-linking agents, direct-acting ones as well as compounds needing metabolic activation. With several compounds the frequency of induced recombination is highest in the heterochromatic regions near the centromeres. In brood pattern analyses, e.g., after exposure of adult males to ionizing radiation, the first appearance of crossover progeny is indicative of the sampling of exposed spermatocytes. In premeiotic cells of the male and the female germ line mitotic recombination can occur. Upon clonal expansion of the recombinant cells, clusters of identical crossovers can be observed.

  1. Adapting the Freiburg monosyllabic word test for Slovenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Marvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech audiometry is one of the standard methods used to diagnose the type of hearing loss and to assess the communication function of the patient by determining the level of the patient’s ability to understand and repeat words presented to him or her in a hearing test. For this purpose, the Slovenian adaptation of the German tests developed by Hahlbrock (1953, 1960 – the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test and the Freiburg Number Test – are used in Slovenia (adapted in 1968 by Pompe. In this paper we focus on the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test for Slovenian, which has been criticized by patients as well as in the literature for the unequal difficulty and frequency of the words, with many of these being extremely rare or even obsolete. As part of the patient’s communication function is retrieving the meaning of individual words by guessing, the less frequent and consequently less familiar words do not contribute to reliable testing results. We therefore adapt the test by identifying and removing such words and supplement them with phonetically similar words to preserve the phonetic balance of the list. The words used for replacement are extracted from the written corpus of Slovenian Gigafida and the spoken corpus of Slovenian GOS, while the optimal combinations of words are established by using computational algorithms.

  2. Slovenian Mediterrananean and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Bricelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional approach based on physical, social and economic characteristics of particular landscape what is basic input for sustainable development. The case Slovenian Mediterranean and sustainable development demonstrate public participation in the process of preparation of coastal management plan. For this process new forms of knowledge transfer to relevant public is needed to get their active position about different.

  3. Germ line transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, mediated by transpositional insertion of a piggyBac vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, N F; Hua-Van, A; Li, X; Nolen, B M; Fraser, M J

    2002-04-01

    Mosquito-vectored diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever continue to have a substantial impact on human populations world-wide. Novel strategies for control of these mosquito vectored diseases can arise through the development of reliable systems for genetic manipulation of the insect vector. A piggyBac vector marked with the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar (cn) gene was used to transform the white-eyed khw strain of Aedes aegypti. Microinjection of preblastoderm embryos resulted in four families of cinnabar transformed insects. An overall transformation frequency of 4%, with a range of 0% to as high as 13% for individual experiments, was achieved when using a heat-shock induced transposase providing helper plasmid. Southern hybridizations indicated multiple insertion events in three of four transgenic lines, while the presence of duplicated target TTAA sites at either ends of individual insertions confirmed characteristic piggyBac transposition events in these three transgenic lines. The transgenic phenotype has remained stable for more than twenty generations. The transformations effected using the piggyBac element establish the potential of this element as a germ-line transformation vector for Aedine mosquitoes.

  4. Differentiation in Stem Cell Lineages and in Life: Explorations in the Male Germ Line Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    I have been privileged to work on cellular differentiation during a great surge of discovery that has revealed the molecular mechanisms and genetic regulatory circuitry that control embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance and repair. Studying the regulation of proliferation and differentiation in the male germ line stem cell lineage has allowed us investigate how the developmental program imposes layers of additional controls on fundamental cellular processes like cell cycle progression and gene expression to give rise to the huge variety of specialized cell types in our bodies. We are beginning to understand how local signals from somatic support cells specify self-renewal versus differentiation in the stem cell niche at the apical tip of the testis. We are discovering the molecular events that block cell proliferation and initiate terminal differentiation at the switch from mitosis to meiosis-a signature event of the germ cell program. Our work is beginning to reveal how the developmental program that sets up the dramatic new cell type-specific transcription program that prepares germ cells for meiotic division and spermatid differentiation is turned on when cells become spermatocytes. I have had the privilege of working with incredible students, postdocs, and colleagues who have discovered, brainstormed, challenged, and refined our science and our ideas of how developmental pathways and cellular mechanisms work together to drive differentiation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of oogenesis-specific genes transcribed in the germ-line of Calliphora erythrocephala and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA from early or mid-stage ovarian follicles of C. erythrocephala was used to generate radiolabelled oogenesis-specific cDNA probes for screening the phage libraries. A cDNA probe made from mid-stage embryo poly(A) + RNA was used as the differential screening probe. Thus plaques hybridizing to the two oogenesis-specific probes but not the mid-stage embryo probe were selected as potentially containing oogenesis-specific genes. Two further rounds of screening were used to eliminate false positives and, after plaque purification, restriction digests of the remaining clones were screened by Southern blot hybridization to identify DNA fragments transcribed in an oogenesis-specific manner. In situ hybridization to sections of ovarian follicles has been used to determine the cell types within the follicles in which the various genes are expressed. Radiolabelled RNA probes for four of the C. erythrocephala oogenesis-specific clones and the two D. melanogaster clones have been hybridized to ovarian follicles. Further studies have been concentrated on the two germ-line transcribed, oogenesis-specific clones isolated from the D. melanogaster clone library. Detailed genetic mapping of the DA clone and of these mutations was performed to determine which mutations might represent the DA gene. cDNA clones have been isolated for the transcribed region of clone DA and have been used to further define the transcription unit from this region of the D. melanogaster genome

  6. MSH6 and PMS2 germ-line pathogenic variants implicated in Lynch syndrome are associated with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maegan E; Jackson, Sarah A; Susswein, Lisa R; Zeinomar, Nur; Ma, Xinran; Marshall, Megan L; Stettner, Amy R; Milewski, Becky; Xu, Zhixiong; Solomon, Benjamin D; Terry, Mary Beth; Hruska, Kathleen S; Klein, Rachel T; Chung, Wendy K

    2018-01-18

    PurposeAn association of Lynch syndrome (LS) with breast cancer has been long suspected; however, there have been insufficient data to address this question for each of the LS genes individually.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of personal and family history in 423 women with pathogenic or likely pathogenic germ-line variants in MLH1 (N = 65), MSH2 (N = 94), MSH6 (N = 140), or PMS2 (N = 124) identified via clinical multigene hereditary cancer testing. Standard incidence ratios (SIRs) of breast cancer were calculated by comparing breast cancer frequencies in our study population with those in the general population (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 data).ResultsWhen evaluating by gene, the age-standardized breast cancer risks for MSH6 (SIR = 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56-2.86) and PMS2 (SIR = 2.92; 95% CI, 2.17-3.92) were associated with a statistically significant risk for breast cancer whereas no association was observed for MLH1 (SIR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83) or MSH2 (SIR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.72-2.06).ConclusionOur data demonstrate that two LS genes, MSH6 and PMS2, are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and should be considered when ordering genetic testing for individuals who have a personal and/or family history of breast cancer.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.254.

  7. Melatonin receptor genes (mel-1a, mel-1b, mel-1c) are differentially expressed in the avian germ line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takaharu; Stepińska, Urszula; Kuwana, Takashi; Olszańska, Bozenna

    2008-09-01

    The presence of melatonin receptor transcripts (mel-1a, mel-1b and mel-1c) was investigated in primordial germ cells (PGCs), immature and mature oocytes, and sperm of Japanese quail by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mel-1a transcript was detected in as few as in a thousand PGCs. Significant differences in the expression of melatonin receptor genes were found in differentiating germ cells: in PGCs only the mel-1a receptor was expressed, in blastoderms and immature oocytes all three transcripts (mel-1a, mel-1b, mel-1c) were present, while in mature ovulated oocytes the predominant transcript was mel-1c (with sporadic occurrence of mel-1a and mel-1b). In sperm, mel-1a and mel-1c were present but mel-1b was absent. This indicates that the expression of melatonin receptor genes changes throughout the differentiation of PGCs into adult gametes: during oocyte differentiation two additional transcripts, mel-1b and mel-1c, are synthesized in addition to mel-1a, but at oocyte maturation, mel-1a and mel-1b are degraded and only mel-1c remains. During male line (spermatozoa) differentiation mel-1c is transcribed in addition to mel-1a, with mel-1b being completely absent. Since melatonin and the activities of enzymes participating in melatonin synthesis are present in the avian yolk, it is reasonable to suggest a role for this molecule in early avian development and germ line differentiation. We propose that melatonin may act as a signaling molecule regulating some differentiation processes (e.g., cell proliferation, migration, etc.) before the formation of neural and hormonal systems.

  8. The First Steps to a New Comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian Dictionary: The Analysis of Relevant Bilingual Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Bálint Čeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of existing bilingual Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which was made as part of the project aiming to design a concept for a new comprehensive Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary. First, a short historical overview of Slovenian-Hungarian lexicography is provided, including first collections of dialect vocabulary, glossaries, and collections and dictionaries of idioms. Then, an overview of Slovenian-Hungarian and Hungarian-Slovenian dictionaries is made, the first one being published in 1961. The paper then focuses on a comparison on three Slovenian-Hungarian dictionaries, which are currently used by majority of users, namely Slovenian-Hungarian part of the dictionary by Elizabeta Bernjak (1995, Slovenian-Hungarian dictionary by Jože Hradil (1996, and Slovenian-Hungarian part of the Hradil’s bidirectional dictionary. The dictionaries are compared in terms of size, headword list, coverage, headword presentation, grammar information, as well as in terms of other elements of dictionary microstructure such as translations and examples. The discussion section includes an analysis of the coverage offered by the dictionaries of the vocabulary compilled by teachers at bilingual schools in Prekmurje. The results indicate that the coverage of various levels of vocabulary, frequent or rare, is rather poor; as dictionaries are medium-sized and outdated, this is to be expected, however as the analysis shows, some basic concepts are also often not covered (e.g. research, death, allergy. The second part of the discussion is dedicated to the presentation of selected examples of good practice in bilingual lexicography, such as Comprehensive English-Slovenian dictionary Oxford-DZS as the first bilingual dictionary in Slovenia to use the corpus-based approach, as well as offer much more contextual information on the headwords. Also presented are English-Spanish online dictionaries by Oxford University Press and Collins, the focus

  9. Towards gene banking amphibian maternal germ lines: short-term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance and cryopreservation of embryonic cells of the frog, Limnodynastes peronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Bianca; Clulow, Simon; Mahony, Michael J; Clulow, John

    2013-01-01

    Gene banking is arguably the best method available to prevent the loss of genetic diversity caused by declines in wild populations, when the causes of decline cannot be halted or reversed. For one of the most impacted vertebrate groups, the amphibians, gene banking technologies have advanced considerably, and gametes from the male line can be banked successfully for many species. However, cryopreserving the female germ line remains challenging, with attempts at cryopreserving oocytes unsuccessful due to their large size and yolk content. One possible solution is to target cryopreservation of early embryos that contain the maternal germ line, but consist of smaller cells. Here, we investigate the short term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance, and cryopreservation of dissociated early embryonic cells from gastrulae and neurulae of the Striped Marsh Frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Embryos were dissociated and cells were incubated for up to 24 hours in various media. Viability of both gastrula and neurula cells remained high (means up to 40-60%) over 24 hours of incubation in all media, although viability was maintained at a higher level in Ca(2+)-free Simplified Amphibian Ringer; low speed centrifugation did not reduce cell viability. Tolerance of dissociated embryonic cells was tested for two cryoprotectants, glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide; dissociated cells of both gastrulae and neurulae were highly tolerant to both-indeed, cell viability over 24 hours was higher in media containing low-to-medium concentrations than in equivalent cryoprotectant-free media. Viability over 24 hours was lower in concentrations of cryoprotectant higher than 10%. Live cells were recovered following cryopreservation of both gastrula and neurula cells, but only at low rates. Optimal cryodiluents were identified for gastrula and neurula cells. This is the first report of a slow cooling protocol for cryopreservation of amphibian embryonic cells, and sets future research directions for

  10. Towards gene banking amphibian maternal germ lines: short-term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance and cryopreservation of embryonic cells of the frog, Limnodynastes peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Lawson

    Full Text Available Gene banking is arguably the best method available to prevent the loss of genetic diversity caused by declines in wild populations, when the causes of decline cannot be halted or reversed. For one of the most impacted vertebrate groups, the amphibians, gene banking technologies have advanced considerably, and gametes from the male line can be banked successfully for many species. However, cryopreserving the female germ line remains challenging, with attempts at cryopreserving oocytes unsuccessful due to their large size and yolk content. One possible solution is to target cryopreservation of early embryos that contain the maternal germ line, but consist of smaller cells. Here, we investigate the short term incubation, cryoprotectant tolerance, and cryopreservation of dissociated early embryonic cells from gastrulae and neurulae of the Striped Marsh Frog, Limnodynastes peronii. Embryos were dissociated and cells were incubated for up to 24 hours in various media. Viability of both gastrula and neurula cells remained high (means up to 40-60% over 24 hours of incubation in all media, although viability was maintained at a higher level in Ca(2+-free Simplified Amphibian Ringer; low speed centrifugation did not reduce cell viability. Tolerance of dissociated embryonic cells was tested for two cryoprotectants, glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide; dissociated cells of both gastrulae and neurulae were highly tolerant to both-indeed, cell viability over 24 hours was higher in media containing low-to-medium concentrations than in equivalent cryoprotectant-free media. Viability over 24 hours was lower in concentrations of cryoprotectant higher than 10%. Live cells were recovered following cryopreservation of both gastrula and neurula cells, but only at low rates. Optimal cryodiluents were identified for gastrula and neurula cells. This is the first report of a slow cooling protocol for cryopreservation of amphibian embryonic cells, and sets future research

  11. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  12. A novel germ-line point mutation in RET exon 8 (Gly(533)Cys) in a large kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Adriana Madeira Alvares da [UNIFESP; Maciel, Rui Monteiro de Barros [UNIFESP; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus Régios [UNIFESP; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada de [UNIFESP; De Carvalho, Marcos B.; Cerutti, Janete Maria [UNIFESP

    2003-01-01

    Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma is related to germ-line mutations in the RET oncogene, mainly in cysteine codon 10 or 11, whereas noncysteine mutations in codons 13 - 15 are rare. We now report a new missense point mutation in exon 8 of the RET gene (1597G-->T) corresponding to a Gly(533)Cys substitution in the cystein-rich domain of RET protein in 76 patients from a 6-generation Brazilian family with 229 subjects, with ascendants from Spain. It is likely that the mutation causes familia...

  13. Slovenian Public Libraries in 2010

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    Gorazd Vodeb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:  The article presents the 2010 Slovenian public library statistics. Performance indicators are compared to library regulations and standards, and to the goals of the Resolution on the 2008-2011 National Programme for Culture. Opening time, library space and equipment, the size of collections and the number of additions are surveyed. Staff structure and financial data are presented as well as the data about visitors, registered members, loans and other library services.   Methodology/approach:  Data collected via the annual statistical survey of Slovenian public libraries are used. They were collected and published by the Library System Development Centre at the National & University Library.   Results:  Data show the stability of the public library income. The level of resources has been generally increased. The number of loans and visits are still rising whereas the number of registered users is slightly dropping. The extent of digitalisation of library materials has been significantly increased.       Research limitation:  The average value of performance indicators is presented.      Originality/practical implications:  Results can be used for monitoring public library development.

  14. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members of the Internatio......PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members...... of the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, requesting information regarding patients with HNPCC-associated SBC and germ line mismatch repair gene mutations. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 85 HNPCC patients with identified mismatch repair gene mutations and SBCs. SBC was the first...... HNPCC-associated malignancy in 14 of 41 (34.1%) patients for whom a personal history of HNPCC-associated cancers was available. The study population harbored 69 different germ line mismatch repair gene mutations, including 31 mutations in MLH1, 34 in MSH2, 3 in MSH6, and 1 in PMS2. We compared...

  15. Names in Literary Translation: A Case Study of English Versions of the Slovenian Tale Martin Krpan

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    Darja Mazi – Leskovar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three English translations of the Slovenian tale Martin Krpan z Vrha (1858 by Fran Levstik and focuses on the translation of personal and geographical names with the aim of examining the application of domestication and foreignization translation strategies. The comparative analysis of the English names aims to find out if the cultural gap between the source and the target cultures has been diminishing over the years. The study also highlights the role of the chronotope that gives the work, one of the most frequently translated Slovenian texts, a distinctive cultural character.

  16. Umbilical Cord Management and Stump Care in Normal Childbirth in Slovenian and Croatian Maternity Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Ana Polona; Petročnik, Petra; Skubic, Metka; Škodič Zakšek, Teja; Jug Došler, Anita

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to investigate first-care procedures for the newborn's umbilical cord at maternity hospitals in Slovenia and Croatia. The study was based on an empirical survey research approach and quantitative research paradigms and included all Slovenian (n=14) and all Croatian (n=35) maternity hospitals. Leaders of midwifery team of 14 Slovenian and 35 Croatian labor wards were invited to participate. The study was conducted in 2013, with 67% of Slovenian and 66% of Croatian maternity hospitals having responded. A causal and non-experimental method of empirical research was used. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used on data analysis. The independence hypothesis was tested with the χ2-test or Kullback 2Î-test. A vast ma-jority of study wards employed delayed umbilical cord clamping, i.e. clamping the cord after pulsa-tion had ceased. Only 10% of Slovenian in comparison with 36.4% of Croatian maternity hospitals practiced dry cord care. Others applied disinfectant on the cord, in Slovenia most frequently 6% po-tassium permanganate, and in Croatia a combination of octenidine and phenoxyethanol. Most Croa-tian -maternity wards (95.7%) still covered the stump, while it was not regular practice in Slovenia. The authors estimate that the prevailing Slovenian and Croatian practices in regard to cord clamping are in accordance with the evidence, while improvements could be made regarding stump care, since dry cord care is the recommended method.

  17. Slovenian and Spanish electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregar, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish electricity market has served as a basic model in the construction of the electricity market in Slovenia. However, in the final phase of its development additional solutions were adopted from other European and worldwide electricity markets. The electricity market thus obtained is in some aspects more complex and in others simpler with regard to the original model. This article describes two of the new solutions on the Slovenian electricity market: the introduction of numerous standardized electric energy products (Band, Peak, Off-peak, Hourly power etc.) to be traded on completely separate markets, and the introduction of continuous, real-time type trading on all of them but the hourly market.(author)

  18. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOVENIAN COMPANIES

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    Andrej Kohont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relationship between the company and the leaders. We are interested what is characteristic of leadership in the best Slovenian companies. We used standardised employee questionnaire and data gathered in the Golden thread project. We observe the situation in these companies in the period between 2007 and 2014 to find out if there are any significant changes in leadership developments. Special attention in leadership observation is devoted to 1. The fundamental relationship between the company and the leaders, 2. The role and quality of leaders work, 3. Organizational culture, climate and relationships, 4. Entrepreneurship and innovation, 5. The quality of the working environment, 6. The personal growth and development and 7. Emotional commitment. The analysis represents an insight into current leadership situation and shows that the recent developments were heavily marked by the economic crisis, especially in 2009.

  19. Acute retroviral syndrome in Slovenian patients infected with HIV

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    Mateja Pirš

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two to six weeks after primary infection with HIV 50 to 90 percent of patients develop an acute retroviral syndrome which usually presents with mononucleosis or flu-like illness. Due to nonspecific symptoms ARS is frequently misdiagnosed.Patients and methods: Data of Slovenian patients with acute retroviral syndrome is shown, as well as their symptoms, approaches to management and diagnostic particularities of primary HIV infection.Conclusions: The combination of particular symptoms and epidemiological data should lead us to consider the possibility of an early HIV infection.

  20. Business ethics in the Slovenian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pučko, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    While taking into account the main concepts of business ethics, the author underlines the importance of the ethical issues in the transition period, identifies the perceived unethical behavior in the Slovenian economy as well as the main approaches to business ethics enhancement in Slovenia. Especially, the attempts to improve business ethical behavior by establishing ethical codes are analysed. This includes the Ethical Code of the Slovenian Managers’ Association, the Code of the Professiona...

  1. Slovenian diasporic literature in Canada and Ted Kramolc

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    Igor Maver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the work and especially the novels by the Canadian writer of Slovenian descent, Ted Kramolc. It places him within the context of other diasporic literary authors in Canada as well as the Slovenian cultural space and discusses the critical response to his work, particularly in the period after Slovenian independence.

  2. PA/SA for Slovenian LILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    1999-01-01

    The RAO Agency started with a new site selection procedure in 1996. As part of the preparational work for the new disposal facility, tools for assessment of the specific disposal concept influence on the environment and human has to be developed. Therefore the Slovenian assessment team that has been organized, joined the IAEAs ISAM programme, in which different approaches to performance and safety assessment were applied to safety cases. As part of the ISAM individual (national) safety cases. The RAO Agency, together with other Slovenian Inst.ions, performed the preliminary performance assessment of the Slovenian LILW repository for generic site location. The method and the results of the safety case are presented in this paper.(author)

  3. Slovenian Pre-Service Teachers' Prototype Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovec, Alenka; Antolin, Darja

    2014-01-01

    In this article we apply narrative methodology to the study of pre-service elementary teachers' school-time memories connected to mathematics education. In the first phase of our empirical study we asked 214 Slovenian pre-service teachers to write their mathematical autobiographies. On the basis of the mathematical autobiographies we constructed a…

  4. Business ethics in the Slovenian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Pučko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking into account the main concepts of business ethics, the author underlines the importance of the ethical issues in the transition period, identifies the perceived unethical behavior in the Slovenian economy as well as the main approaches to business ethics enhancement in Slovenia. Especially, the attempts to improve business ethical behavior by establishing ethical codes are analysed. This includes the Ethical Code of the Slovenian Managers’ Association, the Code of the Professional Ethics of the Accountants and the Code of the Professional Ethics of the Controllers in Slovenia, as well as some other ethical codes. The courses, workshops and seminars in the field of the business ethics are surveyed as well as the problems in teaching business ethics and empirically researching the field in Slovenia. The role of the media in enhancing business ethics in the country is analysed too. The last part of the article is dedicated to the identification of the prevailing values and attitudes of the Slovenian top managers and of the younger Slovenian managers. Differences and similarities are shown the respect to the results of some foreign research findings. Finally, there are a few conclusions regarding the needed future actions for further enhancement of business ethical behavior in Slovenia.

  5. Differential expression of conserved germ line markers and delayed segregation of male and female primordial germ cells in a hermaphrodite, the leech helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Weisblat, David A

    2014-02-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are often set aside early in embryogenesis, a strategy that minimizes the risk of genomic damage associated with replication and mitosis during the cell cycle. Here, we have used germ line markers (piwi, vasa, and nanos) and microinjected cell lineage tracers to show that PGC specification in the leech genus Helobdella follows a different scenario: in this hermaphrodite, the male and female PGCs segregate from somatic lineages only after more than 20 rounds of zygotic mitosis; the male and female PGCs share the same (mesodermal) cell lineage for 19 rounds of zygotic mitosis. Moreover, while all three markers are expressed in both male and female reproductive tissues of the adult, they are expressed differentially between the male and female PGCs of the developing embryo: piwi and vasa are expressed preferentially in female PGCs at a time when nanos is expressed preferentially in male PGCs. A priori, the delayed segregation of male and female PGCs from somatic tissues and from one another increases the probability of mutations affecting both male and female PGCs of a given individual. We speculate that this suite of features, combined with a capacity for self-fertilization, may contribute to the dramatically rearranged genome of Helobdella robusta relative to other animals.

  6. Minichromosome maintenance helicase paralog MCM9 is dispensible for DNA replication but functions in germ-line stem cells and tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, Suzanne A; Luo, Yunhai; Southard, Teresa L; Min, Irene M; Lis, John T; Schimenti, John C

    2011-10-25

    Effective DNA replication is critical to the health and reproductive success of organisms. The six MCM2-7 proteins, which form the replicative helicase, are essential for high-fidelity replication of the genome. Many eukaryotes have a divergent paralog, MCM9, that was reported to be essential for loading MCM2-7 onto replication origins in the Xenopus oocyte extract system. To address the in vivo role of mammalian MCM9, we created and analyzed the phenotypes of mice with various mutations in Mcm9 and an intronic DNA replication-related gene Asf1a. Ablation of Mcm9 was compatible with cell proliferation and mouse viability, showing that it is nonessential for MCM2-7 loading or DNA replication. Mcm9 mutants underwent p53-independent embryonic germ-cell depletion in both sexes, with males also exhibiting defective spermatogonial stem-cell renewal. MCM9-deficient cells had elevated genomic instability and defective cell cycle reentry following replication stress, and mutant animals were prone to sex-specific cancers, most notably hepatocellular carcinoma in males. The phenotypes of mutant mice and cells suggest that MCM9 evolved a specialized but nonessential role in DNA replication or replication-linked quality-control mechanisms that are especially important for germ-line stem cells, and also for tumor suppression and genome maintenance in the soma.

  7. A selection of Slovenian literary heroes for the preschool period

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In preschools, Slovenian literary heroes are being displaced by foreign fantastic heroes that impress children via cartoons, magazines and video games. Slovenian heroes are an important part of our culture and can act as companions of sorts within citizenship education of youngsters. This thesis should serve as a promotion of Slovenian literary heroes for children of all ages, beginning with the preschool period. The thesis defines the selection criterion of characters; it introduces their st...

  8. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  9. Information support for Slovenian Cycling Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahkovec, Tine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Following work presents development of information system that will support Slovenian Cycling Federation. In the first part, work introduces the federation, its key processes, people involved and describes main tools, technologies and approaches used in this work. In the main part, work describes main activities of object oriented development of information system, which includes analysis, requirements definition and architecture planning. Implementation and testing was left ...

  10. Stemming of Slovenian library science texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is the preparation of a stemming algorithm for Slovenian library science texts. The procedure consisted of three phases: learning, testing and evaluation.The preparation of the optimal stemmer for Slovenian texts from the field of library science is presented, its testing and comparison with two other stemmers for the Slovenian language: the Popovič stemmer and the Generic stemmer. A corpus of 790.000 words from the field of library science was used for learning. Lists of stems, word endings and stop-words were built. In the testing phase, the component parts of the algorithm were tested on an additional corpus of 167.000 words. In the evaluation phase, a comparison of the three stemmers processing the same word corpus was made. The results of each stemmer were compared with an intellectually prepared control result of the stemming of the corpus. It consisted of groups of semantically connected words with no errors. Understemming was especially monitored – the number of stems for semantically connected words, produced by an algorithm. The results were statistically processed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Optimal stemmer produced the best results.It matched best with the reference results and also gave the smallest number of stems for one semantic meaning. The Popovič stemmer followed closely. The Generic stemmer proved to be the least accurate. The procedures described in the thesis can represent a platform for the development of the tools for automatic indexing and retrieval for library science texts in Slovenian language.

  11. The Influence of Perceived Value on Customer Loyalty in Slovenian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Krasna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has an enormous influence on customer behavior, because it influences his decisions on product choice, purchase intentions and repeat purchasing. Most frequently it appears in connection with quality and customer satisfaction. The purpose of this article is to present the role of perceived values as marketing tool for assuring customer loyalty in Slovenian hotel industry, where knowing a guest and understanding his wishes and expectations plays an essential part. By means of qualitative marketing research it was ascertained that the offer of Slovenian hoteliers does not differ in general from the offer of other hoteliers; this is why they are trying to expose characteristics which are most appreciated by guests. They are laying great emphasis on culinary art, creation of homelike feeling and integrated experience.

  12. The use of the Job Satisfaction Scale in Slovenian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vid Pogačnik

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Job Satisfaction Scale was applied to a representative sample of 5.094 employees in 54 Slovenian companies. Appropriate metric characteristics and the possibility of insight into global job satisfaction as well as into its 15 aspects, speak for usefulness of this instrument. The quality of work life in Slovenian companies is also briefly described.

  13. Efficiency and regulation of the Slovenian electricity distribution companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hrovatin, Nevenka; Zoric, Jelena

    2004-01-01

    The Slovenian Energy Law, adopted in 1999, has opened the internal market to competition up to 64% of the final consumption. The opening of the internal market to foreign competition is envisaged for 2003. With regard to the methodology of price regulation, the Energy Law introduces the 'price-cap' regulation, which aims to give firms incentive for cost reduction. To provide information for effective price regulation, we estimated a cost frontier function on a sample of Slovenian electricity distribution utilities over the 1991-2000 period. The estimated efficient frontier could be used by Slovenian regulatory agency as a benchmark to regulate network access prices. Our results show that Slovenian distribution companies are cost inefficient. We have also proved the presence of increasing returns to scale with most utilities not achieving the minimum efficient scale. Thus, the Slovenian regulatory authority should consider how to induce mergers of small electricity distribution utilities into larger units

  14. CONTEMPORARY SLOVENIAN TIMBER ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.

  15. Leadership Competences in Slovenian Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOVAČIČ, Helena; RUS, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Background Leadership competences play an important role for the success of effective leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership competences of managers in the healthcare sector in Slovenia. Methods Data were collected in 2008. The research included 265 employees in healthcare and 267 business managers. Respondents assessed their level of 16 leadership relevant competences on a 7-point Likert-type scale. Results Test of differences between competences and leader position of health care professionals yielded statistically significant differences between leader and non-leader positions. Leaders gave strongest emphasis to interpersonal and informational competences, while regarding decision making competences, the differences between leaders and other employees are not that significant. When comparing competences of healthcare managers with those of business managers, results show that healthcare managers tend to give weaker emphasis to competences related to all three managerial roles than business managers. Conclusions The study showed that in Slovenian health care, leaders distinguish themselves from other employees in some leadership competences. In addition, all three dimensions of leadership competences significantly distinguished the group of healthcare managers from the business managers, which indicates a serious lag in leadership competences among leaders in Slovenian healthcare. PMID:27646617

  16. Leadership Competences in Slovenian Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, Helena; Rus, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Leadership competences play an important role for the success of effective leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership competences of managers in the healthcare sector in Slovenia. Data were collected in 2008. The research included 265 employees in healthcare and 267 business managers. Respondents assessed their level of 16 leadership relevant competences on a 7-point Likert-type scale. Test of differences between competences and leader position of health care professionals yielded statistically significant differences between leader and non-leader positions. Leaders gave strongest emphasis to interpersonal and informational competences, while regarding decision making competences, the differences between leaders and other employees are not that significant. When comparing competences of healthcare managers with those of business managers, results show that healthcare managers tend to give weaker emphasis to competences related to all three managerial roles than business managers. The study showed that in Slovenian health care, leaders distinguish themselves from other employees in some leadership competences. In addition, all three dimensions of leadership competences significantly distinguished the group of healthcare managers from the business managers, which indicates a serious lag in leadership competences among leaders in Slovenian healthcare.

  17. Generation X in Slovenia(n

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    Romi Češčut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing themes of family, interpersonal relationships, historicity, jobs, religion, and apocalypse Generation X narrative includes works by young American writers in the 80s and 90s of the twentieth century. The search for oneʹs identity in urban landscape is heavily influenced by mass media, pop culture and consumerism. Slovenian press and professional literature provided only scarce response to Generation X fiction which is also influenced by the ambiguity of the term Generation X and the essence of its culture and literature, which is also true for American literary criticism. The paper aims to explore the reception of novels by Douglas Coupland, Bret Easton Ellis, and Jay McInerney and their analyses with emphasis on narrative, themes of consumerism and mass media, characters, and style of writing.

  18. State of Vision Development in Slovenian Companies

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    Vojko Toman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a prerequisite for efficient strategic planning and the effectiveness of a company. If a company has no vision (i.e., it does not know where it is heading, then it cannot build on advantages, eliminate weaknesses, exploit opportunities and avoid threats. The term ‘vision’ is often used in scientific and professional literature, but it should be noted that different authors understand the term differently and often discuss it inadequately. Many questions regarding the nature of vision arise in practice and in theory, and I answer many of them in my article. I define vision, explain the reasons for its necessity and provide its characteristics and content. I define mission and explain the main difference between vision and mission. The majority of the article presents the results of empirical research on the state of vision setting in Slovenian companies. The article highlights the way in which these terms are understood by top managers.

  19. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

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    Alenka Rot Vrhovec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first to the fifth grade execute cooperative learning in language classes. The purpose of the article is to raise teachers’ awareness and encourage them to design and execute cooperative learning more frequently.

  20. Dictionary of the Slovenian Sign Language on the WWW

    OpenAIRE

    Cempre, Luka; Bešir, Aleksander; Solina, Franc

    2013-01-01

    The article describes technical and user-interface issues of transferring the contents and functionality of the CD-ROM version of the Slovenian sing language dictionary to the web. The dictionary of Slovenian sign language consist of video clips showing the demonstra- tion of signs that deaf people use for communication, text description of the words corresponding to the signs and pictures illustrating the same word/sign. A new technical solution—a video sprite—for concatenating subsections o...

  1. Job satisfaction of Slovenian hospital nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Mirko; Piskar, Franka

    2015-03-01

    To test the psychometric properties of the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale and to assess which of the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale dimensionalities have a considerable impact on job satisfaction of nursing employees in three public Slovenian hospitals. Job satisfaction of nurses is linked to productivity, turnover, absenteeism and patient outcomes. Little is known about the factors contributing to job satisfaction among Slovenian hospital nurses. Understanding the contributing factors could help nurse managers to take appropriate measures. A cross-sectional survey study was used to obtain a sample of 169 registered nursing assistants and 74 registered nurses working in three public hospitals in Slovenia, from which data was obtained using the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Dimensionality was tested using exploratory factor analysis. A seven-factor structure of 29 items was obtained, which accounted for 54.3% of the total variance in job satisfaction, and was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the instrument was 0.78). The first factor 'Satisfaction with Interaction Opportunities', which is a component of the social rewards dimension in the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale, explained 30.6% of the variation. The registered nursing assistants' job dissatisfaction was higher than that of the registered nurses. Both were mostly dissatisfied with professional opportunities. Using the factor analysis, a seven-factor structure was found instead of the originally introduced eight-factor model, which suggests a need for further redevelopment of the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale. The results suggest that operational management needs to revitalize the work environment by ensuring proactive leadership and allowing participation in the decision-making process, while health-care organisations need to support the professional development of registered nursing assistants and registered nurses in order to achieve sustainable effects

  2. Reading Slovenian Novels in Selected Branches of Ljubljana City Library

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    Katja Šikonja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article presents a research paper trying to identify the reasons for the assumption, widely accepted by Slovenian library profession that Slovenians do not read novels written by domestic authors.Methodology/approach: The research was conducted in 2014 in the Ljubljana City Library. A small sample of fifty adult users in five branches of Ljubljana City Library was selected. Data were gathered by semi-structured interview (questions were prepared in advance but could be tailored to the needs of the interview. Annual list of the most popular book titles was used.Results: Answers were classified in the following groups: (1 Problems of Slovenian novel (2 Insufficiently known (3 Foreign is better (4 Mandatory school reading lists (5 Other.Originality/practical implications: The research is the first attempt to thoroughly deal with the question of reading modern Slovenian novels in the region of Central Slovenia. Due to insufficient sample size, the results could not be generalized and applied to the entire Slovenian population. However, they could represent a starting point for the planning of future library activities enhancing the reading of Slovenian literature in the region of Central Slovenia.

  3. Knowledge management initiatives benefits for the Slovenian public sector

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    Simon Colnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian public sector organizations. Knowledge management has received a lot of attention in the past two decades, however in the public sector it is still under-researched. The global financial and economic crisis revealed some important organizational weaknesses in the Republic of Slovenia, some particularly due to the ineffectiveness of the Slovenian public sector, which ranks amongst the worst in the Euro zone. Authors argue that a stronger commitment to knowledge management, which is currently unused in the Slovenian public sector, represents an opportunity to coordinate and exploit public sector organizational knowledge resources. After analysing existing literature, authors have identified examples of good practices from foreign countries that could be partially transferred and adapted into the Slovenian environment. Since the efficient use of knowledge is linked to the performance of public sector organizations, the paper suggests that successful implementation of knowledge management initiatives should result in a more efficient public sector and, indirectly, in improved international public sector competitiveness rankings. This paper is also considered to be important for public sector practitioners and managers, as it proposes implementation of a knowledge management pilot project in Slovenian public sector.

  4. PHYSICIAN FRIDERIK PREGL, NOBELIST OF SLOVENIAN DESCENT

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    Zvonka Zupanič Slavec

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available With his Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1923, Friderik (Fritz Pregl (1869–1930, a physician and a university professor for medical chemistry became a famous person both among Slovenians and world’s most eminent scientists. He did not win the Nobel Prize only for his work on the field of microanalysis of organic substances because he would have invented something very new but because he made a significant contribution to the improvement of the methodology in the quantitative organic microanalysis of that time. In his scientific work he focused on reducing the amount of substance designed for the analysis and on the improvement of the analytical scales. He improved the scales’ accuracy to a thousandth of a gram, decreased the amount of testing substance and reduced working time and the energy spared for the work considerably. Consequently, the study of substance was possible also in cases where only 3–5mg of the substance or even less were available. The same amount of substance, which had been sufficient only for one analyse, was now enough to carry out more than 50 analyses. Therefore, his improvements made the work of physiological and pathological chemists more exact and quicker. Scientific success and many publications made Pregl’s name; he became an honorary doctor of the wellknown university in Göttingen, a member of the academy of sciences and arts in Vienna and an honorary citizen of Graz

  5. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  6. Ethics of managers in Slovenian public administration

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    Zlatko Nedelko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine how managers’ personal values and managers’ attitudes towards the natural and social environment are shaping the ethics of those same managers in public administration. The findings are based on a sample of 212 managers from Slovenian public administration. Personal values were measured using the Schwartz value survey, while attitudes toward natural and social environment were measured with a validated questionnaire. Results show that managers’ self-enhancing values are positively related to their attitudes toward both natural and social environment and their ethics. Managers’ self-transcendence values were found to be negatively associated with their attitudes toward the social environment and their ethics. Managers’ attitudes toward natural and social environment are both positively related with the managers’ ethics. The mediation effect of the attitudes towards the social environment on the relationships between managers’ personal values and their ethics is positive and significant. The main cognition is that managers’ attitudes towards the social environment are a significantly stronger predictor of managers’ ethics than are managers’ personal values.

  7. Slovenian between the wild and good conduct

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    Vanda Rebolj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available New concepts and strategies of learning, resulting from the economic needs of the society, have brought about many new concepts and new content of those already in use. At the same time, the development of new technologies, most of all the information technology, broadened the existing and set off new opportunities in the economic, cognitive and social field. To fully understand the use of the existing, although already established terminology, it takes more. Adequate communication of knowledge is not possible any more. Even mutual communication between a teacher and a student is not without difficulty. While managing professional and work problems, without strategy and language policies we resort to provisional solutions, diminishing the culture of the language and its users, as well as the possibility of the nation’s equal rights in the global world. For nine years, Islovar, the online terminological dictionary of informatics, has been edited by the Slovenian Society of Informatics. Judging by the frequency of search, it has been successfully answering the issues concerning Slovene terms in informatics. The author's intention is to investigate the present state of the Slovene terminology in general and by some concrete examples, exposing some problems and solutions which might help other terminology fields.

  8. The Dynamic Internationalization Model of Slovenian Born Global SMEs

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    Ina Lejko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are important businessactors in the Slovenian, as well as European economy. Inaddition to the current global market conditions, reflecting a severeeconomic downturn, the SMEs in Slovenia and other transitioneconomies operate under additional extensive external pressures,arising from the opening of their domestic markets. Undersuch conditions, companies, including SMEs, perceive internationalizationas an inevitable, or even urgent step in the processof their business operations. However, companies pursue differentpaths in their internationalization efforts, one of them beinga rapid internationalization strategy, denoted as the Born Globalconcept. In the paper, we explore the internationalization processof Slovenian Born Global SMEs. We employ an exploratory qualitativecase study analysis of selected Slovenian SMEs in order tograsp the key characteristics of their internationalization process.On the basis of the latter we construct a dynamic internationalizationmodel that might be used as a conceptual framework forempirical research of dynamic SMEs market behavior in Sloveniaand other transition countries.

  9. Relationship Between Management and Leadership and Characteristics of Slovenian Managers

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    Milena Kramar Zupan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For years, leadership was understood as a managerial function. A significant number of authors currently see leadership as replacing management, or as a different but overlapping function. In the first part of this article, the author supports her opinion of leadership as being one of the managerial functions, emphasizing that both leadership and management have developed over time. More emphasis is given to research (and its results among Slovenian managers showing that they are aware of the increasing importance of leadership compared to other managerial functions. The increased importance of leadership means that managers have to devote more time and attention to employees. Slovenian managers are still overly concerned with their reputation and promotion, and less with the satisfaction and achievements of their employees. Their loyalty to employees is weak, and they are more individualists than team workers. The characteristics of Slovenian managers (supported by research that led to the aforementioned conclusions are discussed in this article.

  10. Development and perspectives of Slovenian medical terminology and lexicography - the historical role of Zdravniški vestnik

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    Dušan Sket

    2011-02-01

    Conclusions: Slovenian medicine has made important steps in the development of modern Slovenian medical language. The current state of the art enables Slovenian physicians and biomedical professionals to follow the progress of global medicine and to create adequate Slovenian expressions in all medical disciplines.

  11. Military Jargon in the Slovenian Translation of Hostile Waters

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    Simon Zupan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines Slovenian translations of military jargon in the non-fiction novel Hostile Waters. In the introductory part, jargon is presented as a linguistic category as well as its main features in the novel. Next, select examples from the original text are compared to their Slovenian equivalents. The focus is on collocations and lexically dense nominal phrases. The comparison finds that most translation shifts in the target text occur because of incorrect interpretation of technical jargon expressions in the original. As a result, the target text reader perceives certain situations differently than the source text reader.

  12. Adapting the South Oaks Gambling Screen for use in the Slovenian cultural environment

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    Andreja Cvenkelj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur in Blume, 1987 is the most frequently used for screening of pathological gambling. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the SOGS for application in the Slovenian cultural environment and to assess its metric characteristics.The study involved 121 subjects, 21 of which were diagnosed as pathological gamblers. Comparison group was composed of 100 subjects. Factor analysis resulted in a one-dimensional solution accounting for 66% of the total variance. Statistically significant differences in the scores show that the SOGS is able to discriminate between the comparison group and pathological gamblers. Item analysis shows that all of them appropriately discriminate between pathological gamblers and comparison group. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale was .971. The criterion validity of the Slovenian version of the SOGS was investigated by cross-comparing the patients' actual diagnoses of pathological gambling with the same diagnoses based on the SOGS scores. The score of 5 points was used as a cut-off point, since it discriminates the most. There was a perfect agreement between diagnoses of pathological gambling and diagnoses based on the SOGS scores.

  13. Various Stagings of Cankar’s Works at the Slovenian National Theater in Ljubljana and Other Slovenian Theaters in the Interwar Period (1918–1941

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    Ana Kocjančič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plays by Ivan Cankar unequivocally marked Slovenian theater in the period from 1918 to 1941. In addition to Shakespeare’s works, it was Cankar’s plays that were most frequently performed on the Slovenian stage. His works especially appealed to directors that were seeking deeper, symbolic meanings of the text, which they tried to present to the audience to the best of their ability. Thus, Cankar’s narrative was intensified through directing and acting, whereas the scenery was of secondary importance in most performances. These mostly included painted scenes or backdrops to represent the setting. Only the stagings of Pohujšanje v dolini Šentflorjanski (The Scandal in the St. Florian Valley, Kralj na Betajnovi (The King of Betajnova, Hlapec Jernej in njegova pravica (The Servant Jernej and His Justice, and Lepa Vida (The Beautiful Vida contained more developed scenography. However, until the 1930s, scenery design for Cankar’s plays performed on the professional stage varied between painted backdrops and expressionist sets. It was not until the appearance of the director and scenographer Bojan Stupica that the scenery of these plays reached the boundaries of new realism and modern avant-garde. Until then, an unspoken rule had been in force that the scenery of Cankar’s plays should not extend beyond the boundaries of expressionism. This rule was observed even by the avant-garde painter Avgust Černigoj. However, Cankar’s plays were staged completely differently in workers’ theaters and popular theaters. With new avant-garde staging, they often surpassed the development of theater design in professional theaters, and caught up with contemporary formal ideas in Slovenian and European fine arts. Here, Cankar’s works were staged as anti-political propaganda. In order to better express their new ideas, these theaters also used new tools, such as projectors and film clips, and experimented with spotlights. The most original among these

  14. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  15. Analysis of Expatriation Process in a Slovenian Company

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    Pintar Rok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The multinational companies require different approach of human resource management to achieve their goals. The reason is in employees who are working abroad, so-called expatriates. The purpose of the research is to investigate perceptions and experience of the expatriates working in one of the Slovenian multinational company.

  16. Topoclimatic map of the littoral zone in Slovenian Istria

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    Darko Ogrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic topoclimatic features of the littoral zone in Slovenian Istria which result from general climate features and specific local conditions. The most widely spatially spread topoclimatic units arise from differences in insolation and the combination of local landforms and land use. They are presented on the map at a scale of 1 : 50,000.

  17. Characteristics of primary biliary cirrhosis in Slovenian patients. Analysis of 169 patients in the period from 1984 to 2010

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    Katja Novak

    2012-05-01

    Conclusions: In this first investigation of PBC in Slovenian patients we found that the features and course of PBC differ in some aspects from other patients’ populations in the western countries. The difference in our group of patients was an exceptionally low number of males and the high proportion of asymptomatic patients at the end of the observation period. We speculate that the aetiology of liver diseases in male patients in Slovenia is to frequently assigned to excessive alcohol consumption and that this attitude needs to be changed. The high number of asymptomatic PBC patients at the end of the observation period could be due to the consistent treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

  18. Granodiorite - one of the most significant Slovenian natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Sabina; Trajanova, Mirka; Rogan-Šmuc, Nastja; Gutman, Maja; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The paper provides a description of the petrographic and mechanical characteristics of granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (NE Slovenia) and of its use as a natural stone. This stone, which is a calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma), is characterised by its grey colour and by its thick white aplite-pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, which are light coloured constituents, with biotite and a small amount of hornblende as dark coloured minerals. Some other minerals are found in traces, among which pyrite is considered to be the most problematic. However, due to the presence of a small amount of arsenic, the pyrite is quite stable and not prone to alteration. In Slovenia currently two quarries are located in granodiorite, both protected as valuable natural geological features; an active quarry at Cezlak which is the largest quarry in magmatic rocks in Slovenia and the abandoned quarry in Josipdol. Granodiorite is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. It is characterised by high density, low water absorption, and low open porosity, so that it exhibits high frost and salt resistance, as well as a high compressive strength and an extremely high flexural strength, which is due to its pronounced oriented structure. It is widely recognized throughout Slovenia by its durability and its decorative white veins, and is currently the most frequently used natural stone in Slovenia. It is mainly used as paving and cladding material for residential buildings, churches, and other structures, as well as for squares, thus giving a special character to many of Slovenia's largest towns and cities. Several important buildings are decorated by means of this stone, such as the Slovenian Parliament, the Republic Square business complex, the Maximarket department store, and the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural

  19. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Business Events at Natural Spas – The Slovenian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Maša Budnar Radilovic; Boštjan Bizjak

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of the economic downturn that officially hit Slovenia in 2009 on the number, purpose, type and budgets of business events held at Slovenian natural spas. The study’s aim is to develop guidelines in the field of business events management at Slovenian natural spas. The research was carried out among key representatives from Slovenian natural spas who play an active role in managing events. Data were via a questionnaire that collected information about the purpose, numbe...

  20. AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY ON BASIC MILITARY TRAINING IN SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

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    Maja GARB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Before employment in the Slovenian Armed Forces, all candidates have to finish basic military training. The empirical survey, done in 2011 on a group of military candidates in a Slovenian Training Center, checked the motivation, level of skills and education, attitudes of leaders, military identity, prestige and social support of these candidates. The results confirmed the skills’ and fighters’ orientation of Slovenian soldiers, but surprised with the paleomodern motivators for military job.

  1. Communication of Slovenian Tourism Workers with Italian guests

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    Silva Gomzi Praprotnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For an Italian guest, getting to know Slovenia as a tourist destination is inevitably connected with getting to know the Slovenian cuisine. Italians are a nation eagerly developing the culture of food, and therefore the gastronomic offer in a certain environment and at a certain time is for them often the basis for a comprehensive perception of the said destination. A good offer, a suitable marketing and an attractive presentation of typical Slovenian dishes play an important role in getting to know natural and cultural heritage as they can widen the knowledge about people and places, eliminate prejudice and strengthen intercultural cooperation. Kind and professional staff, knowledge of the language, civilisation, cultural habits, and differences may be the factors contributing to the assertion of local products and services, and to educating the users of restaurant and tourism services.

  2. The effectiveness of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries

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    Silva Novljan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries, and calls attention to the problems attached to it. The argued presumption is that the performance measuring carried out on the state level, is not always a sufficient and adequate foundation for plarming of the developmenl and functioning of an individual library which has to cater for the needs and wishes of the population in a certain area.

  3. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    United Nations WWW World Wide Web YPA Yugoslav People’s Army ix ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1. Professional officer...and “profesionalni.” 56Anton Zabkar, “Ahilova Peta Sistema Izobrazevanja Castnikov (Razprava)” [The Achilles’ heels of the education system for SAF...Primerjalna Analiza Urejanja Sistema Plac Pripadnikov Obrambnih Sil” [Comparative analysis of salary systems of armed forces members], Slovenian Armed

  4. Restaurant quality: the case of Central Slovenian region

    OpenAIRE

    Uran Maravić, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose – This study has two key goals. The first part presents and compares different expert systems for assessing quality in the restaurants alongside the Ljubljana Quality Selection assessment methodology - LQS. In the second part, this study presents the results of a restaurant assessment in the Central Slovenian region using the LQS methodology. Design/methodology – In the first part of the study, we compare restaurant assessment systems through different criteria. In the second p...

  5. Business annual planning and controlling in Slovenian managerial practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pučko, Danijel; Čater, Tomasž

    2001-01-01

    Management process is usually segmented into planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The first and the last of these subprocesses are analyzed in the paper from the economic and managerial viewpoint as they occurr in Slovenian enterprise practice. The focus is on empirical research on a tactical level. Business analysis, tactical planning and controlling are the core issues analyzed in the article. The paper builds heavily on presenting empirical findings regarding the empirical system...

  6. Industrial structure and privatisation of the Slovenian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper first analyses the existing structure of the Slovenian electricity industry and gives recommendations for its restructuring so as to conform to efficiency criteria and to comply with European Union provisions on the internal European electricity market. Then the paper outlines the necessity for privatisation and draws some conclusions on it such as determination of market values companies, the proportion for sale, privatisation methods and the general public's participation [it

  7. Establishing a site for A Slovenian LILW repository - 16151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIRSEK, SANDI; SPILER, JANJA; VESELIC, MIRAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the practice and siting process for a LILW repository in Slovenia. Slovenia is a small country, and, consequently, its nuclear programme is small. It does include almost everything that large programmes have, but we still do not have a repository. In 2004, the Slovenian Radwaste management agency (ARAO) initiated a new procedure to find a proper location for a LILW repository. ARAO asked all Slovenian communities to participate. All communities have the option to withdraw from the process until they have approved the site. We received eight responses, and we prepared methodologies with different parameters to evaluate all potential sites. All sites were assessed by Slovenian experts, and determinations were based on using prepared methodologies. On the basis of their expert opinions, we prepared a pre-feasibility study and chose the three most suitable sites. With these three we continued the process. After that time, one of the communities withdrew from the procedure, and another one reversed its proposed site and proposed a new one. For the third site we continued with the programme, and we prepared a feasibility study with a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment and preliminary safety calculations for the comparison of different concepts of disposal units. If everything goes according to the plan for this site and the concept, we expect site approval in the first half of 2009. After that, we will start preparing everything necessary for building permission. (authors)

  8. Slovenica: professional novelties of the new Slovenian Library Act

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    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Slovenian Library Act introduces the term Slovenica to describe the most essential part of the national library collection. This term was introduced to Slovenian librarianship in the early thirties of the past century, but the collection of Slovenica was founded more than a hundred years before that time in the Lyceum Library, the predecessor of the present National and University Library. The criteria for the selection of the collection were influenced by the state regulated implementation of local studies collections into the lyceum and university libraries on one hand and by the growing national consciousness of Slovenian librarians on the other. This process began in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, when local studies material was prescribed in instructions regulating the integration of library materials from the dissolved monastery libraries to the state supported lyceum and university libraries.These instructions were upgraded by the explicit guidelines concerning local studies collections in the nineteenth century to finally evolve into a legally recognised activity of the national library after the Second World War.

  9. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

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    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  10. Environmental state of the Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Brečko Grubar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian part of the Adriatic Sea is its most northern part which occupies approximately 200 km2 and is a part of the wider Gulf of Trieste. Slovenian coast consists of 47 kilometers of mostly steep, abrasive marl and sandstone coast. Low accumulation coast is located only at the mouths of the watercourses and represents but a smaller portion, whereas the smallest part is occupied by the limestone abrasion coast. Mainland coastal region is mostly hillside and has a very diverse relief, while plains, in smaller numbers, are located only in the lower parts of the river valleys. Slovenian sea indents the mainland by two larger gulfs: the Gulf of Koper and of Piran and is predominately very shallow. The average depth is around 18 m and the largest depth is 38 m at the Madona cape near Piran. Sea bottom is mostly covered by the thick layer of sediments deposited after the abrasion of the steep cliff coast and by the accumulation of the river alluvium. Due to its shallowness the sea is exposed to high temperature fluctuations and due to the fresh water influx also to the changes of its salinity. The circulation of the sea water is mainly induced by the tide and wind activities, mostly the Bora (strong north-easterly wind which significantly influences the vertical circulation of the water. Water current is weak and unstable. There is a large influx of nutrients into the Slovenian sea, resulting from the soil erosion, surface water influx, watercourses and direct emissions of waste waters into the sea. The consequence of the mentioned sea characteristics is a great landscape sensitivity of the coastal sea ecosystem. During summer the sea warms intensely and when accompanied by the weak water circulation, we are often witnessing the lack of oxygen in the deeper layers of the water, intensive algae growth and sea blooming, which points to exceeded self-cleaning (assimilation capacities of the marine ecosystem. The major polluters are the coastal towns

  11. Brand management of Slovenian export companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pisnik Korda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the characteristics of brand management in the context of the companies in Slovenia that are intensively engaged in the internationalization of their business operations. Using a sample of the 200 largest export companies in Slovenia, it explores the impact of internationalized business operations on the marketing mix component strategies to identify the most frequent internal and external hindrances to the internationalization that exert influence on the companies’ most important brands. The paper also analyzes the importance of long-term experience and knowledge of the market in the consolidation of brand effectiveness and the companies’ reputation and ascertains whether the companies with a higher level of internationalization employ a larger number of less tangible brand performance criteria than those with a lower level of internationalization.

  12. DO SLOVENIAN DEALERS USE TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING THEIR TIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 Michael Lynn introduced the idea that restaurant managers could increase tips for their waiters and thus increase turnover by training the waiters to engage tip-enhancing behaviours. Since then, the list of tip-enhancing behaviours has expanded. Therefore the potential to increase tips is more accessible. The purpose of this paper was to examine how Slovenian dealers use strategies to increase their tips. We tested fourteen techniques to increase tips. The study was carried out among 473 gaming employees, 279 of which are dealers, in the Slovenian gaming industry, in order to find out how they use these techniques and which of them can bring about an increase in their tips. The study showed that Slovenian dealers mostly do not use these techniques, and that the dealers who do use them tend to receive tips more often. The findings imply that managers and employees should be informed of these techniques in order to increase tips and their overall income. Practical implications are that we suggest that management considers these ideas for increasing flexibility and reducing the cost of work: (1 informing dealers on ways of increasing tips, (2 including the acquisition of this specific knowledge in their career plans, (3 carrying out a reform of the reward system which would include tips. Social implications will be shown in a higher gaming revenue. It is very likely – as shown in our research – that employees will receive higher wages as these will be topped up by tips. The state, in turn, will collect more taxes.

  13. Assessing users satisfaction with service quality in Slovenian public library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Podbrežnik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A research was made into user satisfaction with regard to the quality of library services in one of the Slovenian public libraries. The aim was to establish the type of service quality level actually expected by the users, and to determine their satisfaction with the current quality level of available library services.Methodology: The research was performed by means of the SERVQUAL measuring tool which was used to determine the size and direction of the gap between the detected and the expected quality of library services among public library users.Results: Different groups of users provide different assessments of specific quality factors, and a library cannot satisfy the expectations of each and every user if most quality factors display discrepancies between the estimated perception and expectations. The users expect more reliable services and more qualified library staff members who would understand and allocate time for each user’s individual needs. The largest discrepancies from the expectations are detected among users in the under-35 age group and among the more experienced and skilled library users. The results of factor analysis confirm the fact that a higher number of quality factors can be explained by three common factors affecting the satisfaction of library users. A strong connection between user satisfaction and their assessment of the integral quality of services and loyalty has been established.Research restrictions: The research results should not be generalised and applied to all Slovenian public libraries since they differ in many important aspects. In addition, a non-random sampling method was used.Research originality/Applicability: The conducted research illustrates the use of a measuring tool that was developed with the aim of determining the satisfaction of users with the quality of library services in Slovenian public libraries. Keywords: public library, user satisfaction, quality of library services, user

  14. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  15. CEOs’ Strategic Orientations in the Most Successful Slovenian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Berginc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concept of a CEO’s strategic orientation as one of the most important elements of the research into a company’s successfulness. Managerial perception is in many ways more important than environmental analysis, since CEOs determine their company’s future strategic orientations. A study of CEOs’ strategic orientations can provide better information regarding companies’ strategic orientations. We performed a qualitative study of CEOs from a sample of the most successful Slovenian ompanies. The research results indicate numerous commonalities between CEOs’ opinions and standpoints, as well as some differences in relation to the characteristics of the companies and industries in which they operate.

  16. Successful competitive strategies of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Buble

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research report, the authors identify and analyze the successful samples of strategic behaviour of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises, as well as their similarities and dissimilarities. The research has encompassed the levels of corporate and business strategy (i.e. the strategy of a diversified firm and its strategic business units/areas, as well as the analysis of strategic performance and sources of competitive advantage. The research consists of two parts: the theoretical foundation for the analysis of the successful patterns of strategic behaviour and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected during the research project.

  17. &A, COMPETITION AND PERFORMANCE IN THE SLOVENIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta Popovici

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of mergers and acquisitions is the main method used by financial institution to grow and to obtain better performance. The main effect of the implication of banks in mergers and acquisitions (M&A translates into a higher degree of market share of the banks and also that the small banks will soon become global banks. This article underlines the relationship between bank performance and degree of concentration of the Slovenian banking sector during 2006-2012 using a simple linear regression model.

  18. Slovenian experience from diagnostic angiography to interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavcnik, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of writing this article is to document the important events and people in the first 50 years of diagnostic angiography and interventional radiology in Slovenia. During this period not only did the name of the institutions and departments change, but also its governance. This depicted the important roles different people played at various times in the cardiovascular divisions inside and outside of the diagnostic and interventional radiology. Historical data show that Slovenian radiology has relatively immediately introduced the new methods of interventional radiology in clinical practice

  19. Safety case for Slovenian LILW near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viršek, Sandi; Špiler, Janja; Žagar, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: • Repository provides the fulfillment of international and national legal requirements regarding treatment and disposal of LILW; • Repository improves the conditions for life extension for NPP Krško and offers synergetic effects for the second unit of NPP Krško; • Repository provides a basis for safe, economic and reliable use of radioactive sources in science, medicine and industry in Slovenia; • All economic calculations and comparisons show a clear advantage in case of a joint Slovenian and Croatian solution

  20. Digital library and the Slovenian academic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kerec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital library is a term for a library of the present and of the future challenging the traditional libraries. Authors are interested mostly in the digital space of Slovene academic instutions. In the research, the digital collections of most of the University of Ljubljana faculties are examined. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the users' (students' needs and their acquaintance with the concept of the digital library. Two things were expected: the research was aimed at finding the positive effect of digital libraries on studies, and the questionnaire as an incentive in the library profession for further research. The questionnaire was made in the end of 1999 at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana (FF. It included 275 students of FF. The results showed that the students of librarianship had a better understanding of the term digital library than the students of other courses. A personal computer is used frequently and with pleasure by most questioned students. The term digital library is known to 71,1% of the students of librarianship, and only to 43,8% of others. Most of the students chose the correct definition of the digital library (the digital library is a collection of disparate systems and resources, accessible on the net, but that was, by the authors' opinion, mostly a lucky guess. According to the findings of the research, the authors believe that future development will improve and accelerate a wider use of digital libraries, in Slovenia as well.

  1. Trust and management-to-employee communication in Slovenian companies: Some evidence from the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Makovec Brenčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of trust and management-to-employee communication among top Slovenian employers from the Golden Thread Survey. The paper analyzes the changes and impact of the deteriorating external economic situation on (a company-employee relational trust, and on the (b perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” by respondent managers. Furthermore, our analysis also looks at the impact of management-to-employee communication on both trust perspectives. The results show a stable level of company-employee relational trust in the face of the current economic crisis, despite a high level of perceived organizational process changes and a sharp decline in financial performance. On the other hand, the perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” has increased substantially as the crisis has deepened, supporting our claim that relationships and the external relationship orientation gain importance in the time of crisis. There is also a strong link between the degree of open and frequent management-to-employee communication, and both perspectives of measured trust among top Slovenian employers.

  2. Cephalometric standards for Slovenians in the mixed dentition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevensek, Martina; Farcnik, Franc; Vidmar, Gaj

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop standard cephalometric values for Slovenians in the period of the mixed dentition. Eighty-eight children were included in the study (46 girls and 42 boys, mean age 9.31 +/- 1.52 years). The selection criteria were: in the mixed dentition, a score of the modified Eismann method for an objective assessment of malocclusion of less than 15 points, the absence of aplasia and supernumerary teeth, no congential anomalies and no previous orthodontic treatment. Twenty-five cephalometric measurements were performed twice to analyse the size and shape of the craniofacial complex. The reliability of the measurements was assessed by correlation coefficients, regression, and analysis of inter-subject differences; satisfactory results were obtained. The differences between boys and girls and between those in the early and late mixed dentition period were tested with a two-way analysis of variance. The most pronounced changes between the early and late mixed dentition were observed in the vertical skeletal relationships: a decrease in mandibular inclination, interbasal angle and gonial angle, and an increase in anterior and posterior face height. Sagittal skeletal relationships remained constant from the early to the late mixed dentition. No significant differences were found between the observed developmental stages. Significant differences between genders were found only for anterior and posterior face height, with boys showing larger values (P mixed dentition, the mean measurement values of the total sample can be used as cephalometric standards for Slovenians in the mixed dentition period.

  3. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  4. Tržna podoba slovenskih gazel = Market Branding of Slovenian Gazelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijel Devetak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to show the global marketing activities,guidelines and management decisions for international business ofSlovenian gazelles. The survey was conducted on a sample of 230-sSlovenian gazelles that have been included in the list of 500 fastestgrowing companies in Slovenia in previous years (2007, 2008, 2009 and2010. They are also involved in the selection of ‘Best Fast GrowingCompany or a Gazelle.’ Slovenian gazelles use the internationalizationfor many reasons (saturation of the domestic market, lack of demandin the domestic market, etc.. Findings presented in this articlemay serve Slovenian gazelle in the decision of how to enter a foreignmarket, in the selection of the initial steps and the comparison of the existing market models used in the company.

  5. The use of derivatives in Slovenian non-financial firms: is financial risk already well managed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Berk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research about the financial behaviour of Slovenian firms has documented enterprise risk management as being one of its weakest areas. The goal of this article is to present insights into financial risk management, i.e. into the extent of the use of derivatives in the largest Slovenian firms and the related practices. The resultsare confronted with the same types of characteristics of US and German firms (although being much larger revealed in comparable studies. These firms provide relevant benchmarks for assessing the development gap since they operate in more advanced financial environments and are therefore expected to have much morerefined approaches to the use of derivatives than Slovenian firms. A survey points to the much smaller extent of the use of derivatives by Slovenian firms. There is a substantial gap, especially in the area of risk management policies (e.g. documentation, reporting, counterparty risk, valuation etc..

  6. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotej Verbovšek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivities and specific storage coefficients of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers were determined by Barker’s method for pumping test analysis, based on fractional flow dimension. Values are presented for limestones and mainly for dolomites, and additionally for separate aquifers, divided by age andlithology in several groups. Data was obtained from hydrogeological reports for 397 water wells, and among these, 79 pumping tests were reinterpreted. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures are higher than the hydraulic conductivities of matrix, and the differences are highly statistically significant. Likewise, differences are significant for specific storage, and the values of these coefficients are higher in the matrix. Values of all coefficients vary in separate aquifers, and the differences can be explained by diagenetic effects, crystal size, degree of fracturing, andcarbonate purity. Comparison of the methods, used in the reports, and the Barker’s method (being more suitable for karstic and fractured aquifers, shows that the latter fits real data better.

  7. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  8. Slovenian national health insurance card: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, T; Kandus, G; Trcek, D; Zupan, B

    1999-01-01

    The Slovenian national health insurance company started a full-scale deployment of the insurance smart card that is at the present used for insurance data and identification purpose only. There is ample capacity on the cards that were selected, to contain much more data than needed for the purely administrative and charging purposes. There are plans to include some basic medical information, donor information, etc. On the other hand, there are no firm plans to use the security infrastructure and the extensive network, connecting the insurance company with the more than 200 self service terminals positioned at the medical facilities through the country to build an integrated medical information system that would be very beneficial to the patients and the medical community. This paper is proposing some possible future developments and further discusses on the security issues involved with such countrywide medical information system.

  9. Better Regulation and Public Procurement in Slovenian Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja KLUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of administrative burdens is a measure to improve regulatory quality. Most measures are directed towards reducing barriers for business while the issue of regulation inside government is not often posed. The research carried out in 2010 was intended to investigate how Slovenian municipalities and others in the public sector perceive measures to reduce administrative burdens and the areas in which they consider regulations to present the greatest burden. Results have shown that public procurement regulations are the greatest burden for municipalities and the public sector as a whole. Further research indicates which public procurement procedures municipalities used most often and what benefits they perceive in the amended legislation. Results indicate that most municipalities use open procedures most often, which procedurally is the most complex.

  10. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  11. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIVENESS IN SLOVENIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Jerman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected. The concept of the marketing communication effectiveness assumes that there are variables that can have a positive influence on the effectiveness of marketing communications, which incorporates facets of the marketing communication strategy and bidirectional communications. The results suggest that Slovenian organisations which design and implement marketing communication strategy, also have more effective marketing communications. The development of marketing communications strategy was correlated with increased effectiveness of marketing communications in their organisation. Managerial implications are discussed along with directions for further research.

  12. How Slovenian Chemistry Teachers Meet their Needs for Professional Development in the System of Further Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Sikošek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of further education and training, as a form of lifelong learning, is to provide professional development and professional and personality growth of different professional profiles, including teachers. The type and quality of programmes intended for further education and training of professionals in education and training, especially of chemistry teachers, precisely is the central theme of this contribution. Based on the results of an empirical research carried out on a sample of chemistry teachers in Slovenian basic and secondary schools during the 2009/10 school year, we find that the desire to develop skills is the main motive power (Lat. nervus rerum of their participation in the programmes published in the Catalogue of Further Education and Training (FET Programmes, and inadequate time of implementation of programmes—regarding teachers’ teaching duties—the fundamental obstacle. The most frequently teachers of course attend modernisation programmes, followed by programmes not published in the Catalogue.

  13. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Methods The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the lea...

  14. Agile metodologies use for software development in Slovenian start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Kašnik, Matic

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents and describes the use of agile methodologies which are being used by Slovenian tech start-up companies. It describes the basic features, advantages and disadvantages of various agile methodologies such as Scrum, extreme programming, lean start-up and method Kanban. We made a review of the most used agile methodologies in Slovenian technology start-up companies. In particular, we focus on variety of tools, technics and approaches used by the development teams and where do t...

  15. Intellectual capital in the Slovenian hotel industry before and after entry into the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec Rudež, Helena

    2007-01-01

    The intellectual capital in the Slovenian hotel industry has been improved in the past few years what is extremely desirable and necessary since today the Slovenian hotel industry is facing increased competition in the enlarged European single market. The paper presents an empirical analysis of the development of intellectual capital in the hotel industry in Slovenia between 2003 and 2006. In this period of time Slovenia entered the European Union (EU). The results show progress of intellectu...

  16. Slovenian Secondary School Visual Arts Curriculum in Comparison with Similar European Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Zupančič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political changes in Slovenia in the early 1990s were followed by changes to the educational system. As regards the professional field, the last thirty years have seen major changes to teaching art all around the globe and also in Slovenia in the sense of the so-called postmodern visual arts curriculum. Slovenian art curricula are facing similar problems as the curricula in other countries. By comparing Slovenian art curricula for secondary school with those in seven different countries (Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, and Spain, we wished to shed light on the Slovenian curriculum in a broader context. The Slovenian curriculum and those of other countries have been scrutinised and juxtaposed from different viewpoints. It has been established that Slovenian course syllabi have individual characteristics in common with the countries compared. The placement of art education into the timetable is similar to that in other countries. In Slovenia and in all the other countries, art education is a compulsory subject but with a different amount of taught time. The documents show differences as regards their structure, the terminology in the classification of the fields of visual arts, the implementation of contemporary content, multiculturalism, and sustainability. The comparison has shown that the Slovenian national curriculum for gimnazija has a modern design in specific segments, while it could be better in others.

  17. Managerial ownership and corporate performance in Slovenian post-privatisation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Simoneti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian post-privatisation period has been characterised by a decline in the ownership by non-managerial owners (employees and state-controlled funds. On the other hand, domestic and foreign non-financial firms, Privatisation Investment Funds and managers have been increasing their holdings. The latter, namely the growing managerial ownership, is likely to feature in future ownership dynamics in Slovenia. In fact, in 2002 the desired (optimal ownership stakes estimated by Slovenian managers were 10.8 percentage points higher than their actual stakes. The aim of our paper is to describe the main trends in the ownership of Slovenian corporations in the post-privatisation period and to provide an answer to the basic economic question: what is the influence of the ongoing consolidation of managerial ownership on the performance of Slovenian firms. The empirical analysis testing this relationship is based on a panel of 182 Slovenian firms in the 1995-99 period and does not provide relevant evidence of any positive effects of the increasing managerial control on Slovenian firms’ performance. If any, a positive incentive effect is only observed in those firms whose managers’ holdings exceed 10-percent, only with regards to firms’ financial performance (but not total factor productivity and only in firms that are not listed on the capital market. Further, the negative effect of the current gap between the desired and actual managerial ownership seems to exceed any positive incentive effect arising out of managerial ownership

  18. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  19. Scalable Frequent Subgraph Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-01-01

    Given an input graph, the Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) task finds all subgraphs with frequencies exceeding a given threshold. FSM is crucial for graph analysis, and it is an essential building block in a variety

  20. Five recurrent BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for cancer predisposition in the majority of Slovenian breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovic Srdjan

    2008-09-01

    the cryptic cysteine residues of the BRCA1 Ring Finger domain. Conclusion A high mutation detection rate and the frequent occurrence of a limited array of recurring mutations facilitate BRCA1/2 mutation screening in Slovenian families.

  1. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  2. Frequent hemodialysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warady, Bradley A; Fischbach, Michel; Geary, Denis; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2007-07-01

    Frequent hemodialysis is currently conducted in a limited number of pediatric dialysis centers. However, the preliminary experience with children who have undergone procedures such as "daily" intensive hemodiafiltration and nocturnal hemodialysis has been positive, with the allowance for unrestricted diets and fluid intake, the lack of need for phosphate binders, excellent metabolic and blood pressure control, and, in the case of hemodiafiltration, excellent growth. The provision of frequent daily hemodialysis with the NxStage System has also recently been introduced to pediatrics. An overview about what is currently understood regarding the technical and clinical application of these approaches to therapy for children with end-stage renal disease form the basis for this article and highlight the impact of the procedures to date and the need for additional experience and collaborative data collection.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Slovenian version of temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A): temperament profiles in Slovenian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Barbara; Sprah, Lilijana; Dernovšek, Mojca Z; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2013-01-25

    TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire) is a self-rated instrument that measures five affective temperaments: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious. The aim of our study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Slovenian TEMPS-A and to ascertain if temperament profile is related to the professions chosen by Slovenian students. 892 Slovenian university students in six different professional fields (economics, geography, engineering, law, sports pedagogy and nursing) were included in our study. Cronbach's reliability coefficients denoted acceptable internal consistency of the subscales. Principal component analysis revealed relatively good internal structure of the instrument. Nursing and geography students scored the highest on depressive temperament. Sports pedagogues as well as engineers demonstrated the most firm personality structure with distinctive hyperthymic temperament. Law students revealed the most irritable temperament, while nursing and law students scored the highest on anxious temperament. Sample of Slovenian students is not representative for general population. The structure of the sample was crucial as well, as it comprised mainly of younger students who just started their study. The Slovenian version of the TEMPS-A proved to have relatively good internal consistency and internal structure. The questionnaire verified as a reliable and valid instrument and generally in line with previous studies. This study strengthens the perspective that professional areas could be associated with distinct affective temperament profile that could influence career decisions. The findings in students of economics, geography, and sport pedagogy are new as they have not been previously investigated by TEMPS researchers. The results open new possibilities for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishment of the Slovenian Universities' Repositories and of the National Open Science Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ojsteršek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe paper presents the legal, organisational and technical perspectives regarding the implementation of the Slovenian national open access infrastructure for electronic theses and dissertations as well as for research publications. The infrastructure consists of four institutional repositories and a national portal that aggregates content from the university repositories and other Slovenian archives in order to provide a common search engine, recommendation of similar publications, and similar text detection. We have developed the software which is integrated with the universities' information and authentication systems and with the COBISS.SI. During the project the necessary legal background was defined and processes for mandatory submission of electronic theses and dissertations as well as of research publications were designed. The processes for data exchange between the institutional repositories and the national portal, and the processes for similar text detection and recommendation system were established. Bilingual web and mobile applications, a recommendation system and the interface suitable for persons with disabilities are provided to the users from around the world. The repositories are an effective promotion tool for universities and their researchers. It is expected that they will improve the recognition of Slovenian universities in the world. The complex national open access infrastructure with similar text detection support and integration with other systems will enable the storage of almost eighty percent of peer-reviewed scientific papers, annually published by Slovenian researchers. The majority of electronic theses and dissertations yearly produced at the Slovenian higher education institutions will also be accessible.

  5. Carniola oživljena: Changing Practice in Citing Slovenian Regions in English Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Reindl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The past century has witnessed a striking change in the representation of Slovenia’s traditional regions in English texts. After the Second World War, Slovenians progressively replaced the traditional English exonyms for these regions with endonyms in English texts. This trend was accompanied by published works and teaching practice that increasingly insisted on the exclusive use of endonyms in English texts. However, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia and Slovenian independence, there has been a return to the traditional English exonyms. This article maps this changing practice through selected English texts from the past three centuries. It also addresses a number of pitfalls connected with the use of endonyms as well as persistent questions regarding the use of endonyms. Because English is a global language, the choices made by those writing in English directly affect how Slovenia and Slovenian identity are represented at the global level. As such, the conclusions of this paper apply directly to Slovenian-English translation practice and indirectly to Slovenian literature and culture conveyed through English translation.

  6. The Slovenian Mental Health Act de lege ferenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanc, Blaz

    2008-06-01

    This article analyzes the case-law of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia relating to the protection of mentally ill persons. In case No. U-I-60/03 the Constitutional Court declared that the provisions of Arts. 70 to 81 of the Non-litigious Civil Procedure Act (a Chapter on involuntary Commitment to the closed wards of psychiatric hospitals) are not in conformity with the Constitution. As an interim measure the Constitutional Court instructed the regular Courts (in the procedure for the involuntary commitment of persons to a mental institution) to ensure the following: an ex officio counsel must be appointed for an involuntarily committed person upon the commencement of proceedings; and the notification of detention that the authorised mental institution is obliged to submit to the court must contain reasons substantiating the necessity of detention. The Legislature's intention is to enact a special Law (Mental Health Act) that will not only deal with the procedural questions, but also with all other constitutional and statutory rights and freedoms of the mentally ill patients. It should also deal with other forms of institutional and non-institutional care for mentally ill persons. The author discusses the Ombudsman's control over the rights and freedoms of involuntary committed in-patients. Finally, the author discusses some of the most problematic issues of the Slovenian Mental Health Actde lege ferenda.

  7. The Argonauts in Slovenian Literature for Children and Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mileva Blažić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ljubljana has been associated with literature since its beginning. The founda- tion of the city Emona, for example, which – according to myth – dates back to the 13th  century BC, is associated with the myth of the Argonauts, Jason and the Golden Fleece. In the process of literary reception, the ancient myth evolved into the fairy tale type ATU 513A, according to H.-J. Uther’s motif index of fairy tales. The motif of the Golden Fleece became a symbol of mythic search beyond time and space in Slovenian literature, including children’s literature: in the picture books by Dane Zajc and Miroslav Šuput: The Argonauts (Argonavti, Anton Komat: The Lake Fairy (Vila Jezerka, Desa Muck: The Giant Hen (Kokoš velikanka, Andreja Peklar: The Boy with the Red Cap (Fant z rdečo kapico. It is used with different meanings and in combination with various mythic, fabulous and realistic animal symbols.

  8. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  9. GENETIC CHANGES FOR PERFORMANCE TRAITS IN SLOVENIAN PIG NUCLEUS HERDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Malovrh

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenian pig nucleus herds, the genetic trends for performance traits in boars were investigated using mixed model methodology. Altogether, data sets from four farms with test stations consisted of 60709 records for five breeds: Swedish Landrace (SL, Large White (LW, Duroc (D, Pietrain (P, and German Landrace (GL boars from years 1975 to 1999. Separate analyses were performed for each farm using the PEST package. Breed, season, and weight on test within breed were fixed effects, while common litter environment and additive genetic effect were treated as random. Genetic trends for days on test from 30 to 100 kg (DoT30100, feed conversion efficiency from 30 to 100 kg (FCE30100, and ultrasonically measured backfat thickness (BF100 were expressed as linear regression of the averages of predicted breeding values on the year of birth. Estimates for genetic changes varied between farms and breeds from +0.0046 to –0.374 day, +0.0019 to – 0.013, and +0.262 to –0.221 mm per year for DoT30100, FCE30100, and BF100, respectively.

  10. Antioxidant activity in selected Slovenian organic and conventional crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca KNAP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for organically produced food is increasing. There is widespread belief that organic food is substantially healthier and safer than conventional food. According to literature organic food is free of phytopharmaceutical residues, contain less nitrates and more antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to verify if there are any differences in the antioxidant activity between selected Slovenian organic and conventional crops. Method of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl was used to determine the antioxidant activity of 16 samples from organic and conventional farms. The same varieties of crops were analysed. DPPH method was employed to measure the antioxidant activity of polar antioxidants (AAp and antioxidant activity of fraction in ethyl acetate soluble antioxidants (EA AA. Descriptive statistics and variance analysis were used to describe differences between farming systems. Estimated differences between interactions for the same crop and different farming practice were mostly not statistically significant except for the AAp for basil and beetroot. Higher statistically significant values were estimated for conventional crops. For the EA AA in broccoli, cucumber, rocket and cherry statistically significant higher values were estimated for organic production.

  11. THE COMPARISON OF SLOVENIAN AND EUROPEAN PERINATAL DATA OR AS MORE BACK WE LOOK FURTHER INTO THE FUTURE WE WILL SEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živa Novak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slovenian perinatal results are compared with European results: sometimes they are in the higher, sometimes in the lower range. Analysing trends and comparisons with other countries helps in planning changes in organisation and function so we are prepared for future challenges. Introduction of new technologies demands appropriate answers to challenges, including ethical ones. Methods: We compared perinatal results in Slovenia from 1987 to 1996, the PERISTAT project results from the year 2000 and the EURO-PERISTAT project with 2004 perinatal results including the Slovenian. Results: Some of the more prominent Slovenian perinatal results are shown. Cesarean section rate is the lowest among 26 countries in Europe. Deliveries after artificial reproductive techniques are second most frequent. Teenage pregnancies are very rare. Seemingly high maternal mortality mirrors also strict recording and cross checking with other data bases. Relatively high stillbirth rate may reflect the fact that all induced labours for fetal malformations are recorded. Conclusions: In Slovenia we do have tools for quality collection of perinatal results which should be used and audited. To have comparable results inside Slovenia, definitions should be written at http://www.obgyn-si.org/. When changing delivery record markers of prenatal care should be added – they could be easily obtained from maternity booklets (electronic or paper. In maternity booklet there is a place to write about grand dad prostate cancer; let us replace it with risk factors for preterm delivery (medical history and cervical length, 12 weeks screening for preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (ultrasonic and biochemi- cal markers, gestational diabetes and obesity (body mass index, waist – hips ratio and hypothyroidism; let us leave some free space for the future screening tests. Known and proven efficient management (e.g. progesterone for recurrent preterm delivery prevention

  12. Teoretski pogled na razvojne strukture slovenskega podeželja = Theoretical view on the development structures of Slovenian rural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan M. Klemenčič

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical concepts and research problems of contemporary rural space are presented in the first part of the article, following with the attempt of defining the crucial factors of development and basic structures of Slovenian rural space after the 2nd World War as a starting-point for defining theoretically more advanced concepts in Slovenian geography.

  13. ‘Thank you in advance’: Slovenian Request Emails and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Orthaber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication through email represents one of the most important forms of business communication, not just within a company but also externally with customers. The paper examines email interactions between the agents representing a Slovenian transport company and its customers. More specifically, the study examines specific aspects and elements of email production in a Slovenian customer service setting. It is hoped that the findings will help enhance the communication skills of learners of Slovenian as a foreign language and students of translation and increase their cultural awareness and their knowledge of technology-mediated customer service communication. Moreover, the findings could increase students’ understanding of the pragmatic motivations behind interactants’ linguistic choices.

  14. Planned growth as a determinant of the markup: the case of Slovenian manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maks Tajnikar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows the idea of heterodox economists that a cost-plus price is above all a reproductive price and growth price. The authors apply a firm-level model of markup determination which, in line with theory and empirical evidence, contains proposed firm-specific determinants of the markup, including the firm’s planned growth. The positive firm-level relationship between growth and markup that is found in data for Slovenian manufacturing firms implies that retained profits gathered via the markup are an important source of growth financing and that the investment decisions of Slovenian manufacturing firms affect their pricing policy and decisions on the markup size as proposed by Post-Keynesian theory. The authors thus conclude that at least a partial trade-off between a firm’s growth and competitive outcome exists in Slovenian manufacturing.

  15. Patient Safety Culture in Slovenian out-of-hours Primary Care Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Hofoss, Dag; Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi

    2017-10-01

    Patient safety culture is a concept which describes how leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines and practices protect patients from adverse events in healthcare. We aimed to investigate patient safety culture in Slovenian out-of-hours health care (OOHC) clinics, and determine the possible factors that might be associated with it. This was a cross-sectional study, which took place in Slovenian OOHC, as part of the international study entitled Patient Safety Culture in European Out-of-Hours Services (SAFE-EUR-OOH). All the OOHC clinics in Slovenia (N=60) were invited to participate, and 37 agreed to do so; 438 employees from these clinics were invited to participate. We used the Slovenian version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - an ambulatory version (SAQAV) to measure the climate of safety. Out of 438 invited participants, 250 answered the questionnaire (57.1% response rate). The mean overall score ± standard deviation of the SAQ was 56.6±16.0 points, of Perceptions of Management 53.6±19.6 points, of Job Satisfaction 48.5±18.3 points, of Safety Climate 59.1±22.1 points, of Teamwork Climate 72.7±16.6, and of Communication 51.5±23.4 points. Employees working in the Ravne na Koroškem region, employees with variable work shifts, and those with full-time jobs scored significantly higher on the SAQ-AV. The safety culture in Slovenian OOHC clinics needs improvement. The variations in the safety culture factor scores in Slovenian OOHC clinics point to the need to eliminate variations and improve working conditions in Slovenian OOHC clinics.

  16. Breda Filo and her contribution to the development of the Slovenian librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sapač

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the contribution of Breda Filo to the development of Slovenian librarianship. She researched and published articles concerning library systems, typology of libraries and library organization. She was interested in library legislation and standardization. At first, she was interested in public libraries, later she devoted to the university libraries, particulary to the evidence of research work, information resources, data bases and user education. She cooperated actively in the Slovenian Library association and associations abroad. She prepared study programs at the Librarianship Department and lectured the students of librarianship.

  17. Scalable Frequent Subgraph Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-06-19

    A graph is a data structure that contains a set of nodes and a set of edges connecting these nodes. Nodes represent objects while edges model relationships among these objects. Graphs are used in various domains due to their ability to model complex relations among several objects. Given an input graph, the Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) task finds all subgraphs with frequencies exceeding a given threshold. FSM is crucial for graph analysis, and it is an essential building block in a variety of applications, such as graph clustering and indexing. FSM is computationally expensive, and its existing solutions are extremely slow. Consequently, these solutions are incapable of mining modern large graphs. This slowness is caused by the underlying approaches of these solutions which require finding and storing an excessive amount of subgraph matches. This dissertation proposes a scalable solution for FSM that avoids the limitations of previous work. This solution is composed of four components. The first component is a single-threaded technique which, for each candidate subgraph, needs to find only a minimal number of matches. The second component is a scalable parallel FSM technique that utilizes a novel two-phase approach. The first phase quickly builds an approximate search space, which is then used by the second phase to optimize and balance the workload of the FSM task. The third component focuses on accelerating frequency evaluation, which is a critical step in FSM. To do so, a machine learning model is employed to predict the type of each graph node, and accordingly, an optimized method is selected to evaluate that node. The fourth component focuses on mining dynamic graphs, such as social networks. To this end, an incremental index is maintained during the dynamic updates. Only this index is processed and updated for the majority of graph updates. Consequently, search space is significantly pruned and efficiency is improved. The empirical evaluation shows that the

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Mate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Slovenian entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurship. We have conducted our own empirical quantitative study on the representative sample of Slovenian entrepreneurs (n =114. Using the obtained results, we tried to verify the six hypotheses. We were particularly interested in those hypotheses that presuppose the entrepreneur who highly appreciates and respects the values and virtues of an ethical businesspearson in practice, will be more economically successful. Based on the results of our research we indicated that the Slovenian entrepreneurs are largely aware of the relevant organizational values and moral virtues, although this is not always obvious in their actions in everyday business practices. The article concludes with an interpretation of the results and discussion of the prospects and challenges for further exploration of the topics covered.

  19. Kindergarten Teachers' and Their Assistants' Knowledge of First Aid in Slovenian Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabe, Damjan; Fink, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Rapid physical and mental development in childhood also brings about a high risk of being injured. Since children spend a large amount of their time in kindergarten, there is a possibility that they would be injured while there. Design: A questionnaire for professionals was sent to a Slovenian kindergarten. Setting: The aim of this…

  20. Will Academics Drive or Obstruct the Slovenian Government's Internationalisation Agenda for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flander, Alenka; Klemencic, Manja

    2014-01-01

    The present article is concerned with the question of how conducive the academic culture and climate in Slovenian higher education institutions are to internationalisation. Our underlying assumption is that academic staff represent either an important driving force or an obstacle to the implementation of internationalisation policies formulated at…

  1. BORDERS OF COMMUNICATION PRIVACY IN SLOVENIAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE – CONSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zgaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to fast technological development and our constant communication protection of communication privacy in every aspect of our (legal life has become more important than ever before. Regarding protection of privacy in criminal procedure special emphasis should be given to the regulation of privacy in Slovenian Constitution and its interpretation in the case law of the Constitutional Court. This paper presents the definition of privacy and communication privacy in Slovenian constitutional law and exposes the main issues of communication privacy that have been discussed in the case law of the Constitutional Court in the last twenty years. Thereby the paper tries to show the general trend in the case law of Constitutional Court regarding the protection of communication privacy and to expose certain unsolved issues and unanswered challenges. Slovenian constitutional regulation of communication privacy is very protective, considering the broad definition of privacy and the strict conditions for encroachment of communication privacy. The case law of Slovenian Constitutional Court has also shown such trend, with the possible exception of the recent decision on a dynamic IP address. The importance of this decision is however significant, since it could be applicable to all forms of communication via internet, the prevailing form of communication nowadays. Certain challenges still lay ahead, such as the current proposal for the amendment of Criminal Procedure Act-M, which includes the use of IMSI catchers and numerous unanswered issues regarding data retention after the decisive annulment of its partial legal basis by the Constitutional Court.

  2. Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

  3. Forms of Cooperative Learning in Language Teaching in Slovenian Language Classes at the Primary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Alenka Rot

    2015-01-01

    In the Slovenian language syllabus, teachers are recommended to provide a greater share of group work during class. During types of learning such as cooperative learning in smaller groups or pairs, students actively develop communicative competence. The present article presents a survey that attempted to determine whether teachers from the first…

  4. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  5. The Slovenian missionary Marko Anton Kappus and the Christianisation of New Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2017-12-01

    In this context, it is interesting to look at the content of Kuppus’ letter from 1695 to the Provincial Superior Diego de Almonazir, in which a different, hitherto unknown detail of the attitude of the Slovenian Jesuit towards Eusebio Francisco Kino, a renowned missionary, explorer and cartographer, is outlined.

  6. Attitude towards Inclusive Education: The Perspective of Slovenian Preschool and Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štemberger, Tina; Kiswarday, Vanja Riccarda

    2018-01-01

    The paper is built on premises that teachers' attitude is one of the most important factors of implementing inclusive education and it focuses on preschool and primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education. The purpose of the study was to establish what attitude Slovenian preschool and primary school teachers hold towards…

  7. Optimal development path for the Slovenian electrical power system using the WASP and ELBIVIM models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregar, Z; Kosnjek, Z; Potecnik, F [Milan Vidmar Electric Power Research Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the WASP study conducted for Slovenia. A thorough analysis shows that the model is applicable to the Slovenian power system. Parallel operation with the domestic ELBIVIM model is nevertheless recommended in order to extract the maximum benefits from both models. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

  8. Simplifications and Idealizations in High School Physics in Mechanics: A Study of Slovenian Curriculum and Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjan, Matej; Sliško, Josip

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of an analysis of three Slovenian textbooks for high school physics, from the point of view of simplifications and idealizations in the field of mechanics. In modeling of physical systems, making simplifications and idealizations is important, since one ignores minor effects and focuses on the most important…

  9. Vagabond Figures in Slovenian Visual Art and Literature at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Simonišek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the relationship between visual and literary motifs in Slovenian painting (and illustration, graphics, and drawing and literature (both prose and poetry at the beginning of the twentieth century. It uses examples to show the popularity and rich variety of vagabond figures and their transformations and reciprocity at the level of the painting/text. However, a distinctive feature of this article is that it places the subject within the context of hermeneutics, a method that has not been used in Slovenian art history. In addition, it also reveals the symbolic complexity of the vagabond figure in the context of writers, other works, and social-historical circumstances. The emphasis is placed on artists that showed enthusiasm for this figure as a subject during the Belle Époque and also those that followed the very popular bohemian lifestyle in their everyday lives. The reception of Slovenian folk and traditional motifs from the past produced visual and semantic oscillation in which the phenomena of vagabond figures were systematized and interpreted. Many painters (e.g., Gvidon Birolla, and Maksim Gaspari and writers (e.g., Oton Župančič, Cvetko Golar, and Ivan Cankar clung to the Slovenian tradition with romantic overtones and, in line with their artistic atmosphere, integrated vagabond figures into typical Slovenian landscapes or environments. Some of them followed Symbolism and modernized the figures with autobiographical references (e.g., Fran Tratnik. The situation among the youngest generation of artists in particular showed that they managed to “escape” from copying traditional motifs and instead used them in a modern form in the “here and now” (e.g., Ivan Cankar. The discrepancy between the lack of the vagabond theme in oil painting and strong diversification in illustration, drawing, graphics, and literature could be explained by consumers’ perceived difference between “high” and “popular” art.

  10. ANALYSIS OF SLOVENIAN WOMEN'S HANDBALL – TWO WORLDS IN A SMALL COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the situation in Slovenian women’s handball with the use of theoretical findings from the area of strategic sports management. Two poles of functioning are basic characteristic of Slovenian handball. One pole is the only professional women’s team– RK Krim Mercator. Club was twice the winner of Champions League (2001 and 2003. Second pole are “all other” women’s clubs in Slovenia. The basic methodological tool used was SWOT analysis; whereas methods of description and comparison have been mostly used within the theoretical part of the study. A purpose is to contribute to fulfilling a goal of reinstating Slovenian women’s handball among the ten best European national teams. One club belongs to professional, well organised club in Europe (budget cca 1,4 mio €; 7 -10 training s./week , on other hand are clubs which face large problems and are financially inept (budget from 150000 to 200000€; 3 – 5 training s./week . Majority of clubs do not have sufficient financial resources for all the costs of competitions and consequently the possibilities for the progress of players and clubs. Cooperation and synergy between subjects in Slovenian handball is missing. In general, it can be concluded that strategic management will have to be introduced at all levels of Slovenian women’s handball. It is generally thought that there are considerable reserves in organisation and work of clubs and the management of national governing body. Temporary, to make a progress, handball sport in Slovenia needs clear vision. The strongest weakness is probably the absence of competent knowledge of management and marketing. Key words: women’s handball, club, SWOT analysis, strategic management

  11. INSULIN DETEMIR IMPROVES GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND IS WEIGHT NEUTRALIN THE SLOVENIAN COHORT OF THE PREDICTIVE™ STUDY – CLINICALEXPERIENCE IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Mrevlje

    2008-10-01

    The Slovenian cohort data thus support the short-term safety and efficacy of insulin detemir in daily clinical practice. These results are consistent with the findings of controlledclinical trials, including essentially no effect on body weight gain

  12. Capacity of middle management in health-care organizations for working with people—the case of Slovenian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective human resources management plays a vital role in the success of health-care sector reform. Leaders are selected for their clinical expertise and not their management skills, which is often the case at the middle-management level. The purpose of this study was to examine the situation in some fields that involve working with people in health-care organizations at middle-management level. Methods The study included eight state-owned hospitals in Slovenia. A cross-sectional study included 119 middle managers and 778 employees. Quota sampling was used for the subgroups. Structured survey questionnaires were administered to leaders and employees, each consisting of 24 statements in four content sets evaluated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Respondents were also asked about the type and number of training or education programmes they had participated in over the last three years. Descriptive statistics, two-way analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were used. The study was conducted from March to December 2008. Results Statistically significant differences were established between leaders and employees in all content sets; no significant differences were found when comparing health-care providers and health-administration workers. Employment position was found to be a significant predictor for employee development (β = 0.273, P employee relationship (β = 0.291, P motivation (β = 0.258, P motivation: respondents with a higher level of education were rated with a lower score (β = -0.117, P = 0.024). Health-care providers participate in management programmes less frequently than do health-administration workers. Conclusion Employee participation in change-implementation processes was low, as was awareness of the importance of employee development. Education of employees in Slovenian hospitals for leadership roles is still not perceived as a necessary investment for improving work processes

  13. The Derivatives as Financial Risk Management Instruments: The Case of Croatian and Slovenian Non-financial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Miloš Sprčić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses financial risk management practices and derivative usage in large Croatian and Slovenian non-financial companies and explores if the decision to use derivatives as risk management instruments in the analysed companies is a function of several firm’s characteristics that have been proven as relevant in making financial risk management decisions. On the basis of the research results it can be concluded that forwards and swaps are by far the most important derivative instruments in both countries. Futures as representatives of standardised derivatives together with structured derivatives are more important in the Slovenian than in the Croatian companies, while exchange-traded and OTC options are unimportant means of financial risk management in both countries. A comparative analysis conducted to explore differences between risk management practices in Slovenian and Croatian companies has shown evidence that Slovenian companies use all types of derivatives, especially structured derivatives, more intensively than Croatian companies. The survey has revealed that the explored hedging rationales have little predictive power in explaining financial risk management decisions both in Croatian and Slovenian companies. The decision to use derivatives in Croatian non-financial companies is related only to the investment expenditures-to-assets ratio which controls for costly external financing hypothesis, while the decision to use derivatives in Slovenian companies is dependent only on the size of the company. It can be argued that the characteristics of the Croatian and Slovenian firms could be found in other South-eastern European countries and that findings of this research may act as a baseline from which to generalise. Therefore, the survey results analysed in this paper also suggest a broader comparison across countries in the region. The advantage of this work is that it provides an impetus for further research to move beyond the

  14. Providing public information in the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon Jager, Mojca

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Good safety culture is strongly related to transparent and timely information. Experience has shown that radiation and nuclear safety are under continuous surveillance by the public. The provision of open and authentic information to the public is a fundamental policy of the SNSA. The SNSA endeavors to provide substantial and reliable information to the interested institutions, mass media and to the citizens through press conferences, public statements, media discussions, and active participation in domestic and international meetings, symposia and congresses, through publications, the Internet and direct contacts with the interested public. The SNSA regularly provides information on nuclear safety to the Government, the National Assembly and the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia. The Annual Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety is published in Poroeevalec (Reporter) - the publication of the National Assembly - in autumn, and is available in public libraries throughout Slovenia. Annual Report is available also on the Internet (http://www.sigov.si/ursjv/uvod.html) in Slovene and English. Access to data of the Central Radiation Early Warning System of Slovenia (CROSS), recording the real time (at half-hour intervals) gamma dose rate levels, is also available through Internet. The report in English is sent every year to Slovenian embassies world-wide, to certain foreign embassies in Slovenia and to other organizations participating in the activities in the nuclear and radiological field. Reports on the SNSA activities are also published in the bulletin Okolje in prostor (Environment and Spatial Planning), published by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. The SNSA regularly contributes articles on courses, seminars and symposia attended at home and abroad. The articles are intended to give basic information on training and the names of contact persons to provide additional information on certain topics to those interested. More than half of

  15. On the Contribution of Slovenian Linguistics to the History of the Ancient Greek Perfect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An important contribution to the history of the Ancient Greek perfect is the study of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec, The Disappearance of the Perfect in Late Greek (La disparition du parfait dans le grec de la basse époque. In terms of theory and content, her study continues the work of Pierre Chantraine, but somewhat diverges from her predecessor’s views on the issue of the merger between the aorist and the perfect, identifying examples of the use of the perfect even in an – according to Pierre Chantraine – relatively late period.  Some years after the publication of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec’s book, the question of when the aorist and the perfect may have merged was raised again, to be addressed by McKay in a number of articles. Today, the views on the subject are strongly divided.   As argued by the author of this paper, one of the setbacks in examining the merger between the aorist and the perfect concerns the methodology, since researchers have tended to rely exclusively on their sense of language. A possible new approach is offered in the framework of the Slovenian theory of Natural Syntax, which has from the start paid considerable attention to English sentences of the I believe her to be intelligent type. The paper describes similar sentences in New Testament Greek, terming them “sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type”. In New Testament Greek, they display a tendency to use the present infinitive of stative verbs; relatively frequent is also the perfect infinitive (of non-stative verbs, while, as already noted in other studies, these sentences – at least in New Testament Greek – avoid the aorist infinitive. Such sentences thus bear witness to the fact that the aorist and the perfect were not fully interchangeable in New Testament Greek; the status of the aorist and perfect infinitives in sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type should also be taken into

  16. Prevalence of variations in melanoma susceptibility genes among Slovenian melanoma families

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    Besic Nikola

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two high-risk genes have been implicated in the development of CM (cutaneous melanoma. Germline mutations of the CDKN2A gene are found in CDK4 gene reported to date. Beside those high penetrance genes, certain allelic variants of the MC1R gene modify the risk of developing the disease. The aims of our study were: to determine the prevalence of germline CDKN2A mutations and variants in members of families with familial CM and in patients with multiple primary CM; to search for possible CDK4 mutations, and to determine the frequency of variations in the MC1R gene. Methods From January 2001 until January 2007, 64 individuals were included in the study. The group included 28 patients and 7 healthy relatives belonging to 25 families, 26 patients with multiple primary tumors and 3 children with CM. Additionally 54 healthy individuals were included as a control group. Mutations and variants of the melanoma susceptibility genes were identified by direct sequencing. Results Seven families with CDKN2A mutations were discovered (7/25 or 28.0%. The L94Q mutation found in one family had not been previously reported in other populations. The D84N variant, with possible biological impact, was discovered in the case of patient without family history but with multiple primary CM. Only one mutation carrier was found in the control group. Further analysis revealed that c.540C>T heterozygous carriers were more common in the group of CM patients and their healthy relatives (11/64 vs. 2/54. One p14ARF variant was discovered in the control group and no mutations of the CDK4 gene were found. Most frequently found variants of the MC1R gene were T314T, V60L, V92M, R151C, R160W and R163Q with frequencies slightly higher in the group of patients and their relatives than in the group of controls, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusion The present study has shown high prevalence of p16INK4A mutations in Slovenian population of

  17. Dispositions to school education and self concept in Slovenian and British high-school students

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    Darja Kobal

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the relationship between dispositions to school education and self-concept. What is meant by the expression "dispositions of school education" are phenomena like attitudes to school, achievement motivation, believes about personal control over learning, external constrains to learning etc. The definition of self-concept and its brief contemporary understanding is mentioned. The aim of the study is to find out the expression of certain areas of self-concept and dispositions to school education. A group of Slovenian and a group of British high school students participated in the study. The results of ANOVA and discriminant analysis showed significant differences as related to nationality. For example, British participants exceeded Slovenians in many areas of self-concept. They also expressed some significant differences in their dispositions to school. The results are interpreted in the light of personality and national differences.

  18. Normalization of Racism through the Language of Democracy: the Case of the Slovenian Democratic Party

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    Ana Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question of what kind of discursive strategies enable political parties the proliferation of racist and xenophobic ideas, in terms of a democratic society and within established politics. Theoretically, it is based on studies of racism, populism and the radical right. In the empirical part, elements of racism and (radical-right populism in the discourse of the Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS are analysed, with particular focus on the othering discourse. The discourse analysis includes interviews of party representatives and texts published on party’s websites. The SDS discourse analysis shows that the party articulates social problems through the use of nationalist, nativist and essentialist arguments, and proliferates and normalizes xenophobic and racist ideas by reproducing minorities and political opponents as threats to the Slovenian culture, values and lifestyle, as well as threats to the party itself.

  19. 2. slovenski MoodleMoot = 2nd Slovenian MoodleMoot

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    Viktorija Sulcic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Moodle, an open source learning management system, is becoming widely used and recognised all over the world. Slovenian Moodle users have been participating and sharing their experience in the Moodle.si community since 2006. The initiator of the Moodle.si community – the Faculty of Management Koper organised the first Slovenian MoodleMoot Conference last year. The event was organised again in May 2008. The conference was organised by the Centre for E-Learning of the Faculty of Management Koper in co-operation with the Open Source Centre – Slovenia, Artesia and the National School for Leadership in Education. This paper presents the 2nd International Moodle.si Conference.

  20. The System For Co-Reference Resolution For Slovenian Texts Analysis and Possibilities of its Use

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    Peter Holozan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Co-reference resolution is an important part of language technologies, but has not yet been developed for Slovenian. There are various types of co-references and the paper focuses on anaphora resolution of personal pronouns. Seven methods, used in combination, were used; the most important one is based on activation. First results are promising, but for more extensive evaluation, Slovenian corpus with marked examples is needed. Co-reference resolution was used in the question answering system Crammer, which can, as a result, answer more questions than before, because it can replace personal pronouns. At the same time, some other improvement were added to Crammer, e.g. answering to individual words and phrases and answering to declarative sentences. Added was also generation of long answers to questions with interrogative particles. Co-reference resolution also improved working of Presis machine translation, especially for determining of gender of pronouns and for disambiguation of attributive subordinate clauses.

  1. Fragments of the Slovenian linguistic picture of Serbia from the last decades of the XIXth century

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    Ivanova Najda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent article the role of the popular science book Bolgarija in Srbija (1897, written by the Slovenian stenographer, journalist, translator, pedagogist and writer Anton Bezenšek (1854-1915, for the formation of Slovenian stereotypical attitudes towards Serbia in the last decades of the XXth century is examined. We analyze the principles of selection as well as the mechanisms of using elements, belonging to both the language of obesrving culture and the language of the observed one, for verbalizing the image of the Other, which are related to the sociocultural discourse, the individual and ideological orientation of the author, and last but not least, to the tematic and genre-and-stylistic features of the text itself. In this context, the necessity of systematic introduction of linguistic methods for exploring the imagological categories and their implementation in different types of text is emphasized.

  2. Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms

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    Ponikvar Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

  3. The selection criteria for Slovenian bibliography: with special emphasis on the articles

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    Marjeta Šušteričič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection principles are an important stage in the creation of a national bibliography.The article outlines the selection of the national output to be included in Slovenian bibliography. It also presents theoretical basis for selection in general, with the emphasis on international guidelines and on the development of national principles and professional outlines. Statistical data and examples give more detailed analysis of selection criteria of articles regarding different types of serial publications. Results of the study show that selection criteria for Slovenian bibliography are to be constantly verified due to the dynamics of the national publishing industry. Nevertheless, the main features of selection criteria remain unchanged: lasting value of subject matter with the emphasis on scientific research and expert knowledge.

  4. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Zupančič; Anja Podlesek; Tina Kavčič

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ), and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Facto...

  5. Modernisation of Radiation Monitoring Room as a Part of Slovenian Emergency Response Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvari, A.; Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002 the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) moved to the new premises therefore it had to rearrange some of its rooms for the emergency situation. SNSA does not operate with a dedicated Emergency Response Centre (ERC), instead of it the SNSA has to rearrange the existing rooms in case of an emergency. Modernisation of the equipment, with the help of government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for the emergency situation was carried out, especially in the monitoring room. The radiation monitoring system, which is placed in the monitoring room, continuously collects, processes and archives the incoming data of exposure to radiation and meteorological parameters on the Slovenian territory (A model national emergency response plan for radiological accidents, IAEA, Vienna, 1993. IAEA-TECDOC-718). In the emergency situation the monitoring room transforms into the room for the Dose Assessment Group (DAG), which is part of ERC (IAEA emergency response network, IAEA, Vienna, 2000, EPR-ERNET (2000)). The modernisation of monitoring room and within the DAG room with new equipment and its purpose is described in this article. Modernisation of the monitoring room and the room for DAG showed to be inevitably needed. Modernisation of the monitoring room has brought the SNSA a sophisticated and reliable system of controlling the external exposure to radiation on the Slovenian territory. The equipment, especially the equipment for the use in the emergency situation, brought novelties for the Dose Assessment Group. The group has now better and easier control of radiation situation in case of an accident. In overall this modernisation has put the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration a step forward in having a dedicated Emergency Response Centre, since it does not need to rearrange the room for the Dose Assessment Group. (author)

  6. The Future of Officer Career Development System in the Slovenian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Professors Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, at the Faculty for Social Science at University of Ljubljana, clearly identified the deficiencies in the...short-lived solution], Slovenian Armed Forces Bulletin 10, no. 1 (May 2008): 97-120. 5Anton Zabkar and Uros Svete, “Solanje Vojaskih Profesionalcev...is based on Length of Service ( LoS ) and applies to all DE officers and the other is the LE career structure.87 85Major Al Thorp, e-mail message to

  7. Some Sociological, Medical and Legislative Views on Video Game Addiction (A Slovenian Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Goriup Jana; Arnuš Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide play video games; also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to v...

  8. Tretji slovenski MoodleMoot = 3rd Slovenian MoodleMoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Sulčič

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This year, the 3rd international moodle.si conference took place in Koper and brought together Slovenian users of Moodle, an open-source learning management system. This year’s conference, which is presented in the paper, was especially interesting due to its plenary session being wholly dedicated to the national e-schooling project. An interesting addition was also Apple’s workshop about using iLife applications in education.

  9. Voice problems among Slovenian physicians compared to the teachers: Prevalence and risk factors

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    Maja Šereh Bahar

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.

  10. The Slovenian Lands as the Armed Frontier of the Holy Roman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Tomaž

    2017-01-01

    In the late Middle Ages, the Slovenian lands formed a major bulwark defending the south-eastern borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Relatively little is known of the military organisation in this strategically significant region due to the absence of sufficiently detailed primary sources. However, the recent discovery of an important and thus far unpublished document from the Bavarian State Library provides excellent insight into the structure and strength of the defensive network established b...

  11. Breda Filo and her contribution to the development of the Slovenian librarianship

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Sapač

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the contribution of Breda Filo to the development of Slovenian librarianship. She researched and published articles concerning library systems, typology of libraries and library organization. She was interested in library legislation and standardization. At first, she was interested in public libraries, later she devoted to the university libraries, particulary to the evidence of research work, information resources, data bases and user education. She cooperated actively...

  12. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilij Mate; Dejan Jelovac; Anita Kralj

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Sloveni...

  13. Stereotypes of older employees compared to younger employees in Slovenian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Rožman, Maja; Treven, Sonja; Čančer, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Human resource management has an important impact on age diversity in companies. Age diversity in the workplace is growing and older employees are staying longer in the workforce, therefore it is important that employers can create a positive environment for age diverse employees. This paper introduces the difference in stereotypes in the workplace between older and younger employees in Slovenian companies. The main goal of this paper is to present the importance of age diversity and their ag...

  14. Health-related behaviour among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health

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    Jerneja Farkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behavioural risk factors have a significant impact on health. We aimed to assess health-related behaviour, health status, and use of healthcare services among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included management (directors, scientific directors, directors’ deputies of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health (63 respondents; 57% women; overall mean age: 51±7 years; response rate: 74%. Data were obtained using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 35% of respondents were directors. More than half of the respondents were overweight or obese (52%, the majority were not sufficiently physically active (59% and overloaded with stress (87%. Hypercholesterolemia (36%, spinal disease (17%, and arterial hypertension (16% were most common chronic diseases. Whilst only few participants visited their general practitioner due their health complaints, blood pressure (76%, cholesterol (51%, and glucose (54% were measured within last year in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Our findings point to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as workplace-related stress among Slovenian public health managers. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be focused on stress management along with promotion of healthy behavioural patterns.

  15. Cultural Words in Slovenian Translations of the Works of Juan Rulfo and Carlos Fuentes

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    Uršula Kastelic Vukadinović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, based on the author´s thesis entitled Kulturno besedje v slovenskih prevodih del Juana Rulfa in Carlosa Fuentesa, discusses cultural words in the Slovenian translations of the novel Pedro Páramo, some of the stories of The Plain in Flames by Juan Rulfo published in the same volume and the novel The Death of Artemio Cruz by Carlos Fuentes. In the analyzed texts there are a number of terms (also including cultural words which denote animals, plants, dishes, clothes and geographical surroundings of Mexico that may be unknown even to the Spanish speaking readers who are not familiar with the wider Hispanic environment, and Mexican in particular. Cultural words have no exact equivalents in other languages and cultures, therefore, they most commonly indicate that we are reading a translated text. These are also the elements that contribute to the foreignization of the target text and show us the textual world as exotic and unknown. The translator of the studied texts, Alenka Bole Vrabec, tends to choose the transfer of the cultural words in order to retain some local colour, even when she could find equivalents in the Slovenian or, at least, adapt the words to the writing in accordance with the rules of the Slovenian language. These decisions accentuate the foreignizing character of her translations.

  16. Validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale in a sample of Slovenian students

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    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined construct validity and reliability of the Academic Motivation Scale, College Version (Academic Motivation Scale, AMS-C 28, Vallerand et al., 1992 and its relationship with gender, certainty of study choice and career goals in Slovenian university students. The theoretical basis of AMS is derived from Self-Determination Theory, which identified different types of motivation on a continuum from amotivation to different types of external motivation and intrinsic (self-determined motivation. The AMS measures multidimensional motivational construct and contains seven scales. The validation sample consisted of 324 students of various studies at the University of Ljubljana. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fit of the original 7-factor structure on Slovenian data and measurement invariance across gender. The highest were correlations among the three factors of intrinsic motivation and among the three factors of external motivation. Current certainty of study choice was positively associated with all three factors of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation, and negatively correlated with amotivation. Extrinsic career goals had low to moderate positive correlations with factors of external motivation while intrinsic career goals correlated positively with the three factors of intrinsic motivation, identified and introjected regulation, and negatively with amotivation. Female students had higher scores on intrinsic motivation to accomplish, and identified and introjected regulation than male students. In sum, the AMS C-28 showed good construct and convergent validity and reliability in Slovenian university context.

  17. INCOME AND WELFARE INDICATORS OF SLOVENIAN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN VIEW OF FUTURE ACCESION TO THE EU

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    Stane Kavčič

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian livestock production is facing different agricultural policy and economic environment as is the case in EU. Despite modest reforms of national agricultural policy it is still incomparable with common market organisations of CAP. Different levels of market-price support for major livestock commodities is another aggravating circumstance for efficient adjustment. Therefore different policy measures have to be taken into account simultaneously for policy relevant analysis (income effects, welfare efficiency. Applying APAS-PAM agricultural sector model for Slovenian agriculture the most important income and welfare effects of Slovenian EU accession on producers, consumers and taxpayers as well as net welfare effects for baseline and three accession scenarios have been simulated. Results obtained show potential improvement of incomes in dairy farming and cattle fattening only for most optimistic accession scenario (complete adoption of Agenda 2000 CAP, while deterioration is foreseen in pig and poultry farming irrespective of accession conditions. Producer surplus indicates similar trends, while consumers are expected to be beneficiaries due to lower market-price support. Main part of producer income support burden will be transferred to taxpayers. Irrespective of accession scenario net welfare effects for pork and poultry are favourable, while opposite could happen in milk and beef sectors.

  18. The old man and Slovenia: Hemingway studies in the slovenian cultural context

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    Igor Maver

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of Ernest Hemingway was first mentioned in Slovenian literary criticism by the writer and critic Tone Seliškar in 1933. Soon afterwards, Griša Koritnik, the foremost translator of English and American literatures in the period between the two wars, in his article »The Great War in the English Novel« described the protagonist of the novel A Farewell to Arms (1929 somewhat enigmatically as »the symbol of the old generation«. In a short survey of contemporary American literature, which Anton Debeljak in 1939 freely adapted from the article previously published by J. Wood Krutch in The Times,  Hemingway was grouped together with the Nobel Prize winner Pearl S. Buck and novelist Erskine Caldwell, which is to say with the giants of the then mainstream American fiction. However, it is curious that a Slovenian reader should already from this article have learned how Hemingway, the author of »powerful stories«, had recently become monotonous, which was before he even had a fair chance to get acquainted with any of his works translated into Slovenian.

  19. Interoperability in practice: case study of the Slovenian independence war of 1991

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    Vladimir Prebilič

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper will examine the theory of the interoperability of armed forces through the case of he Slovenian Independence War of 1991. Although defense system interoperability is a well-established concept, there are many obstacles to its implementation. Some defense systems do not deliberately support the idea of interoperability. One such example is the total defense system in SFR Yugoslavia, which is comprised of two defense components: the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA and territorial defense structures organized by the federal republic. The question of interoperability is highly relevant since the war was fought between the YPA and the defense forces of the newly proclaimed independent state, Slovenia, who were partners in the total defense concept. Due to the clear asymmetry, interoperability offered a great advantage in the independence war. The Slovenian defense forces were combined into three structures: the former militia as an internal security element, the territorial defense as a military component, and the national protection forces as a “civil” defense element. Although each structure had its own command and organizational structure, during the Slovenian War they were combined into a well-structured and organized defense element that achieved victory against a much stronger, better equipped, and better supported army.

  20. Satisfaction with life and job satisfaction of employees in Slovenian army

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    Tjaša Dimec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate satisfaction with life and job satisfaction in the Slovenian army. For this purpose we used Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985 and Pogačnik's (2003 Job Satisfaction Scale. This research involved 168 employees of the Slovenian army: 68 soldiers, 60 officers, and 40 noncommissioned officers. The results showed that employees in Slovenian army are more satisfied than unsatisfied with their lives. Officers are the most satisfied with their life. We found out that appraisals on job satisfaction are rather low and indicate middle level of job satisfaction. The highest level of work satisfaction was expressed in the area of relations with co-workers. Participants were least satisfied with their salary and other material facilities. Individuals with subordinate co-workers showed higher level of satisfaction with work conditions, possibilities for promotion, salary and other material facilities, and also higher level of satisfaction about informing in the army, possibilities for professional development, independence and autonomy at work, work reputation, creativeness at work and also taking part in decision-making. Analysis of differences showed that officers gave the highest score to indicators of work satisfaction, with exception of independence and autonomy at work, work reputation, and pretentiousness of work. Based on the examination of the actual state, to the level the research was enabling, we identified some necessary changes, improvements or measures for improvement of the recognized weak areas.

  1. Establishing the National Expression in the Work of the Independent Group of Slovenian Artists (The Independents

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    Asta Vrečko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was ripe with political crises connected to the national question in the Kingdom of SHS and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The relationship between Yugoslav and Slovene identity again became central for the question of national emancipation within an increasing supranational conflict and became the focus of visual arts in the 1930s. After a decade marked by Expressionism and New Objectivity in the thirties, values of moderate modernism and the quest for national expression re-emerged. At the time a new group of artists emerged on the Slovene artistic scene. They were schooled in Zagreb, the cultural centre of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where intense polemics regarding national expression in art were taking place. This contribution outlines the search for “our expression” in art as understood by the central protagonists of the art scene in Croatia, Krsto Hegedušić and Ljubo Babić. The latter especially was of central importance to the formation of the young Slovene art, because he was a prolific writer and one of the most important professors at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb. The former Slovenian students, who formed the Independent group of Slovenian artists (Klub neodvisnih slovenskih likovnih umetnikov emerged in the turbulent years before the outbreak of World War II. In art, so they claimed, they were seeking their own, Slovenian national visual expression. In this search they took inspiration from Croatian artists, whose ideas they adapted to the Slovenian situation. At the same time, they legitimised their efforts with references to Slovene impressionists, who were regarded as the founding fathers of Slovene national art. In this way the Independents (Neodvisni sought to highlight the continuity in their search for Slovene national expression in art despite the transformed historical context. They based their national expression in art on a modernist version of Slovene impressionism. They combined this with

  2. Theoretical Assumptions and Methodological Frames for a User-friendly Web Platform: the SMeJse Project (SMiLe – Slovenian as a Minority Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Grgič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some theoretical and methodological issues related to the online portal SLOVENŠČINA KOT MANJŠINSKI JEZIK – SMeJse / SLOVENIAN AS A MINORITY LANGUAGE – SMiLe where existent tools, materials and information for the development of linguistic skills and abilities in Slovenian are collected. The platform was established by SLORI – Slovenski raziskovalni inštitut / Slovenian research institute of Trieste, Italy, and the Dijaški dom S. Kosovela / Slovenian student’s center of Trieste, Italy. The purpose of the portal is to stimulate different usages of the current Slovenian language in the Slovenian-Italian contact area, particularly in Italy, with the aim of assuring high communication proficiency in all kinds and varieties of the Slovenian language (the so called “equilingualism”, a balanced bilingualism and also the development of lects, still within the Slovenian linguistic continuum. Specific language policies are particularly successful for the development of linguistic skills which enable proficiency in the minority language, as well as equilingualism and balanced bilingualism among the speakers of the minority group. Such policies are based on the implementation of measures for an increased exposure to different language uses and on the creation of the need of language use in circles and situations where compensatory strategies are unsuitable. The portal is based on the newest linguistic, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies concerning the Slovenian language in Italy, on the Slovenian-Italian language contact and on the acquisition of the minority language. An analysis of the status of the Slovenian language in Italy, its perception and its phenomena, as well as the overview of some language policies and methodological frames, has shown a gap between the existent tools and the needs of the community of speakers.

  3. Attitudes of Students at the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Towards Slovenian as the Language of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubic Darija

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the Slovenian language as the language of instruction inhigher education context. First, the status of Slovenian throughout history isbriefly described. Second, the author points out the role of the Slovenian standardlanguage in the educational system from kindergarten to the university, and the fullfunctional role of the Slovenian language within higher education, i.e. Slovenianas the academic language in different disciplines. Further, the paper provides anoutline of language guidelines as included in various documents, such as TheCountry Profile of Slovenia (2003, The National Programme for Language Policy(2007-2011, The White Paper (2011, The Common European Framework forLanguages (2001, and the draft of the National Programme for Language Policy2012-2016. The empirical part focuses on a survey, which investigated into theattitudes of students at the Faculty of Education towards Slovenian as the languageof instruction. The conclusions drawn from the survey suggest some strategies forimproving the current language practice in the higher education context.

  4. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  5. MODUS OPERANDI OF SLOVENIAN RADIO BROADCASTERS IN TRANSMISSION OF THEIR PROGRAMME CONTENTS IN THE PERIOD FROM 2004 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Brglez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated trends of digitalisation and media convergence contribute to an increasingly important role of radio in modern society. In the last decade, we have seen in the field of radio broadcasting in the Republic of Slovenia an overwhelming expansion of radio broadcasters who acquired the radio broadcasting licences. The topic of this paper are issued radio broadcasting licences and granted statuses of station of special importance within radio broadcasting activity. Based on our own research of secondary data obtained from the documentation of co-regulators in the field of broadcasting for the period from 2004 to 2014, we attempted to identify the modus operandi of radio broadcasters in their everyday practice after acquiring the licences and statuses. Findings of our research indicate that the radio broadcasters over the period considered have often changed programme-related requirements and limitations resulting from their licences and the Mass Media Act, while broadcasting and distributing programming contents. In comparison with the modification of licences, they did not transfer the broadcasting right to another legal entity so frequently. It has been also established that the regulator in ten cases temporarily had revoked the broadcasting licences or decided to withdraw the statuses, because the irregularities were detected during expert supervision. The authors set out proposals for the improvement of the situation in the subject field, based on the obtained results. They consider that it could be a challenge for all broadcasting stakeholders, who however have to tackle the elimination of the multi-annual delay of the harmonisation of the broadcasting sector with the standards of European Union. According to the results of the present study, the stakeholders cannot be satisfied with the situation in Slovenian media landscape and with its development nowadays.

  6. Slovenian System for Protecting Against Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal Shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritar, A.; Cesarek, J.; Vokal Nemec, B., E-mail: andrej.stritar@gov.si [Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-07-15

    The Slovenian experience shows that the majority of detected orphan sources are associated with imports of scrap metal to Slovenia and transits of that material through Slovenia. Such orphan sources originate from past industrial activities and weak regulatory control in the countries of origin. In order to minimise the number of sources outside regulatory control several regulatory and law enforcement measures have been implemented. To prevent illicit trafficking across the border the 'First line of defence' - customs and police - are equipped with radiation detection devices. Since 2002, the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has provided a 24-hour on-duty officer, who gives advice in case of the discovery of an orphan source. The majority of scrap metal collectors and re-cyclers are equipped with portal monitors and/or hand-held radiation detection equipment. Generally, good cooperation has been established between different organizations within Slovenia, with neighbouring countries and with some international organizations. To regulate the scrap metal activities, a new Decree on checking the radioactivity of shipments of metal scrap has been in force since 1 January 2008. This decree requires that every importer has to present a certificate of radiation measurement before any shipment of scrap metal is brought into Slovenia. Such measurements can be performed only by certified organizations. These organizations can obtain certification from the SNSA providing that they have the prescribed measuring devices, adequate training and procedures, and that their capabilities have been checked by a technical support organization. The experience after one year of application of the decree is positive. Awareness, including the adequacy of response, has increased. The paper discusses the general scheme for protection against illicit radioactive material in scrap metal shipments and the Slovenian experience in the last decade. (author)

  7. Some Sociological, Medical and Legislative Views on Video Game Addiction (A Slovenian Case Study

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    Goriup Jana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide play video games; also in Slovenian post-modern society. Most of them do it for enjoyment, yet a small number of individuals show traits associated with addictive behaviour when interacting with their games. The authors in the article point out that, compared to drug abuse, there exist some more approachable life-related activities that can lead to addiction. They stimulate the excretion of endorphins and lead to the transformation of consciousness. Addiction to video games is an ostensible attempt to satisfy the immanent human need for meaning. The economy of the Slovenian young consumer society inspires it and is based on “learning” of these alienated needs. The modern hyperpragmatic society makes it possible for young people to have a fragmented identity and places them under the pressure of constant choice of (formally open opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the reader with possible causes, clinical signs and methods of treatment of this disorder in Slovenian postmodern society, and explain the reasons why currently no medical textbook in the world contains any information regarding video game addiction. We intend, further, to demonstrate that gaming has become a type of “sport” in certain countries and demonstrate how potentially devastating even this type of addiction can be. The authors present the results of a research, which was undertaken on a sample of 350 individuals, to determine the appearance of indicators of behavioural addiction to video games and their connection with some family factors. They determine that through addiction to video games, post-modern societies have developed an addictive identity.

  8. Low back pain among nurses in Slovenian hospitals: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela-Savič, B; Pesjak, K; Hvalič-Touzery, S

    2017-12-01

    The study investigated the prevalence and factors predicting low back pain among nurses in Slovenian hospitals. The risk factors for low back pain are physical and psychosocial. Implementation of interventions for reducing low back pain calls for management support, accessible equipment, education, knowledge and risk assessment. Low back pain prevalence and incidence among healthcare workers is very high compared to the general population and is a strong risk factor for long-term sickness absence. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. We used validated instruments: Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire, Stanford Presenteeism Scale and Perceived Stress Scale. The sample included 1744 nursing employees from 16 Slovenian hospitals, ranging from practical nurses, registered nurses, nurses with a bachelor's degree and those with a master's degree. Results revealed a prevalence of low back pain among 85.9% of respondents. Relevant risk factors included female gender, age, length of employment, years in current position, shift work and the number of nurses per shift. In the regression model, factors predicting low back pain included presenteeism with a negative effect on work, presenteeism and maintaining work productivity, inability to control daily life, number of nurses per shift and respondents' age. Future activities should be oriented towards eliminating or reducing risks for low back pain incidents and towards different strategies, guidelines and actions which empower individuals and provide knowledge to manage and prevent low back pain. Slovenian healthcare system planning needs a national strategy to successfully promote LBP preventive and controlling strategies. Management can plan preventive and curative measures to reduce low back pain prevalence among nursing personnel. Management should also implement policies reflecting research findings. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Awareness of Cloud Computing in Slovenian and Croatian Micro-Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Werber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the two studies conducted in Slovenian and Croatian micro-enterprises (µE about the awareness of the cloud computing (CC. We were interested in the issues relating to the characteristics of µE and the latter's use of information and communication technology (ICT in business processes. Also, the characteristics of owners and µE were investigated. We found that the results obtained in the two countries were similar. In both cases, the most important CC characteristics were reliability, security and performance. Given that CC could represent a good business opportunity for µE, some managerial implications are proposed.

  10. Differences between National Cultures Matter – Case of Slovenian-Korean Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušar Matej

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Global business today usually requires organizations to be present locally in countries where their customers are. To do this successfully, good cooperation with local people is needed. Therefore, this paper focuses on the integration of cultures in the business world. The insights from this study are expected to benefit Slovenian expatriates to foreign companies in South Korea, as well as national culture researchers. The main goals of this research include a comparison of Hofstede’s IBM survey results with the researched working environment, and identifying the benefits of merging two national cultures for the working environment.

  11. From elite reproduction to elite adaptation: the dynamics of change in personal networks of Slovenian elites

    OpenAIRE

    Iglič, Hajdeja; Rus, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the process of elite adaptation in Slovenia in the period between 1988 and 1995. While negotiated settlement between the old and new elites in Slovenia contributed to high reproduction rates of Slovenian old elites, there was significant change going on within the new and old elites. By looking at their ego networks, we show that the debate on elite reproduction is overlooking an important aspect of change, i.e. the adaptation of elites. We analyze changes in the compo...

  12. Environmental strategies and their motives and results in Slovenian business practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Čater

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a survey on 153 Slovenian manufacturing companies show that companies implement environmental strategies primarily as a refl ection of the commitment of their top management, followed by public concern, regulatory forces and expected competitive advantage. They report a relatively high level of implementation of the corporate environmental strategy while, among functional strategies, environmental issues are most commonly included in the production and marketing strategies, followed by purchasing and personnel strategies. Large companies develop and execute environmental strategies to a greater extent than small companies. The results also reveal a positive but very weak relationship between environmental strategies and company performance.

  13. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  14. The Most Frequent English Homonyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes homonymy, homophony, homography and polysemy, and provides a list of the most frequent homonyms using corpus-derived data. For most of the homonyms, the most common meaning accounts for 90% or more of the total uses of the form. The pedagogical and research implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 5…

  15. Corporate Governance Frequently Asked Questions

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook is designed to address common questionson corporate governance that are frequently asked byowners and managers of companies in the Middle Eastand North Africa (MENA) region. It familiarizes readerswith the basic concepts of corporate governance,providing a comprehensive overview of the subject matter,using case studies as practical examples of corporategovernance application...

  16. Success Factors of Asymmetric Connections - Example of Large Slovenian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vračar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies realize the fact that networking or partner collaborations, which are based on partner relations between companies, are essential for their long-term existence. In today’s global competitive environment each company is included at least in some different connections. Very common connections occur between large and smaller enterprises, where the so called asymmetric connections occur, which may be understood as the ability of one organisation to establish power, influence and control over the other organisation and its resources. According to numerous statements, the connections between enterprises are very frequently uneffectivenessful, with opinions on the optimal nature of asymmetric connections being quite common as well, whereby it is, as a rule, a synergic complementing of missing content for both partners. To verify the thesis, that companies achieve more competitiveness and effectiveness through connections, whereby the so called asymmetric connections are common, a structural model of the evolution of asymmetric connection has been developed, which connects the theoretically identified factors and all dependent concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and effectiveness. The empirical research also attempts to further expose the factors of asymmetric connections, which affect efficiency and effectiveness of the connected enterprises.

  17. Motivational profiles of slovenian high school students and their academic performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtačnik, Margareta; Juriševič, Mojca; Savec, Vesna Ferk

    2010-09-01

    Self-determination theory defines motivation as a multidimensional concept, with autonomous and controlled motivation as central factors of broader distinctions. Previous research has proven that academic achievements are positively correlated with autonomous motivation. Students from 10 Slovenian grammar schools were involved in empirical study, in which a cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a low quantity motivation group (low controlled and autonomous motivation) and a good quality motivation group (high autonomous and low or average controlled motivation). Statistically significant differences between the two identified motivational profiles were found for students' general as well as chemistry performance in three grades of schooling. Furthermore, a good quality motivation group is also more in favour of autonomy-supportive teaching methods used in chemistry classes. Examination of students' opinions about important chemistry topics, and on the other hand, unimportant ones, and not connected with life, reveals that the basic reason for distinction might lie in the chemistry teacher's approach used while presenting these topics. Some chemistry teachers are not using an autonomy-supportive way of teaching which would contribute to better teaching outcomes; therefore a need for further research on Slovenian chemistry teachers' motivation and their teaching approaches was recognized.

  18. Stereotypes of older employees compared to younger employees in Slovenian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rožman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management has an important impact on age diversity in companies. Age diversity in the workplace is growing and older employees are staying longer in the workforce, therefore it is important that employers can create a positive environment for age diverse employees. This paper introduces the difference in stereotypes in the workplace between older and younger employees in Slovenian companies. The main goal of this paper is to present the importance of age diversity and their age difference in stereotypes in the workplace. The paper is based on a research including a survey between two age groups of employees. We classified younger employees in the group of under 50 years of age and older employees in the group of above 50 years of age. For data analysis we used the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test to verify the differences in stereotypes in the workplace between two groups. Results show that there are significant differences in all of the variables describing stereotypes in the workplace between younger and older employees in Slovenian companies.

  19. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  20. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  1. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Low Back Pain and Absenteeism among Slovenian Professional Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Suklan, Jana; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most common psychosocial risk factors for absenteeism and the extent to which low back pain occurs among Slovenian professional drivers as result of various psychosocial risk factors. The study involved 275 professional drivers, mostly men (mean age 41.6 years). Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS package version 21, MS Excel version 2007 and Pajek, version 3. The main method for data processing was regression analysis. The results of the quantitative survey showed that lower back pain is mostly caused by lifting and carrying heavy loads, inadequate working conditions, poor physical fitness, regular nights out, shift work, and stress. Dissatisfaction with work, shift work and unsuitable working conditions significantly affect the incidence of low back pain. Absenteeism is influenced by factors such as dissatisfaction at work, disrespectful attitude of managers, unsuitable working conditions, personal dissatisfaction, lack of understanding of the partner, and enjoying nightlife on a regular basis. The study clarifies the unexplained holistic psychosocial risk factors and treatment effects on health in the population of professional drivers. Such factors can lead to absenteeism. The study also provides initial demonstration research in the Slovenian practice. Furthermore, it provides solutions in a holistic approach to solve the problem of risk factors management. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  2. The Analysis of Slovenian Political Party Programs Regarding Doctors and Health Workers from 1992 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksuti, Alem; Rotar Pavlič, Danica; Deželan, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    The study focuses on the programmatic bases of Slovenian political parties since independence. It presents an analysis of party programs and their preferences regarding doctors and other health workers, as well as the contents most commonly related to them. At the same time, the study also highlights the intensity of the presence of doctors on the policy agenda through time. In the study, 83 program documents of political parties have been analysed. The study includes programmes of political parties that have occurred in parliamentary elections in Slovenia between 1992 and 2014 and have exceeded the parliamentary threshold. The data were analysed using the content analysis method, which is suitable for analysing policy texts. The analysis was performed using ATLAS.ti, the premier software tool for qualitative data analysis. The results showed that doctors and other health workers are an important political topic in non-crisis periods. At that time, the parties in the context of doctors mostly dealt with efficiency and the quality of services in the health system. They often criticize doctors and expose the need for their control. In times of economic crisis, doctors and other health workers are less important in normative commitments of parties. Slovenian political parties and their platforms cannot be distinguished ideologically, but primarily on the principle of access to government. It seems reasonable to conclude that parties do not engage in dialogue with doctors, and perceive the latter aspassive recipients of government decisions-politics.

  3. Acceptance and use of health information technology in Slovenian public health institutions: a national survey based on UTAUT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vinko

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: The results show a positive attitude toward IT among Slovenian healthcare professionals. These findings are especially relevant in view of the fact that all types of healthcare professionals from all kinds of public healthcare institutions across the country were included in the survey.

  4. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  5. Web Resources and Tools for Slovenian with a Focus on the Slovenian-English Language Infrastructure: Dictionaries in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a presentation of a selection of electronic monolingual and bi/multilingual lexicographic resources and corpora available today to contemporary users of Slovene. The focus is on works combined with English and designed for translation purposes which provide information on the meaning of words and wider lexical units, i.e., e-dictionaries, lexical databases, web translation tools and various corpora. In a separate sub-section the most common translation technologies are presented, together with an evaluation of their role in the modern translation process. Sections 2 and 3 provide a brief outline of the changes that have affected classical dictionary planning, compilation and use in the new digital environment, as well as of the relationship between dictionaries and related resources, such as lexical databases. Some stereotypes regarding dictionary use are identified and, in conclusion, the existing corpus-based databases for the Slovenian-English pair are presented, with a view to determining priorities for the future interlingual infrastructure action plans in Slovenia.

  6. Teaching Foreign Languages in Slovenian School System: Is There any Room for Japanese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronka STRAUS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article opens with a brief insight into the language policies of some international multilateral organisations of importance to Slovenia, and then continues to describe the place and roles of foreign languages in Slovene elementary and upper secondary schools. Chinese was the last foreign language to be integrated into the Slovene school system. The article introduces the process of its integration from the professional and organisational point of view as well as the one from the Slovenian school system. The whole integration process of Chinese into the Slovene curriculum was very complex and time consuming, but can as such serve as the bases for reflection on the way to integrate the Japanese language as well.

  7. Regulatory use of risk information - initial developments at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Koncar, M.; Vojnovic, D.; Persic, A.

    2004-01-01

    Similarly to other regulators worldwide, the SNSA intends to enhance the use of PSA and risk insights in its activities in order to ensure a better and more focused regulatory oversight as well as improved interface with a licensee. The main aim of the SNSA is to establish PSA as a standard tool to complement the deterministic based regulation for a variety of regulatory tasks. The PSA applications should, in particular, support the decision making process as well as the interactions with the Krsko NPP. As a first step in the internal use of PSA, PSA event analysis and risk based performance indicators are being introduced. In 2004, the SNSA will start introducing risk follow up and risk informed inspections. By mid 2005 the legal basis for the use of PSA will be also established in Slovenian legislation. (author)

  8. A longitudinal comparison of the growth factors of Slovenian fast growing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Pšeničny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main features of Slovenia’s fastest growing companies and compares them with “gazelles” in the EU. The longitudinal survey presented connects with three other studies applying the same research method, namely studies employing the same questionnaire on growth factors that affect growing companies through to the criteria by which they were selected as growing businesses for the survey. The author notes that the growth factors which have an impact on Slovenian businesses and gazelles in the EU mostly do not show any significant differences, and that these differences also did not change significantly over a 15-year period. This hypothesis is verified by both statistical methods and the data mining method called machine learning from examples.

  9. Students’ opinion on the accessibility of graduate and postgraduate theses at Slovenian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Železnik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the advantages of the world wide web is that we can now make literature which was before known as unused available to users. This is also true in the case of graduate and postgraduate theses which are important but underused parts of library collections.They are a result of research work and an important source of information for students and researchers. In this paper some advantages, disadvantages and unresolved questions regarding web access to theses and dissertations are presented.Results of the research, made in 2009 at all four Slovenian universities revealed how students use theses and dissertations of their predecessors and how they would use them if they were available in the ETD collection on the world wide web. Students’opinion on including their theses in such collections is presented, too.

  10. Relations between authorities in the Slovenian local self-government system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Grabner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the relationship between the legislative (municipal council and executive (mayor, deputy mayor branches of power in the Slovenian system of local self-government. In the centre lies the role of the mayor, the role of the director of the municipal administration and the role of the municipal council together with the relationship (which has changed significantly in the past two decades between the mayor and these two bodies. The theoretical anchor of the contribution is the work of Mouritzen and Svara (2002 where the authors categorise ideal models of executive government at the sub-national levels of government and the relations inside the executive. Based on previous empirical research studies, we analyse the functioning of the executive and legislative branches of power and their mutual relations, starting from the assumption that those relations do not correspond to the quite rigidly defined normative frameworks, but in practice often move beyond them.

  11. "Unnatural Fornication" Cases Under State-Socialism: A Hungarian-Slovenian Comparative Social-Historical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Judit; Kuhar, Roman; Tóth, Tamás P

    2017-01-01

    This comparative social-historical study examines different versions of state-socialist body politics manifested in Hungary and Slovenia mainly during the 1950s by using archive material of "unnatural fornication" court cases. By analyzing the available Hungarian "természet elleni fajtalanság" and Slovenian "nenaravno občevanje" court cases, we can shed light on how the defendants were treated by the police and the judiciary. On the basis of these archive data that have never been examined before from these angles, we can construct an at least partial picture of the practices and consequences of state surveillance of same-sex-attracted men during state-socialism. The article explores the functioning of state-socialist social control mechanisms directed at nonnormative sexualities that had long-lasting consequences on the social representation of homosexuality in both countries.

  12. The European language portfolio (ELP in Slovenian primary education: the teachers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sešek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Language Portfolio (ELP is a unique, pan-European language learning material, aimed at supporting life-long language learning and the development of learner autonomy and intercultural competences. The article outlines the ELP's origins, structure and functions, and its impact on foreign language learning and teaching in Europe. Of the Slovenian ELP models, the two intended for primary school have been the most widely-implemented. Their implementation was the subject of a three-year study, in the context of a national piloting project involving over 600 learners and 100 teachers, held in 2008 and 2009. Due to the complexity and scope of the study, this article focuses on the perspective of the teachers, as carriers of pedagogical innovation. The results show that the two versions of ELP validated for Slovenian primary schools are judged by the teachers as being quality materials which are well-adapted to the learners. This pilot period yielded a number of positive effects in both teaching and learning, most notably more communicative and learner-centered instruction formats, and an increase in the learners' motivation and self-assessment skills. The main concern was strained lesson planning, due to the fact that the ELP was not integrated into the curriculum. Overall, the study shows that, of the two parallel functions of the ELP, the documenting of language learning and achievement is more readily embraced, while the self-assessment and self-directedness aspects involve a paradigm shift, which would require further sustained and widely-supported implementation. This would enable the full unfolding of the ELP's great potential for the promotion of language and intercultural competences and lifelong learning in Slovenia and in Europe.

  13. Internet Gaming Disorder Among Slovenian Primary Schoolchildren: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M.; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) – a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia. PMID:27363464

  14. Fashion, Media and the Elite: Ethnography of the Exploitation of the Slovenian Transitional Media Promenade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kotnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to represent a particular social practice, which has, due to its currency and ubiquity in the media as of late, gained a surprisingly naturalized legitimacy within the Slovenian mediascape. After Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, two parallel processes could be observed. On the one hand, the state itself was searching for a new identity which it could project both inward and outward, it was looking for a way to communicate the national tale of itself through numerous ruling discourses of politics, economy, tourism, sports and culture. On the other hand, the transitional ruling class and the emergent social force of postsocialist rich, chosen and owners needed new elements in the process of social differentiation. Fashion became one of the reinvented refuges or simply “discoveries” of the new Slovenian political, economic and media elite, which used the media to establish a visual order of transitional social differentiation. At the core of fashion as a mode of social distinction is a ceremonialized and spectacularized display of cultural differences within a society. Elites have been caught in the social obligation of constant invention of novelty, in order to create the necessary social difference from the non-elite or the masses. Namely, difference itself has no wider social value if there is no one to notice or desire it. This article methodologically authenticates the conclusions through the analysis of specific media perceptions and an ethnography conducted among actors on these levels: producers of fashion as social distinction (the elite vs reproducers of fashion as social distinction (the media vs consumers of fashion as social distinction (the audience.

  15. Development and Positioning of the Collective Product of Slovenian Craft Trademark

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    Adrijana Poljanšek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The new collective trademark Izdelek slovenske obrti (hereinafter: PSC; English: Product of Slovenian Craft was launched on the market in 2014. The initiative for the trademark was provided by the Textile Section at the Chamber of Craft and Small Business of Slovenia (hereinafter: the OZS, which also registered the trademark. Members of the OZS have the right to obtain and use the trademark, and to use it to promote their products or services. After two years, only a small number of section members use the trademark. Because the section would like to see an increased number of members use the trademark, research regarding the latter was carried out. The results are presented in this article. The descriptive course of development and registration of the collective trademark PSC is presented in the first part of our research. In the second part, questionnaires were drafted for collective trademark PSC users, potential users and consumers. The results obtained using three questionnaires were analysed using a SWOT analysis. Based on the results, it was determined that the trademark has not yet been properly positioned on the Slovenian market. Advantages include the familiarity of Textile Section members with the trademark, and their eagerness to use it. One disadvantage is the trademark’s current lack of recognition among consumers. For this reason, section members who are also potential users of the trademark do not give it priority and therefore do not opt to use it. The following will impact the trademark’s recognition among consumers: innovative marketing campaigns, the inclusion of the media and social networks, the improved recognition and visibility of the logotype, and an effective and pervasive slogan, as was determined in our research.

  16. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-06-01

    To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction - satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured. We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49±0.5) and employees (3.19±0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t=3.237; P=lt;0.001). Job satisfaction was explained by age (Plt;0.05; β=0.091), years of employment (Plt;0.05; β=0.193), personal characteristics of leaders (Plt;0.001; β=0.158), and managerial competencies of leaders (Plt;0.000; β=0.634) in 46% of cases. The factor analysis yielded four factors explaining 64% of the total job satisfaction variance. Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization's success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees' job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees' job satisfaction levels on an annual basis.

  17. Job satisfaction of nurses and identifying factors of job satisfaction in Slovenian Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Mateja; Skela Savič, Brigita

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the level of job satisfaction of nursing professionals in Slovenian hospitals and factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Methods The study included 4 hospitals selected from the hospital list comprising 26 hospitals in Slovenia. The employees of these hospitals represent 29.8% and 509 employees included in the study represent 6% of all employees in nursing in Slovenian hospitals. One structured survey questionnaire was administered to the leaders and the other to employees, both consisting 154 items evaluated on a 5 point Likert-type scale. We examined the correlation between independent variables (age, number of years of employment, behavior of leaders, personal characteristics of leaders, and managerial competencies of leaders) and the dependent variable (job satisfaction – satisfaction with the work, coworkers, management, pay, etc) by applying correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. In addition, factor analysis was used to establish characteristic components of the variables measured. Results We found a medium level of job satisfaction in both leaders (3.49 ± 0.5) and employees (3.19 ± 0.6), however, there was a significant difference between their estimates (t = 3.237; P = Job satisfaction was explained by age (P job satisfaction variance. Conclusion Satisfied employees play a crucial role in an organization’s success, so health care organizations must be aware of the importance of employees’ job satisfaction. It is recommended to monitor employees’ job satisfaction levels on an annual basis. PMID:22661140

  18. The literature of Slovenian political emigrants in Argentina after the Second World War

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    Marija Uršula Geršak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War many political emigrants escaped from Slovenia to Argentina, among them leaders and soldiers of the home guard (belogardisti, sympathizers of the fascist forces, opponents of communism and their families, who were persecuted by the Yugoslav socialist regime. Among them were many intellectuals and artists, typically of right-wing political conviction and of Christian faith. In Argentina, they founded a hermetic community that kept the Slovenian language and traditional values, and hoped that one day they could return. People in the former Yugoslavia knew nothing about them or their activities or indeed about events after the war from the point of view of the Other. This paper reviews the historical circumstances that led to the emigration, the organization of the émigré community and their cultural life in Argentina, their literature, mainly novels and their ensconcement in another time and space, which is the time and space of memory and an idealized homeland. They were culturally very active and wrote mostly in Slovenian. It was not until the second generation and after Slovenia‘s independence when they published several works in Spanish. Mostly they wrote historical novels, memoirs, dealing with unhealed wounds years after the Second World War, exile, life in refugee camps, post-war killings. Many of the works are ideologically laden, moralistic and idealizing life in Slovenia before the War. Due to their close community, literary works are often subject to some kind of ‚(self censorship‘. Nevertheless, after Slovenia‘s independence, albeit with a delay, some of their works, because of their aesthetic and cultural values have become part of the national literatary canon and school textbooks.

  19. Gender Differences in Children’s Language: A Meta-Analysis of Slovenian Studies

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    Ljubica Marjanovič-Umek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child gender has been proved to affect toddlers’/children’s language development in several studies, but its effect was not found to be stable across different ages or various aspects of language ability. The effect of gender on toddler’s, children’s and adolescents’ language ability was examined in the present meta-analysis of ten Slovenian studies (nine cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study. The ten studies were published between 2004 and 2016 and included a total of 3,657 toddlers, children and adolescents, aged from 8 months to 15 years. The language outcome measures refer to different aspects of language ability, including vocabulary, mean length of utterance, sentence complexity, language expression and comprehension, storytelling ability and metalinguistic awareness. Across the studies, language ability was assessed using different approaches and instruments, most of which were standardised on samples ofSlovenian speaking children. Based on the reported arithmetic means and standard deviations, the effect sizes of gender for each of the included studies were calculated, as well as the average effect size of gender across the different studies. The findings of the meta-analysis showed that the effect size of gender on toddlers’/children’s/adolescents’ language largely depended on their age and the aspect of language measured. The effect sizes increased with children’s increasing age. All significant effects proved to be in favour of girls. The findings were interpreted in relation to the characteristics of language development and social cultural factors that can contribute to gender differences in language ability.

  20. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  1. Self-regulated processes as predictors of students' achievement in music theory in Slovenian elementary music schools

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Smolej Fritz; Cirila Peklaj

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT), a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls) from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (meta)cognitive processes of selfregulate...

  2. Trust and management-to-employee communication in Slovenian companies: Some evidence from the current economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Matevž Rašković; Maja Makovec Brenčič; Barbara Moerec

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of trust and management-to-employee communication among top Slovenian employers from the Golden Thread Survey. The paper analyzes the changes and impact of the deteriorating external economic situation on (a) company-employee relational trust, and on the (b) perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” by respondent managers. Furthermore, our analysis also looks at the impact of management-to-employ...

  3. Slovenian facsimile in the19th and in the first half of the 20th century:pre-modern facsimile

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    Mihael Glavan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers on Slovenian territory did not attempt to print facsimiles until the beginning of the 20th century and neither did they publish anything relevant in this expert field. The development of Slovenian facsimile nevertheless started (outside Slovenia almost a whole century earlier. Its course is outlined against European parallels, providing achievements in the pre-modern era (18129-1959. The analysis focuses on earlier Slovenian facsimiles which have not been well known or had been especially scientifically unexplored. A surprisingly high expert level, both in terms of technology and editing, is revealed by our first facsimiles of the 19th century which were mostly initiated by Jernej Kopitar. In this period medieval materials give way to modern ones (Prešeren’s Poezije, which prevail afterwards. According to the fundamental criteria, upon which the definition of a modern facsimile is based, 12 units have been identified as facsimiles, 4 of them recognised as complete facsimiles meeting all the required criteria of that period.

  4. The vicious cycle of Slovenian book use and the potential role of public libraries in solving it

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    Teja Zorko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of books in Slovenia is marked with an insufficient bookstore network and with a well developed network of public libraries with a large number of loans that supplements a market of cheap paperback books, which is known in large language communities abroad. The resolution on National Program for Culture among the set goals for the improvement of use of books in Slovenia states also encouragement to develop bookstore network, equally divided across the entire Slovenian cultural area, with which the formation of bookstore corners in the framework of already existing public cultural institutions is proposed. From 2003, Ministry of Culture is supporting the good bookstores, but the endeavors haven’t reached the set goals yet. This contribution brings theoretical presumptions of principal thinking on the possibility of directing the libraries in the direction of marketing the books and the findings of a survey conducted among the directors of Slovenian general libraries. The findings show the predominant directors’ opinion on principal usefulness of potential sale of books in libraries, especially for the users. Almost a half of the managers of all Slovenian public libraries in principle support the introduction of book sale in their library if proper conditions would have been set. However, they do not expect any financial benefit from this service.

  5. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2015 – Slovenian Rarities Committee’s Report

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    Hanžel Jurij

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2015, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2014. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. One new species, the Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti, was added to category A. Other notable observations were the first record of Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus after 1909, the second record of Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla, the third and fourth records of Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra, the fourth of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, the fifth of Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi and the sixth of Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius. Four species were added to category E: Bahama Pintail Anas bahamensis, Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca, Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2015 contains 386 species (371 in category A, 6 in category B, 9 exclusively in category C; 4 species are both in categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while category E contains 38, two of which are classified into subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  6. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

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    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  7. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

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    Mihael Ribičič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  8. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

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    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  9. Psychometric characteristics of the long version of Slovenian temperament autoquestionnaire TEMPS-A

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    Barbara Dolenc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – Autoquestionnaire (TEMPSA is a self-rated questionnaire that measures five dimensions of affective temperaments. It is designed for assessing affective temperaments in general and clinical population. Estimation of the affective temperaments proved to play an important role in prediction and assessment of early signs of mood disorders. The aim of our study was to translate, adapt and analyse the long version of the TEMPS-A instrument. 1167 students from different Slovenian universities participated. We analysed the results with classical test theory and Rasch model. The results showed good reliability of all five scales with alpha coefficients between .76 and .84, only the reliability of the depressive temperament was lower in comparison with other subscales (α=.66. With the principal component analysis we extracted five components. Hyperthymic temperament proved to be the most homogenous, yet less sensitive to discriminate between those with adaptive personality structure on one hand and possibility to develop mood disorder in the future on the other. The structure of anxious temperament is not very clear, since two different types of anxious temperament emerged. The first one relates to somatic items, whereas the other links more to the items of general anxiousness. Nevertheless, our results are in agreement with several previous studies in Europe, Asia and North and South America.

  10. Unlabelled advertorials in Slovenian life-style press: a study of the promotion of health products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Melita Poler; Erjavec, Karmen; Stular, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses unlabelled advertorials about health products in four life-style magazines and three daily newspapers' life-style supplements in Slovenia. Based on 250 hours of observing the production practice, 20 in-depth interviews with the main participants and a textual analysis of 247 advertorials, supported by three detailed case studies, the process of unlabelled advertorial production was unveiled, reasons for their production explained and their discursive elements of promotion uncovered. Despite their typical news-like appearance, advertorials focus on a product's positive characteristics only and represent an oversimplified viewpoint on health, primarily oriented towards the interest of the pharmaceutical industry. In advertorials, readers are instructed in healthy living and caring about their health through buying the promoted product. No particular differences were found between the magazines and quality dailies' supplements, indicating that the advertorial practice has become a common part of the Slovenian press media scene. The outburst of advertorials in Slovenia is outstanding due to the lack of historical democracy, problems with the supervision of legal transgressions, the small media and advertising market, economic downturns and the financial weakness of the media.

  11. COMPARISON OF SUCCESS OF SLOVENIAN TOP LEVEL ATHLETES AT SENIOR AND JUNIOR COMPETITION LEVEL

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    Mitija Samardžija Pavletič

    2014-12-01

    We found that the Slovenian athletes in senior competition level on average achieve top level results at the age of 27. Furthermore, we found out that a half (49 % of the athletes who achieved excellent results in senior category had not achieved superb results earlier in junior category, and that almost 30 % of athletes who achieved their best results at major competitions on senior levels failed to obtain the status of an athlete of perspective class at the time when they competed in junior category. We have come to the conclusion that unlike the sportsmen achieving top results only a small group of sportswomen achieve top level results. We recommend a systemic analysis of expert professional work in individual sports, adoption of certain measures to improve the competencies of sports managers who coordinate the work of expert teams and the contribution of many other stakeholders who are co-creators of top sports achievements. In addition, we would further suggest the analysis of the categorisation system, particularly in the area of determining the status of perspective athlete. We believe it would be wise to carry out a further in-depth research that would respond to the question who are the key stakeholders and how to influence them in order to reduce the result dropout rate of top young athletes in the transition period to senior categories and to increase the total number of top athletes.

  12. Analysis on exergy consumption patterns for space heating in Slovenian buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovjak, Mateja; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Krainer, Ales

    2010-01-01

    Problem of high energy use for heating in Slovenian buildings is analyzed with exergy and energy analysis. Results of both are compared and discussed. Three cases of exterior building walls are located in three climatic zones in winter conditions. Results of energy analyses show that the highest heating energy demand appears in the case with less thermal insulation, especially in colder climate. If the comparison is made only on the energy supply and exergy supply, the results of exergy analysis are the same as those of energy analysis. The main difference appears, if the whole chain of supply and demand is taken into consideration. Exergy calculations enable us to analyze how much exergy is consumed in which part, from boiler to building envelope. They also reveal how much energy is supplied for the purpose of heating. Results show that insulation has much bigger effect than effect of boiler efficiency. However, the most effective solution is to improve building envelope together with boiler efficiency. Better thermal insulation also makes an important contribution to the improvement of thermal comfort conditions. It causes higher surface temperatures resulting in a larger warm radiant exergy emission rate and consequently better thermal comfort.

  13. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2016 – Slovenian Rarities Committee Report

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    Hanžel Jurij

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2016, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2015. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. Two new species, Scopoli’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea, were added to Category A. Other notable observations were the second record of Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes, third and fourth records of Pallid Swift Apus pallidus, fifth to seventh records of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus and the sixth and seventh records of Gannet Morus bassanus. Twelve records of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus are an all-time annual high. Among Category E species, the Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus was recorded for the second time. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2016 contains 388 species (373 in Category A, 6 in Category B, 9 exclusively in Category C; 4 species are both in Categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while Category E contains 38, two of which are classified into Subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  14. Slovenian and European legal stipulations concerning protection and rehabilitation of river corridors

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    Matjaž Mikoš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the state of hydromorphological preservation of river corridors in the Slovenian hydrographic network and because of demands imposed by domestic and European legislature concerning water resource management and environmental protection, certain sections of rivers and streams that were for various reasons regulated in the past, will have to be rehabilitated. Permanent solutions to such issues demand careful planning of rehabilitation on suitable sections of rivers and streams, adequate positioning within physical planning acts, as well as streamlined administrative procedures and devised maintenance of rehabilitation areas. Because the process demands the return of formerly taken water surfaces into the domain of water ecosystems and dynamics of hydromorphological processes, and consequentially maintenance of regained surfaces, the public becomes an important factor, which is a position, granted by domestic and European laws. Last, but not least, successful execution of rehabilitation of water corridors, besides planning, administration and consistent public participation, demands knowledge about good practices of project management, as well as technical execution of such projects.

  15. Personality structure in Slovenian three-year-olds: The inventory of child individual differences

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    Maja Zupančič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the validity of the newly developed culturally- and age-decentered instrument (International Inventory of Individual Differences, ICID, an internationally designed measure of individual differences in children, aged 3 to 12 years, based on a child personality lexicon from parental free descriptions. Using the fifteen of the ICID mid-level scales, three hundred and fifty-two Slovenian three-years-old children were assessed independently by their mothers, fathers and preschool teachers. The preschool teachers also rated children's social adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale. Data on satisfactory internal reliability of the childhood personality scales, their congruence across multiple observers and occasions of observed behavior as well as evidence of differential links of these scales to other measures of individual differences (social competence and maladaptive behavior are reported. The factor structure of the ICID scales across the observers is also shown in comparison to the data collected in other countries. The composition of the mid-level scales into four broad-band personality dimensions (Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism appeared remarkably similar when the factor structures of mothers' and fathers' assessments of three-year-old children were compared, while the preschool teachers' perceived organization of the child personality was found somewhat less differentiated (represented by the combined Conscientiousness/Openness, Extraversion/Neuroticism, and Agreeableness dimensions in comparison to the parental one.

  16. Slovenian Complementary Health Insurance Reform – Dichotomy between the Internal Market and the Social Dimension

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    Nikolić Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complementary health insurance is divided between the internal market (market principles and social dimension, wherein the state has an extremely difficult task, as it must create the conditions necessary for the fair and efficient functioning of the health care financing system. Slovenia has failed to successfully accomplish this task, which consists of both ensuring the social dimension and also facilitating the operation of market principles. The aim of this article is not on the functioning of market principles, which are covered by the field of economics, but is instead on analyzing the dichotomy between the internal market (the rules that govern the functioning of the internal market and the social dimension (the rules that enable the exercise of the social function, and, in this light, analyzes the legal regulation of the Slovenian complementary health insurance. Analysis of the legal regulation highlights the shortcomings in ensuring the social dimension, shortcomings which are, with the help of the measures proposed in the concluding section of the article, remedied by the author.

  17. Perception of mobbing during the study: results of a national quantitative research among Slovenian midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Došler, Anita Jug; Skubic, Metka; Mivšek, Ana Polona

    2014-09-01

    Mobbing, defined as sustained harassment among workers, in particular towards subordinates, merits investigation. This study aims to investigate Slovenian midwifery students' (2nd and 3rd year students of midwifery at the Faculty for Health Studies Ljubljana; the single educational institution for midwives in Slovenia) perception of mobbing, since management of acceptable behavioural interrelationships in midwifery profession forms already during the study, through professional socialization. Descriptive and causal-nonexperimental method with questionnaire was used. Basic descriptive statistics and measures for calculating statistical significance were carried out with SPSS 20.0 software version. All necessary ethical measures were taken into the consideration during the study to protect participants. The re- sults revealed that several participants experienced mobbing during the study (82.3%); 58.8% of them during their practical training and 23.5% from midwifery teachers. Students are often anxious and nervous in face of clinical settings (60.8%) or before faculty commitments (exams, presentations etc.) (41.2%). A lot of them (40.4%) estimate that mobbing affected their health. They did not show effective strategies to solve relationship problems. According to the findings, everyone involved in midwifery education, but above all students, should be provided with more knowledge and skills on successful management of conflict situations.

  18. Inward foreign direct investment and industrial restructuring: micro evidence – the Slovenian firms’ growth model

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    Katja Zajc Kejžar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact of inward foreign direct investment (FDI on the growth of local firms in terms of employment and total factor productivity (TFP for the Slovenian manufacturing sector in the 1994-2003 period. The theoretically predicted channels through which inward FDI affects the firm dynamics in a host country prove to be in general significant. First, there is evidence of the direct impact offoreign firms through so-called direct technology transfer as foreign-owned firms have higher growth of TFP compared to domestically-owned firms after controlling for other determinants. Secondly, the entry of foreign firms stimulates the reshuffling of the resources from less to more efficient local firms. The firm selection process is, namely, characterised by the least efficient firms experiencing a drop in their employment growth upon a foreign firm’s entry. Thirdly, regarding the productivity spillover effects from foreign to local firms we provide indirect evidence that they mostly operate through vertical linkages rather than within the same industry.In general, it seems that not all firms are equally able to benefit from foreign firms’ presence and that absorptive capacity plays an important role.

  19. The use of RODOS system at the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peteh, D.; Vokal Nemec, B.; Cindro, M.

    2007-01-01

    RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) is an on-line tool for emergency management of nuclear or radiological accidents developed to provide support to authorities in the decision making process. RODOS was installed at the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) in 2004 and the development of RODOS utilization is still in course. The SNSA conducts monthly exercises with various accident scenarios in order to increase operator's familiarity with RODOS tools and maintain emergency preparedness. The paper describes possible use of RODOS, presented through exercises carried out during the last year. The aim of these exercises was to assess the use of RODOS in the scope of the SNSA emergency response organization. Based on this, a written procedure was approved for use of RODOS as a tool for the SNSA's dose assessment group (Dose Assessment Expert Group - SSOD). Another field of RODOS use is cooperation with other user centers all over Europe. The SNSA is participating in EURANOS demonstration projects, providing feedback to the developers in order to improve the RODOS system. (author)

  20. Parental child-care practices of Slovenian preschoolers' mothers and fathers: The Family Environment Questionnaire

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    Maja Zupančič

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.

  1. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

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    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  2. Interrill soil erosion on flysch soil under different types of land use in Slovenian Istria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, M; Petan, S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of interrill soil erosion measurements from recent years in Slovenian Istria are presented. Eight l-m2 erosion plots were set up on locations with different land use types: on bare soil in a young olive grove (2), in an overgrown meadow (2) and in a forest (4). Surface runoff from each of the erosion plots was collected in reservoirs. As a rule, samples from the reservoirs were taken weekly. The samples were dried in the laboratory, where the concentration of undissolved particles was determined. A tipping bucket rain gauge was located next to the erosion plots for monitoring of precipitation and intensity of erosive events. The results show that only a few major erosive events are responsible for the greater part of the eroded soil. Interrill soil erosion in the first year (May 2005-April 2006) was estimated at 90.1 t/ha on bare soil with a slope of 5.5 0 , and 118.2 t/ha in the second year (August 2006-July 2007), despite the lower cumulative rainfall amount.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  4. The importance and realization of values in relation to the subjective emotional well-being in the Slovenian and British sample

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    Jana Strniša

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we examined the relationship between the importance and realization of values and subjective emotional well being of Slovenian and British subjects. The overall results were in concordance with telic and hedonistic theory of subjective emotional well being within both samples. Also the correlations between subjective emotional well being and fulfilled value orientation were in both samples substantially higher than the correlation between subjective emotional well being and value orientation itself. The finding of profound similarities in the relation between subjective emotional well being and the realization of general value orientation in Slovenian and British sample is interesting and deserves special attention and further research. The fulfillment of hedonic or dionisic values, respectively, was found to be the strongest predictor of subjective emotional well being of Slovenian and British subjects.

  5. Toward the assessment of the work-family interface: Validation of the Slovenian versions of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment scales

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    Sara Tement

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the work-family interface has gained importance especially because of the changing composition of the working population and the rapidly changing working environment worldwide. However, there are no appropriate questionnaires available that would address negative and positive experiences of the work-family interface. Therefore, a study has been conducted in order to validate two existing scales measuring work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. The dimensionality, item adequacy, reliability, and construct validity were addressed by means of a sample of 214 employees from Slovenian enterprises and institutions. The results for the Slovenian scales confirmed the multiple dimensions of the original versions. Support was also found for acceptable reliability and construct validity of the two scales. Although some limitations were noticed, the scales represent an important step in examining the work-family interface of the Slovenian workforce.

  6. Slovenian-Croatian boundary: backgrounds of boundary-making and boundary-breaking in Istria regarding the contemporary boundary dispute

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    Damir Josipovič

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Boundary-making in Istria is an old undertaking. It has actually never ceasesed, not even today. Istrian peninsula has thus undergone substantial boundary shifts during the last couple of centuries (especially after the Venetian demise in 1797. But Istria carries its worldwide fame also due to one of probably the harshest disputes on the post-war European grounds – the Trieste territory dispute. In author's perspective, this dispute is one of the four main corner-stones of the current Slovenian-Croatian boundary dispute. The remaining three include the Kozler's boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River, the ungraspable notions of Austrian censuses in Istria, and the narratives of partisan settlements on military jurisdiction. However, there are other very important aspects which significantly shaped the development of the dispute, but we will focus at assessing the importance of the aforementioned ones. In this sense, the analysis of the effects of the outcome of the Trieste dispute and its implications to the contemporary interstate dispute is set forth. By unveiling its material and consequently its psychological effects upon the contemporary bilateral relations, its analyses simultaneously reveals backgrounds of never answered question, why Kozler's proposed linguistic boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River turned out to become a boundary of national character. Though nowadays disputed, there is absolutely no chance for both involved parties to substantially draw away from once decisively drawn line of a layman. Despite the fierce battle of words in Slovenian public media on whether should the interstate boundary be placed on Mirna (Quieto or Dragonja Rivers, it will be argued here that the actual choice of the Valley of Dragonja as a boundary is by all means Slovenian. The arguments are based on extensive analyses of cartographic materials, relevant literature, documents, and statistical data.

  7. Slovenian-Croatian boundary: backgrounds of boundary-making and boundary-breaking in Istria regarding the contemporary boundary dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Josipovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary-making in Istria is an old undertaking. It has actually never ceasesed, not even today. Istrian peninsula has thus undergone substantial boundary shifts during the last couple of centuries (especially after the Venetian demise in 1797. But Istria carries its worldwide fame also due to one of probably the harshest disputes on the post-war European grounds – the Trieste territory dispute. In author's perspective, this dispute is one of the four main corner-stones of the current Slovenian-Croatian boundary dispute. The remaining three include the Kozler's boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River, the ungraspable notions of Austrian censuses in Istria, and the narratives of partisan settlements on military jurisdiction. However, there are other very important aspects which significantly shaped the development of the dispute, but we will focus at assessing the importance of the aforementioned ones. In this sense, the analysis of the effects of the outcome of the Trieste dispute and its implications to the contemporary interstate dispute is set forth. By unveiling its material and consequently its psychological effects upon the contemporary bilateral relations, its analyses simultaneously reveals backgrounds of never answered question, why Kozler's proposed linguistic boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River turned out to become a boundary of national character. Though nowadays disputed, there is absolutely no chance for both involved parties to substantially draw away from once decisively drawn line of a layman. Despite the fierce battle of words in Slovenian public media on whether should the interstate boundary be placed on Mirna (Quieto or Dragonja Rivers, it will be argued here that the actual choice of the Valley of Dragonja as a boundary is by all means Slovenian. The arguments are based on extensive analyses of cartographic materials, relevant literature, documents, and statistical data.

  8. Migration, Socially Engaged Museum Theme, and Why Slovenian Museums Successfully Avoid it?

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    Verena Perko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, the refugee crisis has turned into a human tragedy, in many ways resembling that of World War Two. The Mediterranean Sea, the highly praised Mare Nostrum, has become a horrifying collective tomb for countless people. Another consequence of war is also the destruction of historical urban centres, monuments, and other cultural heritage in so-called crisis areas – a destruction which has reached unfathomable proportions. Museums all across the world have actively responded to society’s needs. Their goal has been to encourage an open dialogue in our society, as well as alleviate fear of the unknown, and reduce the tide of hatred before it reaches world-shattering proportions. During the refugee crisis, it has become apparent that an intersocietal dialogue is both a necessity and a definitive imperative; without it, the society of the future cannot possibly be assured. Modern society has given museums the role of being a credible medium with a mission to communicate heritage contents. By using a metaphorical and metonymic language museums have an extraordinary social power and represent a bridge between science and modern society, between societies of the past and present, between the elites and marginal groups. The museum reformers of the second half of the 20th century were of the opinion that, despite many reorganizations, museums cannot serve the needs of modern society. This was the reason a new museology emerged that substantiates museums as a socially responsible institution. It equips that institution with specific theoretical knowledge that enables the conversion of heritage into a socially relevant communication of a nonverbal nature. The article theoretically argues for modern museum concepts and, using them, contemplates social responsibility in the inner workings of Slovenian museums. Contemporary museums or post-museums are institutions that carry out active social tasks. An engaged manner brings along social

  9. Uniform Title in Theory and in Slovenian and Croatian Cataloguing Practice

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    Marija Petek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:  The paper investigates the importance and development of uniform title that enables collocation in the library catalogue. Research results on use of uniform titles in two union catalogues, the Slovenian COBISS and the Croatian CROLIST are also presented.Methodology/approach:  Theoretical apects of the uniform title are treated: for the first time by Panizzi, then in the Paris Principles being the basis for the Verona's cataloguing code; in the latest International Cataloguing Principles including conceptual models Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR and Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD; and last but not least in the international cataloguing code Resource Description and Access (RDA. To find out whether the uniform titles are used consistently according to the Verona's cataloguing code and to the requirements of the bibliographic formats COMARC and UNIMARC, the frequency of tags 300 and 500 in bibliographic records is explored.Results:  The research results indicate that the use of uniform titles in COBISS and CROLIST is not satisfactory and that the tags 300 and 500 are often missing in bibliographic recods. In online catalogues a special attention should be given to the uniform title as it is considered an efficient linking device in the catalogue and as it enables collocation.Research limitations:  The research is limited to bibliographic records for translations of works of personal authors and of anonymous works; corporate authors are not included.Originality/practical implications:  Presenting development of the uniform title from the very beginning up to now and the first research on the uniform title in COBISS.

  10. Phenolics in Slovenian bilberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moze, Spela; Polak, Tomaz; Gasperlin, Lea; Koron, Darinka; Vanzo, Andreja; Poklar Ulrih, Natasa; Abram, Veronika

    2011-07-13

    Phenolics from bilberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) sampled from seven different locations and highbush blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) from one location in Slovenia were analyzed. In samples of both species 15 anthocyanins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Their contents were expressed as cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3GE); bilberries contained 1210.3 ± 111.5 mg C3GE/100 g fw and blueberries 212.4 ± 14.1 mg C3GE/100 g fw. Glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were predominant (488.5 vs 363.6 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in the bilberries and glycosides of malvidin (108.0 vs 100.8 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in the blueberries, whereas the contents of peonidin were lowest (74.5 vs 4.8 mg C3GE/100 g fw) in both berries. The contents of flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes were determined by LC-MS. For the first time, rutin was identified (bilberries, 0.2 ± 0.0 mg/100 g fw; blueberries, 3.1 ± 0.1 mg/100 g fw). Chlorogenic acid (as 3-caffeoylquinic acid) was the most abundant among the phenolic acids (23.1 ± 1.0 mg/100 g fw in bilberries and 70.0 ± 3.4 mg/100 g fw in blueberries). Statistical analysis shows that the content of 27 individual flavonoids, phenolic acids, and stilbenes can be used to identify the picking region of these Slovenian bilberries.

  11. Resedimented Limestones in Middle and Upper Jurassic Succession of the Slovenian Basin

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    Boštjan Rožič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle and Upper Jurassic succession of the Slovenian Basin is characterized by pelagic sedimentation of siliceous limestones and radiolarian cherts. In the southern and central part of the basin two packages of resedimented limestones are interbedded within pelagic sediments. The Lower resedimented limestones are lower-middle Bajocian to lower Callovian in age. In the southern part of the basin they form laterally discontinuous sequences composed of limestone breccias, calcarenites and micritic limestone and in the central part of the basin calcarenite intercalations within pelagic beds. They were transported by turbidity currents from highly productive ooidal shoals of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. The Lower resedimented carbonates correlate with the lower three members of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough and similarly developed but much thicker Vajont Formation in the Belluno Basin. The difference in thickness is interpreted as a consequence of shallow-water and longshore currents on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform that transported platform material towards southwest in the direction of the Belluno Basin. The Upper resedimented limestones are upper Kimmeridgian to lower Tithonian and occur within radiolarian cherts in the upper part of the succession as calcarenite beds that originated by turbidity currents. Onset of resedimentation coincides with the emersion-related demise of barrier reef and following deposition of micritic and rare oolitic limestones on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. Approximatelly coeval resedimented limestones occur in the fourth member of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough, but are not reported from the Ammonitico Rosso Superiore Formation in the Belluno Basin.

  12. Polymorphism of the IL13 gene may be associated with Uterine leiomyomas in Slovenian women

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    Krsteski J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyomas (ULM are a common cause of solid pelvic tumors in women. Their etiopathogenesis remains unclear. Interleukins (ILs and their receptors can influence tumor biology of ULM. The aim of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs exhibited in the genes IL4 (rs2070874, IL4R (rs1801275, IL12RB1 (rs11575934, IL12B (rs6887695, IL13 (rs20541 and IL23R (rs7517847 as risk factors for ULM in Slovenian women and to identify associations between corresponding clinical parameters and the analyzed SNPs. In addition, solitary and multiple ULM were compared to identify clinical and/or genetic parameters influencing their occurrence. We conducted a case-control study that included 181 women with leiomyomas and 133 control subjects. Genotyping of selected SNPs was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and high resolution melting (HRM techniques. The TT genotype of rs20541 (IL13 was significantly associated with decreased risk of ULM compared to both the CC and CT genotypes [p = 0.018; odds ratio (OR = 0.184; 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.048-0.7121. Using genetic and clinical data to develop a predictive model with logistic regression, we found that adenomyosis, higher age at diagnosis, family history of ULM occurrence, earlier menarche, lower number of pregnancies and lower age at first sexual intercourse, the G allele and genotypes AG and GG of rs1801275 (IL4R were associated with an increased risk of multiple ULM occurrence. We also found an association between rs20541 (IL13 and 17ß-estradiol serum levels in patients with multiple ULM (p 0.003. Our study showed, for the first time, that rs20541 (IL13 may contribute to susceptibility of ULM development and that rs1801275 (IL4R can predispose patients to develop multiple ULM.

  13. Measurements of Sr-90 radionuclide in Slovenian soils before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizman, M.J.; Ambroz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Strontium-90 is a long-lived fission product (half life of 28,7 years) that is globally dispersed in the environment. It had been transported by air masses from the nuclear weapon tests sites in the period of 1951-1980 and also from Chernobyl (1986) and deposited elsewhere, especially over northern hemisphere. Contamination of surface layer (0-10 cm) of undisturbed soil in Slovenia was measured in the middle of the seventies (1973-75) and recently (2002). In parallel, long-lived radionuclide, Cs-137 was measured too, the second campaign was performed ten years after Chernobyl accident. Maps on Sr-90 and Cs-137 contents in soil were elaborated, showing different distributions of area contamination and different levels for a case of nuclear weapon tests and due to Chernobyl accident for both radionuclides. The past contamination from atmospheric nuclear tests Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Slovenian territory was characterised with the high values on western part of the country (with the exception of the coastal region) and typical values of 1,5-2 kBq/m 2 for Sr-90 and 3-4 kBq/m 2 for Cs-137. The Chernobyl accident raised the contamination with Cs-137 mostly in northwest part (Alpine region), with an average value of 20-25 kBq/m 2 for the country. Contamination with Sr-90 was much lower, the existing levels increased for about 0,2 kBq/m 2 . Recently measured levels of Sr-90 in the upper layer of soil hardly approach to 0,3 kBq/m 2 . (author)

  14. Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School

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    Blaž Lešnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressivity of Basic Elements of the Slovenian National Alpine Ski School Ski school programmes in different countries are adapted to the local conditions and skiing trends. The aim of the study was to establish the progressivity of the three basic elements of the Slovenian ski school in terms of the duration of individual turns and their phases. Eight participants were recorded as they performed three basic elements of the Slovenian national ski school: wedge curves – E1, turns with a wedge push-off – E2 and basic swinging – E3. According to the ski school, the elements were divided into phases. The results of the computer-aided video analysis showed that in the beginning types of skiing in the same conditions on the same length of terrain, the average durations of turns and the times of comparable initiation and steering phases of the elements shortened on the methodical upward scale (from E1 to E3. The number of turns executed on the same length of terrain from E1 to E3 increased. A larger step in motor task complexity was indicated when a pole plant was included in skiing elements. Further, relatively large differences were observed in time durations among subjects executing the same elements. In conclusion, it can be assessed that the basic elements of the ski school are placed gradually in terms of progressivity in time durations. Progresivita základních elementů slovinské národní školy alpského lyžování Programy lyžařských škol v různých zemích jsou přizpůsobeny místním podmínkám a lyžařským trendům. Cílem této studie bylo stanovit progresivitu tří základních prvků slovinské lyžařské školy, pokud jde o dobu trvání jednotlivých zatočení a jejich fází. U osmi účastníků bylo zaznamenáno, jak provádějí tři základní prvky ze slovinské národní lyžařské školy: E1 – oblouk z pluhu; E2 – oblouk z přívratu vyšší lyží E3 – paralelní oblouk. Podle lyžařské

  15. Solar potential in existing urban layouts—Critical overview of the existing building stock in Slovenian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Košir, Mitja; Capeluto, Isaac Guedi; Krainer, Aleš; Kristl, Živa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years implementation of sustainable building design in the EU has become one of the key issues in reducing energy dependence. In this context efficient use of solar potential incident on building envelope is essential. The goal of the study is to evaluate the influence of interventions required by the new Slovenian legislation and to propose general site planning guidelines. Special emphasis is devoted to the existing building stock, which is due for refurbishment. The study is carried out on the basis of seven typical urban layouts, which are assessed according to the shape of layout, density, building orientation and design. The calculations are carried out with the program SHADING. The study showed that the existing layouts are not as problematic as had been expected and that form and orientation of buildings present a major challenge. Nevertheless, the quality and the duration of insolation are highly dependent on the specifics of each case. The study showed that by respecting the basic rules of good practice in conjunction with the existing requirements no major changes in the existing design principles are needed. - Highlights: • New Slovenian legislation regarding minimum insolation of building envelope. • Seven typical urban layouts were analysed. • Requirements and rules of good practice result in adequate insolation. • Duration of insolation is highly dependent on the specifics of each case

  16. The Relationship Between the Intellectual Capital Disclosure and Cost of Debt Capital – A Case of Slovenian Private Audited Organisations

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    Stropnik Neca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing empirical research into the association between intellectual capital disclosures by organisations and the cost of debt is scarce or is based solely on the samples of the (large listed organisations. Since agency issues between management/owners and lenders exist also in (large private organisations whose financing is greatly dependent on loans and whose audited annual reports can be a source of additional information for external users, we performed an empirical research to find the answer to the question whether the level of intellectual capital disclosure (as a whole and of its sub-categories of organisations is associated with the cost of their debt capital. Our study was performed on a sample of private Slovenian organisations with audited annual reports. The results of our research did not reveal that lenders would take into account intellectual capital disclosures by Slovenian private audited organisations as the information about the potential for their future cash flows when deciding on the cost of debt issued to these organisations.

  17. Letter to a Slovenian: the influence of Tomaž Šalamun on Brazilian poet Narlan Matos

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    Mojca Medvedšek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will present the influence of the Slovenian poet Tomaž Šalamun (1941-2014, Slovenia on the poetry of the mid-generation poet from Brazil, Narlan Matos (1975, Itaquara, Bahia, and will highlight the context of their meeting and Šalamun’s first entry into the Brazilian literary world. It will also outline the translation and poetic exchanges of both authors, and the elements of literary contact between two poetics and the intertextual interactions mirrored in the poetry of the Brazilian poet Matos, especially in his third collection entitled Elegy to the New World and Other Poems (Elegia ao novo mundo e outros poemas, 2012, in which the reference to Šalamun is especially accomplished in the song Letter to a Slovenian. Matos’s dialogue with Šalamun’s poetry takes place in several key points: in associative leaps and playfulness, as in the search for and imitation of the typical rhythmical patterns of Šalamun’s verse, along with his musicality.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Slovenian adaptation of the Revised Generic Occupational Stress Index Questionnaire (RG-OSI

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    Nataša Sedlar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Revised Generic Occupational Stress Index questionnaire (RG-OSI employs the cognitive ergonomics approach that quantifies the burden of stressors on cognitive resources of the employee. The model is structured as a 2-dimensional matrix, where each element is scored from 0 to 2 (sometimes with intermediate values of 0.5, 1.5 or 1.75 as a combination of various items based on multiple criteria. Due to uncommon scoring system of the questionnaire, our study aimed to explore the appropriateness of the existing scoring system and to get some information on validity of the scale on a Slovenian sample. The questionnaire has been applied on 349 Slovenian employees from different occupational groups and the data were analysed by means of correspondence analysis, classical reliability and item analysis and item response theory analysis. The results of correspondence analysis demonstrate that the response categories on individual variables are not always ordered. Furthermore, we conducted reliability analysis for scales, developed short versions of the scales, and obtained some preliminary information on their validity. The current study provides evidence that the described original scoring system in psychological measures may not be appropriate from the psychometric viewpoint.

  19. Stabilization of Overweight and Obesity in Slovenian Adolescents and Increased Risk in Those Entering Non-Grammar Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Katarina; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Kotnik, Primoz

    2016-01-01

    To estimate overweight and obesity prevalence trends in Slovenian adolescents entering secondary schools in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 and differences in the prevalence between different types of secondary schools. Data from 17,538 adolescents entering secondary schools (mean age ± standard deviation 15.4 ± 0.5 years) collected during obligatory medical examination in years 2004, 2009 and 2014 was analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Task Force criteria. In 2004-2009 overweight and obesity prevalence increased, especially in males and stabilized thereafter (2009-2014) in both genders. It was significantly higher (p schools (2009; 28.7 vs. 16.8% overweight females and 31.6 vs. 22.3% overweight males; 2014: 29.7 vs. 17.9% overweight females and 33.6 vs. 20.4% overweight males). Overweight and obesity prevalence in Slovenian adolescents entering secondary schools stabilized recently. Adolescents attending secondary vocational and technical/professional schools are at an increased risk of overweight and obesity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  1. A Slovenian version of the "clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher scale (Cles+T)" and its comparison with the Croatian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvanut, Boštjan; Lovrić, Robert; Kolnik, Tamara Štemberger; Šavle, Majda; Pucer, Patrik

    2018-02-26

    Nursing clinical learning environments are particularly important for the achievement of good practice in clinical training of student nurses, and thus, for the nursing competence development. Hence, it is important to have an instrument consisting of reliable and valid criteria for assessing the clinical learning environment, applicable in different contexts, and translated in the respondents mother tongue. The goal of the present research was to test the reliability and validity of the Slovenian version of the "Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale", and to compare it with the Croatian version. The data was collected between 10 March and 10 June 2015 at four Slovenian institutions, where nursing BSc study programmes are performed. The final sample consisted of 232 students (response rate 68.8%): 81.9% were females and 18.1% males, average age was 23. The translated instrument in Slovenian language resulted as reliable and valid, it reflects the expected five factors of the original version despite some minor problems in the factor structure and in test-retest. The most important difference between the Slovenian and Croatian version is in the factor structure regarding the implementation of roles in clinical learning environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality improvement competency gaps in primary care in Albanian, polish and slovenian contexts: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Burazeri, Genc; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kijowska, Violetta; Tomasik, Tomasz; Brand, Helmut

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, general practitioners (GPs) and family doctors (FDs) face increasing demands, as a consequence of complex patients' expectations, developments in science and technology, and limitations within healthcare systems which can result in competency gaps. Therefore, there is a need to identify which competencies in quality improvement (QI) are most important for GPs and FDs to possess in order to meet the demands of contemporary health care practice. To date, however, little information is available on the self-assessment of competencies related to QI among GPs and FDs. To deal with these issues, a project on QI in continuous medical education was launched in 2011. The project aims to broaden the GPs'/ FDs' continuous education offer, its quality and attractiveness, as well as provide them with opportunities for vocational advancement and enable the development of common, European frame of reference for GPs'/FDs' occupational competencies. The third work package of the project consists of the validation research of the questionnaire developed on the basis of the competency framework in QI for GPs/FDs in Europe. A cross-sectional study will be carried out using the self-assessment QI questionnaire which was originally developed in English and subsequently it was cross-culturally adapted in Slovenian, Albanian and Polish settings by use of a pilot study on a conveniently selected group of FDs/GPs (N=10) in each participating country. The final version of the questionnaire will be administered to large samples in each country involved in the survey. Two weeks after the first administration of the questionnaire, a second round, with the same procedure and including the same group of respondents, will follow. Psychometric tests will be conducted including internal consistency (after the initial and subsequent application of the instrument) and stability over time (two-week test-retest reliability). This self-assessment study will demonstrate the complex environment

  3. Slovenian society for gastroenterology and hepatology guidelines on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tepeš

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp is the most common infecion in the world. Half of the world population is infected. The prevalence of infection is declining in the developed world and also in Slovenia, because of better sanitation and eradication therapies. The prevalence of infection with Hp in Slovenia is 25.1 %. Only 20 % of the infected will develop a duodenal or gastric ulcer, ALT lymphoma or cancer in their lifetime. Hp infection is a risk factor for ulcer bleeding in patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and salicylates. Gastoenterologists diagnose the infection with Hp and prescribe therapy. A general practitioner can diagnose the infection by urea breath test or Hp stool test and prescribe therapy in cases of patients with a proven ulcer disease or in patients with first- degree relatives with gastric cancer. The guidelines on the management of Hp infection, published by the Slovenian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology (SZGH in 2010, recommend one week therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxiclline 1000 mg bid in patients without prior therapy with clarithromycin. In the case of prior therapy with macrolides, clarithromycin must be changed for metronidazole 400 mg bid. In the case of therapeutic failure second-line therapy should last 10 days. Secondline therapy can be based on Hp culture and bacterial resistance. The other possibility is PPI bid, colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg qid, oxytetracycline 250 mg qid, metronidazole 400 mg qid; sequential therapy: PI bid 10 days, amoxicillin 1000 mg bid for first 5 days, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and metronidazole 400 mg bid for second 5 days; or PPI bid, amoxicilline 1000 mg bid and levofloxacin 500 mg bid. Hp is a group I human carcinogen responsible for 65 % of all gastric cancers. National screening for Hp infection in younger population without precancerous lesions in the stomach can reduce the incidence of gastric

  4. Slovenian test case Vrbanski Plato aquifer in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kopač

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian case study in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project was Vrbanski Plato aquifer. Slovenia is divided into two river basin districts: the Danube and the North Adriatic. The Vrbanski Plato aquifer, which he presents both natural and artificial bank filtration from the river Drava, is a part of the Danube river basin district and is the most important water source for 14 municipalities in the northeastern part of Slovenia. We investigated the groundwatersurface water interaction between river Drava and the porous aquifer in the geological old riverbed and possible reduction of city impact. This site is the oldest managed artificial groundwater recharge with riverbank filtration and has more than thirty years of successful operation. It is something special, very abundant in a small space, independent of drought and climate changes, but vulnerable due to the impact of the city. Under the city there is watershed dividing, which is shifting with different water management condition and we would like to have the least possible impact of the city. For optimal water management we decided to use FREEWAT plug-in within QGIS platform. With new developed FREEWAT plug-in in project FREEWAT, we made steady-state and transient groundwater model for presenting this shift of the watershed dividing under the city and optimal water management for this area. The model was designed in a way that it identifies and describes all major aspects of the physical hydrogeological system and water management. During the running of a project, there was an accident with heating oil spillage in city area, right on the watershed dividing. So we oriented with the transient groundwater model as well on heating oil spillage and pumping with additional wells at the place of the accident to present successful rehabilitation and the importance of the managed groundwater recharge. Our experience with FREEWAT platform during the Vrbanski Plato aquifer case study was very

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Radiation Emergencies Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more information on radiation, go to the Radiation Dictionary . Get Inside: Why should I get inside during ...

  6. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles

    2014-01-01

    that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data......Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say....... In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  7. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions Download PDF Download ... a week. Text “HOME” to 741741. What Is Suicide? Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves ...

  8. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  9. Development of a frequent heartburn index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Donald E; van Hanswijck de Jonge, Patricia; Houghton, Katherine; Kocun, Christopher; Sandor, David W

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate a brief instrument for the measurement of overall psychosocial impact of frequent heartburn (heartburn experienced 2+ times weekly) in the general U.S. population, yielding a single, composite score. Item reduction and psychometric analyses of an existing Frequent Heartburn (FHB) Survey, a 52-item, 13-domain, patient-reported outcomes (PRO) survey assessing the impact of frequent heartburn on psychosocial quality of life. Item reduction resulted in 9 items from the original FHB Survey measuring all domains. All retained items in this full Frequent Heartburn Index (FHBI-Full) had moderate to strong factor loadings on the underlying factor (range: 0.66-0.85) and acceptable overall model fit (CFI = 0.93, SRMR = 0.04). Coefficient alpha was 0.92. A shorter FHBI (FHBI-Brief) was created that excludes the two employment-related items. The FHBI-Brief had a coefficient alpha of 0.90. Both FHBI versions have good psychometric properties and capture a full range of psychosocial effects of frequent heartburn. Normed national scores for the FHBI are available against which an individual can compare their own FHBI score. The FHBI-Full and FHBI-Brief show promise as PRO instruments that may help individuals and clinicians better understand the effect of frequent heartburn on psychosocial functioning.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  11. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    , the price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141......This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty...

  12. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  13. The Slovenian Art History Textbook in Comparison to Polish Textbooks: Authorship and Content, Didactic Structure and Publishing Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses two concepts of art history textbooks for secondary schools. It discusses their role in the learning and teaching process of art history and related school subjects within the formal educational programmes in Slovenia and their didactic structure. The comparison between one Slovenian and two Polish textbooks might contribute to better understanding of the present situation regarding art history textbook production in Slovenia, which is a result of several factors: the historical continuity of textbook writing and research in textbook didactics, the current school policy and financial competition on the textbook market. Its intention is also to clarify the idea of didactic transformation of the art history contents from the challenging scientific texts to a form suitable for secondary school students who are textbooks' main target audience.

  14. Back to Nature: Exploring the Potential for Implementing the Norwegian Idea of Outdoor Days in the Slovenian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Gomboc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is common to use the expressions ‘in the classroom’ and ‘out of the classroom’ (outdoors. In this article the word ‘outdoors’ will be replaced with the words ‘in the natural environment’, ‘into the natural environment’ and ‘within the natural environment’. These words accent the equal importance of nature as a learning area, a concept that is often forgotten, neglected or ignored. In this area, Norway has forged a real connection between people and nature, a way of life called “friluftsliv,” and has used experiential learning based on learning and playing in an outdoor area. In this article is presented a research study of teaching in nature, the Norwegian nature-oriented curriculum and the implementation of nature practice in the Slovenian school system.

  15. A frequent flyer program for nuclear mythology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The anti-nuclear literature contains many erroneous and misleading allegations, collectively constituting a mythology. These are repeated endlessly, however often they are refuted, and are quoted uncritically by the media. Many are collected here, together with my rebuttals. For an explanation of the use here of the term 'frequent flyers', read on... (author)

  16. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  17. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  18. Radiation Protection in Slovenia Over the Past Fifty Years (1963-2013) and the Slovenian Society of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, G.; Krizman, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation sources in Slovenia started as early as 1900 when X-ray device was put in operation; the first radioactive source was used two years later. Artificial radioactive sources were introduced from 1954 onwards. The use of radioactive sources in industry started in the middle of the 1950's when industrial radiography was introduced due to strong metal industry in Slovenia. Four nuclear facilities were built in Slovenia: the research reactor TRIGA (1966), the Krško nuclear power plant (1983), the mining and milling uranium complex at Žirovski Vrh (1984) and the low and intermediate level radioactive waste storage (1986). The infrastructure of radiation protection (RP) in the former Yugoslavia was established as late as the first Law on RP was adopted in 1959, the competent authorities were defined and technical support organisations for RP were designated. But the whole infrastructure could not follow the rapid development of nuclear industry and the extent uses of sources. After joining EU, the changes in legislation made a significant shift ahead in radiation protection, as regards the quality of the implementation of radiation protection measures as the intensity of administrative and inspection controls. Slovenian Radiation Protection Society was established in 1981 during the 11th symposium of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Society. The role of the Slovenian Society for Radiation Protection has never been significant, mostly due to a small critical mass of membership. This is sometimes advantageous since everyone knows each other and can easily come with the problem to be solved. This feature reduces the need for the Society to be active as a formal association. The main role of the Society is the distribution of actual information on RP and related important events.(author)

  19. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rožič Boštjan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia, the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides. These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  20. Sedimentary record of subsidence pulse at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary interval in the Slovenian Basin (eastern Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožič, Boštjan; Jurkovšek, Tea Kolar; Rožič, Petra Žvab; Gale, Luka

    2017-08-01

    In the Alpine Realm the Early Jurassic is characterized by the disintegration and partial drowning of vast platform areas. In the eastern part of the Southern Alps (present-day NW Slovenia), the Julian Carbonate Platform and the adjacent, E-W extending Slovenian Basin underwent partial disintegration, drowning and deepening from the Pliensbachian on, whereas only nominal environmental changes developed on the large Dinaric (Friuli, Adriatic) Carbonate Platform to the south (structurally part of the Dinarides). These events, however, were preceded by an earlier - and as yet undocumented extensional event - that took place near the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This paper provides evidence of an accelerated subsidence from four selected areas within the Slovenian Basin, which show a trend of eastwardly-decreasing deformation. In the westernmost (Mrzli vrh) section - the Upper Triassic platform-margin - massive dolomite is overlain by the earliest Jurassic toe-of-slope carbonate resediments and further, by basin-plain micritic limestone. Further east (Perbla and Liščak sections) the Triassic-Jurassic transition interval is marked by an increase in resedimented carbonates. We relate this to the increasing inclination and segmentation of the slope and adjacent basin floor. The easternmost (Mt. Porezen) area shows a rather monotonous, latest Triassic-Early Jurassic basinal sedimentation. However, changes in the thickness of the Hettangian-Pliensbachian Krikov Formation point to a tilting of tectonic blocks within the basin area. Lateral facies changes at the base of the formation indicate that the tilting occurred at and/or shortly after the Triassic/Jurassic boundary

  1. 210Po and 210Pb levels in mussels and fish from Slovenian market and the related dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinšek, Petra; Smodiš, Borut; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 (t 1/2 = 138 d) is a decay product of uranium-radium decay chain and consequently widely spread in the environment. It enters organisms through direct uptake, ingestion or inhalation. It is a pure alpha emitter and its radiotoxicity is connected with the fact that emits alpha particles with relatively high energy of about 5.3 MeV. It is concentrated in the soft tissues such as mussel, liver and others, where significantly contributes to the internal dose. Beta emitter lead-210 (t 1/2 = 22.17 years) is the second highest radiotoxic radionuclide from uranium-238 decay chain and decays, through bismuth- 210 (t 1/2 = 5.01 d) into 210 Po. Therefore it is necessary to determine the 21P o in foods, especially in seafood, because of its accumulation capacity. 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (salmon, trout) from Slovenia market. Mussels were bought on the local market as well as from domestic producers. Fish of Slovenian origin were bought on the local market. Samples were freeze dried, homogenized and assayed for 210 Po and 210 Pb. First, radiochemical separation was performed, followed by alpha particle spectrometric measurement of 210 Po and beta counting of 210 Pb on a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The results obtained show that the activity concentrations of 210 Po in mussels varied from 0.9 to 191 Bq/kg of fresh mass and for fish from 0.3 to 2.12 Bq/kg of fresh mass, while for 210 Pb they varied from 1.5 to 6.9 Bq/k of fresh mass for mussels and in fish samples the activity concentrations were less than 1.9 Bq/kg of fresh mass. Combined annual ingestion doses due to 210 Po and 210 Pb for mussels and fish from the Slovenian market is assessed. (author)

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goricar, Katja; Erculj, Nina; Zadel, Maja; Dolzan, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay. In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage. We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage. XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population

  3. Frequent methodological errors in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Aycaguer, L C

    2018-03-07

    Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an "error" arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Botulism: A Frequently Forgotten Old Malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Thajeb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A frequently forgotten old malady called botulism has been recognized for more than a century. This ailment occurs worldwide, afflicts human of all age groups from infants to elderly and affects Oriental people more often in several regions of China. Occurrence in Taiwan is uncommon, and therefore, it is often overlooked. The outbreaks of human botulism in various regions of the world, the clinical types, the molecular mechanisms, and the electrophysiologic findings will be highlighted.

  5. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  6. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  7. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  8. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  9. Valuing real options: frequently made errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze frequently made errors when valuing real options. The best way of doing it is through examples. We start by analyzing Damodaran's proposal to value the option to expand the business of Home Depot. Some of the errors and problems of this and other approaches are: - Assuming that the option is replicable and using Black and Scholes' formula. - The estimation of the option's volatility is arbitrary and has a decisive effect on the option's value. - As there is no riskles...

  10. Proces organizacijskega učenja v slovenskih, hrvaških in malezijskih podjetjih = Organizational Learning Process in Slovenian, Croatian, and Malaysian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available n our contribution we aim to test differences in the way companies learn in Slovenia, Croatia, and Malaysia. We used the Organizational learning measurement instrument developed and tested by Dimovski (1994, Škerlavaj (2003, Dimovski and Škerlavaj (2005. It employs three measurement variables (Information acquisition, Information interpretation, and Behavioural and cognitive changes as well as 38 items (presented in the paper to measure the Organizational learning construct. In autumn 2005, data from 203 Slovenian, 202 Croatian, and 300 Malaysian companies were gathered. Results indicate that companies in all three countries under scrutiny are closest in terms of behavioural and cognitive changes, meaning that globalization and other challenges of the modern business environment demand all of them to change and adapt quickly. However, the ways they are coping with those challenges are different. Generally speaking, there are more similarities than dissimilarities between Slovenia and Croatia, while this is not the case when comparing both countries to Malaysia. When acquiring information, Slovenian and Croatian companies rely more on internal sources (own employees, past decisions, etc., while Malaysian companies tend to rely more on external sources and more often have employees dedicated to searching for external information. When trying to interpret the information acquired, Slovenian and Croatian companies rely more on personal contacts, informal team meetings, and believe that information given to subordinates must be simple and concise, while Malaysian companies tend to use more formal collective decision-making and written communication to understand the meaning of information.

  11. [Frequently accidents and injury at school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier Vargas, María; Martínez González, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    During the time we have been in a private company that provide schools with medical care, we were surprised by the frequent and constant phone calls received to ask for our services. This fact made us take the decision to carry out a survey to find out the accidents and the most frequent injuries. According to the retrospective study we realized throughout two different academic courses in several schools in Cantabria, the 3.23% of the students have any accidents or injuries. We found out children between 11 and 15 have the highest accident rate, being 10.8 % higher when boys (rather than girls) are involved. The most common injuries are contusions 42.85%, followed by sprains 23.45%, being blows the reason in 42% of the cases, and surprisingly acts of aggression in 1%. It was also unexpected to learn that gyms, where children are taught in physical education, have the highest percent on accident rate. All these inquiries lead us to think that age, play and sports are determinant factors in the accidents happened in the school area.

  12. Slovenian Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (SLONIP) - a review of activities in the period 1981-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreča, Polona; Kanduč, Tjaša; Kocman, David; Lojen, Sonja; Štrok, Marko; Robinson, Johanna Amalia

    2017-04-01

    The importance of collecting data on the water isotope composition of precipitation in the frame of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) has been steadily increasing since it was initiated by the IAEA and the WMO in 1958, particularly in the last decade (Terzer et al., 2013). GNIP provides an important database for water resources management, verifying and improving atmospheric circulation models, studying climates and the interactions between water in the atmosphere and the biosphere, providing baseline information for the authentication of commodities, etc. Geographical diversity of Slovenia influences the climate and also the water cycle considerably, therefore monitoring of isotopes in precipitation is of particular interest. A review on monitoring of isotopes in precipitation was performed and information about sampling, analytical methods, available data and their evaluation was collected for the period 1981-2015. The first regular and systematic monitoring began in 1981 in Ljubljana (Pezdič, 1999). Later, a programme of collecting new data at a higher spatial density and temporal frequency in different parts of the country by different research groups has been initiated and was extended several times. Consequently, the number of sampling locations has grown within Slovenian Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (SLONIP) and altogether isotopes were monitored at more than 30 different locations countrywide (Vreča and Malenšek, 2016). However, the network is still not a part of a national monitoring programme, such as that operating in some European countries, for example, in Switzerland (Schürch et al., 2003). Only part of Slovenian data is available in GNIP database. Based on the collected data, we identified gaps in the research and made recommendations for future monitoring in the frame of the SLONIP. The list of main gaps includes limited information about sampling (e.g. missing coordinates, type of collector, period, frequency

  13. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  14. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

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    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  15. Frequent job change and associated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Davey Smith, George; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Heslop, Pauline; Macleod, John; Hart, Carole

    2003-01-01

    The contemporary labour market is widely regarded as having become more "flexible". It is proposed that such flexibility is a characteristic of employment histories which will have effects on psychosocial status, health-related behaviour, and physical health. Recent increases in flexibility are unlikely to have accumulated over sufficient portions of individual employment histories for any effect on health to be apparent, but a "preview" of these effects may be gained from study of older cohorts. This cross-sectional study is based on data collected in the early 1970s from 5399 men and 945 women in paid work, recruited from 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. A flexible employment history was defined as one encompassing a large number of changes between jobs. Perceived psychological stress, health behaviour (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise), physiology (diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, forced expiratory volume, plasma cholesterol concentration) and current health (angina, myocardial ischaemia) were assessed. Those individuals who reported having experienced frequent job change were more likely to smoke, consume greater amounts of alcohol, and perhaps to exercise less. Similar findings were observed in both males and females, and for different age and socio-economic groups. We found no suggestion that this association was due to higher levels of psychosocial stress, and the expected consequences for health were not observed. Interpretation of these findings is not straightforward due to an uncertain direction of causation, and a possible selection bias. However, the observed relationship between frequent job changing and a higher incidence of health risk behaviours, in the absence of a relationship with poorer health, invites further research.

  16. Frequent activation of EGFR in advanced chordomas

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    Dewaele Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chordomas are rare neoplasms, arising from notochordal remnants in the midline skeletal axis, for which the current treatment is limited to surgery and radiotherapy. Recent reports suggest that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK might be essential for the survival or proliferation of chordoma cells, providing a rationale for RTK targeted therapy. Nevertheless, the reported data are conflicting, most likely due to the assorted tumor specimens used for the studies and the heterogeneous methodological approaches. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of this rare entity using a wide range of assays in search for relevant therapeutic targets. Methods Histopathological features of 42 chordoma specimens, 21 primary and 21 advanced, were assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using PDGFRB, CSF1R, and EGFR probes. Twenty-two of these cases, for which frozen material was available (nine primary and 13 advanced tumors, were selectively analyzed using the whole-genome 4.3 K TK-CGH-array, phospho-kinase antibody array or Western immunoblotting. The study was supplemented by direct sequencing of KIT, PDGFRB, CSF1R and EGFR. Results We demonstrated that EGFR is frequently and the most significantly activated RTK in chordomas. Furthermore, concurrent to EGFR activation, the tumors commonly reveal co-activation of alternative RTK. The consistent activation of AKT, the frequent loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN allele, the recurrent activation of upstream RTK and of downstream effectors like p70S6K and mTOR, all indicate the PI3K/AKT pathway as an important mediator of transformation in chordomas. Conclusions Given the complexity of the signaling in chordomas, combined treatment regimens targeting multiple RTK and downstream effectors are likely to be the most effective in these tumors. Personalized therapy with careful selection of the patients, based on the molecular profile of

  17. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  18. Extended Technology Acceptance Model for SPSS Acceptance among Slovenian Students of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezavšček Alenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose - IBM SPSS Statistics is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social sciences. Due to many practical values it is frequently used as a tool for teaching statistical concepts in many social science university programs. In our opinion, motivation to learn and to use SPSS during the studying process plays a significant role in building a positive attitude towards SPSS which influences its usage at the professional level after finishing study.

  19. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  20. Self-rated health in different social classes of Slovenian adult population: nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2011-02-01

    Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.

  1. Comparison of benthic indices for the evaluation of ecological status of three Slovenian transitional water bodies (northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mavrič, Borut; Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Benthic indicators are important tools for the classification of coastal and transitional water bodies. The aim of the work was to assess for the first time the Environmental Status (ES) of Slovenian transitional waters, comparing the following biotic indices: richness, Shannon-Weaver diversity, AMBI, M-AMBI, BENTIX and BITS indices. A total of 13 stations were sampled with a Van Veen grab, in three ecosystems in the northern Adriatic. Samples were sieved and sorted, invertebrates identified and counted. The anthropogenic impact was estimated with professional judgement. Richness and diversity showed a good response to anthropogenic pressure. Conversely, indices based on sensitivity/tolerance groups did not showed a clear distinction between more and less impacted ecosystems. In particular BENTIX underestimated the ES, while with BITS there was a overestimation. The best evaluation was obtained with M-AMBI, because even if based on a sensitivity/tolerance approach, it considered also the structural aspect of the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanšček, Helena Jeriček; Ziberna, Janina; Korošec, Aleš; Zurc, Joca; Albreht, Tit

    2014-03-28

    Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national 'Health Behavior in School-aged Children' study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents' mental health status in Slovenia in the future.

  3. The Importance of Systems for Controlling Logistics Costs in the Supply Chain: A Case Study from the Slovenian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Škerlič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participating in the automotive industry brings new responsibilities for suppliers who, in order to meet customer demands, must strive towards improving business processes, while at the same time reducing costs. These demands can disrupt the operations of companies that do not have a system for controlling logistics costs. On the other hand, customer demands can be the cause of other types of disruptions in companies that have such a system in place, stemming from an excessive focus on cost reduction. To tackle this problem, a survey was conducted on a sample of 30 Slovenian companies that operate as suppliers in the automotive industry. Its objective was to determine how different customer demands along the supply chain can affect the business processes of suppliers and the level of logistics costs. The survey revealed that companies that use a system for controlling logistics costs experience fewer disruptions in their business processes in their efforts to satisfy customer demands. These companies also display a higher level of integration of business processes and use a different approach when dealing with the various participants of the supply chain. The survey also sets clear participation guidelines for suppliers in the supply chain of the automotive industry and points out how companies can benefit from using a system for controlling logistics costs in other ways, aside from the cost controlling aspect.

  4. Self-regulated processes as predictors of students' achievement in music theory in Slovenian elementary music schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Smolej Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT, a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (metacognitive processes of selfregulated learning in MT, as well as achievement test. The final grades were collected at the end of the school year. The results showed that significant correlation exists between almost all affective-motivational and (metacognitive processes of self-regulated learning and achievement. Affective-motivational factors emerged as better predictors of students' achievement than (metacognitive factors. The most important individual predictors were anxiety and competence. It was also found that self-regulated processes explain a greater amount of variance for final grades than for the achievement test.

  5. CHANGES AND PERSPECTIVES OF SLOVENIAN PIG PRODUCTION BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EU: THE CASE STUDY

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    M. Kastelić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in pig production during the last six to ten years were studied in case of Farme Ihan d. d., the Slovenian pig producer. At the beginning of the period, the company produced 70 to 75 thousand slaughtering pigs per year. At the end of the period the production increased to 150 thousand. As expected, the prices of pigs were reduced during that period. According to the new legislation, the large part of facilities was reconstructed and some environment protection investments were done. The production was improved: the number of weaned pigs per sow per year increased from 19.2 in 1996 to 25.48 in 2006 and reached the Danish average. The percentage of meat was increased in the same period from 52.7 % to 58.6 %. The progress in daily gain and in feed conversion ratio was moderate. To secure the access to the market, the own slaughter facility was bought and reconstructed. For the same reason, the company became shareholder of two meat processing companies. The transition period has not been finished yet. Production results may improve faster than in old EU member countries. Investment cycle has also not been finished yet. More investments, especially in environment protection are needed.

  6. Less Known Points of Interest in the Functioning of Local Societies in the Grand Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Union (1894–1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Friš

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first Slovenian emigrants realized soon after their arrival to the USA that in the event of work accidents or disease they depended solely on themselves. For this reason they started to found their own benefit societies, following the example of other nationalities (e.g. the Czechs, the Finns. At first these were of a local character with a limited number of members, which did not guarantee enough financial safety. In order to decrease the possibility of a financial break down, they started to found benefit societies which united members of the same ethnical group throughout the whole country. The first Slovenian fraternal benefit society called the Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Society (“Kranjsko slovenska katoliška jednota” in Slovene, abbrev. KSKJ was founded in Joliet (Illinois in 1894. It was founded by Slovenian Catholic priests in the USA, who often encountered the misery and helplessness of victims of accidents and their families. The society functioned according to strict Catholic principles. Its ideological orientation was expressed in the name itself, and St. Joseph was chosen as its patron saint. All the local societies were also mostly named after saints. The basic aim of the fraternal benefit society was to help the members or their families in the event of death, while the additional activity was to provide health insurance. However, the organization also cultivated other important values, such as the Slovenian cultural tradition, the Slovenian language, and close contacts with “the old country”. The basis of fraternal benefit organizations was represented by local societies, which were active throughout all of the USA. The local society of the Carniolian Slovenian Catholic Society called St. Francis de Sales Society No. 29 was founded in Joliet (Illinois on February 2, 1896. It was already the fourth local society of the KSKJ in the town of Joliet. The reasons for the setting up of a new society came from the

  7. Replicable personality types in childhood and adolescence: A Slovenian cross-sectional study

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    Maja Zupančič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored individual constellations of five personality dimensions (personality types and their internal replicability with a sample of 4- to 14-year-olds (N = 1341. Employing an age- and culture-decentered assessment tool the target participants were rated by their mothers and the procedure by Asendorpf et al. (2001 was followed to derive personality types. Several cluster solutions were investigated with the one representing four personality types appearing the most interpretable. The average type included individuals (26% expressing mean levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness/intellect, and neuroticism, and a relatively high level of agreeableness. The reserved children/adolescents (35 % scored below-average in openess/intellect, relatively low in conscientiousness and extraversion, and they were rated relatively high for neuroticism. The wilful participants (30 % were high in openness/intelect and within the average range they appeared relatively extraverted and disagreeable. The resilient type turned out to be the least capacious as it captured extremly conscientious, extraverted, open, emotionally stable and relatively high agreeable individuals. More girls than boys were classified as average and the boys were, in comparison to the girls, more often assigned to the wilful and to the reserved personality types. The wilful type was the most common in early childhood, the reserved type memberhip was the most frequent in middle and late childhood, and early adolesscents were the most frequently classified to the average type.

  8. Adoption of projected mortality table for the Slovenian market using the Poisson log-bilinear model to test the minimum standard for valuing life annuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Medved

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of Solvency II a consistent market approach to the valuation of insurance assets and liabilities is required. For the best estimate of life annuity provisions one should estimate the longevity risk of the insured population in Slovenia. In this paper the current minimum standard in Slovenia for calculating pension annuities is tested using the Lee-Carter model. In particular, the mortality of the Slovenian population is projected using the best fit from the stochastic mortality projections method. The projected mortality statistics are then corrected with the selection effect and compared with the current minimum standard.

  9. Prevalence of H63D, S65C and C282Y hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations in Slovenian population by an improved high-throughput genotyping assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupreht Ruth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is a common genetic disease characterized by excessive iron overload that leads to multi-organ failure. Although the most prevalent genotype in HH is homozygosity for C282Y mutation of the HFE gene, two additional mutations, H63D and S65C, appear to be associated with a milder form of HH. The aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput assay for HFE mutations screening based on TaqMan technology and to determine the frequencies of HFE mutations in the Slovenian population. Methods Altogether, 1282 randomly selected blood donors from different Slovenian regions and 21 HH patients were analyzed for the presence of HFE mutations by an in-house developed real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan technology using shorter non-interfering fluorescent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-specific MGB probes. The assay was validated by RFLP analysis and DNA sequencing. Results The genotyping assay of the H63D, S65C and C282Y mutations in the HFE gene, based on TaqMan technology proved to be fast, reliable, with a high-throughput capability and 100% concordant with genotypes obtained by RFLP and DNA sequencing. The observed frequency of C282Y homozygotes in the group of HH patients was only 48%, others were of the heterogeneous HFE genotype. Among 1282 blood donors tested, the observed H63D, S65C and C282Y allele frequency were 12.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 11.5 – 14.2%, 1.8% (95% CI 1.4 – 2.5% and 3.6% (95% CI 3.0 – 4.5%, respectively. Approximately 33% of the tested subjects had at least one of the three HH mutations, and 1% of them were C282Y homozygotes or compound heterozygotes C282Y/H63D or C282Y/S65C, presenting an increased risk for iron overload disease. A significant variation in H63D allele frequency was observed for one of the Slovenian regions. Conclusion The improved real-time PCR assay for H63D, S65C and C282Y mutations detection is accurate, fast, cost-efficient and ready for

  10. Correction of mouse ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by gene transfer into the germ line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavard, C; Grimber, G; Dubois, N; Chasse, J F; Bennoun, M; Minet-Thuriaux, M; Kamoun, P; Briand, P

    1988-03-25

    The sparse fur with abnormal skin and hair (Spf-ash) mouse is a model for the human x-linked hereditary disorder, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. In Spf-ash mice, both OTC mRNA and enzyme activity are 5% of control values resulting in hyperammonemia, pronounced orotic aciduria and an abnormal phenotype characterized by growth retardation and sparse fur. Using microinjection, the authors introduced a construction containing rat OTC cDNA linked to the SV40 early promoter into fertilized eggs of Spf-ash mice. The expression of the transgene resulted in the development of a transgenic mouse whose phenotype and orotic acid excretion are fully normalized. Thus, the possibility of correcting hereditary enzymatic defect by gene transfer of heterologous cDNA coding for the normal enzyme has been demonstrated.

  11. Intermittent Stem Cell Cycling Balances Self-Renewal and Senescence of the C. elegans Germ Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cinquin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing organs often experience a decline in function in the course of aging. It is unclear whether chronological age or external factors control this decline, or whether it is driven by stem cell self-renewal-for example, because cycling cells exhaust their replicative capacity and become senescent. Here we assay the relationship between stem cell cycling and senescence in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system, defining this senescence as the progressive decline in "reproductive capacity," i.e. in the number of progeny that can be produced until cessation of reproduction. We show that stem cell cycling diminishes remaining reproductive capacity, at least in part through the DNA damage response. Paradoxically, gonads kept under conditions that preclude reproduction keep cycling and producing cells that undergo apoptosis or are laid as unfertilized gametes, thus squandering reproductive capacity. We show that continued activity is in fact beneficial inasmuch as gonads that are active when reproduction is initiated have more sustained early progeny production. Intriguingly, continued cycling is intermittent-gonads switch between active and dormant states-and in all likelihood stochastic. Other organs face tradeoffs whereby stem cell cycling has the beneficial effect of providing freshly-differentiated cells and the detrimental effect of increasing the likelihood of cancer or senescence; stochastic stem cell cycling may allow for a subset of cells to preserve proliferative potential in old age, which may implement a strategy to deal with uncertainty as to the total amount of proliferation to be undergone over an organism's lifespan.

  12. [About the infection of Drosophila female germ line cells by sigma virus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, G

    1977-01-01

    The results which have been presented by Bregliano (1973) and Bregliano et Fleuriet (1975) in this "Annales" are discussed. The author's conclusion is that there are two distinct mechanisms for contamination of the cysts of non-stabilized females (in stabilized females, all cells, including oogonial cells, are infected in carrier state by sigma). Hypotheses are discussed.

  13. Identification of 3 novel VHL germ-line mutations in Danish VHL patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Mette; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Sunde, Lone

    2012-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which the patients develop retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas and clear-cell renal tumors. The autosomal dominant disease is caused by mutations in the VHL gene.......von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which the patients develop retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas and clear-cell renal tumors. The autosomal dominant disease is caused by mutations in the VHL gene....

  14. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis......, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies...... and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome....

  15. Retrovirus-mediated in vitro gene transfer into chicken male germ line cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, J.; Šenigl, Filip; Mičáková, A.; Mucksová, J.; Blažková, Jana; Haifeng, Y.; Poplštejn, M.; Hejnar, Jiří; Trefil, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2007), s. 445-453 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/04/0569 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Transgenic spermatozoa * infection of testicular cells with retrovirus * transgenesis in chicken Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2007

  16. Mismatch repair deficiency does not enhance ENU mutagenesis in the zebrafish germ line.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feitsma, H.; de Bruijn, E.; van de Belt, J.; Nijman, I.J.; Cuppen, E.

    2008-01-01

    S(N)1-type alkylating agents such as N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) are very potent mutagens. They act by transferring their alkyl group to DNA bases, which, upon mispairing during replication, can cause single base pair mutations in the next replication cycle. As DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins are

  17. Germ-line mutations at a mouse ESTR (Pc-3) locus and human microsatellite loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, Haruko; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nomura, Taisei

    2006-01-01

    We examined the use of the mouse Pc-3 ESTR (expanded simple tandem repeat) locus and 72 human microsatellite loci as potentially sensitive biomarkers for mutagenic exposures to germ cells in mice and humans respectively. In the mouse work, we treated male mice with TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxin; a chemical known to induce congenital anomalies in humans and mice) and, analysed the F 1 fetuses for Pc-3 mutations. Although the incidence of anomalies was higher in the TCDD group, there were no induced mutations. However, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was observed in 3 of 7 fetuses born to male mice which were treated with TCDD and which showed abnormal length of Pc-3 allele. In the human studies, the children of Chernobyl liquidators were examined for mutations at a total of 72 (31 autosomal, 1 X-linked and 40 Y-linked) microsatellite loci. This study was prompted by earlier findings of increases in microsatellite mutations in barn swallows and wheat in the highly contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident. We examined 64 liquidator families (70 children) and 66 control families (70 children). However, no increases in mutation rates were found. The estimated mean dose to the liquidators was about 39 mSv and this might be one possible reason why no increases of mutations could be found. (author)

  18. Disrupting the male germ line to find infertility and contraception targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeault, Denise R; Matzuk, Martin M

    2014-05-01

    Genetically-manipulated mouse models have become indispensible for broadening our understanding of genes and pathways related to male germ cell development. Until suitable in vitro systems for studying spermatogenesis are perfected, in vivo models will remain the gold standard for inquiry into testicular function. Here, we discuss exciting advances that are allowing researchers faster, easier, and more customizable access to their mouse models of interest. Specifically, the trans-NIH Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) is working to generate knockout mouse models of every gene in the mouse genome. The related Knockout Mouse Phenotyping Program (KOMP2) is performing systematic phenotypic analysis of this genome-wide collection of knockout mice, including fertility screening. Together, these programs will not only uncover new genes involved in male germ cell development but also provide the research community with the mouse models necessary for further investigations. In addition to KOMP/KOMP2, another promising development in the field of mouse models is the advent of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas technology. Utilizing 20 nucleotide guide sequences, CRISPR/Cas has the potential to introduce sequence-specific insertions, deletions, and point mutations to produce null, conditional, activated, or reporter-tagged alleles. CRISPR/Cas can also successfully target multiple genes in a single experimental step, forgoing the multiple generations of breeding traditionally required to produce mouse models with deletions, insertions, or mutations in multiple genes. In addition, CRISPR/Cas can be used to create mouse models carrying variants identical to those identified in infertile human patients, providing the opportunity to explore the effects of such mutations in an in vivo system. Both the KOMP/KOMP2 projects and the CRISPR/Cas system provide powerful, accessible genetic approaches to the study of male germ cell development in the mouse. A more complete understanding of male germ cell biology is critical for the identification of novel targets for potential non-hormonal contraceptive intervention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Matilda, where are you: subject description of juvenile fiction in the Slovenian catalogue and catalogues of neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in subject description of juvenile fiction was investigated on five examples of international classics in five library catalogues: Oton Župančič Public Library (Knjižnica Otona Župančiča in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Stadtbibliothek public library in Graz, Austria, integrated catalogues of libraries in the Gorizia region in Italy (Sistema bibliotecario della Provincia di Gorizia and the Karlovac region in Croatia (Skupni katalog knjižnica Karlovačke županije in September 2008. As Slovenian youth rarely speaks languages of neighbouring countries, British Library catalogue was added.Results show that catalogue records are inconsistent within an individual library as well as in comparision with other libraries in the sample. Librarians do not make consistent subject descriptions. Class number, which is present in all catalogues except in the Austrian one, usually represents: the author’s country, language and/or nationality,the literary genre, and the target audience.Subject headings in the sample bring information on the subject (aboutness, author’s country, language and/or nationality, the literary genre, and target audience. Summaries tell more on the story. But they can also bring information on emotional experience of the reader, information on the author or history of the literary work. It would be economically beneficial if subject description could be more consistent. But uniform subject description is not possible because of diverse library collections and users.The solution might be in the use of multiple levels of subject description regarding to the type of the libraries.

  20. EU-Centric Governance in Sport? The Slovenian Experience with the White Paper Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kustec Lipicer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of existing academic, expert and everyday practical political literature demonstrates that we can trace many different approaches to the phenomena of governance. Based on the political sciences, particularly policy literature, the governance concept is most frequently connected with an analysis of the relations between actors or institutions of the state and society at different political levels. Use of the governance concept is also becoming increasingly popular when discussing sports issues, especially when the multi-level or global sport perspective is in question. This article aims to confront the national perspectives and understandings of, as well as attempts at, sports governance, in relation to multi-level ones. This refers specifically the EU, because over the last few years, not only have states expanded their traditional concerns with health and social security to encompass leisure and cultural life, including sport, but the EU has also implemented different activities concerning sport issues. This particularly emphasises the extent and importance of the relations that key national policy actors have established with themselves and especially towards supra-national (EU actors in the processes of creating common EU sports policy directions as part of preparing the White Paper on Sport (2007. It does this by analysing the available official documents, records and statistics relating to the issue, as well as interviews conducted in spring 2007 with representatives of the state and sports-governing bodies in Slovenia. The conclusions of the analysis indicate a predominantly EU-centric type of multi-level governance approach and make some observations about the EU’s future development and how this could impact the development of (subnational sports policy.

  1. Book as movable cultural heritage on the DEDI portal: the place of the book in the Digital encyclopaedia of Slovenian natural and cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Jerele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The project entitled "Digital encyclopaedia of Slovenian natural and cultural heritage" (DEDI II has been evolved as a prototype research and development project (2009-2010. It represents the first attempt of multimedia-rich digital representation of Slovenian natural and cultural heritage by the means of interdisciplinary work of different cultural and educational institutions. Verifiable, qualitative and complex content of four types of heritage is co-located on a common site (immovable, movable, vivid and natural heritage with the goal to promote the heritage and educate the general public, as well as to encourage the public to create tomorrow’s heritage. A new detailed thesaurus was constructed enabling the classification of different kinds of heritage.It merges the established and newly created taxonomies of each type of heritage.To ensure the quality of published contents, the professional Editorial Board has been established. The National and University Library of Slovenia (NUK, one of the fundamental institutions for collecting and keeping the written cultural heritage of Slovenia, has already participated in the conception of the first project scheme. In the second part of the DEDI project, NUK contributed a number of digitalized books selected on the basis of their historical and literary importance. Digitalized books were published on the DEDI portal under the movable cultural heritage taxonomy

  2. Guide and manual of frequent special radiological procedures pertaining frequent pediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Rodriguez, Marco V.

    2012-01-01

    A set of instructions and / or recommendations are afforded, developed in a systematic way, whose purpose is to help treating doctors to make decisions about the mode of study appropriate for a specialized clinical circumstance. The instructions are aimed at radiologists, in order to facilitate the selection and realization of special studies in the pediatric patient images, so that in this way, guide of the best and most efficient way to the resolution of the cases before diagnostic doubts that seek to clarify the treating clinician. The studies most frequently requested are exposed, as well as those with their prompt realization will lead to a quick and timely medical care and / or surgical of a specific problem [es

  3. Influence of Frequent Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis on Food Preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with

  4. Antibacterial resistance and the success of tailored triple therapy in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Slovenian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, Tita; Jeverica, Samo; Orel, Rok; Homan, Matjaž

    2017-10-01

    Primary Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection occurs predominantly in childhood. Antimicrobial resistance is the leading cause for H. pylori eradication failure. The aims of this study were (i) to establish for the first time the antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori strains in infected Slovenian children not previously treated for H. pylori infection and (ii) to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored triple therapy, assuming that eradication rate with tailored triple therapy will be >90%. Data on all treatment-naive children 1-18 years old and treated for H. pylori infection according to susceptibility testing were retrospectively analyzed. All relevant clinical information and demographical information were retrospectively collected from the hospital information systems and/or patients' medical documentation. The inclusion criteria were met by 107 children (64.5% girls) with a median age of 12.0 years (range 2.0-17.6 years). Primary antimicrobial resistance rates of H. pylori were 1.0% to amoxicillin (AMO), 23.4% to clarithromycin (CLA), 20.2% to metronidazole (MET), 2.8% to levofloxacin (LEV), and 0.0% to tetracycline (TET). Dual resistances were detected to CLA and MET in 11.5% (n=12) of strains, to CLA and LEV in 2.8% (n=3), and to MET and LEV in 2.9% (n=3). Results of treatment success were available for 71 patients (66.2% girls). Eradication of H. pylori was evaluated using the 13C-urea breath test, monoclonal stool antigen test or in some cases with repeated upper GI endoscopy with histology and cultivation/molecular tests. Eradication was achieved in 61 of 71 (85.9%) patients. The primary resistance rates of H. pylori to CLA and MET in Slovenia are high. Our data strongly support the fact that in countries with high prevalence of resistant H. pylori strains susceptibility testing and tailored therapy is essential. © 2017 The Authors Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  6. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.

  7. Effects of frequent hemodialysis on perceived caregiver burden in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Rita S; Larive, Brett; Hall, Yoshio; Kimmel, Paul L; Kliger, Alan S; Levin, Nathan; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Chertow, Glenn M

    2014-05-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis often perceive their caregivers are overburdened. We hypothesize that increasing hemodialysis frequency would result in higher patient perceptions of burden on their unpaid caregivers. In two separate trials, 245 patients were randomized to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days/week) while 87 patients were randomized to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights/week) or home conventional hemodialysis for 12 months. Changes in overall mean scores over time in the 10-question Cousineau perceived burden scale were compared. In total, 173 of 245 (70%) and 80 of 87 (92%) randomized patients in the Daily and Nocturnal Trials, respectively, reported having an unpaid caregiver at baseline or during follow-up. Relative to in-center conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with in-center daily hemodialysis was -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -9.4 to +5.3; P=0.58). Relative to home conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with home nocturnal dialysis was +6.1 (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to +13.1; P=0.08). After multiple imputation for missing data in the Nocturnal Trial, the relative difference between home nocturnal and home conventional hemodialysis was +9.4 (95% confidence interval, +0.55 to +18.3; P=0.04). In the Nocturnal Trial, changes in perceived burden were inversely correlated with adherence to dialysis treatments (Pearson r=-0.35; P=0.02). Relative to conventional hemodialysis, in-center daily hemodialysis did not result in higher perceptions of caregiver burden. There was a trend to higher perceived caregiver burden among patients randomized to home nocturnal hemodialysis. These findings may have implications for the adoption of and adherence to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis.

  8. Is Education for Using Humour in Nursing Needed? (Slovenian Case Study on Sociological and Ergonomic Aspects of the Impact of Humour on Nursing Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goriup Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although there has been considerable discussion regarding the presence of therapeutic aspects of humour in the nurse educational programme and syllabus, little is known about the use of humour in the nurse - patient relationship and the needed topics in the Slovene educational system for nurses. From educational and medical perspectives, humour is anything that evokes laughter and it has been proven that laughter contributes to physical health. A sense of humour in nursing has a conformist, quantitative and productive importance which is manifested through the essential elements of humour: meta-communication sensitivity, personal affection for humour and emotional admissibility. As nurses spend a lot of time with patients, humour adds to the quality of their work as well as to the nurses’ satisfaction with their work with patients. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of humour in nursing both for the employees and for the patients and to discuss humour within the framework of nursing profession in Slovenia. The specific objective of our study is to explore the attitudes of Slovenian nurses towards humour and their actual use of humour during their interaction with patients. Methods: For the purpose of this study, a quantitative research methodology was adopted. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the topic and a set of statistical analyses (frequency distribution method, the χ2 and Spearman rank correlation test was performed on the data obtained. Results: Our study shows that Slovenian nurses are prone to the use of humour in their work and they welcome it as an integral part of their work with patients. We found that humour also enhances their sense of belonging to the nursing profession and serves as a tool for socialization. Discussion: Humour, employed in nursing can help overcome certain difficulties which nurses face in the workplace as they also try to fulfil some

  9. Zaraščanje kmetijskih zemljišč v slovenskem alpskem svetu = Abandoning of agricultural land in the Slovenian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Cunder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoning of agricultural land belongs to the most prominent indicators of partial disintegration of cultivated landscape. The Slovenian Alps are undoubtedly among those regions in which the abandoning is the most intensive and widely extended. The stagnation of agriculture, which is going on at present, is influenced by natural and social and demographic conditions which also affect the extensification of the most unfavourable areas followed by permanent abandoning of production. If the reasons for this situation are considered, the abandoning of agricultural land can be defined as a reflection of a disturbed balance between the socio-economic situation of agricultural population and the natural disposition for agricultural production. Areas with the most severe degradation of cultured landscape are, as a rule, the most prominent depopulation and deagrarisation areas in the Alps. Revitalisation of agricultural land in the process of abandoning is not only important from the productionally strategic point of view but also from the regional and ecological one.

  10. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  11. Admission of new oncological drugs to the Slovenian health care system and their accessibility to the patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Kos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to analyze the admission of anticancer drugs to the Slovenian healthcare system, and to evaluate patients’ accessibility to these medications.Methods: Admission and accessibility to anticancer drugs was evaluated by analysing: differences in registration time among USA, selected member states of EU, and Slovenia; time from the registration to the first use in Slovenia; differences between the first use in Slovenia and the first use in selected member states of EU and by analysing the market of oncology drugs. The study included drugs of the ATC groups such as Antitumor medications (cytostatics (ATC = L01 and Endocrine treatment (ATC = L02 that were used in Slovenia for the first time between 1999 to 2005. Registration data for Slovenia and EU was obtained from the registration documention of selected drugs at the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the Republic of Slovenia, and the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA. Registration data for USA was obtained from the registration documention of selected drugs at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. The information upon the first use of drugs in Slovenia was acquired from the PharMIS system, and the information upon the first use of drugs in selected member states of EU was obtained from the study on patients’ access to oncology drugs by Nils Wilking and Bengt Jönsson, performed from 2005. Data for the market analysis of oncology drugs was obtained from the PharMIS system.Results: In previous years a delay in registration time between Slovenia and compared states was present for some oncology drugs. Along with the acceptance of Slovenia as a new member state of EU, on 1st May 2004, registration process in Slovenia became a part of the registration system of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA. Majority of drugs had a time difference between the registration and the first use

  12. SCREENING FOR GENETIC CHANGES AND CODON 129 POLYMORPHISM IN PRNP GENE IN HEALTHY SLOVENIAN POPULATION AND SPORADIC CASES OF CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Smerkolj

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prion protein has an important role in development of prion diseases, fatal neurodegenerative disorders. As the codon 129 genotype of the prion protein gene (PRNP is a known susceptibility factor for the diseases, we wanted to determine its distribution in healthy Slovenian population and also in cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. Furthermore, we wanted to screen the whole gene in order to establish the presence of genetic changes.Methods. We screened 350 DNA samples of healthy blood donors and 12 DNA samples of patients deceased of sCJD. After the amplification and conformation analysis had been done, the gene was sequenced using an automatic sequencer.Results. Methionine homozygotes comprised 46.8% of healthy population, valine homozygotes 12.1% and heterozygotes 41.1%; out of 12 sCJD patients 10 were methionine homozygotes (83.3%, 1 was valine homozygote (8.3% and 1 was heterozygote (8.3%.Found SNPs were combination of codon 76 change (228C > T and codon 84 change (252T > C in a single sample of healthy population, combination of codon 68 change (204T > C and codon 76 change (228C > T in two samples of healthy population and codon 117 change (351A > G in a healthy population sample and in a valine homozygote patient.Conclusions. In comparison to the pooled Caucasian population is genotype M/M frequency slightly increased on account of decreased genotype M/V frequency in healthy Slovenian population, suggesting a little higher risk for acquiring a new variant of CJD (vCJD, because up to date all confirmed vCJD cases except one heterozygote were methionine homozygotes. Codon 129 genotype distribution in sCJD can be described as disease-specific. The absence of pathogenic mutations in sCJD patients confirms the non-familial, sporadic disease form.

  13. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  14. Iron Deficiency In Frequent And First Time Female Blood Donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...

  15. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Martel, Marc L; Driver, Brian E; Reing, Mackenzie; Cole, Jon B

    2018-03-01

    A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169). Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years), and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%). Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  16. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  17. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended...

  18. Emergency Department Frequent Users for Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Martel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A subset of frequent users of emergency services are those who use the emergency department (ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population and their ED encounters have not been previously described. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cohort study of patients presenting to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication between 2012 and 2016. We collected all data from the electronic medical record. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication were defined as those with greater than 20 visits for acute intoxication without additional medical chief complaints in the previous 12 months. We used descriptive statistics to evaluate characteristics of frequent users for alcohol intoxication, as well as their ED encounters. Results: We identified 32,121 patient encounters. Of those, 325 patients were defined as frequent users for alcohol intoxication, comprising 11,370 of the encounters during the study period. The median maximum number of encounters per person for alcohol intoxication in a one-year period was 47 encounters (range 20 to 169. Frequent users were older (47 years vs. 39 years, and more commonly male (86% vs. 71%. Frequent users for alcohol intoxication had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities including liver disease, chronic kidney disease, ischemic vascular disease, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a group of ED frequent users who use the ED for acute alcohol intoxication. This population had higher rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidities compared to non-frequent users.

  19. A Global Online Handwriting Recognition Approach Based on Frequent Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gmati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the handwriting signals are represented based on geometric and spatio-temporal characteristics to increase the feature vectors relevance of each object. The main goal was to extract features in the form of a numeric vector based on the extraction of frequent patterns. We used two types of frequent motifs (closed frequent patterns and maximal frequent patterns that can represent handwritten characters pertinently. These common features patterns are generated from a raw data transformation method to achieve high relevance. A database of words consisting of two different letters was created. The proposed application gives promising results and highlights the advantages that frequent pattern extraction algorithms can achieve, as well as the central role played by the “minimum threshold” parameter in the overall description of the characters.

  20. XML documents cluster research based on frequent subpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tienan; Li, Wei; Li, Xiongfei

    2015-12-01

    XML data is widely used in the information exchange field of Internet, and XML document data clustering is the hot research topic. In the XML document clustering process, measure differences between two XML documents is time costly, and impact the efficiency of XML document clustering. This paper proposed an XML documents clustering method based on frequent patterns of XML document dataset, first proposed a coding tree structure for encoding the XML document, and translate frequent pattern mining from XML documents into frequent pattern mining from string. Further, using the cosine similarity calculation method and cohesive hierarchical clustering method for XML document dataset by frequent patterns. Because of frequent patterns are subsets of the original XML document data, so the time consumption of XML document similarity measure is reduced. The experiment runs on synthetic dataset and the real datasets, the experimental result shows that our method is efficient.

  1. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinna Thakarar

    Full Text Available Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use.A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH. This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits.In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, p<0.01. HIV seropositivity was not predictive of frequent ER visits. In patients with history of illicit drug use, mental health (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07-5.95 and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37-5.93 were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.97.In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  2. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakarar, Kinna; Morgan, Jake R; Gaeta, Jessie M; Hohl, Carole; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER) visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use. A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH). This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits. In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, phomeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  3. Frequent Pairs in Data Streams: Exploiting Parallelism and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Kutzkow, Konstantin; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the Pair Streaming Engine (PairSE) that detects frequent pairs in a data stream of transactions. Our algorithm finds the most frequent pairs with high probability, and gives tight bounds on their frequency. It is particularly space efficient for skewed distribution of pair supports...... items mining in data streams. We show how to efficiently scale these approaches to handle large transactions. We report experimental results showcasing precision and recall of our method. In particular, we find that often our method achieves excellent precision, returning identical upper and lower...... bounds on the supports of the most frequent pairs....

  4. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  6. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  7. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab; Canim, Mustafa; Sadoghi, Mohammad; Bhatta, Bishwaranjan; Chang, Yuan-Chi; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    , such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem

  8. THE FREQUENT SKIN DISEASES DIAGNOSED AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim KAYMAK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of some skin diseases are increasing at adolescent and early adulthood period. The most frequent disease at this period is acne vulgaris whereas fungal diseases, dermatitis, dermatosis which are due to stress and other reasons, oral mucosal lesions and herpetic lesions of perioral region are also frequent. In this research we aim to determine the frequent dermatologic diseases of university students and 147 female, 74 male, a total of 221 students are included. We questioned the dermatologic complaints of students, then examined dermatologically in detail and registered ages, sexes, findings of the dermatological examination and dermatological diagnostic informations. As a result it is found out that the most frequent diseases are acne vulgaris (34.1%, allergic and pruritic dermatosis (16.6%, fungal diseases ( 13.0%, and eritamatous-squamous disease (8.3%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 313-320

  9. Personalized privacy-preserving frequent itemset mining using randomized response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chongjing; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Junlin; Gao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining is the important first step of association rule mining, which discovers interesting patterns from the massive data. There are increasing concerns about the privacy problem in the frequent itemset mining. Some works have been proposed to handle this kind of problem. In this paper, we introduce a personalized privacy problem, in which different attributes may need different privacy levels protection. To solve this problem, we give a personalized privacy-preserving method by using the randomized response technique. By providing different privacy levels for different attributes, this method can get a higher accuracy on frequent itemset mining than the traditional method providing the same privacy level. Finally, our experimental results show that our method can have better results on the frequent itemset mining while preserving personalized privacy.

  10. Perceived Quality of Social Relations and Frequent Drunkenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Thora M; Rivera, Francisco; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2010 survey were used including 1177 female and 1126 male students aged between 15 and 16 years. RESULTS: For both genders, students reporting low school satisfaction had increased odds of frequent drunkenness. Among females, low and medium levels of classmate support...... predictors of frequent drunkenness among female than male students and that other factors than social relations may contribute to explain excessive alcohol use among Spanish adolescents....

  11. The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    David Bell; Rajiv Lal

    2002-01-01

    Frequent Shopper programs are becoming ubiquitous in retailing. Retailers seem unsure however about whether these programs are leading to higher loyalty, or to higher profits. In this paper we analyze data from a US supermarket chain that has used a number of frequent shopper rewards to improve sales and profitability. We find that while these programs are profitable, this is only because substantial incremental sales to casual shoppers (cherry pickers) oset subsidies to already loyal custome...

  12. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  13. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  14. The Earliest Zoography of Slovenian Fauna: Comments by Pietro Andrea Matthioli on Dioscorides’ Pharmacological Work Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kiauta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Matthioli’s monumental work, Commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de Medica materia […], has so far remained unnoticed by Slovenian zoologists. Subsequent to the Italian, non-illustrated edition of 1544, several dozens of richly illustrated Latin, French, German and Czech editions were published. The work includes the descriptions and illustrations of a great number of pharmacologically applicable vertebrate-, insect-, other arthropod- and amerian species from the Slovenian territories of Carniola and Istria, brought together by the author during his service years in Gorica/Gorizia (1541–1555, and represents the first zoography of the Slovenian fauna. A brief description of the structure of the work is provided, along with references to it in various publications on the history of entomology. A note on some important Renaissance insect collections is added and a list is given of Matthioli’s 12 arthropod taxa listed by I. A. Scopoli (Entomologia carniolica, Vindobonae: Trattener, 1763. The translation of most of Matthioli’s other animal appellations into modern taxonomic nomenclature is still lacking, therefore the faunistic importance of the work cannot be fully assessed as yet.

  15. Risk factors associated with incidence and persistence of frequent headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Susanna; Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Wänman, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Headaches represent a significant public health problem, but the knowledge of factors specifically related to incidence and persistence of headaches is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender, self-reported bruxism and variations in the dental occlusion contribute to onset and persistence of frequent headaches. The study population comprised 280 dental students, examined annually in a 2-year prospective study with a questionnaire and a clinical examination of the jaw function. In the analysis subjects were dichotomized into cases with frequent (once a week or more) or without frequent headaches (controls). The 2-year cumulative incidence was based on subjects without frequent headaches at baseline. Cases with 2-year persistent headaches reported such symptoms at all three examinations. Self-reported bruxism and factors in the dental occlusion at baseline were used as independent variables in logistic regression analyses. The 2-year cumulative incidence of frequent headaches was 21%. Female gender (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.4), self-reported bruxism (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.2-4.4) and mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 3.2; CI = 1.4-7.5) were associated with incidence of frequent headaches. Persistent headaches during the observation period were present in 12 individuals (4%) and significantly related to mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 6.1; CI = 1.6-22.6). The results indicate that female gender, self-reported bruxism and mandibular instability in intercuspal position are of importance in the development of frequent headaches. In management of these patients a multidisciplinary approach including dentists may be important and, thus, advocated.

  16. The bedding environment, sleep position, and frequent wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Trevillian, Leigh; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2004-05-01

    Synthetic quilt use has been associated with increased childhood wheeze in previous studies. Our aim was to examine whether the adverse effect of synthetic quilt use on frequent wheeze differed by usual sleep position. A population-based cross-sectional study of 6378 (92% of those eligible) 7-year-olds in Tasmania, Australia, was conducted in 1995. Exercise-challenge lung function was obtained on a subset of 414 children from randomly selected schools. Child bedding including pillow and overbedding composition and usual sleep position by parental questionnaire. Frequent wheeze (>12 wheeze episodes over the past year), using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood parental questionnaire, and baseline and postexercise forced expiratory volume in 1 second lung-function measures. Frequent wheeze (n = 117) was positively associated with synthetic quilts, synthetic pillows, electric blankets, and sleeping in a bottom bunk bed but did not vary by sleep position. In a nested case-control analysis, the association between synthetic quilt use and frequent wheeze differed by sleep position. Among children who slept supine, synthetic (versus feather) quilt use was associated with frequent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37 [1.08, 5.23]). However, among nonsupine sleepers, overlying synthetic quilt use was not associated with frequent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio: 1.06 [0.60, 1.88]). This difference in quilt effect by sleep position was highly significant. Similarly, synthetic quilt use was associated with lower postexercise forced expiratory volume in 1 second measures among supine but not nonsupine sleeping children. An increasing focus on the bedding environment immediately adjacent to the nose and mouth is required for respiratory disorders provoked by bedding, such as child asthma characterized by frequent wheeze.

  17. Defining frequent use of an urban emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Thomas E; Baston, Simon; Mason, Suzanne M; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a definition of frequent use of an emergency department (ED) by comparing differences in the observed frequency distribution with that of a theoretical frequency distribution. Methods A retrospective analysis of attendance of ED and minor injury unit attendances in one city over 1 year was conducted. From these data, the expected frequency distribution was determined based upon a Poisson distribution. Results During the period studied, 75 141 people attended on 98 908 occasions. The theoretical frequency distribution showed that there were 2764 (3.7%) “frequent users” presenting repeatedly due to non‐random events. These patients made 12 316 (12.4%) attendances. Frequent users were older than chance users (mean age 49.7 vs 44.5 years). A greater proportion arrived by ambulance (55.3% vs 27.5%), presented with psychiatric problems (5.8% vs 1.1%) or alcohol intoxication (1.3% vs 0.5%), and were admitted to hospital (37.4% vs 19.6%). Conclusion We have identified that there is a group of patients who present repeatedly due to non‐random events, confirming the existence of “frequent users”. Their characteristics are clearly different to other patients in the ED. We propose that “frequent users” be defined as any patient who makes more than four attendances per year. PMID:17513534

  18. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A.; Mæhlisen, Maiken H.; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    weeks. RESULTS: Using multiple logistic regression, we found that frequent attendance was associated with a lower score in interpersonal trust [OR 0.86 (0.79-0.94)] and social network [OR 0.88 (0.79-0.98)] for women, when adjusted for age, education, income and SF12 health scores. Norms of reciprocity...... at the individual level, and includes cognitive (interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity) as well as structural (social network and civic engagement) dimensions. Frequent attendance is defined as the upper-quartile of the total number of measured consultations with a general practitioner over a period of 148...... and civic engagement were not significantly associated with frequent attendance for women [OR 1.05 (0.99-1.11) and OR 1.01 (0.92-1.11) respectively]. None of the associations were statistically significant for men. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for women, some aspects of social capital are associated...

  19. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross......BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  20. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination......The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... of the service frequency and travel time approaches, and passenger delays. The service frequency and travel time approaches are simple measurements with low complexity and complement each other. Therefore, the article recommends combining the service frequency and travel time approaches to get a more accurate...

  2. Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia A; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria A; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining was used to determine the minimal number of variables that blinded the rest in relation to the number of suicide attempts. Using this set, a probabilistic graph ranking relationships with the target variable was constructed. The most common diagnoses among suicide attempters were affective disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Risk of frequent suicide attempt was highest among middle-aged subjects, and diminished progressively with advancing age of onset at first attempt. Anxiety disorders significantly increased the risk of presenting frequent suicide attempts. Pathway analysis also indicated that frequent suicide attempts were linked to greater odds for alcohol and substance abuse disorders and more intensive treatment. Novel statistical methods found several clinical features that were associated with a history of frequent suicide attempts. The identified pathways may promote new hypothesis-driven studies of suicide attempts and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  4. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    -14 years. Information on all ED visits was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. Injury type, place of accident, injury mechanism, admission, and distance to ED were compared between children with frequent ED visits (five or more during the three years) and children with only one visit...... less severe injuries and more dislocations, sprains, and strains....

  5. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Recommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas. Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identi...

  6. Vaginal microbiota of women with frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W; Forney, Larry J

    2009-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from the numerically dominant microbial populations. The data showed that there were no significant differences between the vaginal microbial communities of women in the two groups (likelihood score, 5.948; bootstrap P value, 0.26). Moreover, no novel bacteria were found in the communities of women with frequent VVC. The vaginal communities of most women in both groups (38/42; 90%) were dominated by species of Lactobacillus. The results of this study failed to provide evidence for the existence of altered or unusual vaginal bacterial communities in women who have frequent VVC compared to women who do not have frequent VVC. The findings suggest that commensal vaginal bacterial species may not be able to prevent VVC.

  7. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  8. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error threshold...

  9. Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room (PER) constitute a small subgroup of patients, yet they are responsible for a disproportionate number of visits and thus claim considerable resources. Their needs are often left unmet and their repetitive visits reflect their dissatisfaction as well as that of PERs' staff. Motivated by these dilemmas, this study systematically reviews the literature about frequent visitors at PER and seeks to answer two questions: What characterizes frequent visitors at PER in the literature? and What characterizes PER in the literature? Based on 29 studies, this paper offers answers to the two questions based on a strength weakness opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. The results of the review and subsequent analysis of the literature revealed the multiplicity and complexity of frequent visitors' characteristics and how they appear to converge. Commonalities were more difficult to identify in PER characteristics. In some cases, this happened because the characteristics were poorly described or were context specific. As a result, it was not easy to compare the studies on PER. Based on SWOT and the findings of the analysis, the paper proposes new venues of research and suggests how the field of mental health might develop by taking into account its opportunities and threats.

  10. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Toyota, M; Caraway, H; Gabrielson, E; Ohmura, T; Fujikane, T; Nishikawa, N; Sogabe, Y; Nojima, M; Sonoda, T; Mori, M; Hirata, K; Imai, K; Shinomura, Y; Baylin, S B; Tokino, T

    2008-01-01

    Although mutation of APC or CTNNB1 (β-catenin) is rare in breast cancer, activation of Wnt signalling is nonetheless thought to play an important role in breast tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes, including the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf (DKK) families, has been observed in various tumours. In breast cancer, frequent methylation and silencing of SFRP1 was recently documented; however, altered expression of other Wnt antagonist genes is largely unknown. In the present study, we found frequent methylation of SFRP family genes in breast cancer cell lines (SFRP1, 7 out of 11, 64%; SFRP2, 11 out of 11, 100%; SFRP5, 10 out of 11, 91%) and primary breast tumours (SFRP1, 31 out of 78, 40%; SFRP2, 60 out of 78, 77%; SFRP5, 55 out of 78, 71%). We also observed methylation of DKK1, although less frequently, in cell lines (3 out of 11, 27%) and primary tumours (15 out of 78, 19%). Breast cancer cell lines express various Wnt ligands, and overexpression of SFRPs inhibited cancer cell growth. In addition, overexpression of a β-catenin mutant and depletion of SFRP1 using small interfering RNA synergistically upregulated transcriptional activity of T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor. Our results confirm the frequent methylation and silencing of Wnt antagonist genes in breast cancer, and suggest that their loss of function contributes to activation of Wnt signalling in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:18283316

  11. GRAMI: Generalized Frequent Subgraph Mining in Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    El Saeedy, Mohammed El Sayed

    2011-07-24

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper we propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. We developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. We also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  12. Experiencing the “refugee crisis” through the Intervention into the Public Discourse: Us as the Others in the Historical Perspective of Slovenian Emigration and Integration Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Milharčič Hladnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia the so called refugee crisis lasted from October 2015 to March 2016, when the Balkan route was closed. The public discourse in this time had the characteristic of moral panic; it abruptly started when the Hungarian government closed the border with Serbia and Croatia, forcing masses of migrants to take the route to “Germany” via Slovenia, and as abruptly ended with the closure of the Balkan route. The subjective experience with the period of intense public interest in migration is described through many interventions by the author, who happened to be one of the many experts who were asked to comment on the “refugee crisis”. Each intervention was intentionally the same, and addressed the same two clusters of public fears: first, the masses of migrants and refugees as a natural disaster that would destroy “everything”, and, second, the impossibility of integration of masses of migrants into European and Slovenian societies. Each intervention insisted, first, on the forgotten historical facts about the intense migrations that have been a crucial part of the formations of Europe’s ethnically, religiously, linguistically and culturally diverse and mixed populations and societies, and, second, on the forgotten facts about the recent successful integration practices that have evolved in Europe and Slovenia in the past fifty years and enabled them to become and remain economically and socially stable and safe.

  13. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Janja . E-mail france@mbss.org; Mozetic, Patricija

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l -1 ). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l -1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  14. The Role of the Education System and On-the-Job Training in Innovation: Evidence from the Slovenian Manufacturing and Service Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Domadenik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the debate on the importance of education for sustainable economic growth. Following a recent contribution by Aghion (2009, we focus on the role of tertiary education in innovation at the company level using patent applications as a proxy. Rather than examining tertiary education spending or the share of the population with tertiary education, we make use of the Aghion Index, which measures the quality of tertiary education. Moreover, as innovation is only the first step in the value chain at the company level, we complement dana on the quality of tertiary education with company-level data on human capital spending in large and medium-sized Slovenian firms. We report that not only a sound education system, but also on-the-job training is important for increased company-level invention and innovation. Firms with more on-the-job training reported a significantly higher number of patents in the period of 2007-2009.

  15. Determinants of frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    . below recommended level), and hormone therapy in women (1.52; 1.42-1.63) were all significant determinants of frequent attendance. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to pre-existing medical conditions, gender, socio-demographic and gender-specific factors, lifestyle (obesity, smoking, exercise and alcohol use.......57-0.69, >4 years higher education vs. no vocational training) and employment (0.61; 0.57-0.65) were inversely associated with frequent attendance. Finally, obesity (1.54; 1.14-2.08), smoking (1.21; 1.12-1.30, current vs. never), physical activity (0.84; 0.80-89), alcohol consumption (0.83; 0.78-0.87 above vs...

  16. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Case Report Frequent malaria illness episodes in two Malawian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent malaria in two patients on ART after stopping CPT 57. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v29i1.12. Wongani J.S. Nyangulu1, Edson Mwinjiwa1, Titus H. Divala2, Randy G. Mungwira2,. Osward Nyirenda2, Maxwell Kanjala2, Gillian Mbambo3, Jane Mallewa4, Terrie E. Taylor2,.

  18. Longleaf pine restoration in context comparisons of frequent fire forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Bigelow; Michael C. Stambaugh; Joseph J. O' Brien; Andrew J. Larson; Michael A. Battaglia

    2018-01-01

    To see a frequent-fire forest burn for the first time is to experience a remarkable teat of nature. Most people are accustomed to the slow change of forests with the seasons, not the instantaneous conversion of green and brown plant mass to smoke and char. Yet to visit such a forest a week after it bums is to see bright green shoots emerging, highlighted against a...

  19. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-08-22

    Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.

  20. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  1. Workup and management of patients with frequent premature ventricular contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Katie; Green, Martin S

    2013-11-01

    Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are a frequently encountered entity in clinical cardiology. They rarely affect prognosis or management. However, they might produce bothersome symptoms and, in select individuals with a high PVC burden, they might contribute to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Workup of patients with very frequent PVCs consists of a thorough history and physical examination to screen for underlying cardiac disease and potential triggers. Routine investigations include a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram, as well as an echocardiogram. A Holter monitor should be performed in those with severe symptoms, a history of syncope, or a malignant family history. Exercise stress testing has a role in evaluating for ischemia and in the assessment of patients with exertional symptoms. More advanced testing is not warranted if these initial investigations are reassuring. Referral to an arrhythmia specialist should be considered in patients with LV dysfunction whose PVC burden exceeds 15%. Frequent ventricular ectopy represents a rare, but reversible cause of LV dysfunction and these patients should be further evaluated for possible catheter ablation. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifet Terzić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes characterized by vascular permeability, increased tissue ischemia, and angiogenesis. One of the most important proteins involved in angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, also known as VEGFA. A previous study demonstrated that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6921438 and rs10738760, account for nearly half the variation in circulating VEGF levels. The aim of our study was to assess the association between rs6921438 and rs10738760 and DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This case-control study enrolled 1037 unrelated Slovenian individuals (Caucasians with T2DM. DR group included 415 T2DM patients with DR, while control group included 622 T2DM patients with no clinical signs of DR. The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. The genotyping of rs6921438 and rs10738760 SNPs was carried out with real-time PCR assays. Significant differences were observed between patients with DR and controls in the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001, insulin therapy (p < 0.001, glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.002, total cholesterol (p = 0.002, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001. However, we did not observe significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the two SNPs, between DR and control group (p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that rs6921438 and rs10738760 were not independent genetic risk factors for DR in the co-dominant model adjusted for the above-mentioned clinical and laboratory data. In conclusion, VEGF-related SNPs rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with DR in our group of Slovenian patients (Caucasians with T2DM.

  3. Effects of frequent announced parasitology quizzes on the academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Zamini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.

  4. Brain perfusion SPECT in children with frequent fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskala, H.; Launes, J.; Pihko, H.; Nikkinen, P.; Santavuori, P.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 14 children with frequent fits using 99m Tc-HM-PAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). There were 11 patients with partial secondary generalized epilepsy (PSGE) and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). The typical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) finding in PSGE was a single area of abnormally low perfused cortex, and that in LGS, multiple hypoperfused areas. Clinically, the LGS patients were more severely affected. SPECT was more sensitive in detecting abnormalities than EEG, CT or MRI. Extensive impairment of rCBF may thus indicate unfavourable development of intellectual performance and poor seizure control. (author)

  5. Managing for Old Growth in Frequent-fire Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Fiedler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing frequent-fire, old-growth forests. However, there are general guidelines to follow: 1 set objectives for both structure (tree density, diameter distribution, tree species composition, spatial arrangement, amount of coarse woody debris and function (nutrient cycling, desired tree species regeneration; 2 prioritize treatments according to ecological, economic, and social needs and risks; 3 identify the potential treatments (natural fire, prescribed fire, silvicultural cutting that best meet the objectives and scale of the project; and 4 implement the treatment(s. We discuss each of these guidelines in this article.

  6. Odnos prebivalstva slovenskih alpskih turističnih krajev do turizma in njegovih učinkov = Attitude of the population of Slovenian alpine tourist resorts toward tourism and its impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to find out how the local inhabitants perceive positive and negativetourism impacts in Slovenian alpine areas and how this perception influence their attitudetoward tourism. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in five different tourist resorts.Despite the differences between resorts there are many similarities in perception of tourismimpacts. In all cases positive attitudes toward tourism prevail. In general the economicimpacts were perceived as the most important and the socio-cultural impacts as the leastimportant.

  7. How many Slovenian family practice attendees are victims of intimate partner violence? A re-evaluation cross-sectional study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selic, Polona; Svab, Igor; Gucek, Nena Kopcavar

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be considered a leading public health problem affecting approximately 50% of women during the course of their lifetimes. This study was carried out with the aim of re-testing the prevalence data and providing sufficient grounds for decision-makers in family medicine in Slovenia to adopt much-needed protocols for IPV management in the field. In January 2012, every tenth general practitioner (GP) registered in Slovenia, of a total of 958, was invited to participate in a multi-centre cross-sectional study, and 9.4% of them, working in 90 family practices, agreed to participate. From February 1 to March 1, 2012, they asked every fifth family practice attendee aged 18 years and above, regardless of gender, to participate in the study. The short version of Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire was administered to 2572 patients. In the sample, there were more women (62.9% (n = 1617)). The average age of all the participants was 49.0 ± 16.1 years. Of 2572 participants (95.3% response rate), 17.1% people had been exposed to either emotional or both physical and emotional abuse. The prevalence of psychological violence was 10.3%, and that of concurrent physical and psychological abuse 6.8%, with all the patients exposed to physical IPV disclosing concurrent psychological violence. Female gender and previous formal divorce were risk factors identified in all three multivariate logistic regression models. The odds of concurrent physical and psychological and either type of IPV exposure in patients were lessened by an age of 65 years or above. The odds for either type of IPV were also lower in single people, while in concurrent physical and psychological IPV exposure, living in urban settings acted as a protective factor. In Slovenian family practice attendees, an IPV exposure prevalence of approximately 17% should be considered a valid estimation.

  8. Brain intrinsic network connectivity in individuals with frequent tanning behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Filbey, Francesca M; Aubert, Pamela M; Seibyl, John P; Price, Julianne L; Adinoff, Bryon

    2018-05-01

    Emergent studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between brain functioning and the skin. This neurocutaneous connection may be responsible for the reward response to tanning and, thus, may contribute to excessive tanning behavior. To date, however, this association has not yet been examined. To explore whether intrinsic brain functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to indoor tanning behavior. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was obtained in twenty adults (16 females) with a history of indoor tanning. Using a seed-based [(posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)] approach, the relationship between tanning severity and FC strength was assessed. Tanning severity was measured with symptom count from the Structured Clinical Interview for Tanning Abuse and Dependence (SITAD) and tanning intensity (lifetime indoor tanning episodes/years tanning). rsFC strength between the PCC and other DMN regions (left globus pallidus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus) is positively correlated with tanning symptom count. rsFC strength between the PCC and salience network regions (right anterior cingulate cortex, left inferior parietal lobe, left inferior temporal gyrus) is correlated with tanning intensity. Greater connectivity between tanning severity and DMN and salience network connectivity suggests that heightened self-awareness of salient stimuli may be a mechanism that underlies frequent tanning behavior. These findings add to the growing evidence of brain-skin connection and reflect dysregulation in the reward processing networks in those with frequent tanning.

  9. Cannabis consumption patterns among frequent consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidi, María Fernanda; Queirolo, Rosario; Cruz, José Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Uruguay became the first country to fully regulate the cannabis market, which now operates under state control. Cannabis can be legally acquired in three ways: growing it for personal use (self-cultivation), cannabis club membership, and from pharmacies (not yet implemented). Users must be entered into a confidential official registry to gain access. This article presents findings of a Respondent Driven Sample survey of 294 high-frequency cannabis consumers in the Montevideo metropolitan area. Frequent consumers resort to more than one method for acquiring cannabis, with illegal means still predominating after 1 year of the new regulation law. Cannabis users overwhelmingly support the current regulation, but many of them are reluctant to register. Some of the attitudes and behaviors of the high-frequency consumers pose a challenge to the success of the cannabis law. Individuals relying on more than one method of access defy the single access clause, a prerequisite for legal use, while the maximum amount of cannabis individuals can access monthly seems too high even for most frequent consumers, which might promote the emergence of a grey market. Reluctance to register among a significant proportion of high-frequency consumers raises doubts about the law's ability to achieve its stated objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Finding Frequent Closed Itemsets in Sliding Window in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junbo; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xinyu; Ding, Yiqun

    One of the most well-studied problems in data mining is computing the collection of frequent itemsets in large transactional databases. Since the introduction of the famous Apriori algorithm [14], many others have been proposed to find the frequent itemsets. Among such algorithms, the approach of mining closed itemsets has raised much interest in data mining community. The algorithms taking this approach include TITANIC [8], CLOSET+[6], DCI-Closed [4], FCI-Stream [3], GC-Tree [15], TGC-Tree [16] etc. Among these algorithms, FCI-Stream, GC-Tree and TGC-Tree are online algorithms work under sliding window environments. By the performance evaluation in [16], GC-Tree [15] is the fastest one. In this paper, an improved algorithm based on GC-Tree is proposed, the computational complexity of which is proved to be a linear combination of the average transaction size and the average closed itemset size. The algorithm is based on the essential theorem presented in Sect. 4.2. Empirically, the new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the state of art algorithm, GC-Tree.

  11. Promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles (PrATs): a frequent hitting scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Shane M; Mulcair, Mark D; Debono, Cael O; Leung, Eleanor W W; Nissink, J Willem M; Lim, San Sui; Chandrashekaran, Indu R; Vazirani, Mansha; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Simpson, Jamie S; Baell, Jonathan B; Scammells, Peter J; Norton, Raymond S; Scanlon, Martin J

    2015-02-12

    We have identified a class of molecules, known as 2-aminothiazoles (2-ATs), as frequent-hitting fragments in biophysical binding assays. This was exemplified by 4-phenylthiazol-2-amine being identified as a hit in 14/14 screens against a diverse range of protein targets, suggesting that this scaffold is a poor starting point for fragment-based drug discovery. This prompted us to analyze this scaffold in the context of an academic fragment library used for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) and two larger compound libraries used for high-throughput screening (HTS). This analysis revealed that such "promiscuous 2-aminothiazoles" (PrATs) behaved as frequent hitters under both FBDD and HTS settings, although the problem was more pronounced in the fragment-based studies. As 2-ATs are present in known drugs, they cannot necessarily be deemed undesirable, but the combination of their promiscuity and difficulties associated with optimizing them into a lead compound makes them, in our opinion, poor scaffolds for fragment libraries.

  12. A Link between the p53 germ line polymorphisms and white blood cells apoptosis in lung cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biroš, Erik; Kohút, A.; Biroš, I.; Kalina, I.; Bogyiová, E.; Štubňa, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 231-235 ISSN 0169-5002 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : apoptosis * p53 polymorphism * lung cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2002

  13. Coexistence of gain-of-function JAK2 germ line mutations with JAK2(V617F) in polycythemia vera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láníková, Lucie; Babošová, Oľga; Swierczek, S.; Wang, L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Divoky, V.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Prchal, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 18 (2016), s. 2266-2270 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-18046Y; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : JAK2 mutations * polycythemia vera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.164, year: 2016

  14. A vector-based system for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells toward germ-line cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro generation of mouse embryonic stem cells to germ cells by using a backbone vector containing the fusion gene Stra8-EGFP. The Stra8 gene is a retinoic acid-responsive protein and is able to regulate meiotic initiation.

  15. Breast cancer in patients carrying a germ-line CHEK2 mutation: Outcome after breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Andreas; Doerk, Thilo; Sohn, Christof; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Women carrying mutations in the CHEK2 gene are at an increased breast cancer risk. Data about outcome and prognosis for these patients after standard multimodality treatment are scarce at present. Materials and methods: One-hundred and fifty (150) patients with non-metastasized early-stage breast cancer (T1-2) receiving postoperative radiotherapy following breast-conservative surgery at our department were included in this analysis. Carriers were identified using mutation-specific restriction enzyme-based screening assays in previous investigations. Twenty-five breast cancer patients were heterozygous for one of three CHEK2 gene mutations (I157T, n = 13; 1100delC, n = 10; IVS2+1G > A, n = 2). The comparison group consisted of 125 early-stage breast cancer patients without a CHEK2 gene mutation (non-carriers). Median follow-up was 87 months for the total cohort of patients. Results: Local recurrences occurred in 13 patients (carriers, 3 (12%); non-carriers, 10 (8%)) and distant metastases occurred in 27 patients (carriers, 8 (32%); non-carriers, 19 (15%)). Twenty-five patients had deceased (carriers, 8 (32%); non-carriers, 17 (14%)) with all but 3 deaths related to breast cancer. Actuarial 7-year local relapse-free survival was 86% in carriers versus 90% in non-carriers (p = 0.48). Actuarial metastasis-free, disease-free and overall survival at 7 years were 64% vs. 84% (p = 0.045), 59% vs. 78% (p = 0.07) and 69% vs. 87% (p = 0.10), respectively. In a multivariate step-wise Cox regression analysis presence of a CHEK2 mutation remained a borderline significant discriminator for metastasis-free survival (p = 0.048; OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.0) next to T-stage (p = 0.001; OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6). Conclusions: Heterozygosity for a germline CHEK2 mutation appears to represent an adverse prognostic factor in patients with early-stage breast cancer. If confirmed in larger studies these data may serve as a basis for future surveillance and treatment strategies taking into account individual germline mutational status

  16. The perfect host: a mouse host embryo facilitating more efficient germ line transmission of genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Taft

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the production of genetically modified animals.

  17. Toward an improved definition of the genetic and tumor spectrum associated with SDH germ-line mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenepoel, Lucie; Papathomas, Thomas G.; Krol, Niels; Korpershoek, Esther; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Persu, Alexandre; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2015-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid, or Krebs, cycle is central to the cellular metabolism of sugars, lipids, and amino acids; it fuels the mitochondrial respiratory chain for energy generation. In the past decade, mutations in the Krebs-cycle enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate

  18. The C. elegans TPR Containing Protein, TRD-1, Regulates Cell Fate Choice in the Developing Germ Line and Epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Hughes

    Full Text Available Correct cell fate choice is crucial in development. In post-embryonic development of the hermaphroditic Caenorhabitis elegans, distinct cell fates must be adopted in two diverse tissues. In the germline, stem cells adopt one of three possible fates: mitotic cell cycle, or gamete formation via meiosis, producing either sperm or oocytes. In the epidermis, the stem cell-like seam cells divide asymmetrically, with the daughters taking on either a proliferative (seam or differentiated (hypodermal or neuronal fate. We have isolated a novel conserved C. elegans tetratricopeptide repeat containing protein, TRD-1, which is essential for cell fate determination in both the germline and the developing epidermis and has homologs in other species, including humans (TTC27. We show that trd-1(RNAi and mutant animals have fewer seam cells as a result of inappropriate differentiation towards the hypodermal fate. In the germline, trd-1 RNAi results in a strong masculinization phenotype, as well as defects in the mitosis to meiosis switch. Our data suggests that trd-1 acts downstream of tra-2 but upstream of fem-3 in the germline sex determination pathway, and exhibits a constellation of phenotypes in common with other Mog (masculinization of germline mutants. Thus, trd-1 is a new player in both the somatic and germline cell fate determination machinery, suggestive of a novel molecular connection between the development of these two diverse tissues.

  19. Radiotherapy of the most frequent solid tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.; Kamprad, F.

    1980-01-01

    During the past decade the prognosis of malignant tumors in childhood could be clearly improved, realized by combining surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Recommendations for the use of radiotherapy for the most frequent solid tumors in childhood are represented basing on the experience of the study groups 'Pediatric Hematology and Oncology' of the Society for Pediatrics of the GDR and 'Tumors in Childhood' of the Section of Children's Surgery of the GDR. Besides general problems which have to be taken into consideration in the treatment of infantile tumors the radiotherapeutical measures for Wilms' tumors, neuroblastomas, cerebral tumors, embryonal sarcomas of the soft parts and bone tumors are discussed. The necessary close cooperation of the attending branches is pointed out and both the regional centralization of patients' care and a superregional cooperation are required. (author)

  20. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Park, Gee Yong

    2010-05-01

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  1. High prevalence of frequent attendance in the over 65s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C Geraldine; Power Foley, Megan; Robinson, David; O'Donnell, Kate; Poulton, Miriam; Kenny, Rose A; Bennett, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of older frequent users of Emergency Departments (EDs) are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the characteristics of the ED frequent attenders (FAs) by age (under 65 and over 65 years). We examined the prevalence of FA attending the ED of an Urban Teaching Hospital in a cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2011. FA was defined as an individual who presented to the ED four or more times over a 12-month period. Randomly selected groups of FA and non-FA from two age groups (under 65 and over 65 years) were then examined to compare the characteristics between older FAs and non-FAs and older FAs and younger FAs. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for 12-month mortality in FA compared with non-FA aged at least 65 years. Overall, 137 150 ED attendances were recorded between 2009 and 2011. A total of 21.6% were aged at least 65 years, 4.4% of whom were FAs, accounting for 18.4% of attendances by patients older than 65 years. There was a bimodal age distribution of FA (mean±SD; under 65 years 40±12.7; and over 65 years 76.9±7.4). Older FAs were five times more likely to present outside normal working hours and 5.5 times more likely to require admission. Cardiovascular emergencies were the most common complaint, in contrast with the younger FA group, where injury and psychosocial conditions dominated. The odds ratio for death at 12 months was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 0.93-4.63; P=0.07), adjusting for age and sex. One-in-five ED patients older than 65 years of age are FAs. Older FAs largely present with complex medical conditions. Enhanced access to expert gerontology assessment should be considered as part of effective intervention strategies for older ED users.

  2. A New Fast Vertical Method for Mining Frequent Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Deng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mining methods are very effective for mining frequent patterns and usually outperform horizontal mining methods. However, the vertical methods become ineffective since the intersection time starts to be costly when the cardinality of tidset (tid-list or diffset is very large or there are a very large number of transactions. In this paper, we propose a novel vertical algorithm called PPV for fast frequent pattern discovery. PPV works based on a data structure called Node-lists, which is obtained from a coding prefix-tree called PPC-tree. The efficiency of PPV is achieved with three techniques. First, the Node-list is much more compact compared with previous proposed vertical structure (such as tid-lists or diffsets since transactions with common prefixes share the same nodes of the PPC-tree. Second, the counting of support is transformed into the intersection of Node-lists and the complexity of intersecting two Node-lists can be reduced to O(m+n by an efficient strategy, where m and n are the cardinalities of the two Node-lists respectively. Third, the ancestor-descendant relationship of two nodes, which is the basic step of intersecting Node-lists, can be very efficiently verified by Pre-Post codes of nodes. We experimentally compare our algorithm with FP-growth, and two prominent vertical algorithms (Eclat and dEclat on a number of databases. The experimental results show that PPV is an efficient algorithm that outperforms FP-growth, Eclat, and dEclat.

  3. [Is nocturnal polyuria more frequent among patients with Parkinson's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, J; Torny, F; Dumas, J-P; Gamé, X; Descazeaud, A

    2015-05-01

    Nocturia is a frequent complaint in the population of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (IPD). The consequences of nocturia in the IPD population are at high importance as these patients have motor problems and therefore a risk of nocturnal fall. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of nocturia in patients with MPI, by determining the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in this population. A prospective study by bladder diary was conducted on 70 consecutive IPD patients consulting for regular neurological follow-up at a non-severe stage. Nocturia was defined as 1 or more awakenings to urinate. Two definitions of NP were used: nocturnal diuresis 33% or higher of the total diuresis (NUV33), which is the ICS (International Continence Society) definition, and nocturnal diuresis 90 mL/h or higher (NUP90). The mean patient age was 71 years (45-86, sex ratio 33/30). On average, patients were diagnosed for IPD 6.76 years earlier. The prevalence of NP was 64.5% according to NUV33 definition, and 17.7% according to NUP90 definition. Among patients with nocturia, the prevalence of NP was 66% (NUV33) and 21.5% (NUP90). No association was observed between disease duration of the IPD and the prevalence of nocturia and NP. Patients 70 years and older were more likely to have NP as defined by NUV33 than those less than 70 years (72.7% versus 55.17%, P=0.015). Men had more frequently nocturia (33.3% versus 20.7%, P=0.027). The prevalence of NP and nocturia was analyzed in patients with IPD at a non-severe stage. This prevalence was not higher than in the general population of the same age. The mechanism of nocturia in patients with IPD is not unambiguous and therefore requires to be explored by a bladder diary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Frequent attendance in a Primary Health Care District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Granados, Nicolás; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Toledano Estepa, Manuel; Pérez Díaz, Manuel Modesto; Redondo Pedraza, Rosa

    2017-10-09

    To describe the distribution of frequent attenders (FA) through the different primary care practices in Cordoba-Guadalquivir Health District (Córdoba, Spain). An ecological study was performed, including data from 2011 to 2015. Defining FA as those subjects who made12 or more appointments per year; independently analysed for nursing, general practice and paediatrics. Prevalence of frequent attendance and FA/professional ratio were used as dependent variables. Demographic characteristics from district population, number of health professionals and use of general facilities were also examinated. Aiming to understand FA distribution, primary health settings were classified according to facility size and environmental location (urban, suburban and rural). The mean prevalence for FA was 10.86% (0.5 SE) for nursing; general practice 21.70% (0.7 SE) and for paediatrics 16.96% (0.7 SE). FA/professional ratios for the different professional categories were: 101.07 (5.0 SE) for nursing, 239.74 (9.0 SE) for general practice and 159.54 (9.8 SE) for paediatrics. A major part of primary health care users make a high number of consultations. From this group, women overuse nursing and general practitioner services more compared to men. A higher prevalence of FAs was observed in smaller settings, in rural areas. Although taking the FAs:professional ratio as the bar, medium-size practices are more highly overused. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  6. Development of Slovenian natural gas distribution for future integration and competition; Developpement du reseau de distribution du gaz Slovene en vue de l'integration et de la concurrence futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimerman, F.; Polpis-Perpar, B. [Javno podjetje Energetika Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2000-07-01

    The European gas industry is currently facing increased competition in the end consumer market. Therefore, many European countries have begun to transform their gas industries to assure a better position in the competitive environment. The impact of these developments will probably go beyond the national gas market. Harmonization and cost reduction will clearly become even more important determinants than they have been in the past for whole national gas supply chain. New developments in the European gas market, an awareness of our position on the Slovenian natural gas market and our plan to join the European Community have forced us to adopt European regulations and introduce cost reductions in several natural gas activities. Our main goal is to be prepared with regard to regulation and to employ cost management to reduce costs in order to offer a better natural gas price for our end consumers. Our paper is separated in two parts. The first part introduces the current situation with regard to the harmonization of our regulations with European directives. The second part presents our preparation for changes in the gas market in terms of cost reduction. In this paper we will try to present the initial steps which the largest Slovenian natural gas distribution company is taking to deal with future incorporation and competition. (authors)

  7. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types.......Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved...

  8. Chest Pain: The Need to Consider Less Frequent Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is one of the most frequent patient’s complaints. The commonest underlying causes are well known, but, sometimes, in some clinical scenarios, it is necessary to consider other diagnoses. We report a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male, chronically hypertensive, who complained of recurrent episodes of chest pain and fever with elevated acute phase reactants. The first investigation was negative for some of the most likely diagnosis and he quickly improved with anti-inflammatory drugs. Over a few months, his symptoms continued to recur periodically, his hypertension was aggravated, and he developed headaches and lower limbs claudication. After a temporal artery biopsy that was negative for vasculitis, he underwent a positron emission tomography suggestive of Takayasu Arteritis. Takayasu Arteritis is a rare chronic granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its first-order branches affecting mostly females up to 50 years old. Chest pain is experienced by >40% of the patients and results from the inflammation of the aorta, pulmonary artery, or coronaries.

  9. [Loyal frequent users of hospital emergency departments: the FIDUR project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Alonso, Cesáreo; Romero Pareja, Rodolfo; Rivas García, Aristides; Jiménez Gallego, Rosa; Majo Carbajo, Yolanda; Aguilar Mulet, Juan Mariano

    2016-02-01

    To describe the characteristics of frequent users of hospital emergency departments and analyze whether characteristics varied in relation to how revisits were distributed over the course of the year studied. Retrospective study of patients over the age of 14 years who were treated in a hospital emergency department at least 10 times in 2013. Patients were identified in 17 public hospitals in the Spanish autonomous community of Madrid. Data related to the first and successive visits were gathered and analyzed by quarter year. We included 2340 patients with a mean (SD) age of 54 (21) years. A total of 1361 (58.%) were women, 1160 (50%) had no concomitant diseases, 1366 (58.2%) were substance abusers, and 25 (1.1%) were homeless. During the first visit, 2038 (87.1%) complained of a recent health problem, and 289 (12.4%) were admitted. Sixty (2.6%) patients concentrated their revisits in a single quarters 335 (14.3%) in 2 quarters, 914 (39.1%) in 3, and 1005 (42.9%) in 4. Patients whose revisits were distributed over more quarters were older (> 65 years), had more concomitant conditions, were on more medications (P women (P = .012) and more likely to have a specific diagnosis (P loyally comes to the same emergency department over the course of a year. Patients whose revisits are dispersed over a longer period have more complex problems and use more resources during their initial visit.

  10. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lichenoid keratosis is frequently misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, D; Ondhia, C; Yu, L L; Chan, J J

    2017-08-01

    Lichenoid keratosis (LK), also known as benign lichenoid keratosis or lichen planus-like keratosis, is a solitary, pink to red-brown scaly plaque representing a host immunological response to a variety of precursor lesions. LK is often misdiagnosed as a dermatological malignancy owing to its clinical resemblance to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or Bowen disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathology records of a series of LK lesions with reference to the demographic features and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The pathology records from 2008 to 2009 of 263 consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of LK from a specialized skin laboratory were retrieved. Data relating to clinical diagnosis, age, sex, anatomical location, time of year of presentation and any coexistent pathological lesions adjacent to the LK were recorded. Mean age at presentation was 64 years (range 34-96), and 58% of patients were female. The most common anatomical site was the chest/anterior torso, followed by the back and legs. The most common coexisting lesion was solar keratosis at 14%, followed by seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) at 7.8%. The correct clinical diagnosis of LK was made in 29.5% of cases. The most common clinical diagnosis was BCC (47%), while SK was the preferred diagnosis in 18%. A clinical diagnosis was not given in 5.5% of cases. In conclusion, it appears that LK is frequently misdiagnosed, with misdiagnosis occurring in > 70% of cases in this study. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use.

  13. Frequently Occurring Reconnection Jets from Sunspot Light Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Peter, Hardi; Solanki, Sami K.; Young, Peter R.; Ni, Lei; Cao, Wenda; Ji, Kaifan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Samanta, Tanmoy; Song, Yongliang; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua; Chen, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Solid evidence of magnetic reconnection is rarely reported within sunspots, the darkest regions with the strongest magnetic fields and lowest temperatures in the solar atmosphere. Using the world’s largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, we detect prevalent reconnection through frequently occurring fine-scale jets in the Hα line wings at light bridges, the bright lanes that may divide the dark sunspot core into multiple parts. Many jets have an inverted Y-shape, shown by models to be typical of reconnection in a unipolar field environment. Simultaneous spectral imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph show that the reconnection drives bidirectional flows up to 200 km s‑1, and that the weakly ionized plasma is heated by at least an order of magnitude up to ∼80,000 K. Such highly dynamic reconnection jets and efficient heating should be properly accounted for in future modeling efforts of sunspots. Our observations also reveal that the surge-like activity previously reported above light bridges in some chromospheric passbands such as the Hα core has two components: the ever-present short surges likely to be related to the upward leakage of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere, and the occasionally occurring long and fast surges that are obviously caused by the intermittent reconnection jets.

  14. Frequent premature ventricular contractions in an orbital spaceflight participant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T; Stepanek, Jan P; Scott, Luis R; Voronkov, Yury I

    2010-06-01

    Commercial spaceflight participants on orbital flights typically are older than career astronauts and they often have medical conditions that have not been studied at high g or in microgravity. This is a case report of a 56-yr-old orbital spaceflight participant with essential tremor and frequent premature ventricular contractions that occurred at rates up to 7000 per day. Before training and spaceflight, he was required to complete extensive clinical investigations to demonstrate normal cardiac structures and the absence of cardiac pathology. The evaluation included signal averaged ECG, transthoracic stress echocardiography, exercise tolerance tests, electrophysiological studies, cardiac MRI, electron beam CT, Holter monitoring, and overnight oximetry. While no cardiac pathology was demonstrated, the Russian medical team required that the PVCs be treated prior to training and spaceflight. For the initial flight, a selective beta-1 receptor beta blocker was used and for the second a calcium channel blocker was used in combination with a nonselective beta blocker for tremor control. Analogue environment testing assured that this combination of medications was compatible. The spaceflight participant's PVCs were incompletely suppressed with a low-dose selective beta-1 blocker, but were well suppressed by a calcium channel blocker. He tolerated in-flight periodic use of a nonselective beta blocker in combination with a calcium channel blocker. In-flight ECG and blood pressure monitoring results were normal, and an ECG obtained midmission and on landing day showed successful PVC suppression. He did not have any cardiac difficulty with launch, on-orbit operations, entry, or recovery

  15. H.E. Dr Danilo Türk President of the Republic of Slovenia (second from right) visiting the ATLAS detector with, from left to right, Ambassador A. Logar, Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Director-General R. Heuer, First Lady B. Miklič Türk and ATLAS Slovenian national contactperson M. Mikuz.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    H.E. Dr Danilo Türk President of the Republic of Slovenia (second from right) visiting the ATLAS detector with, from left to right, Ambassador A. Logar, Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Director-General R. Heuer, First Lady B. Miklič Türk and ATLAS Slovenian national contactperson M. Mikuz.

  16. MSH6 Mutations are Frequent in Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Families With Normal pMSH6 Expression as Detected by Immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Henrik; Larsen, K.L.; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant condition accounting for 2% to 4% of all colorectal cancer cases worldwide. Families with germ line mutations in 1 of 6 mismatch repair genes are known as Lynch syndrome families. The largest number...... this approach in Lynch families carrying mutations in MSH6. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Results of the screening of the MSH6 gene in HNPCC families were compared with those obtained on immunohistochemical protein analysis. RESULTS:: In 56 (7%) of 815 families, at least 1 MSH6 mutation, 23 definitively pathogenic...... be detected, whereas in 34.5% pMSH6 was present and pMLH1/pPMS2 was absent. CONCLUSIONS:: If genetic screening of HNPCC families depended on immunohistochemical results, a substantial number of families harboring a pathogenic mutation in MSH6 and the vast majority of families harboring an MSH6 unclassified...

  17. Determination of D816V mutation in the c-kIt gene in the Slovenian patients with acute myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Fink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: D816V mutation in the C-KIT gene is present in more than 90 % of patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM and 2–7 % of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. D816V mutation is caused by the substitution of adenine with thymine at 2447 nucleotide sequence in the C-KIT gene. This nucleotide substitution causes the replacment of aspartate acid by valine at codon 816 of the KIT protein. KIT protein with D816V mutation acts as constitutively active tyrosine kinase that promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of D816V mutation in the C-KIT gene in Slovenian patients with AML and in patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis. Patients and methods: In the retrospective study, 71 patients with AML and 25 patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis were included. D816V mutation in the C-KIT gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: D816V mutation in KIT protein was determined in 7 % of patients with AML and in 32 % patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis. Conclusions: Identification of D816V mutation in the C-KIT gene must always be performed in patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis. The determination of this mutation contributes to the diagnosis and treatment selection. The finding of D816V mutation in the C-KIT gene in patients with AML and concomitant genetic modifications RUNX-RUNX1T1 (typical translocation t(8; 21 (q22, q22 or CBFB-MYH11, which is the result of inversion on chromosome 16–(inv (16 (p13, q22, however, indicates a faster, more aggressive course of the disease and predicts a worse outcome. The finding of the mutation in other patients with AML may indicate the presence of concomitant AML and SM, which was not found in our patients.

  18. Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strike Carol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity and nutrition are two topics that are under-researched among injection drug users (IDUs. Our study examined the extent and correlates of food insecurity among a sample of IDUs and explored whether there is an association between food insecurity and injection-related HIV risk. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were collected at a needle exchange program in London, Ontario, Canada between September 2006 and January 2007. Participants included 144 English-speaking IDUs who had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, food insecurity, and health/social service use. Results In the past 6 months, 54.5% of participants reported that on a daily/weekly basis they did not have enough to eat because of a lack of money, while 22.1% reported this type of food insecurity on a monthly basis. Moreover, 60.4% and 24.3% reported that they did not eat the quality or quantity of food they wanted on a daily/weekly or a monthly basis, respectively. Participants reported re-using someone else’s injection equipment: 21% re-used a needle, 19% re-used water, and 37.3% re-used a cooker. The odds of sharing injection equipment were increased for food insecure individuals. Conclusions Findings show that IDUs have frequent and variable experiences of food insecurity and these experiences are strongly correlated with sharing of injection-related equipment. Such behaviours may increase the likelihood of HIV and HCV transmission in this population. Addressing food-related needs among IDUs is urgently needed.

  19. Children with Crohn's Disease Frequently Consume Select Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dale; Swan, C Kaiulani; Suskind, David; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Vanamala, Jairam; Baldassano, Robert N; Leonard, Mary B; Lampe, Johanna W

    2018-06-04

    Certain food additives may promote the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), but thus far the evaluation of food additive exposures in humans has been limited. The objective of this study was to quantify food additive exposures in children with CD. In a trial for bone health in CD, children were followed over 24 months with evaluation of disease characteristics, dietary intake, and body composition. At baseline, participants completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Foods were categorized, and the ingredient list for each item was evaluated for the presence of select food additives: polysorbate-80, carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum, soy lecithin, titanium dioxide, carrageenan, maltodextrin, and aluminosilicates. The frequency of exposures to these food additives was described for study participants and for food categories. At study baseline, 138 participants, mean age 14.2 ± 2.8 years, 95% having inactive or mild disease, were enrolled and dietary recalls were collected. A total of 1325 unique foods were recorded. Mean exposures per day for xanthan gum was 0.96 ± 0.72, carrageenan 0.58 ± 0.63, maltodextrin 0.95 ± 0.77, and soy lecithin 0.90 ± 0.74. The other additives had less than 0.1 exposures per day. For the 8 examined food additives, participants were exposed to a mean (SD) of 3.6 ± 2.1 total additives per recall day and a mean (SD) of 2.4 ± 1.0 different additives per day. Children with CD frequently consume food additives, and the impact on disease course needs further study.

  20. FREQUENT SUBGRAPH MINING OF PERSONALIZED SIGNALING PATHWAY NETWORKS GROUPS PATIENTS WITH FREQUENTLY DYSREGULATED DISEASE PATHWAYS AND PREDICTS PROGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Arda; Henderson, Tim A D; Brubaker, Douglas; Bebek, Gurkan

    2017-01-01

    Large scale genomics studies have generated comprehensive molecular characterization of numerous cancer types. Subtypes for many tumor types have been established; however, these classifications are based on molecular characteristics of a small gene sets with limited power to detect dysregulation at the patient level. We hypothesize that frequent graph mining of pathways to gather pathways functionally relevant to tumors can characterize tumor types and provide opportunities for personalized therapies. In this study we present an integrative omics approach to group patients based on their altered pathway characteristics and show prognostic differences within breast cancer (p network-based classifier algorithms and showed that our unsupervised approach generates more robust and biologically relevant clustering whereas previous approaches failed to report specific functions for similar patient groups or classify patients into prognostic groups. These results could serve as a means to improve prognosis for future cancer patients, and to provide opportunities for improved treatment options and personalized interventions. The proposed novel graph mining approach is able to integrate PPI networks with gene expression in a biologically sound approach and cluster patients in to clinically distinct groups. We have utilized breast cancer and glioblastoma multiforme datasets from microarray and RNA-Seq platforms and identified disease mechanisms differentiating samples. Supplementary methods, figures, tables and code are available at https://github.com/bebeklab/dysprog.

  1. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  2. Texture and Quality Parameters of Slovenian Dry-Cured Ham Kraški pršut According to Mass and Salt Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Andronikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of fresh ham mass and the amount of salt added during processing on the technological, sensorial and physicochemical qualities of Slovenian dry-cured ham (Kraški pršut produced under Protected Geographical Indication. A total of 84 fresh ham samples (pH=5.6–5.9 measured 24 h post mortem originating from pigs (Landrace × Large white were divided into subgroups according to mass (light, 9.5–10.5 kg vs. heavy, 11.5–13.0 kg and salt addition during production (normal vs. low salt. These formed four subgroups for the analyses: light and normally salted, light and low salt, heavy and normally salted, and heavy and low salt. After the salting period, the NaCl concentration in the normally salted muscles was 3.8 to 4.0 %, and in the less salted muscles 2.8 to 3.0 %. During the processing of the dry-cured ham (at the beginning, after salting, and after resting, the semimembranosus (SM and biceps femoris (BF muscles were analysed for water activity (aw, pH, salt content, moisture, total minerals, non-protein nitrogen, and total nitrogen. One year after the processing, the instrumental (stress relaxation and texture profile and sensory qualities were also analysed. After the salting and resting periods, the pH of the samples was significantly decreased in comparison with the fresh ham, although after ageing period this increased again, to reach nearly the initial values (pH=5.59–5.74. At the same time, the aw of both muscles in all experimental groups dropped below 0.90. The total mass losses varied between the groups (34.75–36.63 %, with the samples of heavy and low salt ham showing the greatest mass loss. The light and low salt SM muscles showed slightly higher proteolysis indices (non-protein nitrogen/total nitrogen ratio after one year, which indicated a trend towards more rapid proteolysis as compared to the normally salted hams. Generally, the softer texture of the BF muscle

  3. Screening for germline mutations of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 genes in Slovenian colorectal cancer patients: implications for a population specific detection strategy of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Gasper; Bracko, Matej; Ravnik-Glavac, Metka; Glavac, Damjan

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in more than 90% of colorectal cancers of patients with Lynch syndrome, and is therefore a feasible marker for the disease. Mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, which are one of the main causes of deficient mismatch repair and subsequent MSI, have been linked to the disease. In order to establish the role of each of the 4 genes in Slovenian Lynch syndrome patients, we performed MSI analysis on 593 unselected CRC patients and subsequently searched for the presence of point mutations, larger genomic rearrangements and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation in patients with MSI-high tumours. We detected 43 (7.3%) patients with MSI-H tumours, of which 7 patients (1.3%) harboured germline defects: 2 in MLH1, 4 in MSH2, 1 in PMS2 and none in MSH6. Twenty-nine germline sequence variations of unknown significance and 17 deleterious somatic mutations were found. MLH1 promoter methylation was detected in 56% of patients without detected germline defects and in 1 (14%) suspected Lynch syndrome. Due to the minor role of germline MSH6 mutations, we adapted the Lynch syndrome detection strategy for the Slovenian population of CRC patients, whereby germline alterations should be first sought in MLH1 and MSH2 followed by a search for larger genomic rearrangements in these two genes. When no germline mutations are found tumors should be further tested for the presence of germline defects in PMS2 and MSH6. The choice about which gene should be tested first can be guided more accurately by the immunohistochemical analysis. Our study demonstrates that the incidence of MMR mutations in a population should be known prior to the application of one of several suggested strategies for detection of Lynch syndrome.

  4. The 70th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Liberation Front of the Slovenian Nation: About and on the Round Table “But we didn’t submit to their wild power…”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maca Jogan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 over 70 years had passed since the foundation of the Liberation Front of the Slovenian Nation which linked the majority of the Slovenian people in defence against the military occupantion during WWII. At present, knowledge about fascism and Nazism, about the cruelties and violent ethnocide carried out by German, Italian and Hungarian occupation troops is very limited, particularly among youth educated after the changes in the political system in Slovenia and the establishment of an independent state (1991. Scant and superficial is also their knowledge on the organized activity of the Liberation Front in the national liberation fight. For this reason the round table “We didn’t submit to their wild power…” was organised as part of the Anti-Fa seminar at the Faculty of Social Sciences (1 March 2011. Its aim was to renew interest in and expand public awareness of the LF, and also to evaluate its programme according to past and present social conditions (including a comparison with resistance movements in other European countries. The discussion was intended to contribute to raising sensitivity to various new forms of fascist or Nazi tendencies. This article outlines the broad circumstances during the last two decades, characterized by the denial and disregard of the LF’s importance on one hand and by the direct or indirect legitimization of collaboration with the occupation forces on the other. This cleavage of the historic memory was also raised in the discussions of the round table. The LF was seen as a unique historic organization and the final assessment of its work was predominantly positive.

  5. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  6. GRAMI: Frequent subgraph and pattern mining in a single large graph

    KAUST Repository

    Elseidy, M.; Abdelhamid, Ehab; Skiadopoulos, S.; Kalnis, Panos

    2014-01-01

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs; it is defined as finding all subgraphs that appear frequently in a database according to a given frequency threshold. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs

  7. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent

  8. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. A

  9. Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Carl Goran; Akerman, Ingrid; Priebe, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Frequent use of pornography has not been sufficiently studied before. In a Swedish survey 2015 male students aged 18 years participated. A group of frequent users of pornography (N = 200, 10.5%) were studied with respect to background and psychosocial correlates. The frequent users had a more positive attitude to pornography, were more often…

  10. The joint effect of the endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB polymorphism rs10507875 and nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3 polymorphism rs869109213 in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Bregar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that endothelin and nitric oxide synthase genes and their products exert biological effects on the vasculature via the nitric oxide or endothelin pathway. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of rs10507875 and rs869109213 (alone or in interaction with diabetic retinopathy (DR in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10507875 of the endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB and variable number tandem repeats rs869109213 of the nitric oxide synthase 3 gene (NOS3 in 270 Slovenian patients with DR and T2DM and 256 controls with T2DM without clinical signs of DR. The genotyping was performed using either real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR or standard PCR. We found a significant association between the genotypes of NOS3 rs869109213 polymorphism and the risk of DR in the co-dominant model (4a4b genotype; 1.99-fold increased risk [1.09-3.65]; 95% confidence interval [CI]; p = 0.02, co-dominant model (4a4a genotype; 4.16-fold increased risk [1.03-16.74]; 95% CI; p = 0.04, and dominant model (4a4a and 4a4b genotypes; 2.22-fold increased risk [1.26-3.92]; 95% CI; p = 0.01 compared to the 4b4b genotype. Moreover, the joint effect of the two polymorphisms on DR risk was greater than the individual effect of each polymorphism in the analyzed genetic models. Additionally, adjusted odds ratio showed an increased risk in dominant × dominant (4.15-fold [1.40-12.26]; 95% CI; p = 0.01 and recessive × dominant (2.24-fold [1.25-4.01]; 95% CI; p = 0.02 genotype combinations of the two polymorphisms. In conclusion, our results indicate that NOS3 rs869109213 polymorphism alone or in a combination with EDNRB rs10507875 polymorphism may be associated with DR in Slovenian patients with T2DM.

  11. AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Suba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.

  12. Frequent use of emergency departments by older people: a comparative cohort study of characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maryann; Berry, Debra; Considine, Julie

    2018-04-12

    To characterise older people who frequently use emergency departments (EDs) and compare patient outcomes with older non-frequent ED attenders. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Logistic regression modelling of patient characteristics and health service usage, comparing older frequent ED attenders (≥4 ED attendances in 12 months) to non-frequent ED attenders. Three Australian public hospital EDs, with a total of 143 327 emergency attendances in the 12 months. People aged ≥65 years attending the ED in financial year 2013/2014. The primary outcome was frequent ED use; secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, discharge destination from ED, hospital length of stay, re-presentation within 48 h, hospital readmission within 30 days and in-hospital mortality. Five percent of older people were frequent attenders (n = 1046/21 073), accounting for 16.9% (n = 5469/32 282) of all attendances by older people. Frequent ED attenders were more likely to be male, aged 75-84 years, arrive by ambulance and have a diagnosis relating to chronic illness. Frequent attenders stayed 0.4 h longer in ED (P < 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to hospital (69.2% vs 67.2%; P = 0.004), and had a 1 day longer hospital stay (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality for older frequent ED attenders was double that of non-frequent attenders (7.0% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001) over 12 months. Older frequent ED attenders had more chronic disease and care needs requiring hospital admission than non-frequent attenders. A new approach to care planning and coordination is recommended, to optimise the patient journey and improve outcomes.

  13. СHILDREN OF MEGAPOLISES WHO FALL ILL FREQUENTLY: ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.

  14. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....

  15. Clinical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders in primary care: case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shireen; Kai, Joe; Atha, Christopher; Avery, Anthony; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Malins, Samuel; Sampson, Christopher James; Stubley, Michelle; Morriss, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most frequent attendance in primary care is temporary, but persistent frequent attendance is expensive and may be suitable for psychological intervention. To plan appropriate intervention and service delivery, there is a need for research involving standardized psychiatric interviews with assessment of physical health and health status.\\ud \\ud Objective. To compare the mental and physical health characteristics and health status of persistent frequent attenders (FAs) in primary ca...

  16. Frequent callers to crisis helplines: who are they and why do they call?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittal, Matthew J; Fedyszyn, Izabela; Middleton, Aves; Bassilios, Bridget; Gunn, Jane; Woodward, Alan; Pirkis, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Frequent callers present a challenge for crisis helplines, which strive to achieve optimal outcomes for all callers within finite resources. This study aimed to describe frequent callers to Lifeline (the largest crisis helpline in Australia) and compare them with non-frequent callers, with a view to furthering knowledge about models of service delivery that might meet the needs of frequent callers. Lifeline provided an anonymous dataset on calls made between December 2011 and May 2013. We assumed calls from the same (encrypted) phone number were made by the same person, and aggregated call level data up to the person level. Individuals who made 0.667 calls per day in any period from 1 week to the full 549 days for which we had data (i.e. 4.7 calls in 7 days, 20 calls in 30 days, 40 calls in 60 days, etc.) were regarded as frequent callers. Our analysis dataset included 411,725 calls made by 98,174 individuals, 2594 (2.6%) of whom met our definition of frequent callers. We identified a number of predictors of being a frequent caller, including being male or transgender, and never having been married. The odds increased with age until 55-64 years, and then declined. Suicidality, self-harm, mental health issues, crime, child protection and domestic violence issues all predicted being a frequent caller. Collectively, frequent callers have a significant impact on crisis lines, and solutions need to be found for responding to them that are in everybody's best interests (i.e. the frequent callers themselves, other callers, telephone crisis supporters who staff crisis lines, and those who manage crisis lines). In striking this balance, the complex and multiple needs of frequent callers must be taken into account. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  17. Restrictions of frequent frames as cues to categories: the case of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, M.A.; Chan, H.; Kapia, E.; Jacob, H.

    2008-01-01

    Why Dutch 12-month-old infants do not use frequent frames in early categorization Mintz (2003) proposes that very local distributional contexts of words in the input-so-called 'frequent frames'-function as reliable cues for categories corresponding to the adult verb and noun. He shows that

  18. Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis is more frequently seen in women than in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukran Erten

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion SpA are frequent diseases and physicians other than rheumatologists should also be aware of them. uSpA is more frequent in women than men. Early diagnosis of SpA is important because early treatment with new biological therapies may lead to much better Results than applying them in the advanced stages.

  19. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  20. A construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Bingfeng

    2017-08-01

    Based on the frequent sub-tree mining algorithm, this paper proposes a construction scheme of web page comment information extraction system based on frequent subtree mining, referred to as FSM system. The entire system architecture and the various modules to do a brief introduction, and then the core of the system to do a detailed description, and finally give the system prototype.

  1. Drought, tree mortality, and wildfire in forests adapted to frequent fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L Stephens; Brandon M Collins; Christopher J Fettig; Mark A Finney; Chad M Hoffman; Eric E Knapp; Malcolm P North; Hugh Safford; Rebecca B Wayman

    2018-01-01

    Massive tree mortality has occurred rapidly in frequent-fire-adapted forests of the Sierra Nevada, California. This mortality is a product of acute drought compounded by the long-established removal of a key ecosystem process: frequent, low- to moderate-intensity fire. The recent tree mortality has many implications for the future of these forests and the ecological...

  2. Why do they keep coming back? Persistent frequent attenders in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, F.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The background of frequent attenders (FAs) of the General Practitioner (GP) often remains unclear. This thesis examines persistent frequent attendance, the relationship with (medical) conditions, methods to treat FAs, the impact of FAs on the GP’s workload and costs of healthcare, which medical file

  3. Effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampal activity during an associative memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Gerry; van Hell, Hendrika H.; de Win, Maartje M. L.; Kahn, Rene S.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2007-01-01

    Interest is growing in the neurotoxic potential of cannabis on human brain function. We studied non-acute effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampus-dependent associative memory, investigated with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 20 frequent cannabis users and 20 non-users

  4. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  5. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  6. HSMNR belongs to the most frequent types of hereditary neuropathy in the Czech Republic and is twice more frequent than HMSNL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafka Brožková, D; Haberlová, J; Mazanec, R; Laštůvková, J; Seeman, P

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Russe (HMSNR), also called CMT4G, is an autosomal recessive inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN) caused by a founder mutation in the HK1 gene. HMSNR affects only patients with Roma origin, similar to the better known HMSN type Lom clarified earlier. By testing IPN patients with Roma origin, we realized that HMSNR affects surprisingly many patients in the Czech Republic. HMSNR is one of the most frequent types of IPN in this country and appears to be twice more frequent than HMSNL. Pronounced lower limb atrophies and severe deformities often lead to walking inability in even young patients, but hands are usually only mildly affected even after many years of disease duration. The group of 20 patients with HMSNR presented here is the first report about the prevalence of HMSNR from central Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Categorizing "frequent visitors" in the psychiatric emergency room: a semistructured interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Nurses can become demoralized and hostile toward frequent visitors in psychiatric emergency rooms because of the number of visits. The aim of this study was to develop more knowledge about the ways in which nurses categorize frequent visitors. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and their categorizing...... practices were examined from a social constructionist perspective. The results showed that the nurses did not categorize frequent visitors as particularly unlikeable or difficult to treat. Like other visitors, they could be categorized as difficult if they obstructed a smooth flow of successful referrals...... through the emergency room and/or there was poor rapport with the nurses....

  9. Acute calcific tendonitis of dorsal interosseous muscles of the hand: uncommon site of a frequent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute calcific tendinopathy is one of the manifestations of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease. While it is more frequent in the shoulder, it has been described in virtually all areas of the body, but rarely in the muscles of the hand. Its etiopathogenesis is not yet fully understood and despite being a fairly frequent condition, it is commonly misdiagnosed. The onset of the disease is usually acute and resolves spontaneously. Acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous tendons of the hand is an uncommon site of a frequent condition. The clinical presentation is similar to other entities, thus errors in diagnosis frequently occur, resulting in over-treatment or unnecessary tests. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the interosseous muscles of the hand with a brief review of the current literature with emphasis on diagnostic imaging methods.

  10. Internal wave-mediated shading causes frequent vertical migrations in fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Klevjer, TA; Aksnes, Dag L.

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence that internal waves cause frequent vertical migrations (FVM) in fishes. Acoustic data from the Benguela Current revealed that pelagic scattering layers of fish below ~140 m moved in opposite phases to internal waves, ascending

  11. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  12. An Efficient Approach to Mining Maximal Contiguous Frequent Patterns from Large DNA Sequence Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining interesting patterns from DNA sequences is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. Maximal contiguous frequent patterns are preferable for expressing the function and structure of DNA sequences and hence can capture the common data characteristics among related sequences. Biologists are interested in finding frequent orderly arrangements of motifs that are responsible for similar expression of a group of genes. In order to reduce mining time and complexity, however, most existing sequence mining algorithms either focus on finding short DNA sequences or require explicit specification of sequence lengths in advance. The challenge is to find longer sequences without specifying sequence lengths in advance. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to mining maximal contiguous frequent patterns from large DNA sequence datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is memory-efficient and mines maximal contiguous frequent patterns within a reasonable time.

  13. Esophageal motor disorders are frequent during pre and post lung transplantation. Can they influence lung rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Castel de Lucas, Isabel; Lora Pablos, David; Castellano Tortajada, Gregorio

    2018-06-01

    lung transplantation (LTx) is a viable option for most patients with end-stage lung diseases. Esophageal motor disorders (EMD) are frequent in candidates for LTx, but there is very little data about changes in esophageal motility post-LTx. the aim of our study was to assess esophageal motor disorders by high resolution manometry (HRM) both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx in patients with and without organ rejection. HRM (Manoscan®) was performed in 57 patients both pre-LTx and six months post-LTx. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification 3.0. EMD were found in 33.3% and in 49.1% of patients pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively, and abnormal peristalsis was more frequently found post-LTx (p = 0.018). Hypercontractile esophagus was frequently found post-LTx (1.8% and 19.3% pre-LTx and post-LTx, respectively). Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology changed significantly pre-LTx and post-LTx; type I (normal) was more frequent post-LTx (63-2% and 82.5% respectively, p = 0.007). EMD were more frequent post-LTx in both the non-rejection and rejection group, although particularly in the rejection group (43.2% and 69.2% respectively, p = 0.09). EMD such as distal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus and EGJ outflow obstruction were also observed more frequently post-LTx in the rejection group. significant changes in esophageal motility were observed pre-LTx and particularly post-LTx; hypercontractile esophagus was a frequent EMD found post-LTx. EMD were more frequent in the group of patients that experienced organ rejection compared to the non-rejection group. EMD leading to an impaired esophageal clearance should be considered as an additional factor that contributes to LTx failure.

  14. Social capital and frequent attenders in general practice: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasgaard, Alexander A; Mæhlisen, Maiken H; Overgaard, Charlotte; Ejlskov, Linda; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik

    2018-03-02

    Frequent attendance to primary care constitutes a large use of resources for the health care system. The association between frequent attendance and illness-related factors has been examined in several studies, but little is known about the association between frequent attendance and individual social capital. The aim of this study is to explore this association. The analysis is conducted on responders to the North Denmark Region Health Profile 2010 (n = 23,384), individually linked with information from administrative registers. Social capital is operationalized at the individual level, and includes cognitive (interpersonal trust and norms of reciprocity) as well as structural (social network and civic engagement) dimensions. Frequent attendance is defined as the upper-quartile of the total number of measured consultations with a general practitioner over a period of 148 weeks. Using multiple logistic regression, we found that frequent attendance was associated with a lower score in interpersonal trust [OR 0.86 (0.79-0.94)] and social network [OR 0.88 (0.79-0.98)] for women, when adjusted for age, education, income and SF12 health scores. Norms of reciprocity and civic engagement were not significantly associated with frequent attendance for women [OR 1.05 (0.99-1.11) and OR 1.01 (0.92-1.11) respectively]. None of the associations were statistically significant for men. This study suggests that for women, some aspects of social capital are associated with frequent attendance in general practice, and the statistically significant dimensions belonged to both cognitive and structural aspects of social capital. This association was not seen for men. This indicates a multifaceted and heterogeneous relationship between social capital and frequent attendance among genders.

  15. Bayesian Method for Building Frequent Landsat-Like NDVI Datasets by Integrating MODIS and Landsat NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Liao; Jinling Song; Jindi Wang; Zhiqiang Xiao; Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Studies related to vegetation dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets with both high spatial resolution and frequent coverage, which cannot be satisfied by a single sensor due to technical limitations. In this study, we propose a new method called NDVI-Bayesian Spatiotemporal Fusion Model (NDVI-BSFM) for accurately and effectively building frequent high spatial resolution Landsat-like NDVI datasets by integrating Moderate Resol...

  16. BACTERIAL LYSATES IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FREQUENTLY SICK CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lupan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review analyzes the results of Imudon administration in pediatrics. The drug contains a mixture of purified lyzates of bacteria which are the most frequent causative agents of pathologic processes in oral cavity and throat. Presented data show high efficacy and safety of a drug.Key words: frequently sick children, respiratory infections, topical immunocorrector, clinical studies.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 41–46

  17. Frequent hospital admissions in Singapore: clinical risk factors and impact of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lian Leng; Tay, Wei Yi; Ng, Matthew Joo Ming; Tan, Shu Yun; Liu, Nan; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2018-01-01

    Frequent admitters to hospitals are high-cost patients who strain finite healthcare resources. However, the exact risk factors for frequent admissions, which can be used to guide risk stratification and design effective interventions locally, remain unknown. Our study aimed to identify the clinical and sociodemographic risk factors associated with frequent hospital admissions in Singapore. An observational study was conducted using retrospective 2014 data from the administrative database at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Variables were identified a priori and included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior healthcare utilisation, and clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for frequent admissions. A total of 16,306 unique patients were analysed and 1,640 (10.1%) patients were classified as frequent admitters. On multivariate logistic regression, 16 variables were independently associated with frequent hospital admissions, including age, cerebrovascular disease, history of malignancy, haemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum albumin, and number of specialist outpatient clinic visits, emergency department visits, admissions preceding index admission and medications dispensed at discharge. Patients staying in public rental housing had a 30% higher risk of being a frequent admitter after adjusting for demographics and clinical conditions. Our study, the first in our knowledge to examine the clinical risk factors for frequent admissions in Singapore, validated the use of public rental housing as a sensitive indicator of area-level socioeconomic status in Singapore. These risk factors can be used to identify high-risk patients in the hospital so that they can receive interventions that reduce readmission risk. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  18. Mining top-k frequent closed itemsets in data streams using sliding window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Z.; Shahbaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Frequent itemset mining has become a popular research area in data mining community since the last few years. T here are two main technical hitches while finding frequent itemsets. First, to provide an appropriate minimum support value to start and user need to tune this minimum support value by running the algorithm again and again. Secondly, generated frequent itemsets are mostly numerous and as a result a number of association rules generated are also very large in numbers. Applications dealing with streaming environment need to process the data received at high rate, therefore, finding frequent itemsets in data streams becomes complex. In this paper, we present an algorithm to mine top-k frequent closed itemsets using sliding window approach from streaming data. We developed a single-pass algorithm to find frequent closed itemsets of length between user's defined minimum and maximum- length. To improve the performance of algorithm and to avoid rescanning of data, we have transformed data into bitmap based tree data structure. (author)

  19. Unhappiness Intensifies the Avoidance of Frequent Losses While Happiness Overcomes It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel; Krupenia, Stas; Rafaeli, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The implication of spontaneous and induced unhappiness to people's decision style is examined. It is postulated that unhappy individuals have a greater tendency to avoid frequent losses because these can have depleting effects, and unhappy individuals are more sensitive to such effects. This is evaluated in Study 1 by using an annoying customer call manipulation to induce negative affect; and by examining the effect of this manipulation on choices in an experiential decision task (the Iowa Gambling task). In Study 2 we examined the association between self-reported (un)happiness and choices on the same decision task. In Study 1 the induction of negative affect led to avoidance of choice alternatives with frequent losses, compared to those yielding rarer but larger losses. Specifically, this pertained to the advantageous alternatives with frequent vs. non-frequent losses. In Study 2 unhappiness was similarly associated with less exposure to frequent losses; while extreme high happiness was associated with no tendency to avoid frequent losses when these were part of an advantageous alternative. The findings clarify the role of happiness in decision making processes by indicating that unhappiness induces sensitivity to the frequency rather than to the total effect of negative events.

  20. The Frequent Unusual Headache Syndromes: A Proposed Classification Based on Lifetime Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo M; de Oliveira, Daniella A

    2016-01-01

    There is no agreement on a single cutoff point or prevalence for regarding a given disease as rare. The concept of what is a rare headache disorder is even less clear and the spectrum from a very frequent, frequent, occasional to rare headache syndrome is yet to be established. An attempt has been made to estimate the lifetime prevalence of each of the headache subtypes classified in the ICHD-II. Using the ICHD-II, 199 different headache subtypes were identified. The following classification was made according to the estimated lifetime prevalence of each headache disorder: very frequent (prevalence >10%); frequent (between 1 and 10%); occasional (between 0.07 and 1%); and unusual or rare (headache disorders, 7/199 (4%) as very frequent, 9/199 (5%) as frequent, and 29/199 (15%) as occasional forms of headache disorder. The unusual headache syndromes do not appear to be as infrequent in clinical practice as has been generally believed. About three-fourths of the classified headache disorders found in the ICHD-II can be considered as rare. This narrative review article may be regarded as an introduction to the concept of unusual headaches and a proposed classification of all headaches (at least those listed in the ICHD-II). © 2015 American Headache Society.

  1. Consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares: estudo de fatores associados Frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents: study of associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Marquardt de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados ao consumo frequente de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes escolares em Feira de Santana, BA. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória, estratificada por conglomerado, totalizando 10 escolas de portes diferenciados e 776 estudantes de ambos os sexos que relataram consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, na faixa etária de 14 a 19 anos, assegurando representatividade das escolas e alunos. O instrumento auto-aplicável foi elaborado segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS e questionários validados em outros estudos. A coleta garantiu procedimentos para anonimato e sigilo. Foram considerados expostos adolescentes que referiram consumo frequente (em pelo menos todo final de semana. RESULTADOS: O consumo frequente/pesado mostrou associações significantes com sexo masculino, consumo precoce, parceiro sexual pouco conhecido, problemas com substâncias psicoativas (SPAs na família, coabitação com companheiro, renda própria, tráfico de drogas, consumo com amigos, atividades na escola, motivações (ansiedade, animação/prazer; e consequências (outras SPAs, brigas, inadimplência ao trabalhoescola. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento dos fatores pessoais, interpessoais, familiares e ambientais associados ao consumo de bebidas alcoólicas por adolescentes devem ser considerados na implementação de programas escolares e políticas públicas de prevenção, visando comportamentos que minimizem a exposição ao risco associado.OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors associated with the frequent consumption of alcohol by school age adolescents in Feira de Santana, Bahia. METHOD: Cross sectional study with random sampling, stratified by clusters, totaling 10 schools of different sizes. Although 1,409 students were included in the sample, only 776 of both genders, aged 14 to 19 years who reported alcohol drinking were included in the analysis, providing representativeness of schools and students. Data collection tools

  2. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  3. Moderators of the relationship between frequent family demands and inflammation among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Hoffer, Lauren C; Chen, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Frequent demands from others in relationships are associated with worse physiological and health outcomes. The present research investigated 2 potential moderators of the relationship between frequency of demands from one's family and inflammatory profiles among adolescents: (a) closeness of adolescents' relationships with their families, and (b) the frequency with which adolescents provided help to their families. Two hundred thirty-four adolescents, ages 13-16 (Mage = 14.53; 47.83% male), completed a daily dairy in which they reported on the frequency of demands made by family members. They were also interviewed about the closeness of their family relationships and reported in the daily diary on how frequently they provided help to their families. Adolescents also underwent a blood draw to assess low-grade inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to bacterial stimulation. More frequent demands from family predicted higher levels of low-grade inflammation and cytokine production in response to bacterial stimulation in adolescents. Family closeness moderated the relationship between frequent demands and stimulated cytokine production such that more frequent demands predicted higher cytokine production among adolescents who were closer to their families. Furthermore, frequency of providing help moderated the relationship between frequent demands and both low-grade inflammation and stimulated cytokine production, such that more frequent demands predicted worse inflammatory profiles among adolescents who provided more help to their families. These findings build on previous work on family demands and health to show under what circumstances family demands might have a physiological cost. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care hospital in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeverica, Samo; Kolenc, Urša; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Papst, Lea

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  6. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G

    2009-09-01

    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.

  7. Efficacy of levamisole in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Sudha; Mahalingam, Vijayakumar; Nageswaran, Prahlad; Udani, Amish; Geminiganesan, Sangeetha; Priyadarshini, Shweta

    2014-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of levamisole in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Retrospective analysis of hospital case records. Pediatric nephrology department of a tertiary referral pediatric hospital. 62 children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and 35 children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Case records of children who were diagnosed as steroid-dependant or frequently-relapsing nephrotic syndrome from June 2004 to June 2011, were reviewed. Levamisole was given daily (2 mg/kg/d) along with tapering doses of alternate day steroids after remission on daily steroids. Levamisole was effective in 77.3% children with a better (80.6%) efficacy in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. A total of 34 children completed 1 year follow-up post levamisole therapy. The cumulative mean (SD) steroid dose 1-year before therapy was 4109(1154) mg/m2 and 1-year post therapy was 661 (11) mg/m2 (P<0.001). The relapses were also less during the period of post-levamisole therapy. Levamisole is an effective alternative therapy in frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

  8. "Frequent frames" in German child-directed speech: a limited cue to grammatical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumper, Barbara; Bannard, Colin; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Mintz (2003) found that in English child-directed speech, frequently occurring frames formed by linking the preceding (A) and succeeding (B) word (A_x_B) could accurately predict the syntactic category of the intervening word (x). This has been successfully extended to French (Chemla, Mintz, Bernal, & Christophe, 2009). In this paper, we show that, as for Dutch (Erkelens, 2009), frequent frames in German do not enable such accurate lexical categorization. This can be explained by the characteristics of German including a less restricted word order compared to English or French and the frequent use of some forms as both determiner and pronoun in colloquial German. Finally, we explore the relationship between the accuracy of frames and their potential utility and find that even some of those frames showing high token-based accuracy are of limited value because they are in fact set phrases with little or no variability in the slot position. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor with Elevated Inhibin B as a Cause of Secondary Amenorrhea in an Adolescent with Germ Line DICER1 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Amy M; Moroney, John W; Snitchler, Andrea; Whiteway, Susan L

    2017-10-01

    Ovarian tumors, although uncommon in children, can retain endocrine function that disrupts normal feedback mechanisms leading to amenorrhea. Inheritance of germline DICER1 mutations can lead to increased risk for development of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs). We report, to our knowledge, the first case of secondary amenorrhea due to elevated inhibin B levels in a female adolescent with an ovarian SLCT. Ovarian tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis for pediatric patients who present with menstrual irregularities. Early evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and inhibin levels is appropriate. Our case also emphasizes the need for testing for DICER1 mutations in pediatric patients with ovarian SLCTs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Homozygous germ-line mutation of the PMS2 mismatch repair gene: a unique case report of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchander, N. C.; Ryan, N. A. J.; Crosbie, E. J.; Evans, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundConstitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of th...

  11. Homozygous germ-line mutation of the PMS2 mismatch repair gene: a unique case report of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchander, N C; Ryan, N A J; Crosbie, E J; Evans, D G

    2017-04-05

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome results from bi-allelic inheritance of mutations affecting the key DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Individuals with bi-allelic mutations have a dysfunctional mismatch repair system from birth; as a result, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is characterised by early onset malignancies. Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature over the past 20 years. This is the first report of the founder PMS2 mutation - NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11 and its associated cancers in this family. The proband is 30 years old and is alive today. She is of Pakistani ethnic origin and a product of consanguinity. She initially presented aged 24 with painless bleeding per-rectum from colorectal polyps and was referred to clinical genetics. Clinical examination revealed two café-au-lait lesions, lichen planus, and a dermoid cyst. Her sister had been diagnosed in childhood with an aggressive brain tumour followed by colorectal cancer. During follow up, the proband developed 37 colorectal adenomatous polyps, synchronous ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinomas, and ultimately a metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. DNA sequencing of peripheral lymphocytes revealed a bi-allelic inheritance of the PMS2 mutation NM_000535.5:c.1500del (p.Val501TrpfsTer94) in exon 11. Ovarian tumour tissue demonstrated low microsatellite instability. To date, she has had a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and a total gastrectomy. Aspirin and oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy provide some chemoprophylaxis and manage postmenopausal symptoms, respectively. An 18-monthly colonoscopy surveillance programme has led to the excision of three high-grade dysplastic colorectal tubular adenomatous polyps. The proband's family pedigree displays multiple relatives with cancers including a likely case of 'true' Turcot syndrome. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome should be considered in patients who present with early onset cancer, a strong family history of cancer, and cutaneous features resembling neurofibromatosis type I. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumour and normal tissue is sensitive and specific for identifying patients with mismatch repair deficiency and should direct DNA sequencing of lymphocytic tissue to establish a diagnosis. Microsatellite instability status appears to be of little value in identifying patients who may have constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome.

  12. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a FBN2 mutation and analysis of FBN2 transcript levels in dermal fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putnam, E. A.; Park, E. S.; Aalfs, C. M.; Hennekam, R. C.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is phenotypically related to the Marfan syndrome. CCA has recently been shown to result from mutations in the FBN2 gene, which encodes an elastin-associated microfibrillar protein called fibrillin-2. Two siblings are

  13. Germ-line variants identified by next generation sequencing in a panel of estrogen and cancer associated genes correlate with poor clinical outcome in Lynch syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóri, Balazs; Kamps, Rick; Xanthoulea, Sofia; Delvoux, Bert; Blok, Marinus J; Van de Vijver, Koen K; de Koning, Bart; Oei, Felicia Trups; Tops, Carli M; Speel, Ernst Jm; Kruitwagen, Roy F; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B; Romano, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The risk to develop colorectal and endometrial cancers among subjects testing positive for a pathogenic Lynch syndrome mutation varies, making the risk prediction difficult. Genetic risk modifiers alter the risk conferred by inherited Lynch syndrome mutations, and their identification can improve genetic counseling. We aimed at identifying rare genetic modifiers of the risk of Lynch syndrome endometrial cancer. A family based approach was used to assess the presence of genetic risk modifiers among 35 Lynch syndrome mutation carriers having either a poor clinical phenotype (early age of endometrial cancer diagnosis or multiple cancers) or a neutral clinical phenotype. Putative genetic risk modifiers were identified by Next Generation Sequencing among a panel of 154 genes involved in endometrial physiology and carcinogenesis. A simple pipeline, based on an allele frequency lower than 0.001 and on predicted non-conservative amino-acid substitutions returned 54 variants that were considered putative risk modifiers. The presence of two or more risk modifying variants in women carrying a pathogenic Lynch syndrome mutation was associated with a poor clinical phenotype. A gene-panel is proposed that comprehends genes that can carry variants with putative modifying effects on the risk of Lynch syndrome endometrial cancer. Validation in further studies is warranted before considering the possible use of this tool in genetic counseling.

  14. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  15. Characterization of a rabbit germ-line VH gene that is a candidate donor for VH gene conversion in mutant Alicia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Mage, R G

    1995-06-15

    Normal rabbits preferentially rearrange the 3'-most VH gene, VH1, to encode Igs with VHa allotypes, which constitute the majority of rabbit serum Igs. A gene conversion-like mechanism is employed to diversify the primary Ab repertoire. In mutant Alicia rabbits that derived from a rabbit with VHa2 allotype, the VH1 gene was deleted. Our previous studies showed that the first functional gene (VH4) or VH4-like genes were rearranged in 2- to 8-wk-old homozygous Alicia. The VH1a2-like sequences that were found in splenic mRNA from 6-wk and older Alicia rabbits still had some residues that were typical of VH4. The appearances of sequences resembling that of VH1a2 may have been caused by gene conversions that altered the sequences of the rearranged VH or there may have been rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development. To investigate this further, we constructed a cosmid library and isolated a VH1a2-like gene, VH12-1-6, with a sequence almost identical to VH1a2. This gene had a deleted base in the heptamer of its recombination signal sequence. However, even if this defect diminished or eliminated its ability to rearrange, the a2-like gene could have acted as a donor for gene-conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes. Sequence comparisons suggested that this gene or a gene like it could have acted as a donor for gene conversion in mutant Alicia and in normal rabbits.

  16. Predicting frequent emergency department visits among children with asthma using EHR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lala T; Abramson, Erika L; Stone, Anne E; Kondrich, Janienne E; Kern, Lisa M; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2017-07-01

    For children with asthma, emergency department (ED) visits are common, expensive, and often avoidable. Though several factors are associated with ED use (demographics, comorbidities, insurance, medications), its predictability using electronic health record (EHR) data is understudied. We used a retrospective cohort study design and EHR data from one center to examine the relationship of patient factors in 1 year (2013) and the likelihood of frequent ED use (≥2 visits) in the following year (2014), using bivariate and multivariable statistics. We applied and compared several machine-learning algorithms to predict frequent ED use, then selected a model based on accuracy, parsimony, and interpretability. We identified 2691 children. In bivariate analyses, future frequent ED use was associated with demographics, co-morbidities, insurance status, medication history, and use of healthcare resources. Machine learning algorithms had very good AUC (area under the curve) values [0.66-0.87], though fair PPV (positive predictive value) [48-70%] and poor sensitivity [16-27%]. Our final multivariable logistic regression model contained two variables: insurance status and prior ED use. For publicly insured patients, the odds of frequent ED use were 3.1 [2.2-4.5] times that of privately insured patients. Publicly insured patients with 4+ ED visits and privately insured patients with 6+ ED visits in a year had ≥50% probability of frequent ED use the following year. The model had an AUC of 0.86, PPV of 56%, and sensitivity of 23%. Among children with asthma, prior frequent ED use and insurance status strongly predict future ED use. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  18. Bringing stability to the COPD patient: clinical and pharmacological considerations for frequent exacerbators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are critical events associated with accelerated loss of lung function, increased morbidity, and excess mortality. AECOPD are heterogeneous in nature and this may directly impact clinical decision making, specifically in patients with frequent exacerbations. A “frequent exacerbator” is a sub-phenotype of COPD that is defined as an individual who experiences ≥2 moderate to severe exacerbations per year. This distinct subgroup has higher mortality and account for more than half of COPD-related hospitalizations annually. Thus, it is imperative to identify individuals at risk for frequent exacerbations and choose optimal strategies to minimize risk for these events. New paradigms for utilizing combination inhalers and the introduction of novel oral compounds provide expanded treatment options to reduce the risk and frequency of exacerbations. The goals of managing frequent exacerbators or patients at risk for AECOPD are: 1) maximizing bronchodilation, 2) reducing inflammation, and 3) targeting specific molecular pathways implicated in COPD and AECOPD pathogenesis. Novel inhaler therapies include combination long acting muscarinic agents (LAMA) plus long acting beta agonists (LABA) show promising results compared to monotherapy or LABA inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combination in reducing exacerbation risk among individuals at risk for exacerbations and among frequent exacerbators. Likewise, oral medications including macrolides and phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitors reduce the risk for AECOPD in select groups of individuals at high risk for exacerbation. Future direction in COPD management is based on identification of various subtypes or “endotypes” and targeting therapies based on their pathophysiology. This review aims to describe the impact of AECOPD, challenges posed by frequent exacerbators, and explores the rationale for different pharmacologic approaches to preventing AECOPD in these

  19. Predicting hospital mortality among frequently readmitted patients: HSMR biased by readmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelder Johannes C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casemix adjusted in-hospital mortality is one of the measures used to improve quality of care. The adjustment currently used does not take into account the effects of readmission, because reliable data on readmission is not readily available through routinely collected databases. We have studied the impact of readmissions by linking admissions of the same patient, and as a result were able to compare hospital mortality among frequently, as opposed to, non-frequently readmitted patients. We also formulated a method to adjust for readmission for the calculation of hospital standardised mortality ratios (HSMRs. Methods We conducted a longitudinal retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital data of six large non-university teaching hospitals in the Netherlands with casemix adjusted standardised mortality ratios ranging from 65 to 114 and a combined value of 93 over a five-year period. Participants concerned 240662 patients admitted 418566 times in total during the years 2003 - 2007. Predicted deaths by the HSMR model 2008 over a five-year period were compared with observed deaths. Results Numbers of readmissions per patient differ substantially between the six hospitals, up to a factor of 2. A large interaction was found between numbers of admissions per patient and HSMR-predicted risks. Observed deaths for frequently admitted patients were significantly lower than HSMR-predicted deaths, which could be explained by uncorrected factors surrounding readmissions. Conclusions Patients admitted more frequently show lower risks of dying on average per admission. This decline in risk is only partly detected by the current HSMR. Comparing frequently admitted patients to non-frequently admitted patients commits the constant risk fallacy and potentially lowers HSMRs of hospitals treating many frequently admitted patients and increases HSMRs of hospitals treating many non-frequently admitted patients. This misleading effect can

  20. Predicting hospital mortality among frequently readmitted patients: HSMR biased by readmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Casemix adjusted in-hospital mortality is one of the measures used to improve quality of care. The adjustment currently used does not take into account the effects of readmission, because reliable data on readmission is not readily available through routinely collected databases. We have studied the impact of readmissions by linking admissions of the same patient, and as a result were able to compare hospital mortality among frequently, as opposed to, non-frequently readmitted patients. We also formulated a method to adjust for readmission for the calculation of hospital standardised mortality ratios (HSMRs). Methods We conducted a longitudinal retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital data of six large non-university teaching hospitals in the Netherlands with casemix adjusted standardised mortality ratios ranging from 65 to 114 and a combined value of 93 over a five-year period. Participants concerned 240662 patients admitted 418566 times in total during the years 2003 - 2007. Predicted deaths by the HSMR model 2008 over a five-year period were compared with observed deaths. Results Numbers of readmissions per patient differ substantially between the six hospitals, up to a factor of 2. A large interaction was found between numbers of admissions per patient and HSMR-predicted risks. Observed deaths for frequently admitted patients were significantly lower than HSMR-predicted deaths, which could be explained by uncorrected factors surrounding readmissions. Conclusions Patients admitted more frequently show lower risks of dying on average per admission. This decline in risk is only partly detected by the current HSMR. Comparing frequently admitted patients to non-frequently admitted patients commits the constant risk fallacy and potentially lowers HSMRs of hospitals treating many frequently admitted patients and increases HSMRs of hospitals treating many non-frequently admitted patients. This misleading effect can only be demonstrated by an