WorldWideScience

Sample records for frequency transformer linked

  1. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  2. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  3. Frequency analysis of DC tolerant current transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlejnek, P; Kaspar, P

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with wide frequency range behaviour of DC tolerant current transformers that are usually used in modern static energy meters. In this application current transformers must comply with European and International Standards in their accuracy and DC tolerance. Therefore, the linear DC tolerant current transformers and double core current transformers are used in this field. More details about the problems of these particular types of transformers can be found in our previous works. Although these transformers are designed mainly for power distribution network frequency (50/60 Hz), it can be interesting to understand their behaviour in wider frequency range. Based on this knowledge the new generations of energy meters with measuring quality of electric energy will be produced. This solution brings better measurement of consumption of nonlinear loads or measurement of non-sinusoidal voltage and current sources such as solar cells or fuel cells. The determination of actual power consumption in such energy meters is done using particular harmonics component of current and voltage. We measured the phase and ratio errors that are the most important parameters of current transformers, to characterize several samples of current transformers of both types

  4. Linking transformational leadership and organizational culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; van Meijen, J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many authors assume a strong relationship between culture and leadership in organizations. Leaders create, transform and manage organizational cultures. Although this linkage between organizational culture and leadership is often referred to, hypotheses and propositions are often not specific and

  5. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  6. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10 -9 and 3.4 x 10 -7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10 -8 to 1.3 x 10 -4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10 -5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [ 3 H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  7. Wideband FM Demodulation and Multirate Frequency Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Noble identities to extend the proposed approach to larger wideband to narrowband conversion factors and more practical implementations. We further...framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Block diagrams of the alternative MFT system for large conversion factors (a) and the Noble Identity ...of both MFT frameworks with conversion factor R = 128 and normalized radian frequency shift wd = 0.1π under the extreme senario with modulation index

  8. Numerical kinematic transformation calculations for a parallel link manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Parallel link manipulators are often considered for particular robotic applications because of the unique advantages they provide. Unfortunately, they have significant disadvantages with respect to calculating the kinematic transformations because of the high-order equations that must be solved. Presented is a manipulator design that exploits the mechanical advantages of parallel links yet also has a corresponding numerical kinematic solution that can be solved in real time on common microcomputers

  9. Frequency-dependent ultrasound-induced transformation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Jeremy; Windmill, James; Agbeze-Onuma, Maduka; Kalin, Robert M; Argondizza, Peter; Knapp, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-enhanced gene transfer (UEGT) is continuing to gain interest across many disciplines; however, very few studies investigate UEGT efficiency across a range of frequencies. Using a variable frequency generator, UEGT was tested in E. coli at six ultrasonic frequencies. Results indicate frequency can significantly influence UEGT efficiency positively and negatively. A frequency of 61 kHz improved UEGT efficiency by ~70 % higher, but 99 kHz impeded UEGT to an extent worse than no ultrasound exposure. The other four frequencies (26, 133, 174, and 190 kHz) enhanced transformation compared to no ultrasound, but efficiencies did not vary. The influence of frequency on UEGT efficiency was observed across a range of operating frequencies. It is plausible that frequency-dependent dynamics of mechanical and chemical energies released during cavitational-bubble collapse (CBC) are responsible for observed UEGT efficiencies.

  10. Dual-Frequency Impedance Transformer Using Coupled-Line For Ultra-High Transforming Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Barik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of dual-frequency impedance transformer is presented for ultra-high transforming ratio. The proposed configuration consists of parallel coupled-line, series transmission lines and short-ended stubs. The even and odd-mode analysis is applied to obtain the design equations and hence to provide an accurate solution. Three examples of the dual-frequency transformer with load impedance of 500, 1000 and 1500 Ω are designed to study the matching capability and bandwidth property. To prove the frequency agility of the proposed network, three prototypes of dual-frequency impedance transformer with transforming ratio of 10, 20 and 30 are fabricated and tested. The measured return loss is greater than 15 dB at two operating frequencies for all the prototypes. Also, the bandwidth is more than 60 MHz at each frequency band for all the prototypes. The measured return loss is found in good agreement with the circuit and full-wave simulations.

  11. Evaluation and Analysis of Frequency of Transformer Failures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The frequency of failed distribution transformers in Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc, Akpakpava Business Unit network, Benin City, for a period of two years have been investigated in this work. The frequent power outages recorded in our communities resulting in customers dissatisfactions, economic losses, ...

  12. Frequency Correction for MIRO Chirp Transformation Spectroscopy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2012-01-01

    This software processes the flyby spectra of the Chirp Transform Spectrometer (CTS) of the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO). The tool corrects the effect of Doppler shift and local-oscillator (LO) frequency shift during the flyby mode of MIRO operations. The frequency correction for CTS flyby spectra is performed and is integrated with multiple spectra into a high signal-to-noise averaged spectrum at the rest-frame RF frequency. This innovation also generates the 8 molecular line spectra by dividing continuous 4,096-channel CTS spectra. The 8 line spectra can then be readily used for scientific investigations. A spectral line that is at its rest frequency in the frame of the Earth or an asteroid will be observed with a time-varying Doppler shift as seen by MIRO. The frequency shift is toward the higher RF frequencies on approach, and toward lower RF frequencies on departure. The magnitude of the shift depends on the flyby velocity. The result of time-varying Doppler shift is that of an observed spectral line will be seen to move from channel to channel in the CTS spectrometer. The direction (higher or lower frequency) in the spectrometer depends on the spectral line frequency under consideration. In order to analyze the flyby spectra, two steps are required. First, individual spectra must be corrected for the Doppler shift so that individual spectra can be superimposed at the same rest frequency for integration purposes. Second, a correction needs to be applied to the CTS spectra to account for the LO frequency shifts that are applied to asteroid mode.

  13. Frequency and determinants for hemorrhagic transformation of posterior cerebral stroke : Posterior ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Francesca; Gentile, Luana; Terruso, Valeria; Mastrilli, Sergio; Aridon, Paolo; Ragonese, Paolo; Sarno, Caterina; Savettieri, Giovanni; D'Amelio, Marco

    2017-11-13

    hemorrhagic transformation is a threatening ischemic stroke complication. Frequency of hemorrhagic transformation differs greatly among studies, and its risk factors have been usually studied in patients with anterior ischemic stroke who received thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated, in a hospital-based series of patients with posterior ischemic stroke not treated with thrombolysis, frequency and risk factors of hemorrhagic transformation. Patients with posterior circulation stroke were seen in our Department during the period January 2004 to December 2009. Demographic and clinical information were collected. We estimated risk for spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation by means of uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. 119 consecutive patients were included (73 males, 61.3%). Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7 patients (5.9%). Only clinical worsening was significantly associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.3-34.5). Our findings indicate that patients with posterior have a low risk of spontaneous hemorrhagic transformation, suggesting that these patients might have greater advantage from intravenous thrombolysis.

  14. Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Martins, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...

  15. High frequency modeling of power transformers. Stresses and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerkan, Eilert

    2005-05-15

    In this thesis a reliable, versatile and rigorous method for high frequency power transformer modeling is searched and established. The purpose is to apply this model to sensitivity analysis of FRA (Frequency Response Analysis) which is a quite new diagnostic method for assessing the mechanical integrity of power transformer windings on-site. The method should be versatile in terms of being able to estimate internal and external over voltages and resonances. Another important aspect is that the method chosen is suitable for real transformer geometries. In order to verify the suitability of the model for real transformers, a specific test-object is used. This is a 20MVA transformer, and details are given in chapter 1.4. The high frequency power transformer model is established from geometrical and constructional information from the manufacturer, together with available material characteristics. All circuit parameters in the lumped circuit representation are calculated based on these data. No empirical modifications need to be performed. Comparison shows capability of reasonable accuracy in the range from 10 khz to 1 MHz utilizing a disc-to-disc representation. A compromise between accuracy of model due to discretization and complexity of the model in a turn-to-turn representation is inevitable. The importance of the iron core is emphasized through a comparison of representations with/without the core included. Frequency-dependent phenomena are accurately represented using an isotropic equivalent for windings and core, even with a coarse mesh for the FEM-model. This is achieved through a frequency-dependent complex permeability representation of the materials. This permeability is deduced from an analytical solution of the frequency-dependent magnetic field inside the conductors and the core. The importance of dielectric losses in a transformer model is also assessed. Since published data on the high frequency properties of press board are limited, some initial

  16. Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-16

    We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/tc)2 e-t/t$_c$, where tc = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.

  17. Frequency-division multiplexer and demultiplexer for terahertz wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Karl, Nicholas J; Bretin, Sara; Ducournau, Guillaume; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2017-09-28

    The development of components for terahertz wireless communications networks has become an active and growing research field. However, in most cases these components have been studied using a continuous or broadband-pulsed terahertz source, not using a modulated data stream. This limitation may mask important aspects of the performance of the device in a realistic system configuration. We report the characterization of one such device, a frequency multiplexer, using modulated data at rates up to 10 gigabits per second. We also demonstrate simultaneous error-free transmission of two signals at different carrier frequencies, with an aggregate data rate of 50 gigabits per second. We observe that the far-field spatial variation of the bit error rate is different from that of the emitted power, due to a small nonuniformity in the angular detection sensitivity. This is likely to be a common feature of any terahertz communication system in which signals propagate as diffracting beams not omnidirectional broadcasts.There is growing interest in the development of components to facilitate wireless communications in the terahertz but the characterization of these systems involve an unmodulated input. Here the authors demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams in the terahertz range using a real data link.

  18. Linking Resilience and Transformation as Micro- and Macro Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Breitzer, R.; Solecki, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of resiliency within climate adaptation planning and practice is widespread, but in some ways it has begun to suffer from its own success. While resiliency provides a valuable frame for understanding the conditions and opportunities for localized responses to increasing climate risks, the concept's ubiquitous use leads to it being applied to often conflicting policy agendas, which can mask or limit the capacity to connect efforts focused on near term risk to longer term and emergent climate threats in communities. These challenges are particularly evident in the context of extreme events and in the post extreme event policy windows. To overcome these issues and take advantage of the post-event policy window, the NOAA RISA Climate Change Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN) project has been developing two specific, "boutique", policy tools. These include the PELT (Post-event learning toolkit) and MART (Macro-adaptation Resilience toolkit) toolkits. Embedded in these toolkits are two approaches to small scale strategies often associated with near term action (i.e., micro-adaptation) and large scale strategies associated with broad longer term needs (i.e., macro-adaptation). In this paper, these two approaches - micro and macro adaptation - are theoretically defined and presented in practice through the beta-testing of the PELT and MART toolkits. Most importantly, we illustrate how the theoretical links between resiliency and transformation can be operationalized through the use of these approaches, and how these approaches can be implemented in everyday risk management practice. We present our work through selected case studies in the Northeast US region, specifically in Jamaica Bay, New York, and Eastwick neighborhood in Philadelphia.

  19. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  20. Linking Transformational Leadership, Absorptive Capacity, and Corporate Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs of Pakistan. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM technique to empirically test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that transformational leadership positively affects corporate entrepreneurship and its dimensions—namely, innovation, new business venturing, self-renewal, proactivity, and risk-taking—both directly and through absorptive capacity. The potential of transformational leadership to influence corporate entrepreneurship via absorptive capacity added additional interesting substitutes. Future studies may produce novel insights by examining different leadership styles, settings, or utilizing qualitative technique. Firms should invest to initiate transformational leadership training programs for their managers. Additionally, if these firms are aiming to promote corporate entrepreneurship, they should focus on hiring managers that have attributes of transformational leadership. Furthermore, they should also invest in absorptive capacity to utilize outside knowledge for the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities. This study exploits research work on the relationship between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship in a novel way; it investigates the dimensions of entrepreneurship individually, as well as unidimensionally, and includes the mediating role of absorptive capacity and tests several other hypotheses that previously have been ignored. This study, compared to the existing research, contributes to the impact of transformational leadership on corporate entrepreneurship and absorptive capacity, especially in Pakistan

  1. Uncovering the Connection Between Low-Frequency Dynamics and Phase Transformation Phenomena in Molecular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T.; Zhang, Wei; Bond, Andrew D.; Mittleman, Daniel M.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2018-05-01

    The low-frequency motions of molecules in the condensed phase have been shown to be vital to a large number of physical properties and processes. However, in the case of disordered systems, it is often difficult to elucidate the atomic-level details surrounding these phenomena. In this work, we have performed an extensive experimental and computational study on the molecular solid camphor, which exhibits a rich and complex structure-dynamics relationship, and undergoes an order-disorder transition near ambient conditions. The combination of x-ray diffraction, variable temperature and pressure terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics, and periodic density functional theory calculations enables a complete picture of the phase transition to be obtained, inclusive of mechanistic, structural, and thermodynamic phenomena. Additionally, the low-frequency vibrations of a disordered solid are characterized for the first time with atomic-level precision, uncovering a clear link between such motions and the phase transformation. Overall, this combination of methods allows for significant details to be obtained for disordered solids and the associated transformations, providing a framework that can be directly applied for a wide range of similar systems.

  2. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  3. Influence of lasers with non-white frequency noise on the design of coherent optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakkar, Aditya; Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Schatz, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate for a 28 Gbaud 64-QAM metro link that the LO frequency noise causes timing impairment. Results show the existence of LO frequency noise spectrum regimes where different design criteria apply.......We experimentally demonstrate for a 28 Gbaud 64-QAM metro link that the LO frequency noise causes timing impairment. Results show the existence of LO frequency noise spectrum regimes where different design criteria apply....

  4. Design and development of high voltage and high frequency center tapped transformer for HVDC test generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Urmil; Saurabh Kumar; Amal, S.; Baruah, U.K.; Bhatt, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage center tapped transformer for high frequency application had been designed, fabricated, and tested. It was designed as a part of 200 kV HVDC Test Generator. The High Frequency operation of transformer increases power density. Therefore it is possible to reduce power supply volume. The step up ratio in High Voltage transformer is limited due to stray capacitance and leakage inductance. The limit was overcome by winding multi secondary outputs. Switching frequency of transformer was 15.8 kHz. Input and output voltages of transformer were 270V and 16.5kV-0V-16.5kV respectively. Power rating of transformer is 7kVA. High Voltage transformer with various winding and core arrangement was fabricated to check variation in electrical characteristics. The transformer used a ferrite core (E Type) and nylon insulated primary and secondary bobbins. Two set of E-E geometry cores had been stacked in order to achieve the estimated core volume. Compared with traditional high voltage transformer, this transformer had good thermal behavior, good line insulation properties and a high power density. In this poster, design procedures, development stages and test results of high voltage and high frequency transformer are presented. Results of various parameters such as transformer loss, temperature rise, insulation properties, impedance of primary and secondary winding, and voltage regulation are discussed. (author)

  5. A simple structure wavelet transform circuit employing function link neural networks and SI filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Li; Yigang, He

    2016-12-01

    Signal processing by means of analog circuits offers advantages from a power consumption viewpoint. Implementing wavelet transform (WT) using analog circuits is of great interest when low-power consumption becomes an important issue. In this article, a novel simple structure WT circuit in analog domain is presented by employing functional link neural network (FLNN) and switched-current (SI) filters. First, the wavelet base is approximated using FLNN algorithms for giving a filter transfer function that is suitable for simple structure WT circuit implementation. Next, the WT circuit is constructed with the wavelet filter bank, whose impulse response is the approximated wavelet and its dilations. The filter design that follows is based on a follow-the-leader feedback (FLF) structure with multiple output bilinear SI integrators and current mirrors as the main building blocks. SI filter is well suited for this application since the dilation constant across different scales of the transform can be precisely implemented and controlled by the clock frequency of the circuit with the same system architecture. Finally, to illustrate the design procedure, a seventh-order FLNN-approximated Gaussian wavelet is implemented as an example. Simulations have successfully verified that the designed simple structure WT circuit has low sensitivity, low-power consumption and litter effect to the imperfections.

  6. Transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their link to leaders' personality and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deinert, A.; Homan, A.C.; Boer, D.; Voelpel, S.C.; Gutermann, D.

    2015-01-01

    The multi-dimensionality of the transformational leadership construct has been under debate in the last decades. To shed more light on this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis (k = 58 studies), examining the transformational leadership sub-dimensions and their links to leader personality and

  7. A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R. Westley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling's adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado's model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.

  8. State of art survey for design of medium frequency high power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisambhayana, Sriram; Dincan, Catalin; Shuyu, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Medium and high frequency, high power transformers play an important role in footprint reduction along with their functions of galvanic isolation, and voltage transformation in all high power converters typically used in traction power systems, offshore wind plant power converters, and solid state...... transformer based distribution system grids. This state of art report analysis the various materials and design tradeoffs that govern the electromagnetic behavior and loss mechanisms of the medium frequency transformer applications. Typical winding and core geometries that have been reported extensively...

  9. Development Of Frequency Transfer Via Optical Fiber Link at NICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    al., 2006 “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10-15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia , 43, 109-120. [4] H. Kiuchi, T...M. Hosokawa, 2008, “Evaluation of caesium atomic fountain NICT-CsF1,” Metrologia , 45, 139-148. [12] M. Kumagai, H. Ito, G. Santarelli, C. Locke, J...free-run O ve rla pp in g Al la n D ev ia tio n Averaging time [sec] 40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 100 101 102 103

  10. Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ambuj Kumar; Sunil Kumar Singh; Shrikant Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented fo...

  11. High Frequency LLC Resonant Converter with Magnetic Shunt Integrated Planar Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingxiao; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2018-01-01

    High Frequency LLC requires a smaller resonant inductance which is usually implemented by transformer leakage inductance. However, this small resonant inductance is difficult to deal with a wide input voltage range. This paper proposes a new method to implement a larger resonant inductance by using...... a magnetic shunt integrated into planar transformer. The switching frequency can be greatly narrowed by designing a smaller inductance ratio of magnetizing inductance to resonant inductance. Since this method can well deal with a wide input voltage range without adding extra inductor and increasing the size...... of the transformer, the power density can be improved. The precise leakage inductance calculation method for this transformer and detailed LLC converter design procedure are presented. A 280-380V and 48V-100W half bridge LLC resonant converter with 1 MHz resonant frequency is built to verify the design methodology....

  12. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  13. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-09-19

    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  14. Analysis of Energy Overshoot of High Frequency Waves with Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fan

    2000-01-01

    A study is made on the overshoot phenomena in wind-generated waves. The surface displace ments of time-growing waves are measured at four fetches in a wind wave channel. The evolution of high frequency waves is displayed with wavelet transform. The results are compared with Sutherland's. It is found that high frequency wave components experience much stronger energy overshoot in the evolution.The energy of high frequency waves decreases greatly after overshoot

  15. Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Olivier; Haboucha, Adil; Kéfélian, Fabien; Jiang, Haifeng; Chanteau, Bruno; Roncin, Vincent; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate a cascaded optical link for ultrastable frequency dissemination comprised of two compensated links of 150 km and a repeater station. Each link includes 114 km of Internet fiber simultaneously carrying data traffic through a dense wavelength division multiplexing technology, and passes through two routing centers of the telecommunication network. The optical reference signal is inserted in and extracted from the communication network using bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexers. The repeater station operates autonomously ensuring noise compensation on the two links and the ultra-stable signal optical regeneration. The compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability of 3 x 10(-15) at one second measurement time and 5 x 10(-20) at 20 hours. This work paves the way to a wide dissemination of ultra-stable optical clock signals between distant laboratories via the Internet network.

  16. Embodied mental rotation: A special link between egocentric transformation and the bodily self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eKaltner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the influence of motor expertise on object-based versus egocentric transformations in a chronometric mental rotation task using images of either the own or another person’s body as stimulus material. According to the embodied cognition viewpoint, we hypothesized motor-experts to outperform non-motor experts specifically in the egocentric condition because of higher kinesthetic representation and motor simulations compared to object-based transformations. In line with this, we expected that images of the own body are solved faster than another person’s body stimuli. Results showed a benefit of motor expertise and representations of another person’s body, but only for the object-based transformation task. That is, this other-advantage diminishes in egocentric transformations. Since motor experts didn’t show any specific expertise in rotational movements, we concluded that using human bodies as stimulus material elicits embodied spatial transformations, which facilitates performance exclusively for egocentric transformations. Regarding stimulus material, the other-advantage ascribed to increased self-awareness-consciousness distracting attention-demanding resources, disappeared in the egocentric condition. This result may be due to the stronger link between the bodily self and motor representations compared to that emerging in object-based transformations.

  17. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The quest for higher power density has led to research of very high frequency (30-300 MHz) power converters. Magnetic components based on ferrite cores have limited application within this frequency range due to increased core loss. Air-core magnetics is a viable alternative as they do not exhibit...... core loss. The drawback of most air-core magnetics is that the magnetic field is not contained within a closed shape, and it is thus prone to cause electro magnetic interference. A toroidal air-core inductor configuration can be used to contain the magnetic field. This work presents a novel air......-core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...

  18. Application of Time-Frequency Domain Transform to Three-Dimensional Interpolation of Medical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shengqing; Chen, Yimin; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Jiahui; Gao, Mingke; Lu, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    Medical image three-dimensional (3D) interpolation is an important means to improve the image effect in 3D reconstruction. In image processing, the time-frequency domain transform is an efficient method. In this article, several time-frequency domain transform methods are applied and compared in 3D interpolation. And a Sobel edge detection and 3D matching interpolation method based on wavelet transform is proposed. We combine wavelet transform, traditional matching interpolation methods, and Sobel edge detection together in our algorithm. What is more, the characteristics of wavelet transform and Sobel operator are used. They deal with the sub-images of wavelet decomposition separately. Sobel edge detection 3D matching interpolation method is used in low-frequency sub-images under the circumstances of ensuring high frequency undistorted. Through wavelet reconstruction, it can get the target interpolation image. In this article, we make 3D interpolation of the real computed tomography (CT) images. Compared with other interpolation methods, our proposed method is verified to be effective and superior.

  19. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  20. A study on thermal characteristics analysis model of high frequency switching transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyung; Jung, Tae-Uk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, interest has been shown in research on the module-integrated converter (MIC) in small-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation. In an MIC, the voltage boosting high frequency transformer should be designed to be compact in size and have high efficiency. In response to the need to satisfy these requirements, this paper presents a coupled electromagnetic analysis model of a transformer connected with a high frequency switching DC-DC converter circuit while considering thermal characteristics due to the copper and core losses. A design optimization procedure for high efficiency is also presented using this design analysis method, and it is verified by the experimental result.

  1. Building Modern Vibration Diagnostics Systems Based on the Frequency-Time Transformations of A Measured Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasoveev Vasikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic methods of analysis of vibration transducers signals were reviewed. Continuous wavelet transform, being a time-frequency transform, was found to be an advanced mathematical tool for analysis of vibration signals. Experimental studies revealed obvious changes in the continuous wavelet transform spectrum depending on the existing defects. A method for detection and identification of technological violations based on the analysis of CWT spectrum components and normalized correlation coefficient was suggested. In accordance with the suggested method software for vibration diagnostics was developed.

  2. The Simulation of the Traction Drive with Middle-Frequency Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted to minimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special traction drive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer - output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.

  3. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  4. Frequency hopping signal detection based on wavelet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Chen, Xihao; Zhu, Rui

    2017-07-01

    Frequency hopping (FH) signal is widely adopted by military communications as a kind of low probability interception signal. Therefore, it is very important to research the FH signal detection algorithm. The existing detection algorithm of FH signals based on the time-frequency analysis cannot satisfy the time and frequency resolution requirement at the same time due to the influence of window function. In order to solve this problem, an algorithm based on wavelet decomposition and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was proposed. The proposed algorithm removes the noise of the received signals by wavelet decomposition and detects the FH signals by Hilbert-Huang transform. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm takes into account both the time resolution and the frequency resolution. Correspondingly, the accuracy of FH signals detection can be improved.

  5. The determination of frequency response function of the RSG Gas by laplace transform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran, S.; Surian, P.; Jujuratisbela, U.

    1997-01-01

    The response function of the RSG-GAS reactor system to the reactivity perturbations is necessary to be analyzed due to the interrelation with reliability and safety of reactor operation. the response depends on the power frequency response function H(s), while H(s) depends on the zero power frequency response function Z(s) and dynamic power coefficient of reactivity Kp(s) determination of the frequency response function of the RSG-GAS reactor was done by Fourier transform analysis method. Z(s) was obtained by fourier transform of P(t) and Cj(t) became P(S) and Cj(s) in point kinetic equations. Second order of simpson rule was used for completion of its numerical integration. then. LYMPR (Laplace transform for multipurpose reactor) code was made with fortran 77 computer language in vax 8550 system. the LTMPR code is able to determine the frequency response function and period-reactivity relation of RSG-GAS reactor by rod drop method. Profile of power as rod drop, zero power (without reactivity feedback) was used for determination frequency response of RSG-GAS reactor. The results of calculations are in a good agreement with experiment result, so the LTMPR code can be used for analysis response frequency of the RSG-GAS reactor

  6. Linking EEG signals, brain functions and mental operations: Advantages of the Laplacian transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Franck; Burle, Boris; Spieser, Laure; Carbonnell, Laurence; Meckler, Cédric; Casini, Laurence; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a very popular technique for investigating brain functions and/or mental processes. To this aim, EEG activities must be interpreted in terms of brain and/or mental processes. EEG signals being a direct manifestation of neuronal activity it is often assumed that such interpretations are quite obvious or, at least, straightforward. However, they often rely on (explicit or even implicit) assumptions regarding the structures supposed to generate the EEG activities of interest. For these assumptions to be used appropriately, reliable links between EEG activities and the underlying brain structures must be established. Because of volume conduction effects and the mixture of activities they induce, these links are difficult to establish with scalp potential recordings. We present different examples showing how the Laplacian transformation, acting as an efficient source separation method, allowed to establish more reliable links between EEG activities and brain generators and, ultimately, with mental operations. The nature of those links depends on the depth of inferences that can vary from weak to strong. Along this continuum, we show that 1) while the effects of experimental manipulation can appear widely distributed with scalp potentials, Laplacian transformation allows to reveal several generators contributing (in different manners) to these modulations, 2) amplitude variations within the same set of generators can generate spurious differences in scalp potential topographies, often interpreted as reflecting different source configurations. In such a case, Laplacian transformation provides much more similar topographies, evidencing the same generator(s) set, and 3) using the LRP as an index of response activation most often produces ambiguous results, Laplacian-transformed response-locked ERPs obtained over motor areas allow resolving these ambiguities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    -MAR from petunia revealed that only the P1-MAR had specific binding affinity for barley nuclear matrices. The barley transformation frequency with the uidA reporter gene was increased 2-fold when the gene was flanked with either the P1-MAR or TBS-MAR, while the gene copy number was strongly reduced...

  8. Corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1968-04-01

    This report considers the corrections for frequency domain transformations of Winfrith binary cross correlator responses; (i) for the finite bandwidth of the equivalent input signal; (2) for the finite time required for the actuator to move between the two positions appropriate to the two levels of the periodic binary chain code input and (3) for the averaging of experimental determinations of the system frequency response and calculations of the standard deviations of the modulus and phase of the frequency responses determined from the cross correlator responses. (author)

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN FREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Batura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image, extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases

  10. The Quality and Frequency of Mother-Toddler Conflict: Links with Attachment and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Panfile, Tia; Makariev, Drika

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links among attachment, child temperament, and the quality and frequency of mother-toddler conflict. Sixty-four mothers and children took part in a series of laboratory tasks when the child was 30 months of age and an audio-recorded home observation when the child was 36 months of age. All episodes of…

  11. More Use Almost Always Means a Smaller Frequency Effect: Aging, Bilingualism, and the Weaker Links Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Tiffany C.

    2008-01-01

    The "weaker links" hypothesis proposes that bilinguals are disadvantaged relative to monolinguals on speaking tasks because they divide frequency-of-use between two languages. To test this proposal, we contrasted the effects of increased word use associated with monolingualism, language dominance, and increased age on picture naming times. In two…

  12. Single-trial log transformation is optimal in frequency analysis of resting EEG alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Fren T Y; Ten Oever, Sanne; Donkers, Franc C L; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; van de Ven, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    The appropriate definition and scaling of the magnitude of electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations is an underdeveloped area. The aim of this study was to optimize the analysis of resting EEG alpha magnitude, focusing on alpha peak frequency and nonlinear transformation of alpha power. A family of nonlinear transforms, Box-Cox transforms, were applied to find the transform that (a) maximized a non-disputed effect: the increase in alpha magnitude when the eyes are closed (Berger effect), and (b) made the distribution of alpha magnitude closest to normal across epochs within each participant, or across participants. The transformations were performed either at the single epoch level or at the epoch-average level. Alpha peak frequency showed large individual differences, yet good correspondence between various ways to estimate it in 2 min of eyes-closed and 2 min of eyes-open resting EEG data. Both alpha magnitude and the Berger effect were larger for individual alpha than for a generic (8-12 Hz) alpha band. The log-transform on single epochs (a) maximized the t-value of the contrast between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions when tested within each participant, and (b) rendered near-normally distributed alpha power across epochs and participants, thereby making further transformation of epoch averages superfluous. The results suggest that the log-normal distribution is a fundamental property of variations in alpha power across time in the order of seconds. Moreover, effects on alpha power appear to be multiplicative rather than additive. These findings support the use of the log-transform on single epochs to achieve appropriate scaling of alpha magnitude. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  15. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  16. Recent progress in synchrotron-based frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrkorn, Joscha; Holldack, Karsten; Bittl, Robert; Schnegg, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    We describe frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz-EPR as a method to assign spin-coupling parameters of high-spin (S>1/2) systems with very large zero-field splittings. The instrumental foundations of synchrotron-based FD-FT THz-EPR are presented, alongside with a discussion of frequency-domain EPR simulation routines. The capabilities of this approach is demonstrated for selected mono- and multinuclear HS systems. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges and give an outlook on the future prospects of the technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  18. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  19. A Novel Comb-Pilot Transform Domain Frequency Diversity Channel Estimation for OFDM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to implementation complexity, the transform domain channel estimation based on training symbols or comb-type pilots has been paid more attention because of its efficient algorithm FFT/IFFT. However, in a comb-type OFDM system, the length of the channel impulse response is much smaller than the pilot number. In this case, the comb-pilot transform domain channel estimation only works as interpolation like the Least Squares (LS algorithm, but loses the noise suppression function. In this paper, we propose a novel frequency diversity channel estimation method via grouped pilots combining. With this estimator, not only the channel frequency response on non-pilot subcarriers can be interpolated, but also the noise can be better suppressed. Moreover, it does not need prior statistical characteristics of the wireless channel.

  20. Evaluation of the high-voltage high-frequency transformer insulating materials for satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Taketoshi; Hirasawa, Eiichi; Gonai, Toshio; Ohsuga, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Environment resistance evaluation was made of the insulating materials of impregnated injection type for high-voltage high-frequency transformers mounted in satellites. (1) The stress occurring in the impregnated injection type resin is small in silicon resin and urethane resin and large in epoxy resin. (2) The dielectric characteristic at high frequency is good in silicone resin. In epoxy resin, when the transformer is operated at high temperature, its thermal runaway may take place. (3) The radiation deterioration at 1 Mrad - 10 Mrad is slight in urethane resin. (4) The degassing is not good in silicone resin. (5) The adhesive power is good in urethane resin. (6) From the above results, in silicone resin there is problem in degassing and adhesive power. In epoxy resin there is problem in stress and dielectric characteristic. (Mori, K.)

  1. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  2. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA) method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that in...

  3. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry at the Cyclotron Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O; Kozhinov, Anton N; Tsybin, Yury O

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of ion cyclotron resonance allows for determining mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of an ensemble of ions by means of measurements of their cyclotron frequency, ω c . In Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), the ω c quantity is usually unavailable for direct measurements: the resonant state is located close to the reduced cyclotron frequency (ω + ), whereas the ω c and the corresponding m/z values may be calculated via theoretical derivation from an experimental estimate of the ω + quantity. Here, we describe an experimental observation of a new resonant state, which is located close to the ω c frequency and is established because of azimuthally-dependent trapping electric fields of the recently developed ICR cells with narrow aperture detection electrodes. We show that in mass spectra, peaks close to ω + frequencies can be reduced to negligible levels relative to peaks close to ω c frequencies. Due to reduced errors with which the ω c quantity is obtained, the new resonance provides a means of cyclotron frequency measurements with precision greater than that achieved when ω + frequency peaks are employed. The described phenomenon may be considered for a development into an FT-ICR MS technology with increased mass accuracy for applications in basic research, life, and environmental sciences. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Reference Beam Pattern Design for Frequency Invariant Beamforming Based on Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of fast Fourier transform (FFT-based frequency invariant beamforming (FIB, there is still an unsolved problem. That is the selection of the reference beam to make the designed wideband pattern frequency invariant (FI over a given frequency range. This problem is studied in this paper. The research shows that for a given array, the selection of the reference beam pattern is determined by the number of sensors and the ratio of the highest frequency to the lowest frequency of the signal (RHL. The length of the weight vector corresponding to a given reference beam pattern depends on the reference frequency. In addition, the upper bound of the weight length to ensure the FI property over the whole frequency band of interest is also given. When the constraints are added to the reference beam, it does not affect the FI property of the designed wideband beam as long as the symmetry of the reference beam is ensured. Based on this conclusion, a scheme for reference beam design is proposed.

  5. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  6. Pilot study of extremely low frequency magnetic fields emitted by transformers in dwellings. Social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Shalamanova, Tsvetelina; Israel, Michel

    2013-06-01

    A large number of epidemiologic studies examining the potential effect of residential exposure to extremely-low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields and childhood leukemia have been published. Two pooled analyses [Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M, Roman E, Skinner J, Dockerty J, Linet M, et al. (2000). A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer. 83(5):692-698; Greenland S, Sheppard AR, Kaune WT, Poole C, Kelsh AM (2000). A pooled analysis of magnetic fields, wire codes, and childhood leukemia. Epidemiology. 11(6):624-634], which included the major epidemiologic studies on ELF magnetic fields and childhood leukemia showed twofold increase in childhood leukemia risk in association with residential ELF exposure above 0.3-0.4 μT. Based on "limited" epidemiologic evidence linking ELF exposure to childhood leukemia and "inadequate evidence" for carcinogenicity of ELF in rodent bioassays, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ELF magnetic fields as a possible human carcinogen (2B classification) [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2002). Non-ionizing radiation, Part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 80. IARC Press: Lyon], confirmed by WHO on the basis of studies published after 2000 [World Health Organization. Extremely low frequency fields. In: 238 Environmental health criteria, Geneva: WHO; 2007]. The analysis of more recent studies of ELF magnetic fields and childhood leukemia had small findings and propose methodological improvements concerning the uncertainties in epidemiological approaches and exposure assessment, bias in selection of controls [Kheifets L, Oksuzyan S (2008). Exposure assessment and other challenges in non-ionizing radiation studies of childhood leukaemia. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 132(2):139-147]. By the end of 2010, 37 countries had been identified for possible participation

  7. Modification of radiation-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation frequency by tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, C.; Roy, R.M.; Sproule, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of supplementing culture medium with α-tocopherol acetate on the yield of sex-linked recessive lethal mutants induced by X-irradiation in mature sperm of Drosophila. Although tocopherol treatment of males had no impact on the yield of mutations, a drastic reduction in mutation frequency was observed when irradiated males were mated to females raised and subsequently maintained on tocopherol-enriched diet. (orig./MG)

  8. A study of the impact of frequency selectivity on link adaptive wireless LAN systems

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A; Nix, AR; Bull, DR

    2002-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) supporting broadband multimedia communication are being developed and standardized around the world. The HIPERLAN/2, 802.11a and HiSWANa standards provide channel adaptive data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps in the 5GHz radio band. The link adaptation mechanism is not specified in the standards. In this paper the performance of the HIPERLAN/2 system is evaluated in terms of throughput in a range of test channels with different degrees of frequency selectivity...

  9. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P.; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. PMID:26217054

  10. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesoscale models for stacking faults, deformation twins and martensitic transformations: Linking atomistics to continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibey, Sandeep A.

    We present a hierarchical approach that spans multiple length scales to describe defect formation---in particular, formation of stacking faults (SFs) and deformation twins---in fcc crystals. We link the energy pathways (calculated here via ab initio density functional theory, DFT) associated with formation of stacking faults and twins to corresponding heterogeneous defect nucleation models (described through mesoscale dislocation mechanics). Through the generalized Peieirls-Nabarro model, we first correlate the width of intrinsic SFs in fcc alloy systems to their nucleation pathways called generalized stacking fault energies (GSFE). We then establish a qualitative dependence of twinning tendency in fee metals and alloys---specifically, in pure Cu and dilute Cu-xAl (x= 5.0 and 8.3 at.%)---on their twin-energy pathways called the generalized planar fault energies (GPFE). We also link the twinning behavior of Cu-Al alloys to their electronic structure by determining the effect of solute Al on the valence charge density redistribution at the SF through ab initio DFT. Further, while several efforts have been undertaken to incorporate twinning for predicting stress-strain response of fcc materials, a fundamental law for critical twinning stress has not yet emerged. We resolve this long-standing issue by linking quantitatively the twin-energy pathways (GPFE) obtained via ab initio DFT to heterogeneous, dislocation-based twin nucleation models. We establish an analytical expression that quantitatively predicts the critical twinning stress in fcc metals in agreement with experiments without requiring any empiricism at any length scale. Our theory connects twinning stress to twin-energy pathways and predicts a monotonic relation between stress and unstable twin stacking fault energy revealing the physics of twinning. We further demonstrate that the theory holds for fcc alloys as well. Our theory inherently accounts for directional nature of twinning which available

  12. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided

  13. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  14. On the Link Between Benevolent Sexism and Orgasm Frequency in Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emily Ann; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-11-01

    Previous research on subclinical orgasmic difficulties among women has focused on intrapsychic and interpersonal variables, but little attention has been paid to the more distal ideological factors that might indirectly constrain sexual pleasure. We hypothesized that women's endorsement of a benevolently sexist worldview would be negatively associated with orgasm frequency. Specifically, we predicted that benevolent sexism would be associated with increased perceptions of male sexual selfishness. This perception of men as interested in their own sexual pleasure would then predict decreased willingness to ask a partner for sexual pleasure, which in turn would be associated with less frequent orgasms. We found support for our model across two studies (Study 1: N = 339; Study 2: N = 323). We did not, however, find a direct effect of benevolent sexism on orgasm frequency. We discuss possible additional variables linking benevolent sexism with orgasm frequency, implications, and future directions.

  15. Leading High School Transformation for College and Career Success: A Guide for Developing a System of Linked Learning Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This ConnectEd Guide for Developing a System of Linked Learning Pathways will introduce school district leaders and their community partners to Linked Learning and a system of quality pathways that can transform high schools, instructional practice, and the student experience. Not intended to be prescriptive, this document can and should be…

  16. Linked Learning as a High School Transformation Strategy: Organizational Structures and Leadership Behaviors That Support Lasting Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elizabeth Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Linked Learning is an approach that has proven effective in transforming the learning experiences for high school students. An instrumental case study was conducted in a large urban district in Southern California where district and school leaders implemented Linked Learning as a systemic high school reform initiative. Analysis of the data…

  17. Additive effects of word frequency and stimulus quality: the influence of trial history and data transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, David A; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Yap, Melvin J

    2013-09-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear mixed effects modeling to provide evidence that the additive effects were actually being driven by previous trial history. Because Masson and Kliegl also included semantic priming as a factor in their study and recent evidence has shown that semantic priming can moderate the additivity of word frequency and stimulus quality (Scaltritti, Balota, & Peressotti, 2012), we reanalyzed data from 3 published studies to determine if previous trial history moderated the additive pattern when semantic priming was not also manipulated. The results indicated that previous trial history did not influence the joint influence of word frequency and stimulus quality. More important, and independent of Masson and Kliegl's conclusions, we also show how a common transformation used in linear mixed effects analyses to normalize the residuals can systematically alter the way in which two variables combine to influence performance. Specifically, using transformed, rather than raw reaction times, consistently produces more underadditive patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Frequency Transform Based Block Classification of Compound Image Segmentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Ebenezer Juliet; Florinabel, D. Jemi

    2018-04-01

    Compound image segmentation plays a vital role in the compression of computer screen images. Computer screen images are images which are mixed with textual, graphical, or pictorial contents. In this paper, we present a comparison of two transform based block classification of compound images based on metrics like speed of classification, precision and recall rate. Block based classification approaches normally divide the compound images into fixed size blocks of non-overlapping in nature. Then frequency transform like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied over each block. Mean and standard deviation are computed for each 8 × 8 block and are used as features set to classify the compound images into text/graphics and picture/background block. The classification accuracy of block classification based segmentation techniques are measured by evaluation metrics like precision and recall rate. Compound images of smooth background and complex background images containing text of varying size, colour and orientation are considered for testing. Experimental evidence shows that the DWT based segmentation provides significant improvement in recall rate and precision rate approximately 2.3% than DCT based segmentation with an increase in block classification time for both smooth and complex background images.

  19. Warped frequency transform analysis of ultrasonic guided waves in long bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, L.; Baravelli, E.; Xu, K.; Ta, D.; Speciale, N.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.

    2010-03-01

    Long bones can be seen as irregular hollow tubes, in which, for a given excitation frequency, many ultrasonic Guided Waves (GWs) can propagate. The analysis of GWs is potential to reflect more information on both geometry and material properties of the bone than any other method (such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or quantitative computed tomography), and can be used in the assessment of osteoporosis and in the evaluation of fracture healing. In this study, time frequency representations (TFRs) were used to gain insights into the expected behavior of GWs in bones. To this aim, we implemented a dedicated Warped Frequency Transform (WFT) which decomposes the spectrotemporal components of the different propagating modes by selecting an appropriate warping map to reshape the frequency axis. The map can be designed once the GWs group velocity dispersion curves can be predicted. To this purpose, the bone is considered as a hollow cylinder with inner and outer diameter of 16.6 and 24.7 mm, respectively, and linear poroelastic material properties in agreement with the low level of stresses induced by the waves. Timetransient events obtained experimentally, via a piezoelectric ultrasonic set-up applied to bovine tibiae, are analyzed. The results show that WFT limits interference patterns which appear with others TFRs (such as scalograms or warpograms) and produces a sparse representation suitable for characterization purposes. In particular, the mode-frequency combinations propagating with minimal losses are identified.

  20. Time-frequency analysis of phonocardiogram signals using wavelet transform: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Burhan; Tatar, Yetkin; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of phonocardiogram (PCG) signals provides a non-invasive means to determine the abnormalities caused by cardiovascular system pathology. In general, time-frequency representation (TFR) methods are used to study the PCG signal because it is one of the non-stationary bio-signals. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is especially suitable for the analysis of non-stationary signals and to obtain the TFR, due to its high resolution, both in time and in frequency and has recently become a favourite tool. It decomposes a signal in terms of elementary contributions called wavelets, which are shifted and dilated copies of a fixed mother wavelet function, and yields a joint TFR. Although the basic characteristics of the wavelets are similar, each type of the wavelets produces a different TFR. In this study, eight real types of the most known wavelets are examined on typical PCG signals indicating heart abnormalities in order to determine the best wavelet to obtain a reliable TFR. For this purpose, the wavelet energy and frequency spectrum estimations based on the CWT and the spectra of the chosen wavelets were compared with the energy distribution and the autoregressive frequency spectra in order to determine the most suitable wavelet. The results show that Morlet wavelet is the most reliable wavelet for the time-frequency analysis of PCG signals.

  1. Wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry for reduction of blind spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sin Ho; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, wavelet-transform-based time–frequency domain reflectometry (WTFDR) is proposed to reduce the blind spot in reflectometry. TFDR has a blind spot problem when the time delay between the reference signal and the reflected signal is short enough compared with the time duration of the reference signal. To solve the blind spot problem, the wavelet transform (WT) is used because the WT has linearity. Using the characteristics of the WT, the overlapped reference signal at the measured signal can be separated and the blind spot is reduced by obtaining the difference of the wavelet coefficients for the reference and reflected signals. In the proposed method, the complex wavelet is utilized as a mother wavelet because the reference signal in WTFDR has a complex form. Finally, the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out to confirm the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  2. Frequency of CNKSR2 mutation in the X-linked epilepsy-aphasia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, John A; Burgess, Rosemary; Kivity, Sara; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Afawi, Zaid; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Hildebrand, Michael S

    2017-03-01

    Synaptic proteins are critical to neuronal function in the brain, and their deficiency can lead to seizures and cognitive impairments. CNKSR2 (connector enhancer of KSR2) is a synaptic protein involved in Ras signaling-mediated neuronal proliferation, migration and differentiation. Mutations in the X-linked gene CNKSR2 have been described in patients with seizures and neurodevelopmental deficits, especially those affecting language. In this study, we sequenced 112 patients with phenotypes within the epilepsy-aphasia spectrum (EAS) to determine the frequency of CNKSR2 mutation within this complex set of disorders. We detected a novel nonsense mutation (c.2314 C>T; p.Arg712*) in one Ashkenazi Jewish family, the male proband of which had a severe epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves in sleep (ECSWS). His affected brother also had ECSWS with better outcome, whereas the sister had childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. This mutation segregated in the three affected siblings in an X-linked manner, inherited from their mother who had febrile seizures. Although the frequency of point mutation is low, CNKSR2 sequencing should be considered in families with suspected X-linked EAS because of the specific genetic counseling implications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Wireless transmission of power and information through one high frequency resonant AC link inverter for robot manipulator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Atsuo; Ishioka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Junji.

    1995-01-01

    A contact-less decentralized power supply is proposed with communication capability through only one transformer. A prototype of wireless transmission system of power and information (WTPI system) was built, and the two axis position control for servo motors was achieved by transferring the power and signal through one rotatable high frequency transformer. The proposed concept can be applied for robotics and NC machines

  4. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  5. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  6. Modelling the effect of non-uniform radon progeny activities on transformation frequencies in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, H.; Hofmann, W.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiological and morphological source heterogeneities in straight and Y-shaped bronchial airways on hit frequencies and Micro-dosimetric quantities in epithelial cells have been investigated previously. The goal of the present study is to relate these physical quantities to transformation frequencies in sensitive target cells and to radon-induced lung cancer risk. Based on an effect-specific track length model, computed linear energy transfer (LET) spectra were converted to corresponding transformation frequencies for different activity distributions and source - target configurations. Average transformation probabilities were considerably enhanced for radon progeny accumulations and target cells at the carinal ridge, relative to uniform activity distributions and target cells located along the curved and straight airway portions at the same exposure level. Although uncorrelated transformation probabilities produce a linear dose - effect relationship, correlated transformations first increase depending on the LET, but then decrease significantly when exceeding a defined number of hits or cumulative exposure level. (authors)

  7. Exact Solution of Gas Dynamics Equations Through Reduced Differential Transform and Sumudu Transform Linked with Pades Approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. R. Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the analytical method based on reduced differential transform method coupled with sumudu transform through Pades approximants. The proposed method may be considered as alternative approach for finding exact solution of Gas dynamics equation in an effective manner. This method does not require any discretization, linearization and perturbation.

  8. Long-Distance Frequency Transfer Over an Urban Fiber Link Using Optical Phase Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    compensated link based n the principle first described in [19]. The ultrastable la - ig. 1. Phase noise power spectral density versus Fourier fre- uency of...de la Recherche (ANR BLAN06-3144016). SYRTE is Unité Mixte de Recherche of CNRS, Observatoire de aris, and Université Pierre et Marie Curie...Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109–120 (2006). 2. C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H

  9. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  10. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-11-14

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.

  11. Enhancement of stereoscopic comfort by fast control of frequency content with wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Nicolas; Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    As the scope of virtual reality applications including stereoscopic imaging becomes wider, it is quite clear that not every designer of a VR application thinks of its constraints in order to make a correct use of stereo. Stereoscopic imagery though not required can be a useful tool for depth perception. It is possible to limit the depth of field as shown by Perrin who has also undertaken research on the link between the ability of fusing stereoscopic images (stereopsis) and local disparity and spatial frequency content. We will show how we can extend and enhance this work especially on the computational complexity point of view. The wavelet theory allows us to define a local spatial frequency and then a local measure of stereoscopic comfort. This measure is based on local spatial frequency and disparity as well as on the observations made by Woepking. Local comfort estimation allows us to propose several filtering methods to enhance this comfort. The idea to modify the images such as they check a "stereoscopic comfort condition" defined as a threshold for the stereoscopic comfort condition. More technically, we seek to limit high spatial frequency content when disparity is high thanks to the use of fast algorithms.

  12. Broadband W-band Rapid Frequency Sweep Considerations for Fourier Transform EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert A; Hyde, James S; Camenisch, Theodore G; Sidabras, Jason W; Mett, Richard R; Anderson, James R; Ratke, Joseph J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2017-12-01

    A multi-arm W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer that incorporates a loop-gap resonator with high bandwidth is described. A goal of the instrumental development is detection of free induction decay following rapid sweep of the microwave frequency across the spectrum of a nitroxide radical at physiological temperature, which is expected to lead to a capability for Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance. Progress toward this goal is a theme of the paper. Because of the low Q-value of the loop-gap resonator, it was found necessary to develop a new type of automatic frequency control, which is described in an appendix. Path-length equalization, which is accomplished at the intermediate frequency of 59 GHz, is analyzed. A directional coupler is favored for separation of incident and reflected power between the bridge and the loop-gap resonator. Microwave leakage of this coupler is analyzed. An oversize waveguide with hyperbolic-cosine tapers couples the bridge to the loop-gap resonator, which results in reduced microwave power and signal loss. Benchmark sensitivity data are provided. The most extensive application of the instrument to date has been the measurement of T 1 values using pulse saturation recovery. An overview of that work is provided.

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated high-frequency transformation of an elite commercial maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myeong-Je; Wu, Emily; Kwan, Jackie; Yu, Maryanne; Banh, Jenny; Linn, Wutt; Anand, Ajith; Li, Zhi; TeRonde, Susan; Register, James C; Jones, Todd J; Zhao, Zuo-Yu

    2014-10-01

    An improved Agrobacterium -mediated transformation protocol is described for a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred with optimized media modifications and AGL1. These improvements can be applied to other commercial inbreds. This study describes a significantly improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in a recalcitrant commercial maize elite inbred, PHR03, using optimal co-cultivation, resting and selection media. The use of green regenerative tissue medium components, high copper and 6-benzylaminopurine, in resting and selection media dramatically increased the transformation frequency. The use of glucose in resting medium further increased transformation frequency by improving the tissue induction rate, tissue survival and tissue proliferation from immature embryos. Consequently, an optimal combination of glucose, copper and cytokinin in the co-cultivation, resting and selection media resulted in significant improvement from 2.6 % up to tenfold at the T0 plant level using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 in transformation of PHR03. Furthermore, we evaluated four different Agrobacterium strains, LBA4404, AGL1, EHA105, and GV3101 for transformation frequency and event quality. AGL1 had the highest transformation frequency with up to 57.1 % at the T0 plant level. However, AGL1 resulted in lower quality events (defined as single copy for transgenes without Agrobacterium T-DNA backbone) when compared to LBA4404 (30.1 vs 25.6 %). We propose that these improvements can be applied to other recalcitrant commercial maize inbreds.

  14. Linking transformational leadership to nurses' extra-role performance: the mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Chambel, Maria J; Martínez, Isabel M

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a report of a social cognitive theory-guided study about the link between supervisors' transformational leadership and staff nurses' extra-role performance as mediated by nurse self-efficacy and work engagement. Past research has acknowledged the positive influence that transformational leaders have on employee (extra-role) performance. However, less is known about the psychological mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and extra-role performance, which encompasses behaviours that are not considered formal job requirements, but which facilitate the smooth functioning of the organization as a social system. Seventeen supervisors evaluated nurses' extra-role performance, the data generating a sample consisting of 280 dyads. The nurses worked in different health services in a large Portuguese hospital and the participation rate was 76·9% for nurses and 100% for supervisors. Data were collected during 2009. A theory-driven model of the relationships between transformation leadership, self-efficacy, work engagement and nurses' extra-role performance was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Data analysis revealed a full mediation model in which transformational leadership explained extra-role performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. A direct relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement was also found. Nurses' supervisors with a transformational leadership style enhance different 'extra-role' performance in nurses and this increases hospital efficacy. They do so by establishing a sense of self-efficacy but also by amplifying their levels of engagement in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Limitations in distance and frequency due to chromatic dispersion in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov

    1996-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion significantly limits the distance and/or frequency in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links based on direct detection due to a decrease of the carrier to noise ratio. The limitations in links based on coherent remote heterodyne detection, however, are far less...

  16. Vector frequency-comb Fourier-transform spectroscopy for characterizing metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, T; Brehm, M; Von Ribbeck, H G; Keilmann, F; Van der Weide, D W

    2008-01-01

    We determine infrared transmission amplitude and phase spectra of metamaterial samples at well-defined incidence and polarization with a vector ('asymmetric') frequency-comb Fourier-transform spectrometer (c-FTS) that uses no moving elements. The metamaterials are free-standing metallic hole arrays; we study their resonances in the 7-13 μm and 100-1000 μm wavelength regions due both to interaction with bulk waves (Wood anomaly) and with leaky surface plasmon polaritons (near-unity transmittance, coupling features and dispersion). Such complex-valued transmission and reflection spectra could be used to compute a metamaterial's complex dielectric function directly, as well as its magnetic and magneto-optical permeability functions.

  17. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Hareem E-mail: htariq@ligo.caltech.edu; Takamori, Akiteru; Vetrano, Flavio; Wang Chenyang; Bertolini, Alessandro; Calamai, Giovanni; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Gennai, Alberto; Holloway, Lee; Losurdo, Giovanni; Marka, Szabolcs; Mazzoni, Massimo; Paoletti, Federico; Passuello, Diego; Sannibale, Virginio; Stanga, Ruggero

    2002-08-21

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  18. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K.; DeLong, Caroline M.; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin’s (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin’s ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin’s acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  19. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Branstetter

    Full Text Available Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A in response to a specific sound (sound A for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition.

  20. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields of transformers and possible biological and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Sezgin, Gaye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-12-01

    Physiological processes in organisms can be influenced by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic energy. Biological effect studies have great importance; as well as measurement studies since they provide information on the real exposure situations. In this study, the leakage magnetic fields around a transformer were measured in an apartment building in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, and the measurement results were evaluated with respect to the international exposure standards. The transformer station was on the bottom floor of a three-floor building. It was found that people living and working in the building were exposed to ELF magnetic fields higher than the threshold magnetic field value of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many people living in this building reported health complaints such as immunological problems of their children. There were child-workers working in the textile factories located in the building. Safe distances or areas for these people should be recommended. Protective measures could be implemented to minimize these exposures. Further residential exposure studies are needed to demonstrate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields. Precautions should, therefore, be taken either to reduce leakage or minimize the exposed fields. Shielding techniques should be used to minimize the leakage magnetic fields in such cases.

  1. The space-math link in preschool boys and girls: Importance of mental transformation, targeting accuracy, and spatial anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I

    2017-06-01

    Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls. Targeting accuracy also mediated the male advantage in counting. Interestingly, spatial anxiety moderated the space-math links, but differently for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities were irrelevant to counting at high anxiety levels; for girls, the role of anxiety on the space-math link is less clear. Results extend the evidence base of the space-math link to include an extrinsic spatial ability (targeting accuracy) and have implications for intervention programmes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Much evidence of a space-math link in adolescent and adult samples and for intrinsic spatial abilities. What does this study add? Extended the space-math link to include both intrinsic and extrinsic spatial abilities in a preschool sample. Showed how spatial anxiety moderated the space-math link differently for boys and girls. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that into consideration, the analysis of transient signals could be hypothetically improved by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT, given their variable time/frequency resolution. The analysis of transient signals in Wavelet domain has improved the repeatability of the frequency response curves, as it has been ob-served in experimental results. The proposed on-line IFRA method, based on Wavelet transform, was validated under load and no-load conditions on a 150 kVA three-phase transformer 13200/225 Volts, in the Campus of the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

  3. Low- and high-frequency Raman investigations on caffeine: polymorphism, disorder and phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hédoux, Alain; Decroix, Anne-Amandine; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Derollez, Patrick; Descamps, Marc

    2011-05-19

    Raman investigations are carried out both in crystalline forms of caffeine and during the isothermal transformation of the orientationally disordered form I into the stable form II at 363 K. The time dependence of the Raman spectrum exhibits no significant change in the intramolecular regime (above 100 cm(-1)), resembling the spectrum of the liquid state. By contrast, significant changes are observed below 100 cm(-1), and the low-frequency spectra of forms I and II are observed to be different from that of the liquid. The temperature dependence of the 5-600 cm(-1) spectrum gives information on the static disorder through the analysis of collective motions, while information on dynamic disorder are obtained from the study of the 555 cm(-1) band corresponding to internal vibrations in the pyrimidine ring. This analysis indubitably reveals that form II is also orientationally disordered with a local molecular arrangement that mimics that in form I and the liquid state. The comparison of the low-frequency spectra recorded in theophylline and form II of caffeine allows one to describe the stable form of caffeine from the packing arrangement of anhydrous theophylline with the consideration of reorientational molecular disorder. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Serial CT and MRI of ischaemic cerebral infarcts: frequency and clinical impact of haemorrhagic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.E.; Brueckmann, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G. [Dept. of Radiology/Neuroradiology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany); Droste, D.W. [Dept. of Neurology, University Medical School of Luebeck (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The frequency, predisposing factors and clinical consequences of haemorrhagic infarcts and damaged blood-brain barrier as shown by contrast enhancement (CE) in ischaemic cerebral infarcts are controversial. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of CT and MRI to haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and CE. We also wished to investigate the clinical significance of HT and factors possibly associated with it. We studied 36 patients with acute ischaemic infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory during the first 2 weeks after the ictus. After CT and rating of the neurological deficit on admission, serial examinations with clinical neuromonitoring, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were done on the same day. The occurrence and severity of HT were correlated with CE, stroke mechanism, infarct size, development of neurological deficits and antithrombotic treatment. The frequency of HT detected by MRI was 80 %. CE usually preceded HT or was seen simultaneously. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT to HT and CE. Severity of HT was positively correlated with infarct size (P < 0.01). HT had no influence on patient's neurological status. Neither the type of antithrombotic treatment nor the stroke mechanism was associated with the severity of HT. No parenchymal haemorrhage occurred. (orig.)

  5. Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses during verbal transformations due to word repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, G C; Jhaveri, S P; Kuo, J

    1997-01-01

    Speech-evoked brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded to repeated presentations of the same stimulus word. Word repetition results in illusory verbal transformations (VTs) in which word perceptions can differ markedly from the actual stimulus. Previous behavioral studies support an explanation of VTs based on changes in arousal or attention. Horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs were recorded to assess responses with putative origins in the auditory nerve and central brainstem, respectively. FFRs were recorded from 18 subjects when they correctly heard the stimulus and when they reported VTs. Although horizontal and vertical dipole FFRs showed different frequency response patterns, dipoles did not differentiate between perceptual conditions. However, when subjects were divided into low- and high-VT groups (based on percentage of VT trials), a significant Condition x Group interaction resulted. This interaction showed the largest difference in FFR amplitudes during VT trials, with the low-VT group showing increased amplitudes, and the high-VT group showing decreased amplitudes, relative to trials in which the stimulus was correctly perceived. These results demonstrate measurable subject differences in the early processing of complex signals, due to possible effects of attention on the brainstem FFR. The present research shows that the FFR is useful in understanding human language as it is coded and processed in the brainstem auditory pathway.

  6. Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, J S; Doménech, J D; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J

    2013-02-11

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of an integrated frequency discriminator on InP technology for microwave photonic phase modulated links. The optical chip is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported in an active platform and the first to include the optical detectors. The discriminator, designed as a linear filter in intensity, features preliminary SFDR values the range between 67 and 79 dB.Hz(2/3) for signal frequencies in the range of 5-9 GHz limited, in principle, by the high value of the optical losses arising from the use of several free space coupling devices in our experimental setup. As discussed, these losses can be readily reduced by the use of integrated spot-size converters improving the SFDR by 17.3 dB (84-96 dB.Hz(2/3)). Further increase up to a range of (104-116 dB.Hz(2/3)) is possible by reducing the system noise eliminating the EDFA employed in the setup and using a commercially available laser source providing higher output power and lower relative intensity noise. Other paths for improvement requiring a filter redesign to be linear in the optical field are also discussed.

  7. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangqing; Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas

  8. Word frequency effects in immediate serial recall of pure and mixed lists: tests of the associative link hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; LeBlanc, Jacinthe

    2005-12-01

    In immediate serial recall, high-frequency words are better recalled than low-frequency words. Recently, it has been suggested that high-frequency words are better recalled because of their better long-term associative links, and not because of the intrinsic properties of their long-term representations. In the experiment reported here, recall performance was compared for pure lists of high- and low-frequency words, and for mixed lists composed of either one low- and five high-frequency words or the reverse. The usual advantage of high-frequency words was found with pure lists and this advantage was reduced, but still significant with mixed lists composed of five low-frequency words. However, the low-frequency word included in a high-frequency list was recalled just as well as high-frequency words. Results are challenging for the associative link hypothesis and are best interpreted within an item-based reconstruction hypothesis, along with a distinctiveness account.

  9. Transformer modeling for low- and mid-frequency electromagnetic transients simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mathieu

    In this work, new models are developed for single-phase and three-phase shell-type transformers for the simulation of low-frequency transients, with the use of the coupled leakage model. This approach has the advantage that it avoids the use of fictitious windings to connect the leakage model to a topological core model, while giving the same response in short-circuit as the indefinite admittance matrix (BCTRAN) model. To further increase the model sophistication, it is proposed to divide windings into coils in the new models. However, short-circuit measurements between coils are never available. Therefore, a novel analytical method is elaborated for this purpose, which allows the calculation in 2-D of short-circuit inductances between coils of rectangular cross-section. The results of this new method are in agreement with the results obtained from the finite element method in 2-D. Furthermore, the assumption that the leakage field is approximately 2-D in shell-type transformers is validated with a 3-D simulation. The outcome of this method is used to calculate the self and mutual inductances between the coils of the coupled leakage model and the results are showing good correspondence with terminal short-circuit measurements. Typically, leakage inductances in transformers are calculated from short-circuit measurements and the magnetizing branch is calculated from no-load measurements, assuming that leakages are unimportant for the unloaded transformer and that magnetizing current is negligible during a short-circuit. While the core is assumed to have an infinite permeability to calculate short-circuit inductances, and it is a reasonable assumption since the core's magnetomotive force is negligible during a short-circuit, the same reasoning does not necessarily hold true for leakage fluxes in no-load conditions. This is because the core starts to saturate when the transformer is unloaded. To take this into account, a new analytical method is developed in this

  10. A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.

  11. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umapathy Karthikeyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  12. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Umapathy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  13. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.

    2013-03-01

    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  14. A High-Precision Time-Frequency Entropy Based on Synchrosqueezing Generalized S-Transform Applied in Reservoir Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the fact that high frequency will be abnormally attenuated when seismic signals travel across reservoirs, a new method, which is named high-precision time-frequency entropy based on synchrosqueezing generalized S-transform, is proposed for hydrocarbon reservoir detection in this paper. First, the proposed method obtains the time-frequency spectra by synchrosqueezing generalized S-transform (SSGST, which are concentrated around the real instantaneous frequency of the signals. Then, considering the characteristics and effects of noises, we give a frequency constraint condition to calculate the entropy based on time-frequency spectra. The synthetic example verifies that the entropy will be abnormally high when seismic signals have an abnormal attenuation. Besides, comparing with the GST time-frequency entropy and the original SSGST time-frequency entropy in field data, the results of the proposed method show higher precision. Moreover, the proposed method can not only accurately detect and locate hydrocarbon reservoirs, but also effectively suppress the impact of random noises.

  15. Entropy change linked to the martensitic transformation inmetamagnetic shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Cesari, E.; Kustov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, 6-7 (2012), s. 3168-3175 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metamagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) * martensitic phase transformation * thermodynamics * transformation entropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2012

  16. Development of high frequency spice models for ferrite core inductors and transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, G. Patrick; Portnoy, William M.

    In this work high frequency SPICE models were developed to simulate the hysteresis and saturation effects of toroidal shaped ferrite core inductors and transformers. The models include the nonlinear, multi-valued B-H characteristic of the core material, leakage flux, stray capacitances, and core losses. The saturation effects were modeled using two diode clamping arrangements in conjunction with nonlinear dependent sources. Two possible controlling schemes were developed for the saturation switch. One of the arrangements used the current flowing through a series RC branch to control the switch, while the other used a NAND gate. The NAND gate implementation of the switch proved to be simpler and the parameters associated with it were easier to determine from the measurements and the B-H characteristics of the material. Lumped parameters were used to simulate the parasitic effects. Techniques for measuring these effects are described. The models were verified using manganese-zinc ferrite-type toroidal cores and they have general applicability to all circuit analysis codes equivalent function blocks such as multipliers, adders, and logic components.

  17. Warm Arctic episodes linked with increased frequency of extreme winter weather in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judah; Pfeiffer, Karl; Francis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-13

    Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition. However, this relationship is strongest in the eastern US and mixed to even opposite along the western US. We also show that during mid-winter to late-winter of recent decades, when the Arctic warming trend is greatest and extends into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, severe winter weather-including both cold spells and heavy snows-became more frequent in the eastern United States.

  18. The Impact of Increasing Fire Frequency on Forest Transformations in the Zabaikal Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Shvetsov, E.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Zabaikal region of southern Siberia is characterized by some of the highest fire activity in Russia. There has been a significant increase of fire frequency and burned area in the region over the last two decades due to a combination of high anthropogenic pressure, decreased funding to the forestry sector, and increased fire danger, which was associated with higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Central and southern parts of the Zabaikal region where population density is higher and road network is relatively more developed are the most disturbed by fires. Larch stands cover the largest proportion of fire-disturbed lands in the region, while the less common pine and birch stands are characterized by higher fire frequency. About 13% (3.9 M ha) of the total forest area in the Zabaikal region was burned more than once in the 20 years from 1996 to 2015, with many sites burned multiple times. Repeat disturbances led to inadequate tree regeneration on all but the moistest sites. Pine stands on dry soils, which are common in the forest-steppe zone, were the most vulnerable. After repeat burns and over large burned sites we observed transformation of the forests to steppe ecosystems. The most likely causes of insufficient forest regeneration are soil overheating, dominance of tall grasses, and lack of nearby seed sources. Extensive tree plantations have potential to mitigate negative fire impacts; however, due to high fire hazard in the recent decade about half of the plantation area has been burned. Changes in the SWVI index were used to assess postfire reforestation based on a combination of satellite and field data. In the southwestern part of the Zabaikal region, we estimated that reforestation had been hampered over 11% of the forest land area. Regional climate models project increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation across Siberia by the end of the 21st century, with changes in the Zabaikal region projected to be more than twice the

  19. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Ira J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  20. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  1. An improved partially interleaved transformer structure for high-voltage high-frequency multiple-output applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed structure features lower leakage inductance, smaller AC capacitance and lower rate of AC-DC resistance, which is suitable for high-frequency high-efficiency applications. A planar transformer with the proposed structure was built and tested in an LCLC resonant converter, where the input voltage...

  2. HTLV-1 tax stabilizes MCL-1 via TRAF6-dependent K63-linked polyubiquitination to promote cell survival and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IκB kinases (IKKs and NF-κB and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation.

  3. HTLV-1 Tax Stabilizes MCL-1 via TRAF6-Dependent K63-Linked Polyubiquitination to Promote Cell Survival and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Bong; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IκB kinases (IKKs) and NF-κB and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation. PMID:25340740

  4. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  5. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  6. Quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements based on predicted frequencies using Fast Fourier Transform and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New trend in design of flexible pavements is mechanistic-empirical approach. The first step for applying this method is analyzing the pavement structure for several times and computation of critical stresses and strains, which needs a fast analysis method with good accuracy. This paper aims to introduce a new rapid pavement analysis approach, which can consider the history of loading and rate effect. To this end, 1200 flexible pavement sections were analyzed, and equivalent frequencies (EF were calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method at various depths of asphalt layer. A nonlinear regression equation has been presented for determining EF at different depths of asphalt layer. For more accurate predicting of EF at low frequencies, a feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed, which allows accurate prediction of EF. The frequencies obtained by the proposed regression equation and ANN were compared with frequencies observed in Virginia Smart Road project, and it was found that there is a good agreement between observed and predicted frequencies. Comparison of quasi-static analysis of flexible pavements by frequencies obtained using FFT method and full dynamic analysis by 3D-Move program approves that the critical responses of pavement computed by proposed quasi-static analysis approach are comparable to critical responses computed using full dynamic analysis. Keywords: Equivalent frequency, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Pavement quasi-static analysis, Dynamic modulus, Artificial Neural Network (ANN

  7. LINKING PERSONAL COMPETENCIES WITH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE EVIDENCE FROM THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsuda Limsila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the linkage between personal competencies and leadership behaviours as well as their influences on leadership outcomes and subordinates’ work performance. Personal competencies were measured using the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD tool. Leadership behaviours and outcomes were measured using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ. Data was collected from construction projects in Thailand. Findings revealed that leadership outcomes have significant positive relationship with all personal competencies specified in the PMCD framework, every factor in the transformational style and contingent reward factor in the transactional style. Transformational leaders tend to produce high work quality, work quantity, and problem solving creativity from subordinates. Findings further verified that all PMCD personal competencies have significant positive relationship with every factor in the transformational style. It implies that project managers who apply the transformational style and/or have high personal competencies indicated in PMCD framework are likely to generate greater leadership outcomes and work performance on construction projects.

  8. Performance of the Wavelet Transform-Neural Network Based Receiver for DPIM in Diffuse Indoor Optical Wireless Links in Presence of Artificial Light Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Rajbhandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN has application in communication engineering in diverse areas such as channel equalization, channel modeling, error control code because of its capability of nonlinear processing, adaptability, and parallel processing. On the other hand, wavelet transform (WT with both the time and the frequency resolution provides the exact representation of signal in both domains. Applying these signal processing tools for channel compensation and noise reduction can provide an enhanced performance compared to the traditional tools. In this paper, the slot error rate (SER performance of digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM in diffuse indoor optical wireless (OW links subjected to the artificial light interference (ALI is reported with new receiver structure based on the discrete WT (DWT and ANN. Simulation results show that the DWT-ANN based receiver is very effective in reducing the effect of multipath induced inter-symbol interference (ISI and ALI.

  9. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  10. Radio-frequency transparent demodulation for broadband hybrid wireless-optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Alemany, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    A novel demodulation technique which is transparent to radio-frequency (RF) carrier frequency is presented and experimentally demonstrated for multigigabit wireless signals. The presented demodulation technique employs optical single-sideband filtering, coherent detection, and baseband digital si...

  11. Leader identity as an antecedent of the frequency and consistency of transformational, consideration, and abusive leadership behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneously precise frequency transfer and time synchronization using feed-forward compensation technique via 120 km fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lu, Jinlong; Cui, Yifan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xing; Tian, Xusheng; Ci, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2015-12-22

    Precision time synchronization between two remote sites is desired in many applications such as global positioning satellite systems, long-baseline interferometry, coherent radar detection and fundamental physics constant measurements. The recently developed frequency dissemination technologies based on optical fiber link have improved the transfer instability to the level of 10(-19)/day at remote location. Therefore it is possible to keep clock oscillation at remote locations continuously corrected, or to reproduce a "virtual" clock on the remote location. However the initial alignment and the correction of 1 pps timing signal from time to time are still required, besides the highly stabilized clock frequency transfer between distant locations. Here we demonstrate a time synchronization based on an ultra-stable frequency transfer system via 120-km commercial fiber link by transferring an optical frequency comb. Both the phase noise compensation in frequency dissemination and temporal basis alignment in time synchronization were implemented by a feed-forward digital compensation (FFDC) technique. The fractional frequency instability was measured to be 6.18 × 10(-20) at 2000 s. The timing deviation of time synchronization was measured to be 0.6 ps in 1500 s. This technique also can be applied in multi-node fiber network topology.

  13. Infrared and visual image fusion method based on discrete cosine transform and local spatial frequency in discrete stationary wavelet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Lee, Shin-Jye; He, Kangjian

    2018-01-01

    In order to promote the performance of infrared and visual image fusion and provide better visual effects, this paper proposes a hybrid fusion method for infrared and visual image by the combination of discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and local spatial frequency (LSF). The proposed method has three key processing steps. Firstly, DSWT is employed to decompose the important features of the source image into a series of sub-images with different levels and spatial frequencies. Secondly, DCT is used to separate the significant details of the sub-images according to the energy of different frequencies. Thirdly, LSF is applied to enhance the regional features of DCT coefficients, and it can be helpful and useful for image feature extraction. Some frequently-used image fusion methods and evaluation metrics are employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The experiments indicate that the proposed method can achieve good fusion effect, and it is more efficient than other conventional image fusion methods.

  14. Multi-Beam Radio Frequency (RF) Aperture Arrays Using Multiplierless Approximate Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, digital array processing , antenna beamformers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...125 3.7 Simulation of 2-D Beams Cross Sections .................................................................... 125 3.7.1 8...unlimited. List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: N-beam Array Processing System using a Linear Array

  15. Organizing the "Productive Transformation of Knowledge": Linking University and Industry in Traditional Manufacturing Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, Giacomo; Rostan, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at underlining the role played by extra-academic and autonomous organizations strongly connected with university institutions and researchers in producing, acquiring, transferring and transforming knowledge. The study examines a particular Italian case, the "Politecnico Calzaturiero", a private institution providing…

  16. Linking Nurses' Clinical Leadership to Patient Care Quality: The Role of Transformational Leadership and Workplace Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    Background While improving patient safety requires strong nursing leadership, there has been little empirical research that has examined the mechanisms by which leadership influences patient safety outcomes. Aim To test a model examining relationships among transformational leadership, structural empowerment, staff nurse clinical leadership, and nurse-assessed adverse patient outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a randomly selected sample of 378 registered nurses working in direct patient care in acute care hospitals across Ontario, Canada. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. Results The model had an acceptable fit, and all paths were significant. Transformational leadership was significantly associated with decreased adverse patient outcomes through structural empowerment and staff nurse clinical leadership. Discussion This study highlights the importance of transformational leadership in creating empowering practice environments that foster high-quality care. The findings indicate that a more complete understanding of what drives desired patient outcomes warrants the need to focus on how to empower nurses and foster clinical leadership practices at the point of care. Conclusion In planning safety strategies, managers must demonstrate transformational leadership behaviors in order to modify the work environment to create better defenses for averting adverse events.

  17. Time-frequency analysis of fusion plasma signals beyond the short-time Fourier transform paradigm: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizarro, Joao P.S.; Figueiredo, Antonio C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Performing a time-frequency (t-f) analysis on actual magnetic pick-up coil data from the JET tokamak, a comparison is presented between the spectrogram and the Wigner and Choi-Williams distributions. Whereas the former, which stems from the short-time Fourier transform and has been the work-horse for t-f signal processing, implies an unavoidable trade-off between time and frequency resolutions, the latter two belong to a later generation of distributions that yield better, if not optimal joint t-f localization. Topics addressed include signal representation in the t-f plane, frequency identification and evolution, instantaneous-frequency estimation, and amplitude tracking

  18. Testing Time and Frequency Fiber-Optic Link Transfer by Hardware Emulation of Acoustic-Band Optical Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.

  19. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  20. Digital signals processing using non-linear orthogonal transformation in frequency domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanichenko E.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress of computer technology in recent decades led to a wide introduction of methods of digital information processing practically in all fields of scientific research. In this case, among various applications of computing one of the most important places is occupied by digital processing systems signals (DSP that are used in data processing remote solution tasks of navigation of aerospace and marine objects, communications, radiophysics, digital optics and in a number of other applications. Digital Signal Processing (DSP is a dynamically developing an area that covers both technical and software tools. Related areas for digital signal processing are theory information, in particular, the theory of optimal signal reception and theory pattern recognition. In the first case, the main problem is signal extraction against a background of noise and interference of a different physical nature, and in the second - automatic recognition, i.e. classification and signal identification. In the digital processing of signals under a signal, we mean its mathematical description, i.e. a certain real function, containing information on the state or behavior of a physical system under an event that can be defined on a continuous or discrete space of time variation or spatial coordinates. In the broad sense, DSP systems mean a complex algorithmic, hardware and software. As a rule, systems contain specialized technical means of preliminary (or primary signal processing and special technical means for secondary processing of signals. Means of pretreatment are designed to process the original signals observed in general case against a background of random noise and interference of a different physical nature and represented in the form of discrete digital samples, for the purpose of detecting and selection (selection of the useful signal and evaluation characteristics of the detected signal. A new method of digital signal processing in the frequency

  1. Impact of frequency modulation ratio on capacitor cells balancing in phase-shifted PWM based chain-link STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrouzian, Ehsan; Bongiorno, Massimo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    to provide more uniform power distribution among the cells, two different methods called, a) carrier swapping and b) non-integer frequency modulation ratio are studied. In particular, it is shown that the selection of a non-integer frequency modulation ratio helps in providing a more uniform power......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of switching harmonics on the instantaneous power that flows in the cells of a chain-link based STATCOM when using Phase-Shifted PWM. Two different cases are investigated for the converter cells: low, and high switching frequency. It is shown...... that any deviation from the ideal conditions lead to undesired harmonics, which will impact the charge of the dc capacitors. It is also shown that for low switching frequencies, cells voltage sideband harmonics interact with baseband harmonics of the current and causes extra source of unbalance. In order...

  2. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  3. A new time-frequency method to reveal quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen in intense laser pulses: Synchrosqueezing transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Yae-lin; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Hau-tieng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a new adaptive time-frequency (TF) analysis technique, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), to explore the dynamics of a laser-driven hydrogen atom at an ab initio level, upon which we have demonstrated its versatility as a new viable venue for further exploring quantum dynamics. For a signal composed of oscillatory components which can be characterized by instantaneous frequency, the SST enables rendering the decomposed signal based on the phase information inherited in the linear TF representation with mathematical support. Compared with the classical type of TF methods, the SST clearly depicts several intrinsic quantum dynamical processes such as selection rules, AC Stark effects, and high harmonic generation

  4. Calculation of core loss and copper loss in amorphous/nanocrystalline core-based high-frequency transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys are now widely used for the cores of high-frequency transformers, and Litz-wire is commonly used as the windings, while it is difficult to calculate the resistance accurately. In order to design a high-frequency transformer, it is important to accurately calculate the core loss and copper loss. To calculate the core loss accurately, the additional core loss by the effect of end stripe should be considered. It is difficult to simulate the whole stripes in the core due to the limit of computation, so a scale down model with 5 stripes of amorphous alloy is simulated by the 2D finite element method (FEM. An analytical model is presented to calculate the copper loss in the Litz-wire, and the results are compared with the calculations by FEM.

  5. Structural and metabolic studies of O-linked fucose-containing proteins of normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that cultured human and rodent cells contain a series of low molecular weight glycosylated amino acids of unusual structure, designated amino acid fucosides. The incorporation of radiolabelled-fucose into one of these components, designated FL4a (glucosylfucosylthreonine), is markedly-reduced in transformed epithelial and fibroblastic cells. The authors have examined fucose-labelled normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblast cell lines for glycoproteins which might be precursors to amino acid fucosides. Using milk alkaline/borohydride treatment (the beta-elimination reaction) to release O-linked oligosaccharides from proteins, they have isolated and partially characterized two low M/sub r/ reaction products (designated DS-ol and TS-ol) released from macromolecular cell material. The identity of one of these components (DS-ol, glucosylfucitol) suggested the existence in these cells of a direct protein precursor to FL4a. They examined fucose-labelled macromolecular cell material for proteins which release DS-ol (DS-proteins.). Using gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent autoradiography, they have observed DS-proteins which appear to exhibit a broad molecular weight size range, and are also present in culture medium from normal and transformed cells. The findings suggest that mammalian cells contain DS-proteins and TS-proteins with a novel carbohydrate-peptide linkage wherein L-fucose is O-linked to a polypeptide backbone. Metabolic studies were undertaken to examine both the relationship between DS-protein and FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a observed in transformed cells

  6. Ring resonator-based on-chip modulation transformer for high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, Marcel; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; van Dijk, Paulus; Roeloffzen, Chris

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel wideband on-chip photonic modulation transformer for phase-modulated microwave photonic links. The proposed device is able to transform phase-modulated optical signals into intensity-modulated versions (or vice versa) with nearly zero conversion of laser phase noise to intensity noise. It is constructed using waveguide-based ring resonators, which features simple architecture, stable operation, and easy reconfigurability. Beyond the stand-alone functionality, the proposed device can also be integrated with other functional building blocks of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) to create on-chip complex microwave photonic signal processors. As an application example, a PIC consisting of two such modulation transformers and a notch filter has been designed and realized in TriPleX(TM) waveguide technology. The realized device uses a 2 × 2 splitting circuit and 3 ring resonators with a free spectral range of 25 GHz, which are all equipped with continuous tuning elements. The device can perform phase-to-intensity modulation transform and carrier suppression simultaneously, which enables high-performance phase-modulated microwave photonics links (PM-MPLs). Associated with the bias-free and low-complexity advantages of the phase modulators, a single-fiber-span PM-MPL with a RF bandwidth of 12 GHz (3 dB-suppression band 6 to 18 GHz) has been demonstrated comprising the proposed PIC, where the achieved spurious-free dynamic range performance is comparable to that of Class-AB MPLs using low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulators.

  7. Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegoraro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations

  8. Building a Linked Learning Pathway: A Guide for Transforming High Schools for College and Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterbury, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This guide provides an overview of a more robust online guide and toolkit available through ConnectEd Studios. It supplies a glimpse of the sequence of steps involved in creating a new Linked Learning pathway. This publication can help coaches, district leadership, and pathway teams gain an understanding of the overall process of designing and…

  9. Stable transmission of radio frequency signals on fiber links using interferomectric delay sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell B.; Byrd, J.M.; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang; Staples, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The authors demonstrate distribution of a 2850 MHz rf signal over stabilized optical fiber links. For a 2.2 km link they measure an rms drift of 19.4 fs over 60 h, and for a 200 m link an rms drift of 8.4 fs over 20 h. The rf signals are transmitted as amplitude modulation on a continuous optical carrier. Variations in the delay length are sensed using heterodyne interferometry and used to correct the rf phase. The system uses standard fiber telecommunications components.

  10. The Zak transform and some counterexamples in time-frequency analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown how the Zak transform can be used to find nontrivial examples of functions f, g e L2(R) with f × g ¿ 0 ¿ F × G, where F, G are the Fourier transforms of f, g, respectively. This is then used to exhibit a nontrivial pair of functions h, k e L2(R), h ¿ k, such that |h| = |k|, |H| = |K|. A

  11. [Research of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based beat frequency modulation and Fourier-Bessel transform imaging spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yao-Li; Huang, Yan-Fei; Chen, You-Hua; Wang, Li-Fu; Yang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    As the existing photoelastic-modulator(PEM) modulating frequency in the tens of kHz to hundreds of kHz between, leading to frequency of modulated interference signal is higher, so ordinary array detector cannot effectively caprure interference signal..A new beat frequency modulation method based on dual-photoelastic-modulator (Dual-PEM) and Fourier-Bessel transform is proposed as an key component of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based imaging spectrometer (Dual-PEM-IS) combined with charge coupled device (CCD). The dual-PEM are operated as an electro-optic circular retardance modulator, Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies w1 and w2 respectively, generates a differential signal at a much lower heterodyne frequency that modulates the incident light. This method not only retains the advantages of the existing PEM, but also the frequency of modulated photocurrent decreased by 2-3 orders of magnitude (10-500 Hz) and can be detected by common array detector, and the incident light spectra can be obtained by Fourier-Bessel transform of low frequency component in the modulated signal. The method makes the PEM has the dual capability of imaging and spectral measurement. The basic principle is introduced, the basic equations is derived, and the feasibility is verified through the corresponding numerical simulation and experiment. This method has' potential applications in imaging spectrometer technology, and analysis of the effect of deviation of the optical path difference. This work provides the necessary theoretical basis for remote sensing of new Dual-PEM-IS and for engineering implementation of spectra inversion.

  12. A Fast Hartley Transform based novel optical OFDM system for VLC indoor application with constant envelope PAPR reduction technique using frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-10-01

    In this research literature we present a unique optical OFDM system for Visible Light Communication (VLC) intended for indoor application which uses a non conventional transform-Fast Hartley Transform and an effective method to reduce the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signal based on frequency modulation leading to a constant envelope (CE) signal. The proposed system is analyzed by a complete mathematical model and verified by the concurrent simulations results. The use of the non conventional transform makes the system computationally more desirable as it does not require the Hermitian symmetry constraint to yield real signals. The frequency modulation of the baseband signal converge random peaks into a CE signal. This leads to alleviation of the non linearity effects of the LED used in the link for electrical to optical conversion. The PAPR is reduced to 2 dB by this technique in this work. The impact of the modulation index on the performance of the system is also investigated. An optimum modulation depth of 30% gives better results. The additional phase discontinuity incurring on the demodulated signal at the receiver is also significantly reduced. A comparison of the improvement in phase discontinuity of the proposed technique of combating the PAPR with the previously known phase modulation technique is also presented in this work. Based on the channel metrics we evaluate the system performance and report an improvement of 1.2 dB at the FEC threshold. The proposed system is simple in design and computationally efficient and this can be incorporated into the present VLC system without much alteration thereby making it a cost effective solution.

  13. Generalized Modular Transformations in (3+1D Topologically Ordered Phases and Triple Linking Invariant of Loop Braiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In topologically ordered quantum states of matter in (2+1D (spacetime dimensions, the braiding statistics of anyonic quasiparticle excitations is a fundamental characterizing property that is directly related to global transformations of the ground-state wave functions on a torus (the modular transformations. On the other hand, there are theoretical descriptions of various topologically ordered states in (3+1D, which exhibit both pointlike and looplike excitations, but systematic understanding of the fundamental physical distinctions between phases, and how these distinctions are connected to quantum statistics of excitations, is still lacking. One main result of this work is that the three-dimensional generalization of modular transformations, when applied to topologically ordered ground states, is directly related to a certain braiding process of looplike excitations. This specific braiding surprisingly involves three loops simultaneously, and can distinguish different topologically ordered states. Our second main result is the identification of the three-loop braiding as a process in which the worldsheets of the three loops have a nontrivial triple linking number, which is a topological invariant characterizing closed two-dimensional surfaces in four dimensions. In this work, we consider realizations of topological order in (3+1D using cohomological gauge theory in which the loops have Abelian statistics and explicitly demonstrate our results on examples with Z_{2}×Z_{2} topological order.

  14. Transformation of potential energy surfaces for estimating isotopic shifts in anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, Robert [Clemens-Schöpf Institut für Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.

  15. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  16. RF bandwidth capacity and SCM in a radio-over-fibre link employing optical frequency multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Larrode, M.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Vegas Olmos, J.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Schenk, T.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of generating two 24Mbps 64-QAM radio signals simultaneously at 17.3GHz and 17.8GHz after 4.4km of multimode fibre in an OFM radio-over-fibre link for wireless multistandard support at the antenna site.

  17. Direct high-frequency modulation of VCSELs and applications in fibre optic RF and microwave links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Christina; Gustavsson, Johan; Haglund, Asa; Modh, Peter; Bengtsson, Joergen

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication networks there is an increasing demand for efficient and cost-effective transmission and distribution of RF signals. Fibre optic RF links, employing directly modulated semiconductor lasers, provide many of the desired characteristics for such distribution systems and in the search for cost-effective solutions, the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is of interest. It has therefore been the purpose of this work to investigate whether 850 nm VCSELs fulfil basic performance requirements for fibre optic RF links operating in the low-GHz range. The performance of single- and multimode oxide confined VCSELs has been compared, in order to pin-point limitations and to find the optimum design. Fibre optic RF links using VCSELs and multimode fibres have been assembled and evaluated with respect to performance characteristics of importance for wireless communication systems. We have found that optimized single-mode VCSELs provide the highest performance and that links using such VCSELs and high-bandwidth multimode fibres satisfy the requirements in a number of applications, including cellular systems for mobile communication and wireless local area networks

  18. Input preshaping with frequency domain information for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony; Englehart, Matthew J.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of an input preshaping scheme to flexible manipulators is considered. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration free output. The robustness of the algorithm with respect to injected disturbances and modal frequency variations is not satisfactory and can be improved by convolving the input with a longer sequence of impulses. The incorporation of the preshaping scheme to a closed-loop plant, using acceleration feedback, offers satisfactory disturbance rejection due to feedback and cancellation of the flexible mode effects due to the preshaping. A frequency domain identification scheme is used to estimate the modal frequencies on-line and subsequently update the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the fastest possible slew that results in a vibration free output.

  19. Dual Transformer Model based on Standard Circuit Elements for the Study of Low- and Mid-frequency Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebi, Saeed

    This thesis is a step forward toward achieving the final objective of creating a fully dual model for transformers including eddy currents and nonlinearities of the iron core using the fundamental electrical components already available in the EMTP-type programs. The model is effective for the study of the performance of transformers during power system transients. This is very important for transformer designers, because the insulation of transformers is determined with the overvoltages caused by lightning or switching operations. There are also internally induced transients that occur when a switch is actuated. For example switching actions for reconfiguration of distribution systems that offers economic advantages, or protective actions to clear faults and large short-circuit currents. Many of the smart grid concepts currently under development by many utilities rely heavily on switching to optimize resources that produce transients in the system. On the other hand, inrush currents produce mechanical forces which deform transformer windings and cause malfunction of the differential protection. Also, transformer performance under ferroresonance and geomagnetic induced currents are necessary to study. In this thesis, a physically consistent dual model applicable to single-phase two-winding transformers is proposed. First, the topology of a dual electrical equivalent circuit is obtained from the direct application of the principle of duality. Then, the model parameters are computed considering the variations of the transformer electromagnetic behavior under various operating conditions. Current modeling techniques use different topological models to represent diverse transient situations. The reversible model proposed in this thesis unifies the terminal and topological equivalent circuits. The model remains invariable for all low-frequency transients including deep saturation conditions driven from any of the two windings. The very high saturation region of the

  20. Distributed Secondary Voltage and Frequency Control for Islanded Microgrids with Uncertain Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xinghuo; Lai, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    energy resources (DERs) in a MG to achieve the voltage/frequency restoration and active power sharing accuracy, respectively. In special, the secondary control inputs are merely updated at the end of each round of iteration, and thus each DER only needs to share information with its neighbors...... theory. The proposed controllers are implemented on local DERs, and thus no central controller is required. Moreover, the desired control objective can also be guaranteed even if all DERs are subject to internal uncertainties and external noises including initial voltage and/or frequency resetting errors...

  1. Phase information of time-frequency transforms as a key feature for classification of atrial fibrillation episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Fernández, Carmen; Galbis, Antonio; Cano, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering from atrial fibrillation can be classified into different subtypes, according to the temporal pattern of the arrhythmia and its recurrence. Nowadays, clinicians cannot differentiate a priori between the different subtypes, and patient classification is done afterwards, when its clinical course is available. In this paper we present a comparison of classification performances when differentiating paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation episodes by means of support vector machines. We analyze short surface electrocardiogram recordings by extracting modulus and phase features from several time-frequency transforms: short-time Fourier transform, Wigner–Ville, Choi–Williams, Stockwell transform, and general Fourier-family transform. Overall, accuracy higher than 81% is obtained when classifying phase information features of real test ECGs from a heterogeneous cohort of patients (in terms of progression of the arrhythmia and antiarrhythmic treatment) recorded in a tertiary center. Therefore, phase features can facilitate the clinicians’ choice of the most appropriate treatment for each patient by means of a non-invasive technique (the surface ECG). (paper)

  2. Frequency of Evaluation as a Measure of Links Between Levels in School Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utande, Emmanuel A.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    The frequency of evaluation across organizational levels (i.e., evaluation of inferiors by superiors) is related to three variables: the existence of bureaucratic rules, availability of information across levels, and interaction among participants. In a processual perspective, as opposed to a structural one, evaluation is viewed as a key mechanism…

  3. The link between texting and motor vehicle collision frequency in the orthopaedic trauma population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Issar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study will evaluate whether or not texting frequency while driving and/or texting frequency in general are associated with an increased risk of incurring a motor vehicle collision (MVC resulting in orthopaedic trauma injuries. METHODS: All patients who presented to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Orthopaedic Trauma Clinic were administered a questionnaire to determine background information, mean phone use, texting frequency, texting frequency while driving, and whether or not the injury was the result of an MVC in which the patient was driving. RESULTS: 237 questionnaires were collected. 60 were excluded due to incomplete date, leaving 57 questionnaires in the MVC group and 120 from patients with non-MVC injuries. Patients who sent more than 30 texts per week (“heavy texters” were 2.22 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than those who texted less frequently. 84% of respondents claimed to never text while driving. Dividing the sample into subsets on the basis of age (25 years of age or below considered “young adult,” and above 25 years of age considered “adult”,young, heavy texters were 6.76 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than adult non-heavy texters (p = 0.000. Similarly, young adult, non-heavy texters were 6.65 (p = 0.005 times more likely to be involved in an MVC, and adult, heavy texters were 1.72 (p = 0.186 times more likely to be involved in an MVC. CONCLUSIONS: Patients injured in an MVC sent more text messages per week than non-MVC patients. Additionally, controlling for age demonstrated that young age and heavy general texting frequency combined had the highest increase in MVC risk, with the former being the variable of greatest effect

  4. AEP's selection of GE Energy's variable frequency transformer (VFT) for their grid interconnection project between the United States and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, M.; O' Keefe, R. [American Electric Power, Gahanna, OH (United States); Kidd, D. [American Electric Power, Tulsa, OK (United States); Larsen, E. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Roedel, J. [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Bodo, R. [GE Energy, Carrolton, TX (United States); Marken, P. [GE Energy, Columbia City, IN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Variable frequency transformers (VFTs) are controllable, bi-directional transmission devices capable of allowing power transfer between asynchronous networks. The VFT uses a rotary transformer with 3-phase windings on both the rotor and the stator. A motor and drive system is also used to manipulate the rotational position of the rotor in order to control the magnitude and direction of the power flow. The VFT was recently selected by American Electric Power (AEP) for its new asynchronous transmission link between the United States and Mexico. This paper provided details of the feasibility studies conducted to select the technology. Three categories of asynchronous interconnection devices were evaluated: (1) a VFT; (2) a voltage source converter; and (3) a conventional high voltage direct current (HVDC) back-to-back system. Stability performance system studies were conducted for all options. The overall reliability benefits of the options were reviewed, as well as their ability to meet steady-state system requirements. Dynamic models were used to conduct the comparative evaluation. Results of the feasibility study indicated that both the VFT and the voltage source converter performed better than the HVDC system. However, the VFT was more stable than the voltage source converter. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Stango

    Full Text Available Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR. The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed.

  6. Detailed High Frequency Models of Various Winding Types in Power Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Abstract--In this paper, techniques are described which demonstrate how a highly detailed internal transformer model can be obtained systematically with Matlab and how it can be prepared for subsequent transient analysis. The input of such a model will mainly be the description of the cross secti...... equivalent circuit. Finally a new circuit extraction technique is proposed for vector fitted impedance matrices for more efficient computation....

  7. DC-DC Type High-Frequency Link DC for Improved Power Quality of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikin, Muhammad; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Multilevel inverters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. Recent advances in power switching devices enabled the suitability of multilevel inverters for high voltage and high power applications because they are connecting several devices in series without the need of component matching. Usually, a transformerless battery energy storage system, based on a cascaded multilevel inverter, is used as a measure for voltage and frequency deviations. System can be reduced in size, weight, and cost of energy storage system. High-frequency link circuit topology is advantageous in realizing compact and light-weight power converters for uninterruptible power supply systems, new energy systems using photovoltaic-cells, fuel-cells and so on. This paper presents a DC-DC type high-frequency link DC (HFLDC) cascaded multilevel inverter. Each converter cell is implemented a control strategy for two H-bridge inverters that are controlled with the same multicarrier pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The proposed cascaded multilevel inverter generates lower voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in comparison with conventional cascaded multilevel inverter. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter.

  8. Devil’s Vortex Phase Structure as Frequency Plane Mask for Image Encryption Using the Fractional Mellin Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vashisth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency plane phase mask based on Devil’s vortex structure has been used for image encryption using the fractional Mellin transform. The phase key for decryption is obtained by an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale secret target images, by numerical simulation. The efficacy of the scheme has been evaluated by computing mean-squared-error between the secret target image and the decrypted image. Sensitivity analysis of the decryption process to variations in various encryption parameters has been carried out. The proposed encryption scheme has been seen to exhibit reasonable robustness against occlusion attack.

  9. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  10. Matching synchrosqueezing transform: A useful tool for characterizing signals with fast varying instantaneous frequency and application to machine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Chen, Xuefeng; Selesnick, Ivan W.; Guo, Yanjie; Tong, Chaowei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2018-02-01

    Synchrosqueezing transform (SST) can effectively improve the readability of the time-frequency (TF) representation (TFR) of nonstationary signals composed of multiple components with slow varying instantaneous frequency (IF). However, for signals composed of multiple components with fast varying IF, SST still suffers from TF blurs. In this paper, we introduce a time-frequency analysis (TFA) method called matching synchrosqueezing transform (MSST) that achieves a highly concentrated TF representation comparable to the standard TF reassignment methods (STFRM), even for signals with fast varying IF, and furthermore, MSST retains the reconstruction benefit of SST. MSST captures the philosophy of STFRM to simultaneously consider time and frequency variables, and incorporates three estimators (i.e., the IF estimator, the group delay estimator, and a chirp-rate estimator) into a comprehensive and accurate IF estimator. In this paper, we first introduce the motivation of MSST with three heuristic examples. Then we introduce a precise mathematical definition of a class of chirp-like intrinsic-mode-type functions that locally can be viewed as a sum of a reasonably small number of approximate chirp signals, and we prove that MSST does indeed succeed in estimating chirp-rate and IF of arbitrary functions in this class and succeed in decomposing these functions. Furthermore, we describe an efficient numerical algorithm for the practical implementation of the MSST, and we provide an adaptive IF extraction method for MSST reconstruction. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the MSST in practical applications for machine fault diagnosis, including gearbox fault diagnosis for a wind turbine in variable speed conditions and rotor rub-impact fault diagnosis for a dual-rotor turbofan engine.

  11. Prediction of rain effects on earth-space communication links operating in the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Warren L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of precipitation on earth-space communication links operating the 10 to 35 GHz frequency range. Emphasis is on the quantitative prediction of rain attenuation and depolarization. Discussions center on the models developed at Virginia Tech. Comments on other models are included as well as literature references to key works. Also included is the system level modeling for dual polarized communication systems with techniques for calculating antenna and propagation medium effects. Simple models for the calculation of average annual attenuation and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) are presented. Calculation of worst month statistics are also presented.

  12. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  13. Modelado del transformador para eventos de alta frecuencia; Transformer model for high frequency events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Adriana Galván Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La función de un transformador es cambiar el nivel de tensión a través de un acoplamiento magnético. Debido a su construcción física, su representación como un circuito y su modelo matemático son muy complejos. El comportamiento electromagnético del transformador, al igual que todos los elementos de la red eléctrica de potencia, depende de la frecuencia involucrada. Por esta razón cuando se tienen fenómenos de alta frecuencia su modelo debe ser muy detallado para que reproduzca el comportamientodel estado transitorio. En este trabajo se analiza cómo se pasa de un modelo muy simple, a un modelo muy detallado para hacer simulación de eventos de alta frecuencia. Los eventos que se simulan son la operación de un interruptor por una falla en el sistema y el impacto de una descarga atmosférica sobre la línea de transmisión a una distancia de 5 km de una subestación de potencia. The transformer’s function is to change the voltage level through a magnetic coupling. Due to its physical construction, its representation as a circuit and its mathematical model are very complex. The electromagnetic behavior and all the elements in the power network depend on the involved frequency. So, for high frequency events, its model needs to be very detailed to reproduce the electromagnetic transient behavior. This work analyzes how to pass from a simple model to a very detailed model to simulated high frequency events. The simulated events are the switch operation due to a fault in the system and the impact of an atmospheric discharge (direct stroke in the transmission line, five km far away from the substation.

  14. History of Reading Struggles Linked to Enhanced Learning in Low Spatial Frequency Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Brockmole, James R.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Pomplun, Marc

    2012-01-01

    People with dyslexia, who face lifelong struggles with reading, exhibit numerous associated low-level sensory deficits including deficits in focal attention. Countering this, studies have shown that struggling readers outperform typical readers in some visual tasks that integrate distributed information across an expanse. Though such abilities would be expected to facilitate scene memory, prior investigations using the contextual cueing paradigm failed to find corresponding advantages in dyslexia. We suggest that these studies were confounded by task-dependent effects exaggerating known focal attention deficits in dyslexia, and that, if natural scenes were used as the context, advantages would emerge. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by comparing college students with histories of severe lifelong reading difficulties (SR) and typical readers (TR) in contexts that vary attention load. We find no differences in contextual-cueing when spatial contexts are letter-like objects, or when contexts are natural scenes. However, the SR group significantly outperforms the TR group when contexts are low-pass filtered natural scenes [F(3, 39) = 3.15, p<.05]. These findings suggest that perception or memory for low spatial frequency components in scenes is enhanced in dyslexia. These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school. PMID:22558210

  15. History of reading struggles linked to enhanced learning in low spatial frequency scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Schneps

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia, who face lifelong struggles with reading, exhibit numerous associated low-level sensory deficits including deficits in focal attention. Countering this, studies have shown that struggling readers outperform typical readers in some visual tasks that integrate distributed information across an expanse. Though such abilities would be expected to facilitate scene memory, prior investigations using the contextual cueing paradigm failed to find corresponding advantages in dyslexia. We suggest that these studies were confounded by task-dependent effects exaggerating known focal attention deficits in dyslexia, and that, if natural scenes were used as the context, advantages would emerge. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by comparing college students with histories of severe lifelong reading difficulties (SR and typical readers (TR in contexts that vary attention load. We find no differences in contextual-cueing when spatial contexts are letter-like objects, or when contexts are natural scenes. However, the SR group significantly outperforms the TR group when contexts are low-pass filtered natural scenes [F(3, 39 = 3.15, p<.05]. These findings suggest that perception or memory for low spatial frequency components in scenes is enhanced in dyslexia. These findings are important because they suggest strengths for spatial learning in a population otherwise impaired, carrying implications for the education and support of students who face challenges in school.

  16. Modelado del transformador para eventos de alta frecuencia ;Transformer model for high frequency events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Adriana – Galván Sanchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La función de un transformador es cambiar el nivel de tensión a través de un acoplamiento magnético.Debido a su construcción física, su representación como un circuito y su modelo matemático son muycomplejos. El comportamiento electromagnético del transformador, al igual que todos los elementos de lared eléctrica de potencia, depende de la frecuencia involucrada. Por esta razón cuando se tienenfenómenos de alta frecuencia su modelo debe ser muy detallado para que reproduzca el comportamientodel estado transitorio. En este trabajo se analiza cómo se pasa de un modelo muy simple, a un modelo muydetallado para hacer simulación de eventos de alta frecuencia. Los eventos que se simulan son la operaciónde un interruptor por una falla en el sistema y el impacto de una descarga atmosférica sobre la línea detransmisión a una distancia de 5 km de una subestación de potencia.The transformer’s function is to change the voltage level through a magnetic coupling. Due to its physicalconstruction, its representation as a circuit and its mathematical model are very complex. Theelectromagnetic behavior and all the elements in the power network depend on the involved frequency. So,for high frequency events, its model needs to be very detailed to reproduce the electromagnetic transientbehavior. This work analyzes how to pass from a simple model to a very detailed model to simulated highfrequency events. The simulated events are the switch operation due to a fault in the system and the impactof an atmospheric discharge (direct stroke in the transmission line, five km far away from the substation.

  17. Image secure transmission for optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing visible light communication systems using chaotic discrete cosine transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Zhang, Shaozhong; Chen, Fangni; Wu, Ming-Wei; Qiu, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    A physical encryption scheme for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) visible light communication (VLC) systems using chaotic discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. In the scheme, the row of the DCT matrix is permutated by a scrambling sequence generated by a three-dimensional (3-D) Arnold chaos map. Furthermore, two scrambling sequences, which are also generated from a 3-D Arnold map, are employed to encrypt the real and imaginary parts of the transmitted OFDM signal before the chaotic DCT operation. The proposed scheme enhances the physical layer security and improves the bit error rate (BER) performance for OFDM-based VLC. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme not only protects image data from eavesdroppers but also keeps the good BER and peak-to-average power ratio performances for image-based OFDM-VLC systems.

  18. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  19. Fourier transform NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenga, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs

  20. Recreation Value of Water to Wetlands in the San Joaquin Valley: Linked Multinomial Logit and Count Data Trip Frequency Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Michael; Loomis, John

    1992-10-01

    The recreational benefits from providing increased quantities of water to wildlife and fisheries habitats is estimated using linked multinomial logit site selection models and count data trip frequency models. The study encompasses waterfowl hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing at 14 recreational resources in the San Joaquin Valley, including the National Wildlife Refuges, the State Wildlife Management Areas, and six river destinations. The economic benefits of increasing water supplies to wildlife refuges were also examined by using the estimated models to predict changing patterns of site selection and overall participation due to increases in water allocations. Estimates of the dollar value per acre foot of water are calculated for increases in water to refuges. The resulting model is a flexible and useful tool for estimating the economic benefits of alternative water allocation policies for wildlife habitat and rivers.

  1. Design and Realization of FIR Filter for Inter Satellite Link at 50-90 MHZ Frequency using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Wahyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, design and realization of FIR filter with a bandwidth of 40 MHz at 50-90 MHz frequency has been proposed. The design was destined to be implemented on the Inter Satellite Links (ISL. This kind of filter had been selected due to a need in linear phase responseon the ISL data communication. Equiripple method was used to design the filter becauseof its reliability in minimizing the magnitude errors. The design of this FIR filter was conducted with theoretical calculation and simulation using the R2012b Matlab. For the implementation, FPGA was used with a VHDL as the programming language with a help of Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.5. Simulation results in Matlab and Simulink indicated that the filter design could be well implemented on ISL at frequency of 50 MHz - 90 MHz with stopband of 60 db. The phase responseresult of the realized design is quite linear so that the filter is suitable for data communication on the ISL.

  2. A Novel Characteristic Frequency Bands Extraction Method for Automatic Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Hilbert Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Because roller element bearings (REBs failures cause unexpected machinery breakdowns, their fault diagnosis has attracted considerable research attention. Established fault feature extraction methods focus on statistical characteristics of the vibration signal, which is an approach that loses sight of the continuous waveform features. Considering this weakness, this article proposes a novel feature extraction method for frequency bands, named Window Marginal Spectrum Clustering (WMSC to select salient features from the marginal spectrum of vibration signals by Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT. In WMSC, a sliding window is used to divide an entire HHT marginal spectrum (HMS into window spectrums, following which Rand Index (RI criterion of clustering method is used to evaluate each window. The windows returning higher RI values are selected to construct characteristic frequency bands (CFBs. Next, a hybrid REBs fault diagnosis is constructed, termed by its elements, HHT-WMSC-SVM (support vector machines. The effectiveness of HHT-WMSC-SVM is validated by running series of experiments on REBs defect datasets from the Bearing Data Center of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU. The said test results evidence three major advantages of the novel method. First, the fault classification accuracy of the HHT-WMSC-SVM model is higher than that of HHT-SVM and ST-SVM, which is a method that combines statistical characteristics with SVM. Second, with Gauss white noise added to the original REBs defect dataset, the HHT-WMSC-SVM model maintains high classification accuracy, while the classification accuracy of ST-SVM and HHT-SVM models are significantly reduced. Third, fault classification accuracy by HHT-WMSC-SVM can exceed 95% under a Pmin range of 500–800 and a m range of 50–300 for REBs defect dataset, adding Gauss white noise at Signal Noise Ratio (SNR = 5. Experimental results indicate that the proposed WMSC method yields a high REBs fault

  3. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannin, P.C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C.N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-01-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ′(ω, Η)−iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz and polarising fields 0–168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz. - Highlights: • Complex magnetic susceptibility measurements in the frequency range 0.1–20 GHz. • Determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid. • Wideband attenuator ( Absorber) in the frequency range 2.4–6.3 GHz.

  4. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusions: Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. Moreover, our data set provides...... NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over time...

  5. Simulation of beam-splitter made of metamaterials with angle spatial distribution of constitutive parameters based on transformation optics for THz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, E A; Vozianova, A V; Khodzitsky, M K

    2014-01-01

    New approach to design beam splitter on basis of the transformation optics using angle constitutive parameters distribution of medium was proposed. The beam splitter was numerically simulated by COMSOL Multiphysics for terahertz frequency range. The numerical simulations were carried out for ideal and reduced constitutive parameters of medium for the case of TM plane wave

  6. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  7. Predictability and interpretability of hybrid link-level crash frequency models for urban arterials compared to cluster-based and general negative binomial regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najaf, Pooya; Duddu, Venkata R; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) techniques have higher prediction accuracy compared to conventional statistical methods for crash frequency modelling. However, their black-box nature limits the interpretability. The objective of this research is to combine both ML and statistical methods to develop hybrid link-level crash frequency models with high predictability and interpretability. For this purpose, M5' model trees method (M5') is introduced and applied to classify the crash data and then calibrate a model for each homogenous class. The data for 1134 and 345 randomly selected links on urban arterials in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina was used to develop and validate models, respectively. The outputs from the hybrid approach are compared with the outputs from cluster-based negative binomial regression (NBR) and general NBR models. Findings indicate that M5' has high predictability and is very reliable to interpret the role of different attributes on crash frequency compared to other developed models.

  8. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as...

  9. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  10. On the determination of the dynamic properties of a transformer oil based ferrofluid in the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, P. C.; Vekas, L.; Marin, C. N.; Malaescu, I.

    2017-02-01

    Complex susceptibility measurements provide a unique and efficient means for the investigation and determination of the dynamic properties of magnetic fluids. In particular, measurement of the frequency, f(Hz), and field, H(kA/m), dependent, complex susceptibility, χ(ω, Η)= χ‧(ω, Η)-iχ″(ω, Η), of magnetic fluids has proven to be a valuable and reliable technique for investigating such properties. The experimental data presented here was obtained from measurements of a transformer oil based ferrofluid, with measurements being performed over the frequency range 0.1-20 GHz and polarising fields 0-168 kA/m. In the case of transformer oil magnetic fluids, the normal measurement emphasis has been on the investigation of their dielectric properties, including the effects which lightning may have on these properties. Little has been reported on the measurement of the corresponding magnetic susceptibility, χ(ω), of such fluids and in this paper we address this fact. Thus we consider it worthwhile, in the case of a transformer with magnetic fluid transformer oil, being affected as a result of a lightening occurrence, to have knowledge of the fluids dynamic properties, at the microwave frequencies. In the process of determining the sample susceptibility profiles, it was found that the peak value of the χ″(ω) component, was approximately constant over the frequency range 2.4-6.3 GHz. From this it was determined that the fluid was effectively operating as a wideband absorber over a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz.

  11. Design of fixed frequency controlled radial-mode stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformers for DC/DC converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage

  12. Path integral of the angular momentum eigenstates evolving with the parameter linked with rotation angle under the space rotation transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongcan; Hu Chenguo; Fang Zhenyun

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the method which directly adopts the azimuthal angles and the rotation angle of the axis to describe the evolving process of the angular momentum eigenstates under the space rotation transformation. The authors obtain the angular momentum rotation and multi-rotation matrix elements' path integral which evolves with the parameter λ(0→θ,θ the rotation angle), and establish the general method of treating the functional (path) integral as a normal multi-integrals

  13. Frequency scaling of slant-path atmospheric attenuation in the absence of rain for millimeter-wave links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Vegas, María. José; Riera, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Broadband satellite communications systems, either used for broadcast or fixed satellite services, have grown continuously in recent years. This has led to the use of higher frequency bands, from the Ku (14/11 GHz) to the Ka band (30/20 GHz) in the last decade, and with the expectation of using the Q/V band (50/40 GHz) and even the W band (75-110 GHz) in the future. As frequency increases, radio wave propagation effects in the slant-path within the troposphere are becoming more and more relevant. The objective of this research is the proposal of frequency scaling approximations for the total attenuation in the absence of rain, a condition that occurs during the highest percentages of time, usually more than 95% in temperate climates. There is a strong relationship between total attenuation at different frequencies, as it arises from the same physical phenomena, namely, the presence of oxygen, water vapor, and clouds in the slant path. This strong relationship allows frequency scaling estimations to be proposed. In particular, polynomials for instantaneous frequency scaling of total attenuation under these conditions have been calculated for a set of frequencies in the range 10-100 GHz, based on atmospheric profiles of 60 sites from all over the world and physical models of attenuation. Global polynomials are provided for the 72 combinations of nine significant frequencies, which can be used to estimate attenuation at a frequency band from its known value at a different one. Refined expressions have also been calculated for different climatic zones, providing more precise estimations.

  14. Effect of dose-rate on the frequency of X-linked lethal mutation in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, D.

    1984-01-01

    A total X-ray dose of 50 Gy was applied to the nematode Panagrellus redivivus using dose-rates ranging from 0.23 Gy/min to 10.49 Gy/min, and the frequency of lethal X-chromosomes was determined. This frequency ranged from approximately 1.6% at the lower dose-rate to 4.3% at the highest dose-rate, indicating a dose-rate dependency of mutation frequency in the spermatogonia and oogonia of this organism. (orig.)

  15. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and performing an iterative manipulation of the input sequence. The performing of the iterative manipulation of the input sequence may include, for example: computing frequency domain response of the sequence, normalizing elements of the computed frequency domain sequence to unitary power while maintaining phase...

  16. Linking job-relevant personality traits, transformational leadership, and job performance via perceived meaningfulness at work: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, Rachel E; Wang, Gang; Oh, In-Sue

    2018-03-01

    By integrating the fundamental principles of the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB; Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) with cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) theory (Mischel, 1977; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), we examine how and when salespeople's job-relevant personality traits relate to their performance. We argue that individuals with personality traits that fit outdoor sales jobs (i.e., conscientious, extraversion, openness to experience) will perceive their work as more meaningful and as a result achieve heightened performance. Moreover, drawing from TPWB and CAPS theory, we expect that as an important element of the social context, transformational leadership moderates the indirect effect of salespeople's job-relevant personality traits on their job performance via enhanced perceptions of meaningfulness at work. Results based on data from 496 outdoor salespeople and their 218 supervisors and regional managers provide support for the hypotheses pertaining to conscientiousness and openness, but not extraversion. Specifically, the conditional indirect effects of conscientiousness or openness on performance through perceived meaningfulness are more positive under low, rather than high, levels of transformational leadership. Implications for research and practice are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Building a Climate of Change with a link through Transformational Leadership and Corporate Culture: A Management key to a Global Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Llwellyn Flemming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the Caribbean Diaspora have argued that there is no documented evidence of the association between the three fundamental pillars of public sector organization: leadership, performance and culture. This cross-culture leadership concern has evoked a series of research which basic aim is to conceptualize the leadership culture phenomenon. The problem is that there is a high degree of dysfunctional leadership within the public sectors organizations in the Caribbean diaspora and there is limited empirical evidence that can be had to validate the reason for this inadequacy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the link between transformational leadership styles, corporate organizational culture types and performance in sixteen public sectors organizations. The methodology implemented in this research is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X, and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI to collect data. Seventy-five executive directors completed measures of the MLQ 5x leadership traits and culture types. A total of 200 employees from   across sixteen public sector organizations completed the measures on leadership and culture. The responses were scaled and coded to enable the segmentation of the data into dependent and independent variables based on the leadership, performance and culture variables. The study utilized the multiple regression models and correlation statistical analyses to determine the degree of commonality among the components. The results indicate support for the hypotheses link between the traits of transformational leadership and organizational culture with performance being the mediating variable. Exploratory analysis showed that several executive leaders have leadership traits that support culture values. The study concluded that transformational leadership and corporate organizational culture have positive effects on facilitating performance and is best suited in managing change and

  18. Sonication, Vacuum Infiltration and Thiol Compounds Enhance the Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Frequency of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Kapil Dev, Gnajothi; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have established a stable transformation protocol via Agrobacterium tumafacines for the pharmaceutically important Withania somnifera. Six day-old nodal explants were used for 3 day co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the vector pCAMIBA2301. Among the different injury treatments, sonication, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, a vacuum infiltration for 10 min followed by sonication for 10 sec with A. tumefaciens led to a higher transient GUS expression (84% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). In order to improve gene integration, thiol compounds were added to co-cultivation medium. A combined treatment of L-Cys at 100 mg/l, STS at 125 mg/l, DTT at 75 mg/l resulted in a higher GUS expression (90%) in the nodal explants. After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were subjected to three selection cycles with increasing concentrations of kanamycin [100 to 115 mg/l]. The integration and expression of gusA gene in T0 and T1 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blott analysis. These transformed plants (T0 and T1) were fertile and morphologically normal. From the present investigation, we have achieved a higher transformation efficiency of (10%). Withanolides (withanolide A, withanolide B, withanone and withaferin A) contents of transformed plants (T0 and T1) were marginally higher than control plants. PMID:25927703

  19. Modelling, simulation and measurements of fast transients in transformer windings with consideration of frequency-dependent losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.; Sluis, van der L.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Lopez Roldan, J.; Terzija, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    For the specification of winding insulation of transformers, it is important to know the electrical stresses to which the winding can be exposed during fast transient oscillations. These oscillations occur during switching operations performed by circuit breakers, or when gas-insulated substations

  20. Behavior of the wood to impulses of high frequency and their relationship with failures in distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Umana, Antonio; Paez Riano, Orlando Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The paper tries about the causes of the failures of the transformers in the rural sector in Colombia and their solutions, an alternative is presented with base in the studies of isolation, which allows an effective and economic solution of easy application

  1. Transformation of metal-organic framework to polymer gel by cross-linking the organic ligands preorganized in metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Furukawa, Yuki; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2013-04-10

    Until now, seamless fusion of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalently cross-linked polymer gels (PG) at molecular level has been extremely rare, since these two matters have been regarded as opposite, that is, hard versus soft. In this report, we demonstrate transformation of cubic MOF crystals to PG via inner cross-linking of the organic linkers in the void space of MOF, followed by decomposition of the metal coordination. The obtained PG behaved as a polyelectrolyte gel, indicating the high content of ionic groups inside. Metal ions were well adsorbed in the PG due to its densely packed carboxylate groups. A chimera-type hybrid material consisting of MOF and PG was obtained by partial hydrolysis of resulting cross-linked MOF. The shape of resulting PG network well reflected the crystal structure of MOF employed as a template. Our results will connect the two different network materials that have been ever studied in the two different fields to provide new soft and hard hybrid materials, and the unique copolymerization in the large void space of the MOF will open a new horizon toward "ideal network polymers" never prepared before now.

  2. Non-stationary signal analysis based on general parameterized time-frequency transform and its application in the feature extraction of a rotary machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Peng, Zhike; Chen, Shiqian; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wenming

    2018-06-01

    With the development of large rotary machines for faster and more integrated performance, the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for them are becoming more challenging. Since the time-frequency (TF) pattern of the vibration signal from the rotary machine often contains condition information and fault feature, the methods based on TF analysis have been widely-used to solve these two problems in the industrial community. This article introduces an effective non-stationary signal analysis method based on the general parameterized time-frequency transform (GPTFT). The GPTFT is achieved by inserting a rotation operator and a shift operator in the short-time Fourier transform. This method can produce a high-concentrated TF pattern with a general kernel. A multi-component instantaneous frequency (IF) extraction method is proposed based on it. The estimation for the IF of every component is accomplished by defining a spectrum concentration index (SCI). Moreover, such an IF estimation process is iteratively operated until all the components are extracted. The tests on three simulation examples and a real vibration signal demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our method.

  3. Analysis of the High-Frequency Content in Human QRS Complexes by the Continuous Wavelet Transform: An Automatized Analysis for the Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iglesias, Daniel; Roqueñi Gutiérrez, Nieves; De Cos, Francisco Javier; Calvo, David

    2018-02-12

    Fragmentation and delayed potentials in the QRS signal of patients have been postulated as risk markers for Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). The analysis of the high-frequency spectral content may be useful for quantification. Forty-two consecutive patients with prior history of SCD or malignant arrhythmias (patients) where compared with 120 healthy individuals (controls). The QRS complexes were extracted with a modified Pan-Tompkins algorithm and processed with the Continuous Wavelet Transform to analyze the high-frequency content (85-130 Hz). Overall, the power of the high-frequency content was higher in patients compared with controls (170.9 vs. 47.3 10³nV²Hz -1 ; p = 0.007), with a prolonged time to reach the maximal power (68.9 vs. 64.8 ms; p = 0.002). An analysis of the signal intensity (instantaneous average of cumulative power), revealed a distinct function between patients and controls. The total intensity was higher in patients compared with controls (137.1 vs. 39 10³nV²Hz -1 s -1 ; p = 0.001) and the time to reach the maximal intensity was also prolonged (88.7 vs. 82.1 ms; p content of the QRS complexes was distinct between patients at risk of SCD and healthy controls. The wavelet transform is an efficient tool for spectral analysis of the QRS complexes that may contribute to stratification of risk.

  4. An Epstein-Barr virus anti-apoptotic protein constitutively expressed in transformed cells and implicated in burkitt lymphomagenesis: the Wp/BHRF1 link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L Kelly

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two factors contribute to Burkitt lymphoma (BL pathogenesis, a chromosomal translocation leading to c-myc oncogene deregulation and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Although the virus has B cell growth-transforming ability, this may not relate to its role in BL since many of the transforming proteins are not expressed in the tumor. Mounting evidence supports an alternative role, whereby EBV counteracts the high apoptotic sensitivity inherent to the c-myc-driven growth program. In that regard, a subset of BLs carry virus mutants in a novel form of latent infection that provides unusually strong resistance to apoptosis. Uniquely, these virus mutants use Wp (a viral promoter normally activated early in B cell transformation and express a broader-than-usual range of latent antigens. Here, using an inducible system to express the candidate antigens, we show that this marked apoptosis resistance is mediated not by one of the extended range of EBNAs seen in Wp-restricted latency but by Wp-driven expression of the viral bcl2 homologue, BHRF1, a protein usually associated with the virus lytic cycle. Interestingly, this Wp/BHRF1 connection is not confined to Wp-restricted BLs but appears integral to normal B cell transformation by EBV. We find that the BHRF1 gene expression recently reported in newly infected B cells is temporally linked to Wp activation and the presence of W/BHRF1-spliced transcripts. Furthermore, just as Wp activity is never completely eclipsed in in vitro-transformed lines, low-level BHRF1 transcripts remain detectable in these cells long-term. Most importantly, recognition by BHRF1-specific T cells confirms that such lines continue to express the protein independently of any lytic cycle entry. This work therefore provides the first evidence that BHRF1, the EBV bcl2 homologue, is constitutively expressed as a latent protein in growth-transformed cells in vitro and, in the context of Wp-restricted BL, may contribute to virus

  5. Effects of irradiation treatment on shoot regeneration and transformation frequency of chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris SSP. Chinensis L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengqi; Cui Hairui

    2003-01-01

    Cotyledons with petiole were cultured on MS basic medium containing 5 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 5 mg/L AgNO 3 , and produced adventitious buds with higher frequency. Induction frequency of adventitious buds could be increased by irradiation treatment of γ-rays with the lower dose of 1-2.5 Gy to seedlings and explants in culture, but decreased dramatically when the dose was higher than 10 Gy. Irradiation treatment in co-culture with lower dose of 1-7.5 Gy also promote transient expression frequency of gus gene, while irradiation treatment in pre-culture did not show obvious effect on transient expression of gus gene

  6. Stabilization of the Propagation Delay in Fiber Optics in a Frequency Distribution Link Using Electronic Delay Lines: First Measurement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    of Time and Frequency ul. Elektoralna 2, 00-139 Warszawa , Poland Tel: +48 22 5819156, E-mail: timegum@gum.gov.pl Łukasz Śliwczyński, Przemysław...Elektoralna 2, 00-139 Warszawa , Poland 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  7. A novel joint timing/frequency synchronization scheme based on Radon-Wigner transform of LFM signals in CO-OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Wei, Ying; Zeng, Xiangye; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Mengjun

    2018-03-01

    A joint timing and frequency synchronization method has been proposed for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system in this paper. The timing offset (TO), integer frequency offset (FO) and the fractional FO can be realized by only one training symbol, which consists of two linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals with opposite chirp rates. By detecting the peak of LFM signals after Radon-Wigner transform (RWT), the TO and the integer FO can be estimated at the same time, moreover, the fractional FO can be acquired correspondingly through the self-correlation characteristic of the same training symbol. Simulation results show that the proposed method can give a more accurate TO estimation than the existing methods, especially at poor OSNR conditions; for the FO estimation, both the fractional and the integer FO can be estimated through the proposed training symbol with no extra overhead, a more accurate estimation and a large FO estimation range of [ - 5 GHz, 5GHz] can be acquired.

  8. Active frequency tuning of the cantilever nanoresonator utilizing a phase transformation of NiTi thin film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo; Šittner, Petr; Jeng, Y.-R.; Vokoun, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 7 (2017), s. 5161-5169 ISSN 1392-8716 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-13174J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoresonator * resonant frequency * thin film * smart memory alloys * NiTi film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.398, year: 2016

  9. Cell density dependence of transformation frequencies in C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettega, D; Calzolari, P; Ottolenghi, A; Lombardi, L T [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Rimoldi, E [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia Veterinaria

    1989-12-01

    The effects of cell density on transformation frequencies were studied in C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to 0.5 and 7 Gy of 200 kVp X-rays. Initial cell density strongly influenced transformation frequency; this decreased by a factor of between 4 and 10 when the initial seeding density was changed from 50 to 2500 cells/10 cm diameter Petri dish. The data were fitted with two equations: (a) an allometric function represented on a log-log scale by a straight line and (b) a sigmoidal function with plateaux between 50 and 250 cells/dish and above 600. The two curves are compared and their probabilities discussed. Our data indicate that the region between 50 and 250 cells/dish would be the most suitable region for dose-effect measurements. A study of the growth curves at 0.5 and 8.5 Gy shows that cell growth rates are not influenced by initial cell density. (author).

  10. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  11. High-frequency transformation of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii, with autonomously replicating plasmids which are also functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Goh, T K; Tani, Y

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a transformation system which uses autonomous replicating plasmids for a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii. Two autonomous replication sequences, CARS1 and CARS2, were newly cloned from the genome of C. boidinii. Plasmids having both a CARS fragment and the C. boidinii URA3 gene transformed C. boidinii ura3 cells to Ura+ phenotype at frequencies of up to 10(4) CFU/micrograms of DNA. From Southern blot analysis, CARS plasmids seemed to exist in polymeric forms as well as in monomeric forms in C. boidinii cells. The C. boidinii URA3 gene was overexpressed in C. boidinii on these CARS vectors. CARS1 and CARS2 were found to function as an autonomous replicating element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well. Different portions of the CARS1 sequence were needed for autonomous replicating activity in C. boidinii and S. cerevisiae. C. boidinii could also be transformed with vectors harboring a CARS fragment and the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene.

  12. Epileptic Seizure Detection based on Wavelet Transform Statistics Map and EMD Method for Hilbert-Huang Spectral Analyzing in Gamma Frequency Band of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seizure detection using brain signal (EEG analysis is the important clinical methods in drug therapy and the decisions before brain surgery. In this paper, after signal conditioning using suitable filtering, the Gamma frequency band has been extracted and the other brain rhythms, ambient noises and the other bio-signal are canceled. Then, the wavelet transform of brain signal and the map of wavelet transform in multi levels are computed. By dividing the color map to different epochs, the histogram of each sub-image is obtained and the statistics of it based on statistical momentums and Negentropy values are calculated. Statistical feature vector using Principle Component Analysis (PCA is reduced to one dimension. By EMD algorithm and sifting procedure for analyzing the data by Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF and computing the residues of brain signal using spectrum of Hilbert transform and Hilbert – Huang spectrum forming, one spatial feature based on the Euclidian distance for signal classification is obtained. By K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier and by considering the optimal neighbor parameter, EEG signals are classified in two classes, seizure and non-seizure signal, with the rate of accuracy 76.54% and with variance of error 0.3685 in the different tests.

  13. submitter Development of a 100 kW, 12.5 kV, 22 kHz and 30 kV insulated medium frequency transformer for compact and reliable medium voltage power conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Isler, Stephane; Aguglia, Davide; Bonnin, Xavier Abel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the critical design aspects addressed during the development of a 100 kW, 12.5 kV, 22 kHz, and 30 kV insulated medium frequency transformer used in a power converter. The transformers are used in a resonant multilevel converter topology producing HV DC voltage from a three phase 400 V AC industrial grid. The power converter is used to supply radio frequency systems in particle accelerators. Considerations about material selection, dielectric, magnetic and thermal design are discussed and experimental results on the full scale transformer and power converter are presented.

  14. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  15. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  16. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  17. A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance frequency spectrum in potassium hexachloro-osmate by Fourier transform methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, D.J.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the chlorine nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of K 2 OsCl 6 in the vicinity of the structural phase transition using Fourier transform techniques is reported. At high temperatures a single symmetric line spectrum is observed as expected from the high temperature cubic antifluorite structure. Below T(sub)c = 45 K the two symmetric line spectrum characteristic of a tetragonal distortion is seen. At intermediate temperatures, 45< T<150 K the spectrum consists of a single asymmetric line. A detailed analysis reveals that for the single crystal sample the asymmetric line is composed of two symmetric components, a main line, and a weak satellite shifted - 1.5 kHz relative to the main line. This feature is unaffected by changes in temperature near T(sub)c. It is attributed to the influence of interstitial impurities on neighbouring chlorine ions. For the powder sample, the asymmetry is qualitatively different. A detailed analysis shows that the line is a superposition of three components. In addition to the two components present in the single crystal, a third, broad component develops as the temperature approaches T(sub)c. This feature of the spectrum is the cluster induced order-disorder manifestation of the local dynamics. The most probable reason that this third component is not observed in the single crystal spectrum is because it is too broad due to a difference in the detailed dynamics of two samples. (auth)

  18. Pupil Dilation and EEG Alpha Frequency Band Power Reveal Load on Executive Functions for Link-Selection Processes during Text Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scharinger

    Full Text Available Executive working memory functions play a central role in reading comprehension. In the present research we were interested in additional load imposed on executive functions by link-selection processes during computer-based reading. For obtaining process measures, we used a methodology of concurrent electroencephalographic (EEG and eye-tracking data recording that allowed us to compare epochs of pure text reading with epochs of hyperlink-like selection processes in an online reading situation. Furthermore, this methodology allowed us to directly compare the two physiological load-measures EEG alpha frequency band power and pupil dilation. We observed increased load on executive functions during hyperlink-like selection processes on both measures in terms of decreased alpha frequency band power and increased pupil dilation. Surprisingly however, the two measures did not correlate. Two additional experiments were conducted that excluded potential perceptual, motor, or structural confounds. In sum, EEG alpha frequency band power and pupil dilation both turned out to be sensitive measures for increased load during hyperlink-like selection processes in online text reading.

  19. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  20. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. Approach. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. Main results. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. Significance. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  1. Magnetic model for Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} developed from spectroscopic studies with inelastic neutron scattering and frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, R.; Nehrkorn, J.; Stuiber, S.; Waldmann, O. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Akhtar, M.N.; Lan, Y.; Powell, A.K. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, KIT (Germany); Mutka, H. [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Dreiser, J. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Schnegg, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institut fuer Silizium-Photovoltaik (Germany); Holldack, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institut fuer Synchrotonstrahlung (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Molecular nanomagnets which contain several magnetic centers with a large single-ion magnetic anisotropy are of general interest, because they could lead to interesting phenomena such as single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. We performed spectroscopic experiments on Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} using inelastic neutron scattering at the direct time-of-flight disc chopper spectrometer IN5 at ILL and the newly developed frequency-domain Fourier-transform THz EPR at BESSY. Based on the experimental results a magnetic model has been developed. It is discussed why no SMM behavior was observed, even though Mn{sub 2}La{sub 2} exhibits a remarkably high energy barrier of about 37 K for spin relaxation. Furthermore our results can be applied to analogous clusters, with the diamagnetic La{sup I}II ions replaced by magnetic rare earth ions.

  2. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  3. Design and implementation in VHDL code of the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for frequency filtering, convolution and correlation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Giacometto, F.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.

    2011-01-01

    The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.

  4. Performance of Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System on a Frequency-Selective Multipath Fading Channel with Imperfect Power Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Kyung Kim

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the performance for reverse-link synchronous DS-CDMA system in a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel with an imperfect power control scheme. The performance degradation due to power control error (PCE, which is approximated by a log-normally distributed random variable, is estimated as a function of the standard deviation of the PCE. In addition, we investigate the impacts of the multipath intensity profile (MIP shape and the number of resolvable paths on the performance. Finally, the coded bit error performance is evaluated in order to estimate the system capacity. Comparing with the conventional CDMA system, we show an achievable gain of from 59% to 23% for reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT in the presence of imperfect power control over asynchronous transmission for BER=10−6. As well, the effect of tradeoff between orthogonality and diversity can be seen according to the number of multipaths, and the tendency is kept even in the presence of PCE. We conclude that the capacity can be further improved via the RLSTT, because the DS-CDMA system is very sensitive to power control imperfections.

  5. Transformers: analysis, design, and measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Fernández, Xose M; Ertan, H. Bülent; Turowski, J

    2013-01-01

    "This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations...

  6. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obajuluwa, Adejoke Olukayode; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Adekoya, Khalid; Sanya, Joseph Olurotimi; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle

    2017-01-01

    Humans in modern society are exposed to an ever-increasing number of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and some studies have demonstrated that these waves can alter brain function but the mechanism still remains unclear. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of 2.5 Ghz band radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMF) exposure on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA expression level as well as locomotor function and anxiety-linked behaviour in male rats. Animals were divided into four groups namely; group 1 was control (without exposure), group 2-4 were exposed to 2.5 Ghz radiofrequency waves from an installed WI-FI device for a period of 4, 6 and 8 weeks respectively. The results revealed that WiFi exposure caused a significant increase in anxiety level and affect locomotor function. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in AChE activity with a concomitant increase in AChE mRNA expression level in WiFi exposed rats when compared with control. In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage.

  7. Transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar Huerta, Ignacio E.; Pérez Montaña, Diego F.; Nava, Pablo Hernández; Juárez, Alejandro García; Asomoza, Jorge Rodríguez; Leal Cruz, Ana L.

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of an electro-optical transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz. The frequency response of the microwave photonic filter consists of four band-pass windows centered at frequencies that can be tailored to the function of the spectral free range of the optical source, the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber used, as well as the length of the optical link. In particular, filtering effect is obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.5 μm associated to the length of a dispersive optical fiber. Filtered microwave signals are used as electrical carriers to transmit TV-signal over long-haul optical links point-to-point. Transmission of TV-signal coded on the microwave band-pass windows located at 4.62, 6.86, 4.0 and 6.0 GHz are achieved over optical links of 25.25 km and 28.25 km, respectively. Practical applications for this approach lie in the field of the FTTH access network for distribution of services as video, voice, and data.

  8. Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in response to inorganic arsenic links inhibition of CTCF binding, DNMT expression and cellular transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Matthew; Eckstein, Meredith; Eleazer, Rebekah; Smith, Caroline; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2017-02-01

    Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes. We present a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sequencing to measure changes between normal and iAs-transformed cells. Additionally, these differential methylation changes correlated positively with changes in gene expression and alternative splicing. Interestingly, most of these differentially methylated genes function in cell adhesion and communication pathways. To gain insight into how genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated during iAs-mediated carcinogenesis, we show that iAs probably targets CTCF binding at the promoter of DNA methyltransferases, regulating their expression. These findings reveal how CTCF binding regulates DNA methyltransferase to reprogram the methylome in response to an environmental toxin.

  9. Calibration and fluctuation of the secular frequency peak amplitude versus initial condition distribution of the ion cloud confined into a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap using a fourier transform operating mode and a steady ion flow injection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Carette, M.; Mercury, M.; Reynard, C; Zerega, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A specific Fourier transform operating mode is applied to a 3-dimensional quadrupolar ion trap for mass analysis (Fourier Transform Quadrupolar Ion Trap (FTQIT) Operating Mode or Mass Spectrometer). With this operating mode, an image signal, which is representative of the collective motion of simultaneously confined ions, is made up from a set of recorded time-of-flight histograms. In an ion trap, the secular frequency of ion motion depends on m/Z ratio of the ion. By Fourier transformation of the image signal, one observes the frequency peak of each confined ionic species. When only one ionic species is confined, the peak amplitude is proportional to the maximal amplitude of the image signal. The maximal amplitude of the image signal is expressed according to the operating parameters, the initial conditions of the ions and the number of ions. Simulation tools lead to fluctuation calculation of the maximal amplitude of the image signal. Two origins are explored: (1) the fluctuation of the numbers of ions according to the steady ion flow injection mode (SIFIM) used with this operating mode and (2) the distribution fluctuation of the initial positions and velocities. Initial confinement conditions, obtained with SIFIM injection mode, lead to optimal detection with small fluctuations of the peak amplitude for Fourier transform operating mode applied to an ion trap. (authors)

  10. Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion using the Baseband Radio-Frequency Response of a Phase-Modulated Analog Optical Link Employing a Reference Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinney, Jason D; Diehl, John

    2007-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new technique for measuring the chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber using the baseband RF response of a phase-modulated analog optical link in concert with a well...

  11. Developing a survey instrument to assess the readiness of primary care data, genetic and disease registries to conduct linked research: TRANSFoRm International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leppenwell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical data are collected for routine care in family practice; there are also a growing number of genetic and cancer registry data repositories. The Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm project seeks to facilitate research using linked data from more than one source. We performed a requirements analysis which identified a wide range of data and business process requirements that need to be met before linking primary care and either genetic or disease registry data.Objectives To develop a survey to assess the readiness of data repositories to participate in linked research – the Transform International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey.Method We develop the questionnaire based on our requirement analysis; with questions at micro-, meso- and macro levels of granularity, study-specific questions about diabetes and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD, and research track record. The scope of the data required was extensive. We piloted this instrument, conducting ten preliminary telephone interviews to evaluate the response to the questionnaire.Results Using feedback gained from these interviews we revised the questionnaire; clarifying questions that were difficult to answer and utilising skip logic to create different series of questions for the various types of data repository. We simplified the questionnaire replacing free-text responses with yes/no or picking list options, wherever possible. We placed the final questionnaire online and encouraged its use (www.clininf.eu/jointirre/info.html.Conclusion Limited field testing suggests that TIRRE is capable of collecting comprehensive and relevant data about the suitability and readiness of data repositories to participate in linked data research.

  12. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  13. Electronic Power Transformer for Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuraсhi Iu.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing losses in electricity distribution networks is a current technical problem. This issue also has social and environmental aspects. As a promising solution one can examine the direct distribution from the medium voltage power network using new equipment based on the use of power electronics. The aim of the paper is to propose and argue an innovative technical solution for the realization of the Solid State Transformer (SST in order to decrease the number of energy transformation stages compared to the known solutions, simplifying the topology of the functional scheme with the reduction of production costs and the loss of energy in transformers used in electrical distribution networks. It is proposed the solution of simplifying the topology of the AC/AC electronic transformer by reducing the number of passive electronic components (resistors, inductors, capacitors and active (transistors. The inverter of the SST transformer ensures the switching mode of the transistors, using for this purpose the inductance of the magnetic leakage flux of the high frequency transformer. The robustness of the laboratory sample of the SST 10 / 0.22 kV transformer with the power of 20 kW was manufactured and tested. Testing of the laboratory sample confirmed the functionality of the proposed scheme and the possibility of switching of the transistors to at zero current (ZCS mode with the reduction of the energy losses. In the proposed converter a single high-frequency transformer with a simplified construction with two windings is used, which reduces its mass and the cost of making the transformer. The reduction in the manufacturing cost of the converter is also due to the decrease in the number of links between the functional elements.

  14. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54±15 years residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p=0.001; men: p=0.003. There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p<0.001 higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.. Females reported eating significantly (p<0.001 more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption.

  15. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  16. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  17. Transformation frequency of γ irradiated plasmid DNA and the enzymatic double strand break formation by incubation in a protein extract of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, D.; Mark, F.; Ventur, Y.

    1994-01-01

    It was found that incubation of γ-irradiated or DNaseI-treated plasmid DNA in a protein extract of Escherichia coli leads to enzyme-induced formation of double strand breaks (dsb) in competition with repair of precursors of these dsb. A survival curve of the plasmid DNA (as determined by transformation of E. coli) was calculated on the basis of enzyme-induced dsb as well as those produced by irradiation assuming that they are lethal. The calculated D O value was the same as that measured directly by transformation of irradiated plasmid DNA. Two models are presented that fit the experimental survival data as a function of dose. One is based on damage formation in the plasmid DNA including enzymatic conversion of single strand damage into dsb (U-model), the other is an enzymatic repair saturation model based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. (Author)

  18. Increased sensitivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 null cells to alkylating agents reveals a novel link between TGFbeta signaling and O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Vijayachandra, K; Penner, C; Glick, A

    2001-06-01

    Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-signaling pathway and gene silencing through hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands are two frequent alterations in human and experimental cancers. Here we report that nonneoplastic TGFbeta1-/- keratinocyte cell lines exhibit increased sensitivity to cell killing by alkylating agents, and this is due to lack of expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In TGFbeta1-/- but not TGFbeta1+/- cell lines, the CpG dinucleotides in the MGMT promoter are hypermethylated, as measured by restriction enzyme analysis and methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. In one unstable TGFbeta1+/- cell line, loss of the wild type TGFbeta1 allele correlates with the appearance of methylation in the MGMT promoter. Bisulfite sequencing shows that in the KO3 TGFbeta1-/- cell line nearly all of the 28 CpG sites in the MGMT promoter 475 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription are methylated, whereas most are unmethylated in the H1 TGFbeta1+/- line. Treatment of the TGFbeta1-/- cell lines with 5-azacytidine causes reexpression of MGMT mRNA and demethylation of CpG islands in the promoter. Analysis of the time course of methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction shows a lack of methylation in primary TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes and increasing methylation with passage number of immortalized clones. Subcloning of early passage clones reveals a remarkable heterogeneity and instability of the methylation state in the TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes. Thus, the TGFbeta1-/- genotype does not directly regulate MGMT methylation but predisposes cells to immortalization-associated MGMT hypermethylation.

  19. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  20. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2016-05-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  1. Wave Transformation over a Fringing Coral Reef and the Importance of Low-Frequency Waves and Offshore Water Levels to Runup and Island Overtopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, O. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    Low-lying, reef-fringed islands are susceptible to sea-level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, wave gauges and a current meter were deployed for 5 months across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur, an atoll island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had maximum wave heights greater than 6 m and peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly-skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, exceeded 3.7 m at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3-hr time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along atoll and fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash. These observations lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of both extreme shoreline runup and island overwash, threatening the sustainability of these islands.

  2. 210Pb and 137Cs as chronometers for salt marsh accretion in the Venice Lagoon - links to flooding frequency and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, L.G.; Frignani, M.; Cochran, J.K.; Albertazzi, S.; Zaggia, L.; Cecconi, G.; Hopkins, H.

    2007-01-01

    Five salt marsh sediment cores from different parts of the Venice Lagoon were studied to determine their depositional history and its relationship with the environmental changes occurred during the past ∼100 years. X-radiographs of the cores show no disturbance related to particle mixing. Accretion rates were calculated using a constant flux model applied to excess 210 Pb distributions in the cores. The record of 137 Cs fluxes to the sites, determined from 137 Cs profiles and the 210 Pb chronologies, shows inputs from the global fallout of 137 Cs in the late 1950s to early 1960s and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Average accretion rates in the cores are comparable to the long-term average rate of mean sea level rise in the Venice Lagoon (∼0.25 cm y -1 ) except for a core collected in a marsh presumably affected by inputs from the Dese River. Short-term variations in accretion rate are correlated with the cumulative frequency of flooding, as determined by records of Acqua Alta, in four of the five cores, suggesting that variations in the phenomena causing flooding (such as wind patterns, storm frequency and NAO) are short-term driving forces for variations in marsh accretion rate

  3. 210Pb and 137Cs as chronometers for salt marsh accretion in the Venice Lagoon - links to flooding frequency and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, L G; Frignani, M; Cochran, J K; Albertazzi, S; Zaggia, L; Cecconi, G; Hopkins, H

    2007-01-01

    Five salt marsh sediment cores from different parts of the Venice Lagoon were studied to determine their depositional history and its relationship with the environmental changes occurred during the past approximately 100 years. X-radiographs of the cores show no disturbance related to particle mixing. Accretion rates were calculated using a constant flux model applied to excess (210)Pb distributions in the cores. The record of (137)Cs fluxes to the sites, determined from (137)Cs profiles and the (210)Pb chronologies, shows inputs from the global fallout of (137)Cs in the late 1950s to early 1960s and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Average accretion rates in the cores are comparable to the long-term average rate of mean sea level rise in the Venice Lagoon ( approximately 0.25 cm y(-1)) except for a core collected in a marsh presumably affected by inputs from the Dese River. Short-term variations in accretion rate are correlated with the cumulative frequency of flooding, as determined by records of Acqua Alta, in four of the five cores, suggesting that variations in the phenomena causing flooding (such as wind patterns, storm frequency and NAO) are short-term driving forces for variations in marsh accretion rate.

  4. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs as chronometers for salt marsh accretion in the Venice Lagoon - links to flooding frequency and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, L.G. [Istituto di Scienze Marine - Sede di Bologna - Geologia Marina, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bellucci@ismar.cnr.it; Frignani, M. [Istituto di Scienze Marine - Sede di Bologna - Geologia Marina, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cochran, J.K. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000, NY (United States); Albertazzi, S. [Istituto di Scienze Marine - Sede di Bologna - Geologia Marina, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zaggia, L. [Istituto di Scienze Marine, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - S. Polo 1364, 30125 Venezia (Italy); Cecconi, G. [Consorzio Venezia Nuova - S. Croce 505, 30135 Venezia (Italy); Hopkins, H. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000, NY (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Five salt marsh sediment cores from different parts of the Venice Lagoon were studied to determine their depositional history and its relationship with the environmental changes occurred during the past {approx}100 years. X-radiographs of the cores show no disturbance related to particle mixing. Accretion rates were calculated using a constant flux model applied to excess {sup 210}Pb distributions in the cores. The record of {sup 137}Cs fluxes to the sites, determined from {sup 137}Cs profiles and the {sup 210}Pb chronologies, shows inputs from the global fallout of {sup 137}Cs in the late 1950s to early 1960s and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Average accretion rates in the cores are comparable to the long-term average rate of mean sea level rise in the Venice Lagoon ({approx}0.25 cm y{sup -1}) except for a core collected in a marsh presumably affected by inputs from the Dese River. Short-term variations in accretion rate are correlated with the cumulative frequency of flooding, as determined by records of Acqua Alta, in four of the five cores, suggesting that variations in the phenomena causing flooding (such as wind patterns, storm frequency and NAO) are short-term driving forces for variations in marsh accretion rate.

  5. A Combined Antenna Arrays and Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System over Frequency-Selective Fading Channels with Power Control Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Seok Kim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved antenna array (AA has been introduced, in which reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT is incorporated to effectively make better an estimation of covariance matrices at a beamformer-RAKE receiver. While RLSTT is effective in the first finger at the RAKE receiver in order to reject multiple-access interference (MAI, the beamformer estimates the desired user's complex weights, enhancing its signal and reducing cochannel interference (CCI from the other directions. In this work, it is attempted to provide a comprehensive analysis of user capacity which reflects several important factors such as the shape of multipath intensity profile (MIP, the number of antennas, and power control error (PCE. Theoretical analysis, confirmed by the simulations, demonstrates that the orthogonality provided by employing RLSTT along with AA may make the DS-CDMA system insensitive to the PCE even with fewer numbers of antennas.

  6. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  7. Comparison of different spatial transformations applied to EEG data: A case study of error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of different spatial transformations applied to the same scalp-recorded EEG data. The spatial transformations applied are two referencing schemes (average and linked earlobes), the surface Laplacian, and beamforming (a distributed source localization procedure). EEG data were collected during a speeded reaction time task that provided a comparison of activity between error vs. correct responses. Analyses focused on time-frequency power, frequency band-specific inter-electrode connectivity, and within-subject cross-trial correlations between EEG activity and reaction time. Time-frequency power analyses showed similar patterns of midfrontal delta-theta power for errors compared to correct responses across all spatial transformations. Beamforming additionally revealed error-related anterior and lateral prefrontal beta-band activity. Within-subject brain-behavior correlations showed similar patterns of results across the spatial transformations, with the correlations being the weakest after beamforming. The most striking difference among the spatial transformations was seen in connectivity analyses: linked earlobe reference produced weak inter-site connectivity that was attributable to volume conduction (zero phase lag), while the average reference and Laplacian produced more interpretable connectivity results. Beamforming did not reveal any significant condition modulations of connectivity. Overall, these analyses show that some findings are robust to spatial transformations, while other findings, particularly those involving cross-trial analyses or connectivity, are more sensitive and may depend on the use of appropriate spatial transformations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Redox-Responsive Pathways Linked to Cancer Drug Resistance: Insights from Co-Exposure-Based In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical devices currently used in clinical practice and common household equipments generate extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as “possible carcinogenic.” Assuming that ELF-MF plays a role in the carcinogenic process without inducing direct genomic alterations, ELF-MF may be involved in the promotion or progression of cancers. In particular, ELF-MF-induced responses are suspected to activate redox-responsive intracellular signaling or detoxification scavenging systems. In fact, improved protection against oxidative stress and redox-active xenobiotics is thought to provide critical proliferative and survival advantage in tumors. On this basis, an ever-growing research activity worldwide is attempting to establish whether tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance through the activation of essential cytoprotective networks in the presence of ELF fields, and how this might trigger relevant changes in tumor phenotype. This review builds a framework around how the activity of redox-responsive mediators may be controlled by co-exposure to ELF-MF and reactive oxygen species-generating agents in tumor and cancer cells, in order to clarify whether and how such potential molecular targets could help to minimize or neutralize the functional interaction between ELF-MF and malignancies.

  9. a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte I; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cada día cobra más importancia en el tema de los transformadores de potencia, la necesidad del diagnósticode los mismos y la detección de averías o anomalías que pudieran surgir durante su explotación. Existenmétodos para el diagnóstico de estos equipos, a través del llamado: Análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia(FRA; en Cuba, aún no se ha introducido ninguna técnica de esta naturaleza, pero se comienzan ainvestigar sus potencialidades y posibilidades de introducción. Inicialmente se ha realizado un estudio delas fuentes que abordan este tema. En este artículo, se presenta la primera parte de un análisis que se harealizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de surespuesta  en  el  dominio  de  la  frecuencia,  específicamente  sobre  los  métodos  de  diagnóstico  detransformadores mediante el análisis de su respuesta en frecuencia, empleando la transformada rápida defourier (FFT.  Every day it gets paid more importance in the topic of the power transformers, the necessity of the diagnosisand the failures or anomalies detection than they could arise during their exploitation.  Methods exist for thediagnosis of these equipments, through the called frequency response analysis (FRA; in Cuba, techniquesof this nature has not still been introduced, but begins to investigate its potentialities and introductionpossibilities. As beginning of this investigation process, has been carried out a study of the sources thatapproach this topic. In this article, is presented the first part of an analysis that has been carried out aboutthe state of the world art on techniques of diagnostic of transformers from its frequency domain response.This part is about those methods of diagnostic of transformers by means of the analysis of their frequencyresponse, using the fast fourier transformed (FFT.

  10. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  11. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  12. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and Fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of ∼ 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm -1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach

  13. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  14. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ATC 17 ULR IHQ OCLI CPCTR ULTRA HIGH "OQS" UP TO 4X HIGHER THAN BEST INDUS- TRY STANDARD (ATC 100). MICROWAVE POWER, CURRENT. AND 0 RATINGS5...Q"W were assigned to element (FigC-2); which will be modelled into the transformer previously ment td . The center frequencies, "Q", frequency range...of the TD 1288 system. Temperature stability, change with time or storage. Flexure Frequency, or non-linear change over bandwidth. * Humidity

  15. Fiber-wireless transmission system of 108  Gb/sdata over 80 km fiber and 2×2multiple-input multiple-output wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Dong, Ze; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Shao, Yufeng; Chang, G K

    2012-12-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a seamlessly integrated fiber-wireless system that delivers a 108  Gb/s signal through 80 km fiber and 1 m wireless transport over free space at 100 GHz adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation and heterodyning coherent detection. The X- and Y-polarization components of the optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously upconverted to 100 GHz wireless carrier by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which form a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link. At the wireless receiver, two-stage downconversion is performed firstly in the analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency signal, and then in the digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization demultiplexing is realized by the constant modulus algorithm in the DSP part at the receiver. The bit-error ratio for the 108  Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal is less than the pre-forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) after both 1 m wireless delivery at 100 GHz and 80 km single-mode fiber-28 transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration to realize 100  Gb/s signal delivery through both fiber and wireless links at 100 GHz.

  16. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  17. Education as Habitus Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Unlike a conventional reading of Bourdieu, this article focuses on his work with regard to the transformation of social structure. In the context of a rereading, from an educational theory perspective, the article proposes an approach that allows for the linking of empirically informed social theory, on the one hand, and biography research…

  18. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  19. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  20. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  1. A new fractional wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a potent tool to analyze the time-varying signal. However, it fails in locating the fractional Fourier domain (FRFD)-frequency contents which is required in some applications. A novel fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is proposed to solve this problem. It displays the time and FRFD-frequency information jointly in the time-FRFD-frequency plane. The definition, basic properties, inverse transform and reproducing kernel of the proposed FRWT are considered. It has been shown that an FRWT with proper order corresponds to the classical wavelet transform (WT). The multiresolution analysis (MRA) associated with the developed FRWT, together with the construction of the orthogonal fractional wavelets are also presented. Three applications are discussed: the analysis of signal with time-varying frequency content, the FRFD spectrum estimation of signals that involving noise, and the construction of fractional Harr wavelet. Simulations verify the validity of the proposed FRWT.

  2. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  3. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  4. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  5. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  6. Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kaushik

    A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common

  7. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A; Nefedov, Igor S; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

  8. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  9. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  10. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  11. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  12. Técnicas de diagnóstico en transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia. Estado mundial del arte. Parte II; Techniques of Diagnostic in Transformers from their Answer in Frequency Domain. World State of the Art. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Hernández Areu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los métodos para el diagnóstico de transformadores de potencia se encuentran los métodos de detecciónde averías a través del llamado análisis de la respuesta en la frecuencia (FRA. En un artículo anterior, sepresentó la primera parte del estudio que se ha realizado del estado mundial del arte sobre las técnicas dediagnóstico de transformadores a partir de su respuesta en el dominio de la frecuencia y empleando latransformada rápida de Fourier (FFT. Esta segunda parte, trata específicamente, sobre los métodos dediagnóstico de transformadores mediante el análisis de la respuesta a un barrido de frecuencia (SFRA, sin lautilización de  la transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT.  In the methods for the diagnosis of power transformers there are the failure detection methods called frequencyresponse analysis (FRA. In a previous article, the first part of a study that has been carried out about theworld art state on the techniques of diagnostic in transformers from its response in the frequency domain andusing the fast Fourier transformed (FFT, was presented.This second part, tries specifically about the methodsof diagnostic of transformers by means of the sweeping frequency response analysis (SFRA, without usingthe fast Fourier tansformed (FFT.

  13. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  14. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  15. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  16. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  17. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  18. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  19. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  20. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  1. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  2. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  3. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  4. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  5. Embedded Solenoid Transformer for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A resonant power converter for operation in the radio frequency range, preferably in the VHF, comprises at least one PCB-embedded transformer. The transformer is configured for radio frequency operation and comprises a printed circuit board defining a horizontal plane, the printed circuit board...... comprising at least two horizontal conductive layers separated by an isolating layer, a first embedded solenoid forming a primary winding of the transformer and a second embedded solenoid being arranged parallel to the first solenoid and forming a secondary winding of the transformer, wherein the first...

  6. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  7. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  8. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  9. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  10. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  11. Quantifying and resolving multiple vector transformants in S. cerevisiae plasmid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas C; Gray, Elizabeth C; Griswold, Karl E

    2009-11-20

    In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used eukaryotic platform for cell surface display, combinatorial protein engineering, and other recombinant library screens. In order to characterize the extent and nature of multiple vector transformants in this important host, plasmid-born gene libraries constructed by yeast homologous recombination were analyzed by DNA sequencing. It was found that up to 90% of clones in yeast homologous recombination libraries may be multiple vector transformants, that on average these clones bear four or more unique mutant genes, and that these multiple vector cells persist as a significant proportion of library populations for greater than 24 hours during liquid outgrowth. Both vector concentration and vector to insert ratio influenced the library proportion of multiple vector transformants, but their population frequency was independent of transformation efficiency. Interestingly, the average number of plasmids born by multiple vector transformants did not vary with their library population proportion. These results highlight the potential for multiple vector transformants to dominate yeast libraries constructed by homologous recombination. The previously unrecognized prevalence and persistence of multiply

  12. Quantifying and resolving multiple vector transformants in S. cerevisiae plasmid libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Elizabeth C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used eukaryotic platform for cell surface display, combinatorial protein engineering, and other recombinant library screens. In order to characterize the extent and nature of multiple vector transformants in this important host, plasmid-born gene libraries constructed by yeast homologous recombination were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Results It was found that up to 90% of clones in yeast homologous recombination libraries may be multiple vector transformants, that on average these clones bear four or more unique mutant genes, and that these multiple vector cells persist as a significant proportion of library populations for greater than 24 hours during liquid outgrowth. Both vector concentration and vector to insert ratio influenced the library proportion of multiple vector transformants, but their population frequency was independent of transformation efficiency. Interestingly, the average number of plasmids born by multiple vector transformants did not vary with their library population proportion. Conclusion These results highlight the potential for multiple vector transformants to dominate yeast libraries constructed by homologous recombination. The

  13. Transformational leadership, adaptability, and job crafting : the moderating role of organizational identification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Demerouti, E.; Le Blanc, P.M.

    In this study, we aim to explore the link between transformational leadership and job crafting. We predict that transformational leadership will stimulate employee job crafting (seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands) by increasing their adaptability; but that transformational

  14. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  15. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  16. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei; Fomel, Sergey; Demanet, Laurent; Ying, Lexing

    2013-01-01

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm

  18. Efficient Plastid Transformation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiguo; Lutz, Kerry Ann; Maliga, Pal

    2017-09-01

    Plastid transformation is routine in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) but 100-fold less frequent in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), preventing its use in plastid biology. A recent study revealed that null mutations in ACC2 , encoding a plastid-targeted acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, cause hypersensitivity to spectinomycin. We hypothesized that plastid transformation efficiency should increase in the acc2 background, because when ACC2 is absent, fatty acid biosynthesis becomes dependent on translation of the plastid-encoded ACC β-carboxylase subunit. We bombarded ACC2 -defective Arabidopsis leaves with a vector carrying a selectable spectinomycin resistance ( aadA ) gene and gfp , encoding the green fluorescence protein GFP. Spectinomycin-resistant clones were identified as green cell clusters on a spectinomycin medium. Plastid transformation was confirmed by GFP accumulation from the second open reading frame of a polycistronic messenger RNA, which would not be translated in the cytoplasm. We obtained one to two plastid transformation events per bombarded sample in spectinomycin-hypersensitive Slavice and Columbia acc2 knockout backgrounds, an approximately 100-fold enhanced plastid transformation frequency. Slavice and Columbia are accessions in which plant regeneration is uncharacterized or difficult to obtain. A practical system for Arabidopsis plastid transformation will be obtained by creating an ACC2 null background in a regenerable Arabidopsis accession. The recognition that the duplicated ACCase in Arabidopsis is an impediment to plastid transformation provides a rational template to implement plastid transformation in related recalcitrant crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  20. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  1. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  2. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  3. One-parameter Darboux transformations in thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Haret C.

    2002-01-01

    The quantum oscillator thermodynamic actions are the conjugate intensive parameters for the frequency in any frequency changing process. These oscillator actions fulfill simple Riccati equations. Interesting Darboux transformations of the fundamental Planck and pure vacuum actions are discussed here in some detail. It is shown that the one-parameter 'Darboux-Transformed-Thermodynamics' refers to superpositions of boson and fermion excitations of positive and negative absolute temperature, respectively. A Darboux generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also briefly sketched

  4. Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the Wigner distribution and the squared modulus of the fractional Fourier transform - which are both well-known time-frequency representations of a signal - is established. In particular the Radon-Wigner transform is used, which relates projections of the Wigner distribution

  5. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  6. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  7. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  8. Fast Link Adaptation for MIMO-OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Kant, Shashi; Wehinger, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    We investigate link-quality metrics (LQMs) based on raw bit-error-rate, effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, and mutual information (MI) for the purpose of fast link adaptation (LA) in communication systems employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and multiple-input–mult......We investigate link-quality metrics (LQMs) based on raw bit-error-rate, effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, and mutual information (MI) for the purpose of fast link adaptation (LA) in communication systems employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and multiple...

  9. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  10. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  11. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  12. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems

  13. Optimal Operation of Distribution Electronic Power Transformer Using Linear Quadratic Regulator Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Rezaei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformers perform many functions such as voltage transformation, isolation and noise decoupling. They are indispensable components in electric power distribution system. However, at low frequencies (50 Hz, they are one of the heaviest and the most expensive equipment in an electrical distribution system. Nowadays, electronic power transformers are used instead of conventional power transformers that do voltage transformation and power delivery in power system by power electronic converter. In this paper, the structure of distribution electronic power transformer (DEPT are analized and then paid attention on the design of a linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR with integral action to improve dynamic performance of DEPT with voltage unbalance, voltage sags, voltage harmonics and voltage flicker. The presentation control strategy is simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK. In addition, the results that are in terms of dc-link reference voltage, input and output voltages clearly show that a better dynamic performance can be achieved by using the LQR method when compared to other techniques.

  14. Query transformations and their role in Web searching by the members of the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Whittle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports preliminary research in a primarily experimental study of how the general public search for information on the Web. The focus is on the query transformation patterns that characterise searching. Method. In this work, we have used transaction logs from the Excite search engine to develop methods for analysing query transformations that should aid the analysis of our ongoing experimental work. Our methods involve the use of similarity techniques to link queries with the most similar previous query in a train. The resulting query transformations are represented as a list of codes representing a whole search. Analysis. It is shown how query transformation sequences can be represented as graphical networks and some basic statistical results are shown. A correlation analysis is performed to examine the co-occurrence of Boolean and quotation mark changes with the syntactic changes. Results. A frequency analysis of the occurrence of query transformation codes is presented. The connectivity of graphs obtained from the query transformation is investigated and found to follow an exponential scaling law. The correlation analysis reveals a number of patterns that provide some interesting insights into Web searching by the general public. Conclusion. We have developed analytical methods based on query similarity that can be applied to our current experimental work with volunteer subjects. The results of these will form part of a database with the aim of developing an improved understanding of how the public search the Web.

  15. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  16. ECG denoising with adaptive bionic wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new ECG denoising scheme is proposed using a novel adaptive wavelet transform, named bionic wavelet transform (BWT), which had been first developed based on a model of the active auditory system. There has been some outstanding features with the BWT such as nonlinearity, high sensitivity and frequency selectivity, concentrated energy distribution and its ability to reconstruct signal via inverse transform but the most distinguishing characteristic of BWT is that its resolution in the time-frequency domain can be adaptively adjusted not only by the signal frequency but also by the signal instantaneous amplitude and its first-order differential. Besides by optimizing the BWT parameters parallel to modifying a new threshold value, one can handle ECG denoising with results comparing to those of wavelet transform (WT). Preliminary tests of BWT application to ECG denoising were constructed on the signals of MIT-BIH database which showed high performance of noise reduction.

  17. Discrimination Between Inrush and Short Circuit Currents in Differential Protection of Power Transformer Based on Correlation Method Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasoulpoor; M. Banejad; A. Ahmadyfard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for transformer differential protection to prevent incorrect operation due to inrush current. The proposed method in this paper is based on time-frequency transform known as the Wavelet transform. The discrete Wavelet transform is used for analysis the differential current signals in time and frequency domains. The investigation on the energy distribution of the signal on the discrete Wavelet transform components shows the difference distribution between ...

  18. Automatic traveltime picking using local time-frequency maps

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey B.

    2011-01-01

    The arrival times of distinct and sufficiently concentrated signals can be computed using Fourier transforms. In real seis- mograms, however, signals are far from distinct. We use local time-frequency maps of the seismograms and its frequency

  19. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  20. Visualising the Process of Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the process of transformation that is part of the ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) system, using the correspondence between Austrian sociologist Otto Neurath /his wife Marie Neurath and Town Clerk A. V. Williams of the town of Bilston in the UK....... The letters were written around 1946 and are part of the preparations for creating an exhibition—containing 12 charts—on a possible housing development project in Bilston, a poor neighbourhood in Staffordshire, England. According to the ISOTYPE system, the transformer, the link between expert and artist (M....... Neurath, 1960: 113-115), works across disciplines on organizing, analysing and configuring data into visual form (Kinross, 2009:6). It is my intention to use the correspondence from this transformation process to build on earlier identification and visualisation of the essential principles...

  1. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  2. Power Quality Problems Due to Transformer Inrush Current

    OpenAIRE

    Tokić, A.; Uglešić, I.

    2017-01-01

    Transformer energization can produce a large nonsinuoidal inrush current which contains both odd and higher order harmonic components that can put transformer winding under mechanical stress. Additionally, they can cause irregular tripping of harmonic protection relays. Furthermore, in relatively weak power systems, such as is the Bosnian system, the superposition of harmonic components with system resonance frequencies may produce temporary overvoltages (TOV). Transformer wind...

  3. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  4. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  5. Rapid testing of pulse transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Quality-control testing of pulse transformers is speeded up by method for determining rise time and droop. Instead of using oscilloscope and square-wave generator to measure these characteristics directly, method uses voltmeter and sine-wave generator to measure them indirectly in about one-tenth time. Droop and rise time are determined by measuring input/output voltage ratio at just four frequencies.

  6. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  7. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  8. Applications of Fourier transforms to generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2011-01-01

    This book explains how Fourier transforms can be applied to generalized functions. The generalized function is one of the important branches of mathematics and is applicable in many practical fields. Its applications to the theory of distribution and signal processing are especially important. The Fourier transform is a mathematical procedure that can be thought of as transforming a function from its time domain to the frequency domain.The book contains six chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 deals with preliminary remarks on Fourier series from a general point of view and also contains an introduction to the first generalized function. Chapter 2 is concerned with the generalized functions and their Fourier transforms. Chapter 3 contains the Fourier transforms of particular generalized functions. The author has stated and proved 18 formulas dealing with the Fourier transforms of generalized functions, and demonstrated some important problems of practical interest. Chapter 4 deals with the asymptotic esti...

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  10. High-frequency magnetic components

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (su

  11. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  12. Materializing the web of linked data

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the Linked Data domain by adopting a bottom-up approach: it introduces the fundamental Semantic Web technologies and building blocks, which are then combined into methodologies and end-to-end examples for publishing datasets as Linked Data, and use cases that harness scholarly information and sensor data. It presents how Linked Data is used for web-scale data integration, information management and search. Special emphasis is given to the publication of Linked Data from relational databases as well as from real-time sensor data streams. The authors also trace the transformation from the document-based World Wide Web into a Web of Data. Materializing the Web of Linked Data is addressed to researchers and professionals studying software technologies, tools and approaches that drive the Linked Data ecosystem, and the Web in general.

  13. Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions For Processing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, D.

    1995-01-01

    SUBTRANS software is package of routines implementing image-data-processing functions for use with MATLAB*(TM) software. Provides capability to transform image data with block transforms and to produce spatial-frequency subbands of transformed data. Functions cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. Also used in image-data-compression systems. For example, transforms used to prepare data for lossy compression. Written for use in MATLAB mathematical-analysis environment.

  14. Algorithm, applications and evaluation for protein comparison by Ramanujan Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Jiasong; Hua, Wei; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its chemical properties, chain conformation and biological functions. Protein sequence comparison is of great importance to identify similarities of protein structures and infer their functions. Many properties of a protein correspond to the low-frequency signals within the sequence. Low frequency modes in protein sequences are linked to the secondary structures, membrane protein types, and sub-cellular localizations of the proteins. In this paper, we present Ramanujan Fourier transform (RFT) with a fast algorithm to analyze the low-frequency signals of protein sequences. The RFT method is applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences with the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM). The results show that the proposed fast RFT method on protein comparison is more efficient than commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT). RFT can detect common frequencies as significant feature for specific protein families, and the RFT spectrum heat-map of protein sequences demonstrates the information conservation in the sequence comparison. The proposed method offers a new tool for pattern recognition, feature extraction and structural analysis on protein sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  16. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  17. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  18. Mitigation of voltage sag, swell and power factor correction using solid-state transformer b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel topology of solid-state transformer (SST. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC and AC/AC converters have been integrated to achieve higher efficiency. To obtain higher efficiency from other SST with DC-link topologies, the AC/DC and DC/AC converters have been integrated in one matrix converter. The proposed SST performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. In addition, it has other benefits such as light weight, low volume and elimination of hazardous liquid dielectrics because it uses medium frequency transformer. The operation and some performances of the proposed SST have been verified by the simulation results.

  19. Mitochondrial Metabolism - Neglected Link of CancerTransformation and Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Jandová, Anna; Nedbalová, M.; Jelínek, František; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej; Havelka, Daniel; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J.; Čoček, A.; Kobilková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2012), s. 81-94 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  20. Women's Empowerment and Education: Linking Knowledge to Transformative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…

  1. Applications of a fast, continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1997-02-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, based on Shannon`s sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon`s sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as a continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time- domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Computational cost and nonorthogonality aside, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets has advantages. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants` heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2-D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signal. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass-spring system (e.g., a vehicle) by an occupants beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, features such as the glottal closing rate and word and phrase segmentation may be extracted from voice data.

  2. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  3. Transformations of emotional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. A reversible transform for seismic data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William A; Ferguson, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We use the nonstationary equivalent of the Fourier shift theorem to derive a general one-dimensional integral transform for the application and removal of certain seismic data processing steps. This transform comes from the observation that many seismic data processing steps can be viewed as nonstationary shifts. The continuous form of the transform is exactly reversible, and the discrete form provides a general framework for unitary and pseudounitary imaging operators. Any processing step which can be viewed as a nonstationary shift in any domain is a special case of this transform. Nonstationary shifts generally produce coordinate distortions between input and output domains, and those that preserve amplitudes do not conserve the energy of the input signal. The nonstationary frequency distortions, time distortions and nonphysical energy changes inherent to such operations are predicted and quantified by this transform. Processing steps of this type are conventionally implemented using interpolation operators to map discrete data values between input and output coordinate frames. Although not explicitly derived to perform interpolation, the transform here assumes the Fourier basis to predict values of the input signal between sampling locations. We demonstrate how interpolants commonly used in seismic data processing and imaging approximate the proposed method. We find that our transform is equivalent to the conventional sinc interpolant with no truncation. Once the transform is developed, we demonstrate its numerical implementation by matrix–vector multiplication. As an example, we use our transform to apply and remove normal moveout

  5. Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated

  6. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  7. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  8. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  9. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    imaging an event horizon (Invited) / S. Doeleman. Optically-pumped space cesium clock for Galileo: results of the breadboard / R. Ruffieux ... [et al.] -- pt. IV. Optical clocks I: lattice clocks. Optical lattice clock: seven years of progress and next steps (Invited) / H. Katori, M. Takamoto and T. Akatsuka. The Yb optical lattice clock (Invited) / N. D. Demke ... [et al.]. Optical Lattice clock with Sr atoms (Invited) / P. G. Westergaard ... [et al.]. Development of an optical clock based on neutral strontium atoms held in a lattice trap / E. A. Curtis ... [et al.]. Decoherence and losses by collisions in a [symbol]Sr lattice clock / J. S. R. Vellore Winfred ... [et al.]. Lattice Yb optical clock and cryogenic Cs fountain at INRIM / F. Levi ... [et al.] -- pt. V. Optical clocks II: ion clocks. [Symbol]Yb+ single-ion optical frequency standards (Invited) / Chr. Tamm ... [et al.]. An optical clock based on a single trapped [symbol]Sr+ ion (Invited) / H. S. Margolis ... [et al.]. A trapped [symbol]Yb+ ion optical frequency standard based on the [symbol] transition (Invited) / P. Gill ... [et al.]. Overview of highly accurate RF and optical frequency standards at the National Research Council of Canada (Invited) / A. A. Madej ... [et al.] -- pt. VI. Optical frequency combs. Extreme ultraviolet frequency combs for spectroscopy (Invited) / A. Ozawa ... [et al.]. Development of an optical clockwork for the single trapped strontium ion standard at 445 THz / J. E. Bernard ... [et al.]. A phase-coherent link between the visible and infrared spectral ranges using a combination of CW OPO and femtosecond laser frequency comb / E. V. Kovalchuk and A. Peters. Improvements to the robustness of a TI: sapphire-based femtosecond comb at NPL / V. Tsatourian ... [et al.] -- pt. VII. Atomic microwave standards. NIST FI and F2 (Invited) / T. P. Heavner ... [et al.]. Atomic fountains for the USNO master clock (Invited) / C. Ekstrom ... [et al.]. The transportable cesium fountain clock NIM5

  10. Multi-Functional Fibre-Optic Microwave Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1998-01-01

    The multi-functionality of microwave links based on remote heterodyne detection of signals from a dual-frequency laser transmitter is discussed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. Typically, direct detection in conjunction with optical intensity modulation is used to implement fibre......-optic microwave links. The resulting links are inherently transparent and mainly used for signal transmission. As opposed to direct detection links, remote heterodyne detection links can directly perform functionalities such as modulation, frequency conversion, and transparent signal recovery in addition...

  11. Multi-Scale Scattering Transform in Music Similarity Measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruobai

    Scattering transform is a Mel-frequency spectrum based, time-deformation stable method, which can be used in evaluating music similarity. Compared with Dynamic time warping, it has better performance in detecting similar audio signals under local time-frequency deformation. Multi-scale scattering means to combine scattering transforms of different window lengths. This paper argues that, multi-scale scattering transform is a good alternative of dynamic time warping in music similarity measuring. We tested the performance of multi-scale scattering transform against other popular methods, with data designed to represent different conditions.

  12. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  13. Semigroups of transformations with fixed sets | Honyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Click on the link to view the abstract. Keywords: Transformation semigroup, Green's relations, ideal, rank. Quaestiones Mathematicae 36(2013), 79-92. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073606.2013.779958 · AJOL African ...

  14. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  15. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  16. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  17. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  18. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  19. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  20. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  1. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  2. High Accuracy Evaluation of the Finite Fourier Transform Using Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    Many system identification and signal processing procedures can be done advantageously in the frequency domain. A required preliminary step for this approach is the transformation of sampled time domain data into the frequency domain. The analytical tool used for this transformation is the finite Fourier transform. Inaccuracy in the transformation can degrade system identification and signal processing results. This work presents a method for evaluating the finite Fourier transform using cubic interpolation of sampled time domain data for high accuracy, and the chirp Zeta-transform for arbitrary frequency resolution. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated in example cases where the transformation can be evaluated analytically. Arbitrary frequency resolution is shown to be important for capturing details of the data in the frequency domain. The technique is demonstrated using flight test data from a longitudinal maneuver of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  3. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  4. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  5. Time multiplexed beam-forming with space-frequency transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, W.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a unique approach to smart receiver system design. It starts with the analysis of a very basic, single-path receiver structure, then using similar methods, extends the analysis to a more complicated multi-path receiver. Within the multi-path structure, two different types of

  6. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajon, E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, R.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies

  7. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  8. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  9. Transforming the Force and Logistics Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Army transformation strategy addresses the imperative to change the Army from a Cold War-oriented design to one that is more responsive, agile, and adaptable to present and emerging threats across...

  10. Treatment of electrochemical noise data by the Hilbert-Huang transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the classical approaches for treating electro-chemical noise (ECN) data suffer from the non-linear and non steady-state character of the delivered signal. Very often, the link between time and the local corrosion events supposedly responsible for ECN data signatures is lost during treatment, as is obvious when using the classical Fourier Transform (FT), followed by an analysis of the response in the frequency domain. In this particular case, the information directly related to the corrosion events is distributed into the full spectra, thereby preventing the operator to derive clear and precise conclusions. In 2005, we suggested an alternative data treatment based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). The latter keeps track of the time variable and copes with non-linear and non steady-state behaviours of the system under examination. In 2006, we demonstrated the applicability of the newly proposed data treatment in the case of ECN data collected under BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) conditions. In 2007, we collected additional ECN data and started a preliminary investigation of two mathematical restrictions that are susceptible to impair the interpretation of the results. We discovered a possible modification of the Hilbert transform allowing generating controlled phase shifts that are different from pi/2 as is always the case for the Hilbert transform

  11. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Guang-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  12. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n n with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method

  13. Automated reconstruction of pre-transformation microstructures in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, K.V. Mani; Tripathi, P.; Hiwarkar, V.D.; Pant, P.; Samajdar, I.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    An automated reconstruction of the pre-transformation microstructure from the microtexture data of the post-transformation product phase is proposed. The method involves identifying triplets of neighboring product grains with a common variant and linking such neighboring triplets via a generalized misorientation criterion. The approach is non-iterative and extremely efficient computationally. The method was tested successfully for different post-transformation microstructures in zirconium.

  14. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible.

  15. Learning by Example: Designing and Developing Linked Data Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    According to constructivist theory of learning, new knowledge is learned on the basis of what is already known by learners. Thus for an emerging and transformative technology such as Linked Data to be learned, the technology must be made relevant for learners and must be compatible with their skillset. Designing and developing Linked Data…

  16. Transformation of the Zagreb urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ilić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the regionćssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregionćs form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

  17. Recent trends in the condition monitoring of transformers theory, implementation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji; Chatterjee, Biswendu

    2013-01-01

    Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers reflects the current interest in replacing traditional techniques used in power transformer condition monitoring with non-invasive measures such as polarization/depolarization current measurement, recovery voltage measurement, frequency domain spectroscopy and frequency response analysis. The book stresses the importance of scrutinizing the condition of transformer insulation which may fail under present day conditions of intensive use with the resulting degradation of dielectric properties causing functional failure of the transformer.

  18. The PROSAIC Laplace and Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting

  19. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  20. The frequency-independent control method for distributed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi, Siamak; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Gao, Wenzhong David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG are contr......In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG...

  1. Frequency encoding in renal blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    With a model of renal blood flow regulation, we examined consequences of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) coupling to the myogenic mechanism via voltage-gated Ca channels. The model reproduces the characteristic oscillations of the two mechanisms and predicts frequency and amplitude modulation...... of the myogenic oscillation by TGF. Analysis by wavelet transforms of single-nephron blood flow confirms that both amplitude and frequency of the myogenic oscillation are modulated by TGF. We developed a double-wavelet transform technique to estimate modulation frequency. Median value of the ratio of modulation...... TGF cycle to the next. We used a blood pressure signal recorded by telemetry from a conscious rat as the input to the model. Blood pressure fluctuations induced variability in the modulation records similar to those found in the nephron blood flow results. Frequency and amplitude modulation can...

  2. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...... matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer....

  3. A general theory on frequency and time-frequency analysis of irregularly sampled time series based on projection methods - Part 2: Extension to time-frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Guillaume; Crucifix, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Geophysical time series are sometimes sampled irregularly along the time axis. The situation is particularly frequent in palaeoclimatology. Yet, there is so far no general framework for handling the continuous wavelet transform when the time sampling is irregular. Here we provide such a framework. To this end, we define the scalogram as the continuous-wavelet-transform equivalent of the extended Lomb-Scargle periodogram defined in Part 1 of this study (Lenoir and Crucifix, 2018). The signal being analysed is modelled as the sum of a locally periodic component in the time-frequency plane, a polynomial trend, and a background noise. The mother wavelet adopted here is the Morlet wavelet classically used in geophysical applications. The background noise model is a stationary Gaussian continuous autoregressive-moving-average (CARMA) process, which is more general than the traditional Gaussian white and red noise processes. The scalogram is smoothed by averaging over neighbouring times in order to reduce its variance. The Shannon-Nyquist exclusion zone is however defined as the area corrupted by local aliasing issues. The local amplitude in the time-frequency plane is then estimated with least-squares methods. We also derive an approximate formula linking the squared amplitude and the scalogram. Based on this property, we define a new analysis tool: the weighted smoothed scalogram, which we recommend for most analyses. The estimated signal amplitude also gives access to band and ridge filtering. Finally, we design a test of significance for the weighted smoothed scalogram against the stationary Gaussian CARMA background noise, and provide algorithms for computing confidence levels, either analytically or with Monte Carlo Markov chain methods. All the analysis tools presented in this article are available to the reader in the Python package WAVEPAL.

  4. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally

  5. Mapping the x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.

  6. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  7. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  8. Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, R.

    1981-01-01

    This review starts with the basic principles of resonance phenomena in physical systems. Especially, the connection is shown between the properties of these systems and Fourier transforms. Next, we discuss the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. Starting from the general properties of physical systems showing resonance phenomena and from the special properties of nuclear spin systems, the main part of this paper reviews pulse and Fourier methods in nuclear magnetic resonance. Among pulse methods, an introduction will be given to spin echoes, and, apart from the principle of Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, an introduction to the technical problems of this method, e.g. resolution in the frequency domain, aliasing, phase and intensity errors, stationary state of the spin systems for repetitive measurements, proton decoupling, and application of Fourier methods to systems in a nonequilibrium state. The last section is devoted to special applications of Fourier methods and recent developments, e.g. measurement of relaxation times, solvent peak suppression, 'rapid scan'-method, methods for suppressing the effects of dipolar coupling in solids, two-dimensional Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, and spin mapping or zeugmatography. (author)

  9. Properties of the Simpson discrete fourier transform | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Simpson discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) and its inverse are transformations relating the time and frequency domains. In this paper we state and prove the important properties of shift, circular convolution, conjugation, time reversal and Plancherel's theorem. In addition, we provide an alternative representation of the ...

  10. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto......- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum. © 2013 Optical Society of America....

  11. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  12. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to

  13. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  14. Selection of the wavelet function for the frequencies estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, A.

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the signals are used to diagnose the state of the systems, by means of the extraction of their more important characteristics such as the frequencies, tendencies, changes and temporary evolutions. This characteristics are detected by means of diverse analysis techniques, as Autoregressive methods, Fourier Transformation, Fourier transformation in short time, Wavelet transformation, among others. The present work uses the one Wavelet transformation because it allows to analyze stationary, quasi-stationary and transitory signals in the time-frequency plane. It also describes a methodology to select the scales and the Wavelet function to be applied the one Wavelet transformation with the objective of detecting to the dominant system frequencies. (Author)

  15. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  16. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  17. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  18. A relation connecting scale transformation, Galilean transformation and Baecklund transformation for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steudel, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the two-parameter manifold of Baecklund transformations known for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be generated from one Baecklund transformation with specified parameters by use of scale transformation and Galilean transformation. (orig.)

  19. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected

  20. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  1. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  2. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Face recognition using slow feature analysis and contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehao; Peng, Lingling; Zhe, Fuchuan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel face recognition approach based on slow feature analysis (SFA) in contourlet transform domain. This method firstly use contourlet transform to decompose the face image into low frequency and high frequency part, and then takes technological advantages of slow feature analysis for facial feature extraction. We named the new method combining the slow feature analysis and contourlet transform as CT-SFA. The experimental results on international standard face database demonstrate that the new face recognition method is effective and competitive.

  4. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  5. Occurrence of transformation products in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Battaglin, William A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, most environmental occurrence research has focused on the parent compounds of organic contaminants. Research, however, has documented that the environmental transport of chemicals, such as pesticides and emerging contaminants, are substantially underestimated if transformation products are not considered. Although most examples described herein were drawn from research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, such results are generally reflective of those found in other parts of the world. Results from a study of 51 streams in the Midwestern United States found that transformation products were seven of the ten most frequently detected pesticide compounds in late spring runoff (after application of pre-emergent herbicides), and nine of the ten most frequently detected compounds in fall season runoff (during and after harvest). In fact, 70% of the total herbicide concentration in water from the Mississippi River Basin was from transformation products. Results from a study of 86 municipal wells in Iowa found the frequency of detection increased from 17%, when pesticide parent compounds were considered, to 53%, when both parents and transformation products were considered. Transformation products were 12 of the 15 most frequently detected compounds for this groundwater study. Although studies on transformation products of synthetic organic compounds other than pesticides are not as common, wastewater treatment plant discharges have repeatedly been shown to contribute such transformation products to streams. In addition, select detergent transformation products have been commonly found in solid waste in the 1000's mg/kg. These findings and many others document that transformation products must be considered to fully assess the potential environmental occurrence of chemical contaminants and their transport and fate in various compartments of the hydrologic system. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Transforming care in nursing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Calatayud, Mónica; Oroviogoicoechea, Cristina; Saracibar, Maribel; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    2017-04-01

    Although the concept of 'Transforming care' is promising for improving health care, there is no consensus in the field as to its definition. The aim of this concept analysis is to develop a deeper understanding of the term 'Transforming care' within the nursing discipline, in order to facilitate its comprehension, implementation, and evaluation. We performed a comprehensive literature review on electronic databases such as Medline (PubMed), Cinahl (Ebsco), Cochrane Library, PsycINFO (Ovid), Web of Science, Wiley-Blackwell, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink and used Walker and Avant's approach to analyse the concept. From the 20 studies selected for this analysis, 3 main attributes of 'Transforming care' were identified: patient-centredness, evidence-based change, and transformational leadership driven. We suggest an operational definition to facilitate the implementation of the concept in practice. Furthermore, we propose that implementation is guided by the following key ideas: (1) fostering a culture of continuous improvement; (2) encouraging bottom-up initiatives; (3) promoting patient-centred care; and (4) using transformational leadership. Lastly, the evaluation of 'Transforming care' initiatives should assess care processes and professionals' and patients' outcomes.

  7. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  8. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  9. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  10. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  11. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  12. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  13. Flames of Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr; Bille, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the transformative power of fire, its fundamental ability to change material worlds and affect our experience of its materiality. The paper examines material transformations related to death as a means of illustrating the powerful property of fire as a materially destructive yet...

  14. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  15. Integral transformational coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested

  16. Analog Fiber Optic Link with DC-100 MHz Bandwidth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, C. A; Girardi, P. G; Lohrmann, Dieter R

    2008-01-01

    An analog fiber optic link covering the frequency range from DC to 100 MHz was designed, constructed, and tested, in order to connect a 10 kA pulse current probe to oscilloscopes for oscillographing...

  17. Simulation and parallel connection of step-down piezoelectric transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thang, Vo Viet; Kim, In Sung; Jeong, Soon Jong; Kim, Min Soo; Song, Jae Sung

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric transformers have been used widely in electronic circuits due to advantages such as high efficiency, miniaturization and no flammability; however the output power has been limited. For overcoming this drawback, some research has recently been focused on connections between piezoelectric transformers. Based on these operations, the output power has been improved compared to the single operation. Parallel operation of step-down piezoelectric transformers is presented in this paper. An important factor affecting the parallel operation of piezoelectric transformer was the resonance frequency, and a small difference in resonance frequencies was obtained with transformers having the same dimensions and fabricating processes. The piezoelectric transformers were found to operate in first radial mode at a frequency of 68 kHz. An equivalent circuit was used to investigate parallel driving of piezoelectric transformers and then to compare the result with experimental observations. The electrical characteristics, including the output voltage, output power and efficient were measured at a matching resistive load. Effects of frequency on the step-down ratio and of the input voltage on the power properties in the simulation were similar to the experimental results. The output power of the parallel operation was 35 W at a load of 50 Ω and an input voltage of 100 V; the temperature rise was 30 .deg. C and the efficiency was 88%.

  18. Lectures on integral transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, N I

    1988-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures given over the course of several years at Kharkov University for students in the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, is devoted to classical integral transforms, principally the Fourier transform, and their applications. The author develops the general theory of the Fourier transform for the space L^1(E_n) of integrable functions of n variables. His proof of the inversion theorem is based on the general Bochner theorem on integral transforms, a theorem having other applications within the subject area of the book. The author also covers Fourier-Plancherel theory in L^2(E_n). In addition to the general theory of integral transforms, connections are established with other areas of mathematical analysis--such as the theory of harmonic and analytic functions, the theory of orthogonal polynomials, and the moment problem--as well as to mathematical physics.

  19. The transformativity approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel; Lauta, Kristian Cedervall

    2017-01-01

    During the last five to ten years, a considerable body of research has begun to explore how disasters, real and imagined, trigger social transformations. Even if the contributions to this this research stems from a multitude of academic disciplines, we argue in the article, they constitute...... an identifiable and promising approach for future disaster research. We suggest naming it the transformativity approach. Whereas the vulnerability approach explores the social causation of disasters, the transformativity approach reverses the direction of the gaze and investigates the social transformation...... brought about by disasters. Put simply, the concept of vulnerability is about the upstream causes of disaster and the concept of transformativity about the downstream effects. By discussing three recent contributions (by the historian Greg Bankoff, the legal sociologist Michelle Dauber...

  20. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  1. Elasticity analysis by MR elastography using the instantaneous frequency method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Suga, Mikio; Minato, Kotaro; Okamoto, Jun; Takizawa, Osamu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Komori, Masaru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method for estimating the elasticity of human organs using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) images. The method is based on the instantaneous frequency method, which is very sensitive to noise. Therefore, the proposed method also incorporates a noise-reduction function. In the instantaneous frequency method, Fourier transform is applied to the measurement signal. Then, inverse Fourier transform is performed after the negative frequency component is set to zero. In the proposed method, noise is reduced by processing in which the positive higher frequency component is also set to zero before inverse Fourier transform is performed. First, we conducted a simulation study and confirmed the applicability of this method and the noise reduction function. Next, we carried out a phantom experiment and demonstrated that elasticity images could be generated, with the gray level corresponding to the local frequency in MRE images. (author)

  2. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  3. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  4. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  5. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  6. Real-time and high accuracy frequency measurements for intermediate frequency narrowband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing; Lin, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Real-time and accurate measurements of intermediate frequency signals based on microprocessors are difficult due to the computational complexity and limited time constraints. In this paper, a fast and precise methodology based on the sigma-delta modulator is designed and implemented by first generating the twiddle factors using the designed recursive scheme. This scheme requires zero times of multiplications and only half amounts of addition operations by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the combination of the Rife algorithm and Fourier coefficient interpolation as compared with conventional methods such as DFT and Fast Fourier Transform. Experimentally, when the sampling frequency is 10 MHz, the real-time frequency measurements with intermediate frequency and narrowband signals have a measurement mean squared error of ±2.4 Hz. Furthermore, a single measurement of the whole system only requires approximately 0.3 s to achieve fast iteration, high precision, and less calculation time.

  7. Gear Fault Detection Based on Teager-Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gear fault detection based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Teager Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO technique is presented. This novel method is named as Teager-Huang transform (THT. EMD can adaptively decompose the vibration signal into a series of zero mean Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs. TKEO can track the instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency of the Intrinsic Mode Functions at any instant. The experimental results provide effective evidence that Teager-Huang transform has better resolution than that of Hilbert-Huang transform. The Teager-Huang transform can effectively diagnose the fault of the gear, thus providing a viable processing tool for gearbox defect detection and diagnosis.

  8. Applications of ferro-nanofluid on a micro-transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lee, Da-Sheng; Yang, Chin-Ting

    2010-01-01

    An on-chip transformer with a ferrofluid magnetic core has been developed and tested. The transformer consists of solenoid-type coil and a magnetic core of ferrofluid, with the former fabricated by MEMS technology and the latter by a chemical co-precipitation method. The performance of the MEMS transformer with a ferrofluid magnetic core was measured and simulated with frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. Experimental results reveal that the presence of the ferrofluid increases the inductance of coils and the coupling coefficient of transformer; however, it also increases the resistance owing to the lag between the external magnetic field and the magnetization of the material.

  9. Development and verification of printed circuit board toroidal transformer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jens; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model of an air core printed circuit board embedded toroidal transformer configuration is presented. The transformer has been developed for galvanic isolation of very high frequency switch-mode dc-dc power converter applications. The theoretical model is developed and verified...... by comparing calculated parameters with 3D finite element simulations and experimental measurement results. The developed transformer model shows good agreement with the simulated and measured results. The model can be used to predict the parameters of printed circuit board toroidal transformer configurations...

  10. Overload Control in Smart Transformer-Fed Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Carne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a very limited overload capability, because the junction temperature—which must always be below its maximum limit—is characterized by a short time constant. In this work, an overload control for smart transformer by means of voltage and frequency variations has been proposed and verified by means of simulations and experiments.

  11. Mining Electronic Health Records using Linked Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, David J; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful Use guidelines have pushed the United States Healthcare System to adopt electronic health record systems (EHRs) at an unprecedented rate. Hospitals and medical centers are providing access to clinical data via clinical data warehouses such as i2b2, or Stanford's STRIDE database. In order to realize the potential of using these data for translational research, clinical data warehouses must be interoperable with standardized health terminologies, biomedical ontologies, and growing networks of Linked Open Data such as Bio2RDF. Applying the principles of Linked Data, we transformed a de-identified version of the STRIDE into a semantic clinical data warehouse containing visits, labs, diagnoses, prescriptions, and annotated clinical notes. We demonstrate the utility of this system though basic cohort selection, phenotypic profiling, and identification of disease genes. This work is significant in that it demonstrates the feasibility of using semantic web technologies to directly exploit existing biomedical ontologies and Linked Open Data.

  12. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  13. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    measurements based on OAE suppression techniques and notched-noise masking data psychophysically measured for centre frequencies in the range 50-125 Hz, this study examines how individual differences in frequency selectivity, as well as in masking, may occur at very low CFs due to individual differences...

  14. Signal transforms in dynamic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Layer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of measurement signals which requires specific mathematical operations like Convolution, Deconvolution, Laplace, Fourier, Hilbert, Wavelet or Z transform which are all presented in the present book. The different problems refer to the modulation of signals, filtration of disturbance as well as to the orthogonal signals and their use in digital form for the measurement of current, voltage, power and frequency are also widely discussed. All the topics covered in this book are presented in detail and illustrated by means of examples in MathCad and LabVIEW. This book provides a useful source for researchers, scientists and engineers who in their daily work are required to deal with problems of measurement and signal processing and can also be helpful to undergraduate students of electrical engineering.    

  15. Frame transforms, star products and quantum mechanics on phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniello, P; Marmo, G; Man'ko, V I

    2008-01-01

    Using the notions of frame transform and of square integrable projective representation of a locally compact group G, we introduce a class of isometries (tight frame transforms) from the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators in the carrier Hilbert space of the representation into the space of square integrable functions on the direct product group G x G. These transforms have remarkable properties. In particular, their ranges are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces endowed with a suitable 'star product' which mimics, at the level of functions, the original product of operators. A 'phase space formulation' of quantum mechanics relying on the frame transforms introduced in the present paper, and the link of these maps with both the Wigner transform and the wavelet transform are discussed

  16. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  17. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  18. On numerical Bessel transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)

  19. Energy Transformation of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).

  20. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  1. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  2. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a

  3. Efficient Algorithms for the Discrete Gabor Transform with a Long Fir Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2012-01-01

    The Discrete Gabor Transform (DGT) is the most commonly used signal transform for signal analysis and synthesis using a linear frequency scale. The development of the Linear Time-Frequency Analysis Toolbox (LTFAT) has been based on a detailed study of many variants of the relevant algorithms. As ...

  4. Properties of an improved Gabor wavelet transform and its applications to seismic signal processing and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhan-Huai; Yan, Sheng-Gang

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an analytical study of the complete transform of improved Gabor wavelets (IGWs), and discusses its application to the processing and interpretation of seismic signals. The complete Gabor wavelet transform has the following properties. First, unlike the conventional transform, the improved Gabor wavelet transform (IGWT) maps time domain signals to the time-frequency domain instead of the time-scale domain. Second, the IGW's dominant frequency is fixed, so the transform can perform signal frequency division, where the dominant frequency components of the extracted sub-band signal carry essentially the same information as the corresponding components of the original signal, and the subband signal bandwidth can be regulated effectively by the transform's resolution factor. Third, a time-frequency filter consisting of an IGWT and its inverse transform can accurately locate target areas in the time-frequency field and perform filtering in a given time-frequency range. The complete IGW transform's properties are investigated using simulation experiments and test cases, showing positive results for seismic signal processing and interpretation, such as enhancing seismic signal resolution, permitting signal frequency division, and allowing small faults to be identified.

  5. Analysis and design of a series resonant converter with wide operating range and minimized transformer ratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne; Chen, Yu-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    ) allows the transformer design to be determined by peak load and maximum switching frequency, while still avoiding over-excitation at reduced load and reduced excitation frequency. This promises transformer size reduction of more than 50%, while losses are kept below 1% from zero to nominal power. A step...

  6. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  7. Applicability and conception of the 1471 serial link module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidhase, F.

    1978-01-01

    The 1471 link module developed at the Technical University Dresden is described. The main features are fast data transfer, reliability concerning perturbing effects, seperation of transmitter and receiver self-acting synchronization, completely insulated link modules, high common-mode rejection, self-checking, variable bit repetition frequency, and small demands concerning the transmission cable. Applicabilities are given and a comparison with known link modules is made

  8. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhmeyer, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  9. Mathematical transforms and image compression: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K. Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that images, often used in a variety of computer and other scientific and engineering applications, are difficult to store and transmit due to their sizes. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to use an efficient digital image compression technique where an image is viewed as a matrix and then the operations are performed on the matrix. All the contemporary digital image compression systems use various mathematical transforms for compression. The compression performance is closely related to the performance by these mathematical transforms in terms of energy compaction and spatial frequency isolation by exploiting inter-pixel redundancies present in the image data. Through this paper, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out and the pros and cons of various transform-based image compression models have also been discussed.

  10. In vitro transformation: interactions of chemical carcinogens and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPaolo, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of reproducible quantitative in vitro procedures resulting in neoplastic transformation of mammalian cells has made possible the separation of events related to the process leading to transformation from secondary events that interfere with the early recognition of transformation. The use of chemical carcinogens on Syrian hamster cell strains results in a dose-response relation consistent with a Poisson distribution, indicating that the transformation phenomenon is inductive. In some circumstances, the joint action or interaction of chemical carcinogens with other agents results in an increased incidence of transformation. The pretreatment of Syrian hamster cells with ionizing radiation (250 R) or alkylating chemicals enhances the frequency of transformation on a cell or colony basis ordinarily obtained with known chemical carcinogens. Pretreatment with non-ionizing irradiation (uv, 254 nm) did not have a similar effect. The two types of irradiation and the alkylating agents reduced the cloning efficiency of the cells. X ray alone produced no transformation; the alkylating chemicals produced transformations infrequently, whereas uv produced a significant number of transformations. The number of transformations associated with uv is increased by pretreatment of the cells by x-irradiation. The enhancement of transformation by x-ray or x-ray-type agents appears to be independent of the type of second carcinogen used

  11. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  12. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  13. Investigation, development and verification of printed circuit board embedded air-core solenoid transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf

    2015-01-01

    A new printed circuit board embedded air-core transformer/coupled inductor is proposed and presented. The transformer is intended for use in power converter applications operating at very high frequency between 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The transformer is based on two or more solenoid structures...

  14. Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (A f ), following the proportionality f ∼ m 1/2 /A f , while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f 0  ∼ m w /A f , m w is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports-–that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy. (paper)

  15. Transformations in destination texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2018-01-01

    This article takes heterogeographical approaches to understand Bollywood-induced destination transformations in Switzerland. Positioned within the theoretical field of mediatized mobility, the study contextualizes Bollywood-induced tourism in Europe the concept of texture. Textural analysis (base...

  16. Matrices and transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    1978-01-01

    Elementary, concrete approach: fundamentals of matrix algebra, linear transformation of the plane, application of properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to study of conics. Includes proofs of most theorems. Answers to odd-numbered exercises.

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  18. Transformation on Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project on the increasing quantity of abandoned houses in the depopulating rural villages, and it reports on how an attempt is made to establish a counter-practice of radical preservation based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings. The aim...... of the transformations is to reveal and preserve material and immaterial values such as aspects of cultural heritage, local narratives, and building density. The responses of local people are used as a feedback mechanism and considered an important impact indicator. Eleven transformations of varying strategies have...... houses. Transformation prototypes are tested as present manifestations in rural villages as an alternative way to preserve buildings as well as memories....

  19. A DC Transformer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project was to demonstrate a true direct current (DC) transformer, a new electro-mechanical component with potentially high power applications; in...

  20. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Military Engineering, Pune 411 031, India. 2Department of ... Liouville equation is a particular application of the commutation method. Darboux ... transformation of a differential operator L, then there exists a differential operator A of.

  1. Retrofilling of Railroad Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The objective of this program was to assess the effectiveness of retrofilling an askarel transformer supplied by the United States Department of Transportation with a 50 centistokes silicone fluid. The work tasks included an assessment of the electri...

  2. Urbanization causes shifts in species' trait state frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Kühn, I.; Wittig, R.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poschlod, P.; Klotz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most extreme forms of land transformation. It is supposed to change the frequencies of species trait states in species assemblages.We hypothesize that the flora of urban and rural areas differs in the frequency of trait states and ask which traits enable a plant to cope

  3. Resonance cones below the ion cyclotron frequency: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P.

    1976-03-01

    The resonance cones existing below the ion cyclotron frequency, ω/sub c/sub i//, are shown, theoretically and experimentally, to be the asymptotes of hyperbolic constant-phase surfaces of low-frequency ion acoustic waves. Above ω/sub c/sub i// the surfaces transform into ellipses that are related to the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and ion acoustic waves

  4. A high-switching-frequency flyback converter in resonant mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianting; van Horck, Frank B.M.; Daniel, Bobby J.; Bergveld, Henk Jan

    2017-01-01

    The demand of miniaturization of power systems has accelerated the research on high-switching-frequency power converters. A flyback converter in resonant mode that features low switching losses, less transformer losses, and low switching noise at high switching frequency is investigated in this

  5. Application of the transfer function to recognition of resonance overvoltages in transformer windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, Marek; Furgał, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    Power transformer insulation systems are subjected to many stresses during normal operation due to lightning and switching. If the spectrum of incoming surge voltage matches the winding one, a corresponding resonance will be excited. Therefore external transients occurring in power systems might trigger internal overvoltages of a large maximum value in transformer windings. Overvoltages having such a character have been the main cause of many power transformer failures. This paper presents a novel approach to the identification of sensitive zones in the transformer windings based on measurements of overvoltages inside the windings and the frequency dependences of admittance of the power transformer. The frequency characteristics of the transformer winding may determine those regions in the frequency spectrum. The presented methodology might be used both for design optimization and diagnostics of power transformers

  6. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    The management of occupational dose exposure has been transformed in recent years though the use of facilities such as computerised databases, remote instrumentation and electronic data transfer. Use of this technology has allowed increases both in the amount of data capable of being processed and in the speed at which the data is made available to operators and Health Physics personnel. The dose management system being used in support of the UK's naval nuclear plants has incorporated advances in the areas of dosimetry, data handling and data analysis. Physical dispersion of sites servicing the nuclear plants means that effective communication links have also been vital for good dose management. This paper focuses on some of the most recent dose management technology - the use of virtual reality models linked with a predictive computer code for work planning, a remote area monitoring system with diagnostic software, a personnel dosimetry telemetry system, and electronically linked computer databases. (author)

  7. Distributional Watson transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, A.; Snoo, H.S.V. de

    1974-01-01

    For all Watson transforms W in L2(R+) a triple of Hilbert space LG ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L'G is constructed such that W may be extended to L'G. These results allow the construction of a triple L ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L', where L is a Gelfand-Fréchet space. This leads to a theory of distributional Watson transforms.

  8. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  9. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  10. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  13. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  14. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  15. Evaluation of optical ZP-OFDM transmission performance in multimode fiber links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Pau; Almenar, Vicenç; Corral, Juan L

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, the performance of Zero Padding Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (ZP-OFDM) on intensity modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) multimode fiber (MMF) links is assessed by means of numerical simulations. The performance of ZP-OFDM is compared to classical Cyclic Prefixed form of OFDM (CP-OFDM) which is known to offer a limited performance in terms of symbol recovery in subcarriers suffering severe fading. Simulations results show that ZP-OFDM is able to reach 29 Gbps in 99.5% of all installed MMF links up to 600 meters compared to 14 Gbps for CP-OFDM when a 64 points fast Fourier transform (FFT) size is used. The use of ZP-OFDM makes it possible to increase the link length up to 1200 and 2400 m with a 25 Gbps data rate if the FFT sizes are increased to 128 and 256 points, respectively; whereas the CP-OFDM scheme will offer a maximum data rate of 10 Gbps in both cases. ZP-OFDM can be an alternative to adaptive loading OFDM schemes without the need of a negotiation between transmitter and receiver, reducing the system deployment complexity and increasing the flexibility in scenarios with multiple receivers.

  16. How transformational leadership works during team interactions: A behavioral process analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Meinecke, A.L.; Rowold, J.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Transformational leadership is generally considered helpful for team functioning. However, the social dynamics underlying the benefits of transformational leadership remain elusive to date. To understand how and why transformational leadership can foster team functioning, this study focuses on leader-follower communication dynamics during team interactions. From the perspective of leadership as social problem solving, we argue that transformational leadership is linked to functional team prob...

  17. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.O.; Aziz, M.J.; Stephenson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  18. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  19. Wavelet transforms as solutions of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, G.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Wavelet transforms are useful in representing transients whose time and frequency structure reflect the dynamics of an underlying physical system. Speech sound, pressure in turbulent fluid flow, or engine sound in automobiles are excellent candidates for wavelet analysis. This project focused on (1) methods for choosing the parent wavelet for a continuous wavelet transform in pattern recognition applications and (2) the more efficient computation of continuous wavelet transforms by understanding the relationship between discrete wavelet transforms and discretized continuous wavelet transforms. The most interesting result of this research is the finding that the generalized wave equation, on which the continuous wavelet transform is based, can be used to understand phenomena that relate to the process of hearing.

  20. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  1. Acceleration transforms and statistical kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LuValle, M.J.; Welsher, T.L.; Svoboda, K.

    1988-01-01

    For a restricted class of problems a mathematical model of microscopic degradation processes, statistical kinetics, is developed and linked through acceleration transforms to the information which can be obtained from a system in which the only observable sign of degradation is sudden and catastrophic failure. The acceleration transforms were developed in accelerated life testing applications as a tool for extrapolating from the observable results of an accelerated life test to the dynamics of the underlying degradation processes. A particular concern of a physicist attempting to interpreted the results of an analysis based on acceleration transforms is determining the physical species involved in the degradation process. These species may be (a) relatively abundant or (b) relatively rare. The main results of this paper are a theorem showing that for an important subclass of statistical kinetic models, acceleration transforms cannot be used to distinguish between cases a and b, and an example showing that in some cases falling outside the restrictions of the theorem, cases a and b can be distinguished by their acceleration transforms

  2. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  3. The Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  4. Fault diagnosis of power transformer based on fault-tree analysis (FTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Jianwei; Li, SuoYu

    2017-05-01

    Power transformers is an important equipment in power plants and substations, power distribution transmission link is made an important hub of power systems. Its performance directly affects the quality and health of the power system reliability and stability. This paper summarizes the five parts according to the fault type power transformers, then from the time dimension divided into three stages of power transformer fault, use DGA routine analysis and infrared diagnostics criterion set power transformer running state, finally, according to the needs of power transformer fault diagnosis, by the general to the section by stepwise refinement of dendritic tree constructed power transformer fault

  5. Joint Time-Frequency And Wavelet Analysis - An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkowski Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A traditional frequency analysis is not appropriate for observation of properties of non-stationary signals. This stems from the fact that the time resolution is not defined in the Fourier spectrum. Thus, there is a need for methods implementing joint time-frequency analysis (t/f algorithms. Practical aspects of some representative methods of time-frequency analysis, including Short Time Fourier Transform, Gabor Transform, Wigner-Ville Transform and Cone-Shaped Transform are described in this paper. Unfortunately, there is no correlation between the width of the time-frequency window and its frequency content in the t/f analysis. This property is not valid in the case of a wavelet transform. A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation, which forms its own “wavelet window”. Compression of the wavelet narrows the window, and vice versa. Individual wavelet functions are well localized in time and simultaneously in scale (the equivalent of frequency. The wavelet analysis owes its effectiveness to the pyramid algorithm described by Mallat, which enables fast decomposition of a signal into wavelet components.

  6. Roadmap on transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin; Pendry, John B.; Galdi, Vincenzo; Lai, Yun; Horsley, S. A. R.; Li, Jensen; Zhu, Jian; Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C.; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar; Tassin, Philippe; Ginis, Vincent; Martini, Enrica; Minatti, Gabriele; Maci, Stefano; Ebrahimpouri, Mahsa; Hao, Yang; Kinsler, Paul; Gratus, Jonathan; Lukens, Joseph M.; Weiner, Andrew M.; Leonhardt, Ulf; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Thompson, Robert T.; Wegener, Martin; Kadic, Muamer; Cummer, Steven A.

    2018-06-01

    Transformation optics asks, using Maxwell’s equations, what kind of electromagnetic medium recreates some smooth deformation of space? The guiding principle is Einstein’s principle of covariance: that any physical theory must take the same form in any coordinate system. This requirement fixes very precisely the required electromagnetic medium. The impact of this insight cannot be overestimated. Many practitioners were used to thinking that only a few analytic solutions to Maxwell’s equations existed, such as the monochromatic plane wave in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. At a stroke, transformation optics increases that landscape from ‘few’ to ‘infinity’, and to each of the infinitude of analytic solutions dreamt up by the researcher, there corresponds an electromagnetic medium capable of reproducing that solution precisely. The most striking example is the electromagnetic cloak, thought to be an unreachable dream of science fiction writers, but realised in the laboratory a few months after the papers proposing the possibility were published. But the practical challenges are considerable, requiring meta-media that are at once electrically and magnetically inhomogeneous and anisotropic. How far have we come since the first demonstrations over a decade ago? And what does the future hold? If the wizardry of perfect macroscopic optical invisibility still eludes us in practice, then what compromises still enable us to create interesting, useful, devices? While three-dimensional (3D) cloaking remains a significant technical challenge, much progress has been made in two dimensions. Carpet cloaking, wherein an object is hidden under a surface that appears optically flat, relaxes the constraints of extreme electromagnetic parameters. Surface wave cloaking guides sub-wavelength surface waves, making uneven surfaces appear flat. Two dimensions is also the setting in which conformal and complex coordinate transformations are realisable, and the possibilities in

  7. Frequency and Polarization Diversity Jamming of Communications in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulama, Tuncay

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how to exploit frequency and polarization techniques in reducing the effects of jamming against UAV relay communication links in an urban warfare environment...

  8. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  9. Two frequency ICRF operation on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.H.; Majeski, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Phillips, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Modifications have been made recently to allow two of the ICRF antennas (bays L and M) on TFTR to operate at either of two frequencies, 43 MHz or 64 MHz. This was accomplished by lengthening the resonant loops (2Λ at 43 MHz, 3Λ at 64 MHz) and replacing the conventional quarter wave impedance transformers with a tapered impedance design. The other two antennas (bays K and N) will operate at a fixed frequency, 43 MHz. The two frequency operation will allow a combination of 3 He-minority and H-minority heating at near full field on TFTR. The higher frequency, 64 MHz, may also be useful in direct electron heating and current drive experiments at lower toroidal fields. Models of the antenna, resonant loops and impedance matching system are presented

  10. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  11. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Biolistic transformation of Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kota; Muralikrishna, Narra; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Raghu, Ellendula; Mahender, Aileni; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Yashodahara, Velivela; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time, the optimized conditions for microprojectile bombardment-mediated genetic transformation in Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis L.), a Plantaginaceae medicinal plant species. Transformation was achieved by bombardment of axenic leaf segments with Binary vector pBI121 harbouring β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as a reporter and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a selectable marker. The influence of physical parameters viz., acceleration pressure, flight distance, gap width & macroprojectile travel distance of particle gun on frequency of transient GUS and stable (survival of putative transformants) expressions have been investigated. Biolistic delivery of the pBI121 yielded the best (80.0 %) transient expression of GUS gene bombarded at a flight distance of 6 cm and rupture disc pressure/acceleration pressure of 650 psi. Highest stable expression of 52.0 % was noticed in putative transformants on RMBI-K medium. Integration of GUS and npt II genes in the nuclear genome was confirmed through primer specific PCR. DNA blot analysis showed more than one transgene copy in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for metabolic engineering and production of biopharmaceuticals by transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant.

  13. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  14. Army Space and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Command – Space and Global Strike JFCOM Joint Forces Command JFRL Joint Forces Restricted Frequency List JIC Joint Integrating Concept JIM Joint...into the theater’s Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL). The ARSST trained the coalition and US soldiers on installation, use and troubleshooting

  15. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the two integrated magnetic components on the same core do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs. (au)

  16. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  17. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, Sylvain; Guenin, Gerard; Chevalier, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    We investigate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the surface relief resulting from martensitic tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation induced by low temperature autoclave aging in ceria-stabilized zirconia. AFM appears as a very powerful tool to investigate martensite relief quantitatively and with a great precision. The crystallographic phenomenological theory is used to predict the expected relief induced by the transformation, for the particular case of lattice correspondence ABC1, where tetragonal c axis becomes the monoclinic c axis. A model for variants spatial arrangement for this lattice correspondence is proposed and validated by the experimental observations. An excellent agreement is found between the quantitative calculations outputs and the experimental measurements at nanometer scale yielded by AFM. All the observed features are explained fully quantitatively by the calculations, with discrepancies between calculations and quantitative experimental measurements within the measurements and calculations precision range. In particular, the crystallographic orientation of the transformed grains is determined from the local characteristics of transformation induced relief. It is finally demonstrated that the strain energy is the controlling factor of the surface transformation induced by low temperature autoclave treatments in this material

  18. Dispersive Wave Analysis Using the Chirplet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, Florian; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Kuttig, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-frequency representations (TFR) are a widely used tool to analyze signals of guided waves such as Lamb waves. As a consequence of the uncertainty principle, however, the resolution in time and frequency is limited for all existing TFR methods. Due to the multi-modal and dispersive character of Lamb waves, displacement or energy related quantities can only be allocated to individual modes when they are well-separated in the time-frequency plane.The chirplet transform (CT) has been introduced as a generalization of both the wavelet and Short-time Fourier transform (STFT). It offers additional degrees of freedom to adjust time-frequency atoms which can be exploited in a model-based approach to match the group delay of individual modes. Thus, more exact allocation of quantities of interest is possible.The objective of this research is to use a previously developed adaptive algorithm based on the CT for nondestructive evaluation. Both numerically and experimentally generated data for a single aluminum plate is analyzed to determine the accuracy and robustness of the new method in comparison the classical STFT

  19. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  20. DDC Descriptor Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbiel, Paul H.; Jacobs, Charles R.

    This report summarizes the frequency of use of the 7144 descriptors used for indexing technical reports in the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) collection. The descriptors are arranged alphabetically in the first section and by frequency in the second section. The frequency data cover about 427,000 AD documents spanning the interval from March…