WorldWideScience

Sample records for frequency response simulation

  1. A Hardware Transverse Beam Frequency Response Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, Jia

    2005-01-01

    We build an electronical instrument to get the frequency response close to the pattern of transverse beam frequency response. The method is to apply 1)a time delay circuit with ADC, FIFO RAM and DAC; 2)a phase shift circuit which is an all pass filter with adjustable phase shift in the frequency range of 25kHz to 30kHz; in a feedback loop of 3)a commutating filter which is a high Q band pass filter. We can dynamically adjust the center frequency, the side band distance during the testing. With this instrument, some beam instruments can be tested without using the real beam.

  2. A Precision and High-Speed Behavioral Simulation Method for Transient Response and Frequency Characteristics of Switching Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Toru; Sugimoto, Shoko; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    We propose a fast and precise transient response and frequency characteristics simulation method for switching converters. This method uses a behavioral simulation tool without using a SPICE-like analog simulator. The nonlinear operation of the circuit is considered, and the nonlinear function is realized by defining the nonlinear formula based on the circuit operation and by applying feedback. To assess the accuracy and simulation time of the proposed simulation method, we designed current-mode buck and boost converters and fabricated them using a 0.18-µm high-voltage CMOS process. The comparison in the transient response and frequency characteristics among SPICE, the proposed program on a behavioral simulation tool which we named NSTVR (New Simulation Tool for Voltage Regulators) and experiments of fabricated IC chips showed good agreement, while NSTVR was more than 22 times faster in transient response and 85 times faster in frequency characteristics than SPICE in CPU time in a boost converter simulation.

  3. Simulating the Radio-Frequency Dielectric Response of Relaxor Ferroelectrics: Combination of Coarse-Grained Hamiltonians and Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneste, Grégory; Bellaiche, L; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-17

    The radio-frequency dielectric response of the lead-free Ba(Zr_{0.5}Ti_{0.5})O_{3} relaxor ferroelectric is simulated using a coarse-grained Hamiltonian. This concept, taken from real-space renormalization group theories, allows us to depict the collective behavior of correlated local modes gathered in blocks. Free-energy barriers for their thermally activated collective hopping are deduced from this ab initio-based approach, and used as input data for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting numerical scheme allows us to simulate the dielectric response for external field frequencies ranging from kHz up to a few tens of MHz for the first time and to demonstrate, e.g., that local (electric or elastic) random fields lead to the dielectric relaxation in the radio-frequency range that has been observed in relaxors.

  4. Simulating the Radio-Frequency Dielectric Response of Relaxor Ferroelectrics: Combination of Coarse-Grained Hamiltonians and Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneste, Grégory; Bellaiche, L.; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    The radio-frequency dielectric response of the lead-free Ba (Zr0.5Ti0.5)O3 relaxor ferroelectric is simulated using a coarse-grained Hamiltonian. This concept, taken from real-space renormalization group theories, allows us to depict the collective behavior of correlated local modes gathered in blocks. Free-energy barriers for their thermally activated collective hopping are deduced from this ab initio-based approach, and used as input data for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting numerical scheme allows us to simulate the dielectric response for external field frequencies ranging from kHz up to a few tens of MHz for the first time and to demonstrate, e.g., that local (electric or elastic) random fields lead to the dielectric relaxation in the radio-frequency range that has been observed in relaxors.

  5. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  6. Modal parameters of a rotating multiple-disk-shaft system from simulated frequency response data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Modal parameters of a rotating multiple disk-shaft system are estimated in Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO scheme. The response at multiple output degrees of freedom (dofs and excitations at multiple input (reference dofs are related through the Frequency Response Function (FRF matrix. The corresponding Impulse Response Function (IRF matrix is obtained by Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT of the FRF matrix. The resulting FRF matrix is not symmetric due to the gyroscopic effects introduced by rotation. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA and its equivalent low order time domain algorithm, based on the Unified Matrix Polynomial Approach (UMPA are employed to estimate the desired modal parameters, i.e., system eigenvalues and the associated right hand and left hand eigenvectors. The right hand vectors are estimated from multiple columns of the FRF matrix with the structure rotating in one direction, and the left hand vectors are estimated from the multiple rows of the FRF matrix, which are calculated as the transpose of the same multiple columns of the FRF matrix, estimated with rotation in the opposite direction. The obtained results are found to be in excellent agreement with results obtained from Theoretical Modal Analysis (TMA.

  7. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  8. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kosterev, Dmitry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  9. Proposing New Methods to Enhance the Low-Resolution Simulated GPR Responses in the Frequency and Wavelet Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, a number of numerical methods, including the popular Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD technique, have been proposed to simulate Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR responses. Despite having a number of advantages, the finite-difference method also has pitfalls such as being very time consuming in simulating the most common case of media with high dielectric permittivity, causing the forward modelling process to be very long lasting, even with modern high-speed computers. In the present study the well-known hyperbolic pattern response of horizontal cylinders, usually found in GPR B-Scan images, is used as a basic model to examine the possibility of reducing the forward modelling execution time. In general, the simulated GPR traces of common reflected objects are time shifted, as with the Normal Moveout (NMO traces encountered in seismic reflection responses. This suggests the application of Fourier transform to the GPR traces, employing the time-shifting property of the transformation to interpolate the traces between the adjusted traces in the frequency domain (FD. Therefore, in the present study two post-processing algorithms have been adopted to increase the speed of forward modelling while maintaining the required precision. The first approach is based on linear interpolation in the Fourier domain, resulting in increasing lateral trace-to-trace interval of appropriate sampling frequency of the signal, preventing any aliasing. In the second approach, a super-resolution algorithm based on 2D-wavelet transform is developed to increase both vertical and horizontal resolution of the GPR B-Scan images through preserving scale and shape of hidden hyperbola features. Through comparing outputs from both methods with the corresponding actual high-resolution forward response, it is shown that both approaches can perform satisfactorily, although the wavelet-based approach outperforms the frequency-domain approach noticeably, both in amplitude and

  10. Behavioral Response of Dolphins to Signals Simulating Mid-Frequency Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    trial were analyzed with an assymetrical dose function; overall scores were utilized for one analysis, and another was conducted in which only the...response severity scores difficult and all fits produced large error estimates. However, an assymetric function was fit to the data utilizing only task...distribution of data well. Assymetric dose response functions for several trials are presented in Figure 1. The r2 for dose response function fits ranged

  11. An oversampling technique for the multiscale finite volume method to simulate electromagnetic responses in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Luz Angelica Caudillo; Schwarzbach, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the computational cost of the simulation of electromagnetic responses in geophysical settings that involve highly heterogeneous media, we develop a multiscale finite volume method with oversampling for the quasi-static Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain. We assume a coarse mesh nested within a fine mesh that accurately discretizes the problem. For each coarse cell, we independently solve a local version of the original Maxwell's system subject to linear boundary conditions on an extended domain, which includes the coarse cell and a neighborhood of fine cells around it. The local Maxwell's system is solved using the fine mesh contained in the extended domain and the mimetic finite volume method. Next, these local solutions (basis functions) together with a weak-continuity condition are used to construct a coarse-mesh version of the global problem. The basis functions can be used to obtain the fine-mesh details from the solution of the coarse-mesh problem. Our approach leads to a sig...

  12. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Zhao, Changhong; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine

    2017-03-03

    Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.

  13. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guggilam, Swaroop [University of Minnesota; Chen, Yu Christine [University of British Columbia; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota

    2017-07-03

    Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.

  14. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators

  15. A model framework for actuation and sensing of ionic polymer-metal composites: prospective on frequency and shear response through simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is a promising material for soft-robotic actuator and sensor applications. This material system offers large deformation response for low input voltage and has an aptitude for operation in hydrated environments. Researchers have been developing IPMC actuators and sensors for applications with examples of self-sensing actuators, artificial fish fins and biomimicry of other aquatic lifeforms, and in medical operations such as in guided catheter devices. IPMCs have been developed in a range of geometric configurations, with tube or cylindrical and flat-plate rectangular as the most common shapes. Several mathematical and physics-based models have been developed for describing the transduction effects of IPMCs. In this work, the underlying theories of electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction in IPMCs are discussed, and simulated results of frequency response and shear response are presented. A model backbone is utilized which is primarily based on ion-transport and charge dynamics within the polymer membrane. The electromechanical model, that is with an IPMC as an actuator, is caused when an electric field is applied across the membrane causing ionic migration and swelling in the polymer membrane, which is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations and solid mechanics models. The mechanoelectric model is similar in underlying physics; however, the primary mechanisms of transduction are of different significance, where anion concentrations are as important as cations. COMSOL Multiphysics is utilized for simulations. Example applications of the modeling framework are presented. The simulated results provide additional support for the underlying physics theories discussed.

  16. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  17. Open-loop frequency response for a chaotic masking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xian-Gao; Yu Pei; Huang Wei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new numerical simulation approach is proposed for the study of open-loop frequency response of a chaotic masking system. Using Chua's circuit and the Lorenz system as illustrative examples, we have shown that one can employ chaos synchronization to separate the feedback network from a chaotic masking system, and then use numerical simulation to obtain the open-loop synchronization response, the phase response, and the amplitude response of a chaotic masking system. Based on the analysis of the frequency response, we have also proved that changing the amplitude of the exciting (input) signal within normal working domain does not influence the frequency response of the chaotic masking system. The new numerical simulation method developed in this paper can be extended to consider the open-loop frequency response of other systems described by differential or difference equations.

  18. Frequency Responses Of Hot-Wire Anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes theoretical study of frequency response of constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer, with view toward increasing frequency response while maintaining stable operation in supersonic flow. Effects of various circuit parameters discussed.

  19. Pediatric residents experience a significant decline in their response capabilities to simulated life-threatening events as their training frequency in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin M; Miller, Michael P; Schmidt, Kathleen; Sagy, Mayer

    2011-05-01

    To determine the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education using high-fidelity patient simulators during pediatric residency training. Randomized controlled trial. Suburban tertiary care children's hospital residency training program. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents were randomized into two study groups, 12 residents in each. Both groups completed a formal resuscitation training course utilizing lectures, skill stations, and six scenarios on high-fidelity patient stimulators. Group A was retested on three scenarios 4 months after training and group B was similarly retested 8 months after training. Time intervals from induction of a clinical problem to its definitive management were recorded for each resident. Residents were also asked to complete surveys following each episode of training and testing. The mean time intervals, for group A, to start effective bag mask ventilation and chest compressions in response to apnea and cardiac arrest were 17.75 secs (± 3.39 secs) and 23.42 secs (± 9.33 secs), respectively. These were significantly shorter than 32.7 secs (± 18.6 secs) and 81.2 secs (± 74.9 secs), for group B, respectively (p training, when compared to 4 months after training. These results may indicate that residents require more frequent training than currently recommended.

  20. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in a mechanically ventilated infant lung simulator: effects of variations in the frequency response of the flow measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; MacLeod, I M; Rothberg, A D

    1994-01-01

    The frequency responses of systems used to measure flow and pressure in ventilated infants may differ, and hence affect estimates of resistance and compliance. We estimated resistance and compliance in 16 ventilated mechanical lung models using linear regression while varying the frequency response of the flow measurement system. Lung models comprised combinations of four sections of tubing and four bottles filled with steel wool. The cut-off frequencies of a filter in the flow measurement system were chosen to yield time delays of 0, +/-3, +/-6, and +/-9 ms relative to the pressure signal. When the phase lags in the measurement systems were not equal at 10 Hz, a bias in resistance approximately (relative delay) x (elastance) ensued. The bias in the resistance estimate when resistance is 5 Pa ml-1 s and compliance is 2 ml kPa-1 is approximately 28% per ms of delay mismatch. Time-shifting the flow data to eliminate the phase discrepancy reduced the resistance bias by 85%. The residual resistance bias was assumed to be due to inappropriate amplitude response. Compliance measurements were affected by less than 8% and less than 2% after time correction of the flow data. Pressure and flow signals must be synchronized to within 1 ms at 10 Hz and the amplitude responses of the measurement systems must be adequate for reliable resistance measurement.

  1. Radio Frequency Simulation System (RFSS) Capabilities Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    S- 0LEVEL-- TECHNICAL REPORT TD -77-8 RADIO FREQUENCY SIMULATION SYSTEM (RFSS) CAPABILITIES SUMMARY 00 SAeroballistios Directorate Advanced Simulation...gAttn: DRDMT - TD /AMCMS 63 303.214131101 RedstngArj gUAl. Alabmt 35809______________ It CONTITL.uNG OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS CoMuaa ner US Army Missile...r ~- -- 0 0 0 1 N -4 -- -~ *5 0 - 5e41 -A I: a 00 I I. S Jto cc iI us V A U. II I’~z’LF~iJ - - - - -> 3-cc dc -4 -.40 =! Jo -AZC 4 C - 442q 0 M~A $Ji a

  2. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive load (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.

  3. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, N. J.; Macpherson, R. F.; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Cumming, D. R. S.

    2009-10-01

    Gunn diodes, operating in transit time mode, are usually thought of as incapable of generating power at multiple frequencies or over a broad frequency range. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that these diodes can generate power at several frequencies and, using Monte Carlo simulations of both planar and vertical devices, we offer an explanation of how this unusual behaviour may come into being and suggest possible applications for this novel device.

  4. Regional frequency response analysis under normal and emergency conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevrani, Hassan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416 (Iran); Ledwich, Gerard; Ford, Jason J. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Dong, Zhao Yang [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a frequency response analysis approach suitable for a power system control area in a wide range of operating conditions. The analytic approach uses the well-known system frequency response model for the turbine-governor and load units to obtain the mathematical representation of the basic concepts. Primary and supplementary frequency controls are properly considered and the effect of emergency control/protection schemes is included. Therefore, the proposed analysis/modeling approach could be grainfully used for the power system operation during the contingency and normal conditions. Time-domain nonlinear simulations with a power system example showed that the results agree with those predicted analytically. (author)

  5. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, A.; Roucaries, B.; Williams, B.; Rubin, I.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Meinhold, P.; Lubin, P.; Franceschet, C.; Jahn, S.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  6. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A; Williams, B; Rubin, I; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Roucaries, B [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, 75732 Paris (France); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jahn, S, E-mail: zonca@deepspace.ucsb.edu [Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, 85579 Neubiberg, Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  7. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  8. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    -induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric......The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision...

  9. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    -induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric......The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision...

  10. Evaluation of Piloted Inputs for Onboard Frequency Response Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Martos, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Frequency response estimation results are presented using piloted inputs and a real-time estimation method recently developed for multisine inputs. A nonlinear simulation of the F-16 and a Piper Saratoga research aircraft were subjected to different piloted test inputs while the short period stabilator/elevator to pitch rate frequency response was estimated. Results show that the method can produce accurate results using wide-band piloted inputs instead of multisines. A new metric is introduced for evaluating which data points to include in the analysis and recommendations are provided for applying this method with piloted inputs.

  11. Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Southall, Brandon L; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Hazen, Elliott L; Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie; Moretti, David J; Kyburg, Chris; McKenna, Megan F; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-22

    Mid-frequency military (1-10 kHz) sonars have been associated with lethal mass strandings of deep-diving toothed whales, but the effects on endangered baleen whale species are virtually unknown. Here, we used controlled exposure experiments with simulated military sonar and other mid-frequency sounds to measure behavioural responses of tagged blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in feeding areas within the Southern California Bight. Despite using source levels orders of magnitude below some operational military systems, our results demonstrate that mid-frequency sound can significantly affect blue whale behaviour, especially during deep feeding modes. When a response occurred, behavioural changes varied widely from cessation of deep feeding to increased swimming speed and directed travel away from the sound source. The variability of these behavioural responses was largely influenced by a complex interaction of behavioural state, the type of mid-frequency sound and received sound level. Sonar-induced disruption of feeding and displacement from high-quality prey patches could have significant and previously undocumented impacts on baleen whale foraging ecology, individual fitness and population health.

  12. 78 FR 45479 - Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability...: The Commission proposes to approve Reliability Standard BAL- 003-1 (Frequency Response and Frequency... of frequency response needed for reliable operations for each Balancing Authority within...

  13. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    CERN Document Server

    Zonca, Andrea; Williams, Brian; Rubin, Ishai; D'Arcangelo, Ocleto; Meinhold, Peter; Lubin, Philip; Franceschet, Cristian; Yahn, Stefan; Mennella, Aniello; Bersanelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measureme...

  14. DESIGN AND DYNAMICAL SIMULATION TO NEW VIBRATING CENTRIFUGE WITH WIDER FREQUENCY RANGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of vibrating centrifuge with wider frequency range is designed instead of the traditional one with a single frequency to improve the vibrating effect. With the aid of a new dynamical model, one simulation without considering the visco-elasticity of basis is presented, then the dynamical responses of time and frequency in different scheme are given. The computational results show that the improved vibrating centrifuge possesses a remarkably widened frequency range.

  15. Nonlinear frequency response analysis of structural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeger, Oliver; Wever, Utz; Simeon, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for nonlinear frequency response analysis of mechanical vibrations of 3-dimensional solid structures. For computing nonlinear frequency response to periodic excitations, we employ the well-established harmonic balance method. A fundamental aspect for allowing a large-scale application of the method is model order reduction of the discretized equation of motion. Therefore we propose the utilization of a modal projection method enhanced with modal derivatives, providing second-order information. For an efficient spatial discretization of continuum mechanics nonlinear partial differential equations, including large deformations and hyperelastic material laws, we employ the concept of isogeometric analysis. Isogeometric finite element methods have already been shown to possess advantages over classical finite element discretizations in terms of higher accuracy of numerical approximations in the fields of linear vibration and static large deformation analysis. With several computational examples, we demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the modal derivative reduction method for nonlinear static computations and vibration analysis. Thus, the presented method opens a promising perspective on application of nonlinear frequency analysis to large-scale industrial problems.

  16. High Frequency Ground Motion from Finite Fault Rupture Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.

    There are many tectonically active regions on earth with little or no recorded ground motions. The Eastern United States is a typical example of regions with active faults, but with low to medium seismicity that has prevented sufficient ground motion recordings. Because of this, it is necessary to use synthetic ground motion methods in order to estimate the earthquake hazard a region might have. Ground motion prediction equations for spectral acceleration typically have geometric attenuation proportional to the inverse of distance away from the fault. Earthquakes simulated with one-dimensional layered earth models have larger geometric attenuation than the observed ground motion recordings. We show that as incident angles of rays increase at welded boundaries between homogeneous flat layers, the transmitted rays decrease in amplitude dramatically. As the receiver distance increases away from the source, the angle of incidence of up-going rays increases, producing negligible transmitted ray amplitude, thus increasing the geometrical attenuation. To work around this problem we propose a model in which we separate wave propagation for low and high frequencies at a crossover frequency, typically 1Hz. The high-frequency portion of strong ground motion is computed with a homogeneous half-space and amplified with the available and more complex one- or three-dimensional crustal models using the quarter wavelength method. We also make use of seismic coda energy density observations as scattering impulse response functions. We incorporate scattering impulse response functions into our Green's functions by convolving the high-frequency homogeneous half-space Green's functions with normalized synthetic scatterograms to reproduce scattering physical effects in recorded seismograms. This method was validated against ground motion for earthquakes recorded in California and Japan, yielding results that capture the duration and spectral response of strong ground motion.

  17. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  18. Step response and frequency response of an air conditioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, R.D.; Jackman, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A system of induction units of an existing air conditioning system has been analyzed with respect to its dynamic properties. Time constants were calculated and measured by analogue models. Comparison with measurements at the installation itself showed a reasonable agreement. Frequency responses were

  19. Experimental model updating using frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Liu, Xi; Dong, Xinjun; Wang, Yang; Pu, Qianhui

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain a finite element (FE) model that can more accurately describe structural behaviors, experimental data measured from the actual structure can be used to update the FE model. The process is known as FE model updating. In this paper, a frequency response function (FRF)-based model updating approach is presented. The approach attempts to minimize the difference between analytical and experimental FRFs, while the experimental FRFs are calculated using simultaneously measured dynamic excitation and corresponding structural responses. In this study, the FRF-based model updating method is validated through laboratory experiments on a four-story shear-frame structure. To obtain the experimental FRFs, shake table tests and impact hammer tests are performed. The FRF-based model updating method is shown to successfully update the stiffness, mass and damping parameters of the four-story structure, so that the analytical and experimental FRFs match well with each other.

  20. Frequency response of Lamb-Oseen vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, F. J.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.

    2016-12-01

    In this numerical study we present the frequency response of the Lamb-Oseen (Gaussian) vortex for two synthetic jet configurations. The first one consists of an annular axial jet that is superimposed on the Gaussian vortex. The other configuration deals with an off-axis, single-point, axial jet (SPI). We detect that the system responds to the forcing for a given axial wavenumber, k, exciting natural modes of the vortex by a resonance mechanism. We propose an explanation for the physical mechanism responsible for the maximum energy gain obtained by comparing our results with the different branches found theoretically by Fabre et al (2006 J. Fluid Mech. 551 235-74). We find high energy gains in both cases ({G}∞ ≃ {10}3 for the annular jet and {G}∞ ≃ {10}4 for the SPI jet), so these types of forcing are able to produce responses of the system strong enough to reach a non-linear state. Axisymmetric modes, with azimuthal wavenumber m = 0, produce the highest energy gain while applying an annular forcing. However, other modes, such as the helical one m = 1 and also double helix modes with m = 2, contribute in the SPI configuration. We find that the best region to be tested experimentally in both cases is the region that corresponds to the L2 branch described by Fabre and his collaborators. Furthermore, and whenever using these L2 branch frequencies, the response of the system is always axisymmetric, independently of the type of excitation. Finally, we conclude that the energy gain with the SPI jet is one order of magnitude greater than for the annular jet, so that the single-point off-axis jet is a feasible candidate to design a control device.

  1. Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-01-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.

  2. Operational amplifier with adjustable frequency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisek, D; Hencek, M

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe an operational amplifier with an adjustable frequency response and its use in membrane physiology, using the voltage clamp and current clamp method. The amplifier eliminates feedback poles causing oscillation. It consists of a follower with a high input resistance in the form of a tube and of an actual amplifier with an adjustable frequency response allowing the abolition of clicks by one pole and of oscillation by two poles in the 500 Hz divided by infinity range. Further properties of the amplifier: a long-term voltage drift of 1 mv, a temperature voltage drift of 0.5 mv/degrees K, input resistance greater than 1 GOhm, amplification greater than 80 dB, output +/- 12 v, 25 ma, noise, measured from the width of the oscilloscope track in the presence of a ray of normal brightness, not exceeding 50 muv in the 0-250 kHz band, f1 = 1 MHz. A short report on the amplifier was published a few years ago (Gulísek and Hencek 1973).

  3. The simulation study of three typical time frequency analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The principals and characteristics of three typical time frequency analysis methods that Short Time Furious transformation, wavelet transformation and Hilbert-Huang transformation are introduced, and the mathematical definition, characteristics and application ranges of these analysis methods and so on are pointed out, then their time-frequency local performance is made analysis and comparison through computer programming and simulation.

  4. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Vian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc. are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor, and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight after low power (i.e., nonthermal HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism.

  5. Simulation of the low-frequency collimator impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T

    2008-01-01

    The low-frequency transverse collimator impedance constitutes a major part of the LHC impedance budget. In this paper numerical simulations for frequencies below 1 MHz using a commercial package are presented. From the 3D field solution of the two-wire simulations the transverse impedance is directly calculated. After a cross-check with theory for rotationally symmetric structures a geometry with two jaws and an LHC graphite collimator is examined. Furthermore, a simple physics picture that explains the principal characteristics of the impedance at high and low frequencies is given.

  6. Inductively coupled radio frequency methane plasma simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, K.; Farouk, B.; Vitello, P.

    2001-05-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional radio frequency inductively coupled glow discharge model has been developed in cylindrical coordinates using a fluid model. The objective of the study is to provide insight into charged species dynamics and investigate their effects on plasma process for a methane discharge. The model includes continuity and energy equations for electrons and continuity, momentum and energy equations for positive and negative ions. An electromagnetic model that considers the electric field due to the space charge within the plasma and due to inductive power coupling is also incorporated. For an inductively coupled methane discharge we expect to find higher fluxes of ions and radicals to the cathode, and hence a higher deposition/etch rate for a high-density plasma. The independent control of ion energy to the cathode in an inductively coupled discharge will facilitate control on film deposition/etch rate and uniformity on the wafer. Swarm data as a function of the electron energy are provided as input to the model. The model predicts the electron density, ion density and their fluxes and energies to the cathode. The radical and neutral densities in the discharge are calculated using a gas phase chemistry model. The diamond-like-carbon thin-film deposition/etch rate is predicted using a surface chemistry model. The gas phase chemistry model considers the diffusion of radicals and neutrals along with creation and loss terms. The surface deposition/etching process involves adsorption-desorption, adsorption layer reaction, ion stitching, direct ion incorporation and carbon sputtering.

  7. Test method of frequency response based on diamond surface acoustic wave devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-ming; YANG Bao-he; WU Xiao-guo; WU Yi-zhuo

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the noises affixed to the signals when testing high frequency devices, a single-port test mode (S11) is used to test frequency response of high frequency (GHz) and dual-port surface acoustic wave devices (SAWDs) in this paper.The feasibility of the test is proved by simulating the Fabry-Perot model. The frequency response of the high-frequency dual-port resonant-type diamond SAWD is measured by S11 and the dual-port test mode (S21), respectively. The results show that the quality factor of the device is 51.29 and the 3 dB bandwidth is 27.8 MHz by S11 -mode measurement, which is better than the S21 mode, and is consistent with the frequency response curve by simulation.

  8. Inner detached frequency response curves: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Gianluca; Brennan, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Certain nonlinear vibrating systems have frequency response curves (FRCs), in which isolated detached curves exist inside the main continuous FRC. The behavior of these systems has hitherto been studied analytically and numerically, but to the authors' knowledge, there is no record of an inner detached FRC being detected experimentally. These curves may be hidden by numerical or experimental analysis, particularly when a system is subject to swept or stepped-sine excitation. Their existence may thus lead to unexpected dramatic changes in the amplitude of the system response. This paper presents an experimental study that involves the design, construction and testing of a specific system that has an isolated detached FRC inside the main continuous FRC. The experimental design of the test rig is supported by multibody dynamic simulations, and in the experimental tests the existence of a detached FRC was verified.

  9. Conditional flood frequency and catchment state: a simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Marco; Bourgin, François; Merz, Bruno; Andreassian, Vazken; Blaquiere, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Catchments have memory and the conditional flood frequency distribution for a time period ahead can be seen as non-stationary: it varies with the catchment state and climatic factors. From a risk management perspective, understanding the link of conditional flood frequency to catchment state is a key to anticipate potential periods of higher flood risk. Here, we adopt a simulation approach to explore the link between flood frequency obtained by continuous rainfall-runoff simulation and the initial state of the catchment. The simulation chain is based on i) a three state rainfall generator applied at the catchment scale, whose parameters are estimated for each month, and ii) the GR4J lumped rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters are calibrated with all available data. For each month, a large number of stochastic realizations of the continuous rainfall generator for the next 12 months are used as inputs for the GR4J model in order to obtain a large number of stochastic realizations for the next 12 months. This process is then repeated for 50 different initial states of the soil moisture reservoir of the GR4J model and for all the catchments. Thus, 50 different conditional flood frequency curves are obtained for the 50 different initial catchment states. We will present an analysis of the link between the catchment states, the period of the year and the strength of the conditioning of the flood frequency compared to the unconditional flood frequency. A large sample of diverse catchments in France will be used.

  10. Electrogastrographic and autonomic responses during oculovestibular recoupling in flight simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevette, Michael J; Pradhan, Gaurav N; Cocco, Daniela; Crowell, Michael D; Galea, Anna M; Bartlett, Jennifer; Stepanek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simulator sickness causes vestibulo-autonomic responses that increase sympathetic activity and decrease parasympathetic activity. The purpose of the study was to quantify these responses through electrogastrography and cardiac interbeat intervals during flight simulation. There were 29 subjects that were randomly assigned to 2 parallel arms: (1) oculovestibular recoupling, where galvanic vestibular stimulation was synchronous with the visual field; and (2) control. Electrogastrography and interbeat interval data were collected during baseline, simulation, and post-simulation periods. A simulator sickness questionnaire was administered. Statistically significant differences were observed in percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency of electrogastrography in normogastric and bradygastric domains between the oculovestibular recoupling and control groups. Normogastria was dominant during simulation in the oculovestibular recoupling group. In the control group, the percentage of recording time with the dominant frequency decreased by 22% in normogastria and increased by 20% in bradygastria. The percentage change of the dominant power instability coefficient from baseline to simulation was 26% in the oculovestibular recoupling group vs. 108% in the control group. The power of high-frequency components for interbeat intervals did not change significantly in the oculovestibular recoupling group and was decreased during simulation in the control group. Electrogastrography and interbeat intervals are sensitive indices of autonomic changes in subjects undergoing flight simulation. These data demonstrate the potential of oculovestibular recoupling to stabilize gastric activity and cardiac autonomic changes altered during simulator and motion sickness.

  11. The Assessment of Protective Behavioral Strategies: Comparing the Absolute Frequency and Contingent Frequency Response Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Kite, Benjamin A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an ‘absolute frequency’ scale (stem: “how many times…”; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationship...

  12. Research on Frequency Response Characteristics of Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiZhengguo; ZhangKenan

    2005-01-01

    The measurement method of frequency response characteristics for rolling mill is established by imposing different signal excitation on PID input of rolling mill under the different rolling conditions. The analysis results declare that sweep sine signal was relative efficient to evaluation for the frequency response character of hydraulic system. The practical application shows that the corresponding relationship between the parameters and the frequency response range of the rolling mill is helpful for parameters verification of process control and condition monitoring of hydraulic system.

  13. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  14. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  15. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  16. Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Structural Dynamic Frequency Characteristics Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, mechanical equipment such as cars, airplanes, and machine tools all operate with constant frequency characteristics. These constant working characteristics should be controlled if the dynamic performance of the equipment demands improvement or the dynamic characteristics is intended to change with different working conditions. Active control is a stable and beneficial method for this, but current active control methods mainly focus on vibration control for reducing the vibration amplitudes in the time domain or frequency domain. In this paper, a new method of dynamic frequency characteristics active control (DFCAC is presented for a flat plate, which can not only accomplish vibration control but also arbitrarily change the dynamic characteristics of the equipment. The proposed DFCAC algorithm is based on a neural network including two parts of the identification implement and the controller. The effectiveness of the DFCAC method is verified by several simulation and experiments, which provide desirable results.

  17. Radar micro-Doppler simulations of classification capability with frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David; Silvious, Jerry

    2012-06-01

    Classifying human signatures using radar requires a detailed understanding of the RF scattering phenomenology associated with humans as well as their motion. We model humans engaged in the activity of walking and analyze the separability of different body parts with frequency as well as lookdown angle. This work seeks to estimate the ability to classify the micro-Doppler signals generated by human motion, and especially arm motion, as a function of the radar frequency and other parameters. The simulations imply that for classification using arm motion, frequencies at Ku-band or higher are probably required, and that lookdown angle has a significant effect on the classification capability of the radar. Additionally, the sensitivity of the system required to isolate the motion of different body parts is estimated.

  18. Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2012-01-01

    The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.

  19. Low-frequency versus high-frequency synchronisation in chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency specific contribution to the auditory brainstem response (ABR) of chirp stimuli. Frequency rising chirps were designed to compensate for the cochlear traveling wave delay, and lead to larger wave-V amplitudes than for click stimuli as more auditory nerve fibr...

  20. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  1. Unfolded Frequency Response and Model of a Multi-Tap Direct Sampling Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yun; GE Ning; DONG Zaiwang

    2008-01-01

    A transform method was used to model a discrete time multi-tap direct sampling mixer. The method transforms the mixed filtering and down.sampling stages to separate cascade filtering and sampling stages to determine the unfolded frequency response which shows the anti-aliasing ability of the mixer. The transformation can also be applied to other mixed signal and multi-rate receiver systems to analyze their unfolded frequency responses. The transformed system architecture was used to calculate the unfolded frequency response of the multi-tap direct sampling mixer and compared with the mixer model without noise in the ad-vanced design system 2005A environment to further evaluate the frequency response. The simulations show that the -3 dB bandwidth is 3.0 MHz and the voltage gain is attenuated by 1.5 dB within a 1-MHz baseband bandwidth.

  2. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures.

  3. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations.

  4. Phase responses of harmonics reflected from radio-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Gregory J.; McGowan, Sean F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Martone, Anthony F.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    The phase responses of nonlinear-radar targets illuminated by stepped frequencies are studied. Data is presented for an experimental radar and two commercial electronic targets at short standoff ranges. The amplitudes and phases of harmonics generated by each target at each frequency are captured over a 100-MHz-wide transmit band. As in the authors' prior work, target detection is demonstrated by receiving at least one harmonic of at least one transmit frequency. In the present work, experiments confirm that the phase of a harmonic reflected from a radio-frequency electronic target at a standoff distance is linear versus frequency. Similar to traditional wideband radar, the change of the reflected phase with respect to frequency indicates the range to the nonlinear target.

  5. TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF TRUSS STRUCTURE WITH FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN DYNAMIC RESPONSE CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jin; Wang De-yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is applied to topology optimization of truss structure with frequency domain excitations. The optimization constraints include fundamental frequency, displacement responses under force excitations and acceleration responses under foundation acceleration excitations. The roulette wheel selection operator, adaptive crossover and mutation operators are used as genetic operators. Some heuristic strategies are put forward to direct the deletion of the extra bars and nodes on truss structures. Three examples demonstrate that the proposed method can yield the optimum structure form and the lightest weight of the given ground structure while satisfying dynamic response constraints.

  6. Prediction of Frequency for Simulation of Asphalt Mix Fatigue Tests Using MARS and ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life of asphalt mixes in laboratory tests is commonly determined by applying a sinusoidal or haversine waveform with specific frequency. The pavement structure and loading conditions affect the shape and the frequency of tensile response pulses at the bottom of asphalt layer. This paper introduces two methods for predicting the loading frequency in laboratory asphalt fatigue tests for better simulation of field conditions. Five thousand (5000 four-layered pavement sections were analyzed and stress and strain response pulses in both longitudinal and transverse directions was determined. After fitting the haversine function to the response pulses by the concept of equal-energy pulse, the effective length of the response pulses were determined. Two methods including Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS and Artificial Neural Network (ANN methods were then employed to predict the effective length (i.e., frequency of tensile stress and strain pulses in longitudinal and transverse directions based on haversine waveform. It is indicated that, under controlled stress and strain modes, both methods (MARS and ANN are capable of predicting the frequency of loading in HMA fatigue tests with very good accuracy. The accuracy of ANN method is, however, more than MARS method. It is furthermore shown that the results of the present study can be generalized to sinusoidal waveform by a simple equation.

  7. Effects of loading frequency on the functional adaptation of trabeculae predicted by bone remodeling simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Taiji; Hojo, Masaki

    2011-08-01

    The process of bone remodeling is regulated by metabolic activities of many bone cells. While osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for bone resorption and formation, respectively, activities of these cells are believed to be controlled by a mechanosensory system of osteocytes embedded in the extracellular bone matrix. Several experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that the strain-derived interstitial fluid flow in lacuno-canalicular porosity serves as the prime mover for bone remodeling. Previously, we constructed a mathematical model for trabecular bone remodeling that interconnects the microscopic cellular activities with the macroscopic morphological changes in trabeculae through the mechanical hierarchy. This model assumes that fluid-induced shear stress acting on osteocyte processes is a driving force for bone remodeling. The validity of this model has been demonstrated with a remodeling simulation using a two-dimensional trabecular model. In this study, to investigate the effects of loading frequency, which is thought to be a significant mechanical factor in bone remodeling, we simulated morphological changes of a three-dimensional single trabecula under cyclic uniaxial loading with various frequencies. The results of the simulation show the trabecula reoriented to the loading direction with the progress of bone remodeling. Furthermore, as the imposed loading frequency increased, the diameter of the trabecula in the equilibrium state was enlarged by remodeling. These results indicate that our simulation model can successfully evaluate the relationship between loading frequency and trabecular bone remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. No correlation between headphone frequency response and retail price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    This study quantifies variability of measured headphone response patterns and aims to uncover any correlations between headphone type, retail price, and frequency response. For this purpose, the mean, variance, and covariance of the frequency magnitude responses were analyzed and correlated with headphone type and retail value. The results indicate that neither the measured response nor an attempt to objectively quantify perceived quality is related to price. On average, in-ear headphones have a slightly higher measured bass response than circumaural and supra-aural headphones. Furthermore, in-ear and circumaural headphones have a slightly lower deviation from an assumed target curve than supra-ear models. Ninety percent of the variance across all headphone measurements can be described by a set of six basis functions. The first basis function is similar to published target responses, while the second basis function represents a spectral tilt.

  9. Dynamic frequency tuning of electric and magnetic metamaterial response

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, John F; Averitt, Richard; Padilla, Willie; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-09-16

    A geometrically modifiable resonator is comprised of a resonator disposed on a substrate, and a means for geometrically modifying the resonator. The geometrically modifiable resonator can achieve active optical and/or electronic control of the frequency response in metamaterials and/or frequency selective surfaces, potentially with sub-picosecond response times. Additionally, the methods taught here can be applied to discrete geometrically modifiable circuit components such as inductors and capacitors. Principally, controlled conductivity regions, using either reversible photodoping or voltage induced depletion activation, are used to modify the geometries of circuit components, thus allowing frequency tuning of resonators without otherwise affecting the bulk substrate electrical properties. The concept is valid over any frequency range in which metamaterials are designed to operate.

  10. Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emission Delays and Generating Mechanisms in Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina-Greene, Maria A; Guinan, John J

    2015-12-01

    According to coherent reflection theory (CRT), stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) arise from cochlear irregularities coherently reflecting energy from basilar membrane motion within the traveling-wave peak. This reflected energy arrives in the ear canal predominantly with a single delay at each frequency. However, data from humans and animals indicate that (1) SFOAEs can have multiple delay components, (2) low-frequency SFOAE delays are too short to be accounted for by CRT, and (3) "SFOAEs" obtained with a 2nd ("suppressor") tone ≥2 octaves above the probe tone have been interpreted as arising from the area basal to the region of cochlear amplification. To explore these issues, we collected SFOAEs by the suppression method in guinea pigs and time-frequency analyzed these data, simulated SFOAEs, and published chinchilla SFOAEs. Time-frequency analysis revealed that most frequencies showed only one SFOAE delay component while other frequencies had multiple components including some with short delays. We found no systematic patterns in the occurrence of multiple delay components. Using a cochlear model that had significant basilar membrane motion only in the peak region of the traveling wave, simulated SFOAEs had single and multiple delay components similar to the animal SFOAEs. This result indicates that multiple components (including ones with short delays) can originate from cochlear mechanical irregularities in the SFOAE peak region and are not necessarily indicative of SFOAE sources in regions ≥2 octaves basal of the SFOAE peak region. We conclude that SFOAEs obtained with suppressors close to the probe frequency provide information primarily about the mechanical response in the region that receives amplification, and we attribute the too-short SFOAE delays at low frequencies to distortion-source SFOAEs and coherent reflection from multiple cochlear motions. Our findings suggest that CRT needs revision to include reflections from multiple

  11. Newton algorithm for fitting transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the problem of synthesizing transfer functions from frequency response measurements is considered. Given a complex vector representing the measured frequency response of a physical system, a transfer function of specified order is determined that minimizes the sum of the magnitude-squared of the frequency response errors. This nonlinear least squares minimization problem is solved by an iterative global descent algorithm of the Newton type that converges quadratically near the minimum. The unknown transfer function is expressed as a sum of second-order rational polynomials, a parameterization that facilitates a numerically robust computer implementation. The algorithm is developed for single-input, single-output, causal, stable transfer functions. Two numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  12. Frequency- dependent cell responses to an electromagnetic stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    External electric field (EF) acting on cells in the ionic environment can trigger a variety of mechanical and chemical cell responses that regulate cell functions, such as adhesion, migration and cell signaling; thus manipulation of EF can be used in therapeutic applications. To optimize this process, realistic studies of EF interaction with cells are essential. We have developed a combined theoretical-experimental approach to study cell response to the external EF in the native configuration. The cell is modeled as a membrane-enclosed hemisphere which is cultured on a substrate and is surrounded by electrolyte. Maxwell's equations are solved numerically (ANSYS-HFSS) to obtain 3D EF distribution inside and near the cell subjected to an external EF. Theoretical results indicate that the cell response is frequency dependent, where at low frequency EF is excluded from the cell interior while EF penetration into the cell increases for higher frequencies. In both regimes the spatial distribution and strength of induced EF in membrane varies with frequency. Experimental results are consistent with theoretical predictions and show frequency-dependent cell response, including both membrane-initiated and intracellular pathway activation and growth factor release. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the NSF (DMR-1206784 & DMR-0804199 to AK); the NIH (1R21 DK078814-01A1 to DN) and the University of Cincinnati (Interdisciplinary Faculty Research Support Grant to DN and AK).

  13. Hierarchical Decentralized Control Strategy for Demand-Side Primary Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Hansen, Jacob; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-07-21

    The Grid Friendly$^\\textrm{TM}$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was designed for the purpose of autonomously switching off appliances by detecting under-frequency events. In this paper, a new frequency responsive load~(FRL) controller is first proposed by extending the functionality of the original GFA controller. The proposed FRL controller can autonomously switch on (or off) end-use loads by detecting over-frequency (or under-frequency) events through local frequency measurement. Then, a hierarchical decentralized control framework is developed for engaging the end-use loads to provide primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller. The developed framework has several important features that are desirable in terms of providing primary frequency control. It not only exclusively maintains the autonomous operation of the end-use loads, but also effectively overcomes the stability issue associated with high penetration of FRLs. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the developed hierarchical control framework for providing primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller.

  14. Implementation of Time and Frequency Response Analysis for Web-Based Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teyana Sapula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The University of Dar Es Salaam has developed the web-based laboratory for Time and Frequency Response Analysis. The purpose of this web-based laboratory is the utilization of real data from real experiments, in terms of instrumentation and experimental circuits, rather than simulations. The use of webbased laboratory came after realizing the difficulties imposed by the traditional laboratories. Web-based laboratories allow students and educators to interact with real laboratory equipment located anywhere in the world at anytime. This paper presents the implementation of web-based laboratory of single stage common emitter, resistor capacitor coupled amplifier using National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrument Suite platform. Two components are deployed: time response analysis and frequency response analysis. The experiment allows students to carryout time and frequency analysis of the amplifier. The modular can be used to any microelectronic circuits to carry out any time response and frequency response analysis. Both the time response and frequency response analysis results of the amplifier are validated.

  15. Estimation of Frequency Response Functions by Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimating frequency response functions by the Random Decrement technique is investigated in this paper. The method is based on the auto and cross Random Decrement functions of the input process and the output process of a linear system. The Fourier transformation of these functions...... is used to calculate the frequency response functions. The Random Decrement functions are obtained by averaging time segments of the processes under given initial conditions. The method will reduce the leakage problem, because of the natural decay of the Random Decrement functions. Also, the influence...

  16. Effects of noise on the frequency response of the monostable Duffing oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Edmon

    2017-03-01

    The influence of noise on the frequency response of the monostable, hardening Duffing oscillator is studied. These changes are studied via the averaged dynamics (using Euler-Maruyama simulations) as well as experiments. It is found that for intermediate noise amplitudes, the qualitative shape of the frequency response curve is changed. For large noise amplitudes, the upper and lower branches of the hysteresis curve collapse into one curve. These results could be of practical significance, if an oscillator is desired to be placed on the upper or lower branch of the hysteresis curve.

  17. Measurements of resonance frequencies of clarinet reeds and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taillard, Pierre-André; Gross, Michel; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A set of 55 clarinet reeds is observed by holography, collecting 2 series of measurements made under 2 different moisture contents, from which the resonance frequencies of the 15 first modes are deduced. A statistical analysis of the results reveals good correlations, but also significant differences between both series. Within a given series, flexural modes are not strongly correlated. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that the measurements of each series can be described with 3 factors capturing more than 90% of the variance: the first is linked with transverse modes, the second with flexural modes of high order and the third with the first flexural mode. A forth factor is necessary to take into account the individual sensitivity to moisture content. Numerical 3D simulations are conducted by Finite Element Method, based on a given reed shape and an orthotropic model. A sensitivity analysis revels that, besides the density, the theoretical frequencies depend mainly on 2 parameters: $E_L$ and $G_{LT}...

  18. Estimation of channel impulse response and FPGA simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Longjie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA is a 3G wireless communication network.The common pilot channel in downlink of WCDMA provides an effective method to estimate the channel impulse response.In this paper,universal software radio peripheral (USRP is utilized to sample and process WCDMA signal which is emitted by China Unicom base station.Firstly,the received signal is pre-processed with filtering and down-sampling.Secondly,fast algorithm of WCDMA cell search is fulfilled.Thirdly,frequency shift caused by USRP′s crystal oscillator is checked and compensated.Eventually,channel impulse response is estimated.In this paper,MATLAB is used to describe the above algorithm and field programmable gate array (FPGA is used to simulate algorithm.In the process of simulation,pipeline and IP core multiplexing are introduced.In the case of 32 MHz clock frequency,FPGA simulation time is 80.861 ms.Simulation results show that FPGA is able to estimate the channel impulse response quickly and accurately with less hardware resources.

  19. Frequency response and design consideration of GaN SAM avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Yang, Guofeng; Zhou, Dong; Lu, Hai; Wang, Guosheng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a method is developed for estimating the frequency response characteristics of GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with separated absorption and multiplication regions (SAM). The method calculates the total diode current with varying frequency by solving transport equations analytically and uses a commercial device simulator as a supplement for determining the exact electrical field profile within the device. Due to the high carrier saturation velocity of GaN, a high-gain-bandwidth product over THz is found achievable for GaN SAM-APDs. The potential performances of GaN SAM-APDs with different structural designs are further compared through numerical studies. It is found that a close-to-reach-through design is attractive for simultaneously achieving both relatively low operation voltage and high working frequency. In addition, transit-time limit and RC-delay limit for the frequency response of GaN SAM-APDs are also discussed.

  20. Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, R; Mäkelä, J P

    1986-01-01

    Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone were studied in nine subjects. The latencies of the transient responses increased and the amplitudes decreased with decreasing speed of modulation. The equivalent dipoles for modulation of a 1,000 Hz tone were slightly but statistically significantly anterior to the dipoles activated by modulation of a 500 Hz tone. The generation mechanisms of N100m are discussed.

  1. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  2. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  3. Frequency response as a surrogate eigenvalue problem in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Ferrari, Federico; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the use of frequency response surrogates for eigenvalue optimization problems in topology optimization that may be used to avoid solving the eigenvalue problem. The motivation is to avoid complications that arise from multiple eigenvalues and the computational complexity as...

  4. Unrecorded wideband instrumentation reference tape feasibility study: Frequency response results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, D. R.

    1980-03-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine signal response variations when a variety of wideband instrumentation magnetic tapes is used on a cross section of recorder/reproducer systems. Data for the investigation were collected by transmitting a set of eight sample test tapes to participating data recording/reproducing facilities for the purpose of making data measurements. Data collected represent measurements made with 16 different recorder/reproducer systems at 11 different testing facilities located throughout the United States. The data-collection process involved approximately 2 years of testing. The originating/coordinating facility was the Pacific Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, California. The test results indicated the following: all of the sample test tapes exhibited bidirectional performance within the limits of measurement repeatability; overall system stability was better in the low-band regions than in the upper-band regions; and the overall relative frequency response of the sample test tapes did not change appreciably during the 2 year investigative period. The most significant result of the test measurements is that at least 90% of the frequency response values were within + or - 2.0 dB at all frequencies. Machine stability factors such as azimuth, equalizer, and gain changes had more effect on data variability than did magnetic tape or tape speed. The use of a reference tape system is recommended as a method to assure that relative frequency response variations will be less than or equal to + or - 2.0 dB.

  5. Estimation of Frequency Response Functions by Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Asmussen, J. C.

    A method for estimating frequency response functions by the random decrement technique is investigated in this paper. The method is based on the auto and cross Random Decrement functions of the input process and the output process of a linear system. The Fourier transformation of these functions...

  6. Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).

  7. Frequency Response of Modulated Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Lie-Feng; LI Yang; LI Ding; WANG Cun-Da; ZHANG Guo-Yi; YAO Dong-Sheng; LIU Wei-Fang; XING Peng-Fei

    2011-01-01

    Frequency responses of modulated electroluminescence (EL) of light-emitting diodes were measured using a testing setup.With increasing frequency of the ac signal,the relative light intensity (RLI) clearly decreases.Furthermore,a peculiar asynchrony between the RLI and ac small-signal is observed.At frequencies higher than 10kHz,the RLI clearly lags behind the ac signal and the absolute value of the lagging angle is nearly proportional to the signal frequency.Using the classical recombination model of light-emitting diodes under ac small-signal modulation,these abnormal characteristics of modulated EL can be clearly explained.High-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have received great attention recently owing to their applications in energy-saving lights,display items and many other fields;therefore,the optical and electrical characteristics of LEDs at forward bias hold significant potential for research.[1-4] However,for a new kind of light emission device,the general research on its performance focuses on the light emission and dc currentvoltage (I-V) characteristics.%Frequency responses of modulated electroluminescence (EL) of light-emitting diodes were measured using a testing setup. With increasing frequency of the ac signal, the relative light intensity (RLI) clearly decreases. Furthermore, a peculiar asynchrony between the RLI and ac small-signal is observed. At frequencies higher than 10kHz, the RLI clearly lags behind the ac signal and the absolute value of the lagging angle is nearly proportional to the signal frequency. Using the classical recombination model of light-emitting diodes under ac small-signal modulation, these abnormal characteristics of modulated EL can be clearly explained.

  8. Modelling the SOS Response by Semi-Stochastic Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Ming; WANG Si-Yuan; OUYANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    The SOS (save our soul) response induced by DNA damage in bacteria E coli has raised a great interests in biophysics and has been extensively studied. Previously we have developed a stochastic simulation model to explain the oscillatory-like modulation of SOS gene expression observed in experiment. Here we present an improved semi-stochastic model which has higher simulation efficiency, taking into account the updated knowledge about SOS response. The improved model suggests that frequency of the modulation is controlled by the negative feedback in the system. DNA polymerase V, the key enzyme for error-prone translesion synthesis during SOS response, plays a major role in closing up the negative feedback. It is also indicated that the correlation between the modulation and cellular growth observed in experiment is due to DNA damage induced slowing down of transcription and translation.

  9. Efficient Simulation for Fixed-Receiver Bistatic SAR with Time and Frequency Synchronization Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Time and frequency synchronization is the key technique of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR system, and raw data simulation is an effective tool for verifying the time and frequency synchronization techniques. According to the two-dimensional (2-D frequency spectrum of fixed-receiver BiSAR with time and frequency synchronization errors, a rapid raw data simulation method is proposed in this paper. Through 2-D inverse Stolt transform in 2-D frequency domain and phase compensation in Range-Doppler frequency domain, this method can realize two-dimensional spatial variation simulation for fixed-receiver BiSAR with time and frequency synchronization errors in a reasonable time consumption. Then the simulation efficiency of scene raw data can be significantly improved. Simulation results of point targets and extended scene are presented to validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed simulation method.

  10. Conventional frequency ultrasonic biomarkers of cancer treatment response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Tadayyon, Hadi; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Tran, William; Papanicolau, Naum; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-06-01

    Conventional frequency quantitative ultrasound in conjunction with textural analysis techniques was investigated to monitor noninvasively the effects of cancer therapies in an in vivo preclinical model. Conventional low-frequency (∼7 MHz) and high-frequency (∼20 MHz) ultrasound was used with spectral analysis, coupled with textural analysis on spectral parametric maps, obtained from xenograft tumor-bearing animals (n = 20) treated with chemotherapy to extract noninvasive biomarkers of treatment response. Results indicated statistically significant differences in quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers in both low- and high-frequency ranges between untreated and treated tumors 12 to 24 hours after treatment. Results of regression analysis indicated a high level of correlation between quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers and tumor cell death estimates from histologic analysis. Applying textural characterization to the spectral parametric maps resulted in an even stronger correlation (r (2) = 0.97). The results obtained in this research demonstrate that quantitative ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency can monitor tissue changes in vivo in response to cancer treatment administration. Using higher order textural information extracted from quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provides more information at a high sensitivity related to tumor cell death.

  11. Simulation of Operators' Response in Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    For the simulation of the accidental course of events in industrial process plants, a model is needed of operators' response to the cues presented by the system. A model is proposed, based on the simplifications which can be made when restricting attention to the operator functions having...

  12. Frequency response of electrolyte-gated graphene electrodes and transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Simon; Guimerà, Anton; Cortadella, Ramon G.; Viana, Damià; Makrygiannis, Evangelos; Blaschke, Benno M.; Vieten, Josua; Garrido, Jose A.

    2017-03-01

    The interface between graphene and aqueous electrolytes is of high importance for applications of graphene in the field of biosensors and bioelectronics. The graphene/electrolyte interface is governed by the low density of states of graphene that limits the capacitance near the Dirac point in graphene and the sheet resistance. While several reports have focused on studying the capacitance of graphene as a function of the gate voltage, the frequency response of graphene electrodes and electrolyte-gated transistors has not been discussed so far. Here, we report on the impedance characterization of single layer graphene electrodes and transistors, showing that due to the relatively high sheet resistance of graphene, the frequency response is governed by the distribution of resistive and capacitive circuit elements along the graphene/electrolyte interface. Based on an analytical solution for the impedance of the distributed circuit elements, we model the graphene/electrolyte interface both for the electrode and the transistor configurations. Using this model, we can extract the relevant material and device parameters such as the voltage-dependent intrinsic sheet and series resistances as well as the interfacial capacitance. The model also provides information about the frequency threshold of electrolyte-gated graphene transistors, above which the device exhibits a non-resistive response, offering an important insight into the suitable frequency range of operation of electrolyte-gated graphene devices.

  13. Implementation of low communication frequency 3D FFT algorithm for ultra-large-scale micromagnetics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Hiroshi; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Ono, Kanta

    2016-10-01

    We implement low communication frequency three-dimensional fast Fourier transform algorithms on micromagnetics simulator for calculations of a magnetostatic field which occupies a significant portion of large-scale micromagnetics simulation. This fast Fourier transform algorithm reduces the frequency of all-to-all communications from six to two times. Simulation times with our simulator show high scalability in parallelization, even if we perform the micromagnetics simulation using 32 768 physical computing cores. This low communication frequency fast Fourier transform algorithm enables world largest class micromagnetics simulations to be carried out with over one billion calculation cells.

  14. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers. Application to Planck/HFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-12-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. Results: The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  15. Human thermal sensation: frequency response to sinusoidal stimuli at the surface of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, J.W.; de Dear, Richard; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    1993-01-01

    The question of how the human organism perceives changing thermal stimuli has been recently studied and reported in experiments where these stimuli were either ramps and plateaux or simply step changes. Other experiments have been done in which the stimuli have been periodically varying airflows...... function. This function is then compared with the functional form found in two experiments where the stimuli were pulsating airflows of differing frequency. The PSI model seems to simulate well the form of the response of the human skin system to varying temperature changes of a whole range of frequencies....... A psychosensory intensity (PSI) model has been developed to relate experimentally derived sensation data to simulated cutaneous thermoreceptor responses to the temperature ramp-plateaux and step stimuli applied to the skin surface by thermodes. From the point of view of signal processing, a natural extension...

  16. Efficient simulation for fixed-receiver bistatic SAR with time and frequency synchronization errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feifei; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    Raw signal simulation is a useful tool for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system design, mission planning, processing algorithm testing, and inversion algorithm design. Time and frequency synchronization is the key technique of bistatic SAR (BiSAR) system, and raw data simulation is an effective tool for verifying the time and frequency synchronization techniques. According to the two-dimensional (2-D) frequency spectrum of fixed-receiver BiSAR, a rapid raw data simulation approach with time and frequency synchronization errors is proposed in this paper. Through 2-D inverse Stolt transform in 2-D frequency domain and phase compensation in range-Doppler frequency domain, this method can significantly improve the efficiency of scene raw data simulation. Simulation results of point targets and extended scene are presented to validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed simulation approach.

  17. Frequency-independent response of self-complementary checkerboard screens

    CERN Document Server

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    This research resolves a long-standing problem on the electromagnetic response of self-complementary metallic screens with checkerboard-like geometry. Although Babinet's principle implies that they show a frequency-independent response, this unusual characteristic has not been observed yet due to the singularities of the metallic point contacts in the checkerboard geometry. We overcome this difficulty by replacing the point contacts with resistive sheets. The proposed structure is prepared and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It is experimentally confirmed that the resistive checkerboard structures exhibit a flat transmission spectrum over 0.1--1.1 THz. It is also demonstrated that self-complementarity can eliminate even the frequency-dependent transmission characteristics of resonant metamaterials.

  18. Doping dependent frequency response of MQW infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaha, Md. Aref; Das, Mukul K.; Kumar, S.

    2017-04-01

    This work is to study the effect of doping concentration in the active layer on the performance of multiple quantum well (MQW) infrared photodetector based on inter sub-band transitions. A theoretical model for the photocurrent and hence, responsivity of the detector in frequency domain is developed considering the effect of doping dependent absorption and carrier capture at the hetero-interfaces. Transit time and capture time limited bandwidth of the detector is computed from the frequency dependent photocurrent. Results show that, besides the usual effect of capture time, doping concentration in the active layer has an important effect on the bandwidth and responsivity of the device particularly for high value of capture time.

  19. Noise and frequency response of silicon photodiode operational amplifier combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, R H; Wendland, P

    1972-07-01

    The noise in dark and illuminated Schottky barrier and diffused PIN non-guard-ring photodiodes has been measured between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz and compared to theory with an excellent fit. It is shown that diodes used photovoltaically are free of 1/f noise in the dark. It is also demonstrated that there is an optimum bias (ca. 100 mV) for minimum noise equivalent power. When only a resistive load is used with a detector, it often determines the frequency response and noise of the detector circuit. We develop and demonstrate equations for the major improvements in both noise and frequency response that can be obtained using a current mode (inverting) operational amplifier.

  20. Dynamic modelling of an electromechanical valve using frequency response data

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R L; Smith, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic modelling of electromechanical parts is often accomplished by conducting an analysis from first physical principles. While this is always a useful effort for physical insight, it may lead to transfer function models which are unnecessarily complex. This paper presents a supplementary dynamic modelling method based on frequency response data. The method is applied to modelling of a globe valve use for water flow control Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. http://archive.org/...

  1. Task-Related Suppression of the Brainstem Frequency following Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-18

    related mediation of the FFR in both amplitude and latency [28–30]. For example, attending to vowels leads to an amplitude increase of the fundamental...10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3900–09.2009. 4. Krishnan A (2002) Human frequency-following responses: representation of steady-state synthetic vowels . Hear Res 166: 192...Ashley R (2009) Musical experience and neural efficiency: effects of training on subcortical processing of vocal expressions of emotion . Eur J

  2. Memory-based mismatch response to frequency changes in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Astikainen

    Full Text Available Any occasional changes in the acoustic environment are of potential importance for survival. In humans, the preattentive detection of such changes generates the mismatch negativity (MMN component of event-related brain potentials. MMN is elicited to rare changes ('deviants' in a series of otherwise regularly repeating stimuli ('standards'. Deviant stimuli are detected on the basis of a neural comparison process between the input from the current stimulus and the sensory memory trace of the standard stimuli. It is, however, unclear to what extent animals show a similar comparison process in response to auditory changes. To resolve this issue, epidural potentials were recorded above the primary auditory cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats. In an oddball condition, tone frequency was used to differentiate deviants interspersed randomly among a standard tone. Mismatch responses were observed at 60-100 ms after stimulus onset for frequency increases of 5% and 12.5% but not for similarly descending deviants. The response diminished when the silent inter-stimulus interval was increased from 375 ms to 600 ms for +5% deviants and from 600 ms to 1000 ms for +12.5% deviants. In comparison to the oddball condition the response also diminished in a control condition in which no repetitive standards were presented (equiprobable condition. These findings suggest that the rat mismatch response is similar to the human MMN and indicate that anesthetized rats provide a valuable model for studies of central auditory processing.

  3. Real Time Wind Turbine Simulator Based On Frequency Controlled AC Servomotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil CEANGÃ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the development of a real time wind turbine simulator. The simulator is designed to generate wind power on its shaft, and provide the static and dynamic characteristics of a given turbine. The general structure of the simulator is composed of two subsystems: a “soft simulator” which realizes the real time simulation of the wind turbine, on the basis of the mathematical model, an electromechanical tracking system which receives the reference signal from the softsimulator, and provides a measurable output variable transmitted as response variable to the soft-simulator. The work concerns a wind turbine simulator using a tracking system realized on the basis on a frequency controlled AC servo-motor. This servo-motor is mechanically coupled with a pendulum machine, which realises the shaft torque of the electrical generator. The experimental system is built around the DS1103 PPC Controlled Board (dSPACE, which offers a rapid control prototyping, by Matlab-Simulink software tools. Experimental results from the real time WTS are presented.

  4. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  5. Radio Frequency Scanning and Simulation of Oriented Strand Board Material Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jilei; Steele, Philip. H.; Donohoe, J. Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Oriented strandboard (OSB) is a wood composite product with the largest market share in U.S. residential and commercial construction. Wood specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) play an important role in the OSB manufacturing process. They are the two of the critical variables that manufacturers are required to monitor, locate, and control in order to produce a product with consistent quality. In this study, radio frequency scanning nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies evaluated the local area MC and SG of OSB panels following panel production by hot pressing. A finite element software simulation tool was used to optimize the sensor geometry and for investigating the interaction between electromagnetic field and wood dielectric properties. Our results indicate the RF scanning response is closely correlated to the MC and SG variations in OSB panels. Radio frequency NDE appears to have potential as an effective method for insuring OSB panel quality during manufacturing.

  6. Simulating Silicon Photomultiplier Response to Scintillation Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; van Dam, Herman T.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The response of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to optical signals is affected by many factors including photon-detection efficiency, recovery time, gain, optical crosstalk, afterpulsing, dark count, and detector dead time. Many of these parameters vary with overvoltage and temperature. When used to detect scintillation light, there is a complicated non-linear relationship between the incident light and the response of the SiPM. In this paper, we propose a combined discrete-time discrete-event Monte Carlo (MC) model to simulate SiPM response to scintillation light pulses. Our MC model accounts for all relevant aspects of the SiPM response, some of which were not accounted for in the previous models. We also derive and validate analytic expressions for the single-photoelectron response of the SiPM and the voltage drop across the quenching resistance in the SiPM microcell. These analytic expressions consider the effect of all the circuit elements in the SiPM and accurately simulate the time-variation in overvoltage across the microcells of the SiPM. Consequently, our MC model is able to incorporate the variation of the different SiPM parameters with varying overvoltage. The MC model is compared with measurements on SiPM-based scintillation detectors and with some cases for which the response is known a priori. The model is also used to study the variation in SiPM behavior with SiPM-circuit parameter variations and to predict the response of a SiPM-based detector to various scintillators. PMID:26236040

  7. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  8. Response growth using a low-frequency suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Jeffrey J; Nair, Padmaja

    2007-12-01

    Numerous psychophysical studies on two-tone suppression have been carried out. More recently, researchers have attempted to relate the magnitude of suppression to the level of suppressee. [Wojtczak, M., Viemeister, N.F., 2005. Psychophysical response growth under suppression. In: Pressnitzer, D., de Cheveigne, A., McAdams, S., Collet, L. (Eds.), Auditory Signal Processing: Physiology, Psychoaccoustics, and Models. Springer, New York, pp. 67-74] demonstrated that the magnitude of suppression for a higher-frequency, fixed-level suppressor decreases with increasing level of the suppressee. This suggests a linearization of the basilar membrane response in presence of a high-frequency suppressor. The present study expands these results to a low-frequency suppressor of varying intensity levels. Detection of a 10-ms, 4.0-kHz probe was measured under different forward-masking conditions: one with a 200-ms, 4.0-kHz masker (suppressee) presented with no suppressor and another with the same masker paired with a 2.2-kHz, 200-ms suppressor. The 4.0-kHz masker level was varied adaptively and a range of probe levels was used to measure the growth of suppression. Results indicate that (1) the magnitude of suppression increases with increasing suppressor level and (2) generally, the probe level was not related to the magnitude of suppression.

  9. Identification of damage based on frequency response function (FRF data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman M. S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical joints, particularly fasteners such as bolted joints have a complex non-linear behaviour. The non-linearity might emerge from the material, geometry or by the contacts in the joints. However, damage to a structure can be happened either their connections or the material of components. The effect of damage can change the dynamic properties of the structure such as natural frequencies and mode shapes and structural performance and can cause premature failure to structure. This paper presents a damage detection method using a vibration based damage detection method based on the frequency response function (FRF data. A combination of numerical model and physical bolted jointed structure of damaged and undamaged structure will be investigated. The validation is employed to detect the presence of damage in the structure based on the frequency response function (FRF data from the parameter values used in the benchmark model and damaged model. The comparisons of the undamaged and damaged structure of the FRF have revealed the damaged structure was shifted from the undamaged structure. The effect of the FRF between undamaged and damaged structure is clearly affected by the reduction of stiffness for the damaged structure.

  10. Optimization of a space spectrograph main frame and frequency response analysis of the frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-yu; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Yang, Shi-mo

    2009-07-01

    A space spectrograph main structure is optimized and examined in order to satisfy the space operational needs. The space spectrograph will be transported into its operational orbit by the launch vehicle and it will undergo dynamic environment in the spacecraft injection period. The unexpected shocks may cause declination of observation accuracy and even equipment damages. The main frame is one of the most important parts because its mechanical performance has great influence on the operational life of the spectrograph, accuracy of observation, etc. For the reason of cost reduction and stability confirming, lower weight and higher structure stiffness of the frame are simultaneously required. Structure optimization was conducted considering the initial design modal analysis results. The base modal frequency raised 10.34% while the whole weight lowered 8.63% compared to the initial design. The purpose of this study is to analyze the new design of main frame mechanical properties and verify whether it can satisfy strict optical demands under the dynamic impact during spacecraft injection. For realizing and forecasting the frequency response characteristics of the main structure in mechanical environment experiment, dynamic analysis of the structure should be performed simulating impulse loads from the bottom base. Therefore, frequency response analysis (FRA) of the frame was then performed using the FEA software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN. Results of shock response spectrum (SRS) responses from the base excitations were given. Stress and acceleration dynamic responses of essential positions in the spacecraft injection course were also calculated and spectrometer structure design was examined considering stiffness / strength demands. In this simulation, maximum stresses of Cesic material in two acceleration application cases are 45.1 and 74.1 MPa, respectively. They are all less than yield strengths. As is demonstrated from the simulation, strength reservation of the frame is

  11. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response. The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background.Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n=12 and older (n=12 adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR. To record Frequency Following Responses (FFR elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0 of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone were used as the stimulus.Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the

  12. Aircraft Fault Detection Using Real-Time Frequency Response Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time method for estimating time-varying aircraft frequency responses from input and output measurements was demonstrated. The Bat-4 subscale airplane was used with NASA Langley Research Center's AirSTAR unmanned aerial flight test facility to conduct flight tests and collect data for dynamic modeling. Orthogonal phase-optimized multisine inputs, summed with pilot stick and pedal inputs, were used to excite the responses. The aircraft was tested in its normal configuration and with emulated failures, which included a stuck left ruddervator and an increased command path latency. No prior knowledge of a dynamic model was used or available for the estimation. The longitudinal short period dynamics were investigated in this work. Time-varying frequency responses and stability margins were tracked well using a 20 second sliding window of data, as compared to a post-flight analysis using output error parameter estimation and a low-order equivalent system model. This method could be used in a real-time fault detection system, or for other applications of dynamic modeling such as real-time verification of stability margins during envelope expansion tests.

  13. Mid Frequency Shock Response Determination by Using Energy Flow Method and Time Domain Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hyun Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock induced vibration can be more crucial in the mid frequency range where the dynamic couplings with structural parts and components play important roles. To estimate the behavior of structures in this frequency range where conventional analytical schemes, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA and finite element analysis (FEA methods may become inaccurate, many alternative methodologies have been tried up to date. This study presents an effective and practical method to accurately predict transient responses in the mid frequency range without having to resort to the large computational efforts. Specifically, the present study employs the more realistic frequency response functions (FRFs from the energy flow method (EFM which is a hybrid method combining the pseudo SEA equation (or SEA-Like equation and modal information obtained by the finite element analysis (FEA. Furthermore, to obtain the time responses synthesized with modal characteristics, a time domain correction is practiced with the input force signal and the reference FRF on a position of the response subsystem. A numerical simulation is performed for a simple five plate model to show its suitability and effectiveness over the standard analytical schemes.

  14. Effects of Frequency and Acceleration Amplitude on Osteoblast Mechanical Vibration Responses: A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone cells are deformed according to mechanical stimulation they receive and their mechanical characteristics. However, how osteoblasts are affected by mechanical vibration frequency and acceleration amplitude remains unclear. By developing 3D osteoblast finite element (FE models, this study investigated the effect of cell shapes on vibration characteristics and effect of acceleration (vibration intensity on vibrational responses of cultured osteoblasts. Firstly, the developed FE models predicted natural frequencies of osteoblasts within 6.85–48.69 Hz. Then, three different levels of acceleration of base excitation were selected (0.5, 1, and 2 g to simulate vibrational responses, and acceleration of base excitation was found to have no influence on natural frequencies of osteoblasts. However, vibration response values of displacement, stress, and strain increased with the increase of acceleration. Finally, stress and stress distributions of osteoblast models under 0.5 g acceleration in Z-direction were investigated further. It was revealed that resonance frequencies can be a monotonic function of cell height or bottom area when cell volumes and material properties were assumed as constants. These findings will be useful in understanding how forces are transferred and influence osteoblast mechanical responses during vibrations and in providing guidance for cell culture and external vibration loading in experimental and clinical osteogenesis studies.

  15. Bias Errors due to Leakage Effects When Estimating Frequency Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Josefsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency response functions are often utilized to characterize a system's dynamic response. For a wide range of engineering applications, it is desirable to determine frequency response functions for a system under stochastic excitation. In practice, the measurement data is contaminated by noise and some form of averaging is needed in order to obtain a consistent estimator. With Welch's method, the discrete Fourier transform is used and the data is segmented into smaller blocks so that averaging can be performed when estimating the spectrum. However, this segmentation introduces leakage effects. As a result, the estimated frequency response function suffers from both systematic (bias and random errors due to leakage. In this paper the bias error in the H1 and H2-estimate is studied and a new method is proposed to derive an approximate expression for the relative bias error at the resonance frequency with different window functions. The method is based on using a sum of real exponentials to describe the window's deterministic autocorrelation function. Simple expressions are derived for a rectangular window and a Hanning window. The theoretical expressions are verified with numerical simulations and a very good agreement is found between the results from the proposed bias expressions and the empirical results.

  16. Application of a LiFePO4 Battery Energy Storage System to Primary Frequency Control: Simulations and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Massimo Gatta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental application of LiFePO4 battery energy storage systems (BESSs to primary frequency control, currently being performed by Terna, the Italian transmission system operator (TSO. BESS performance in the primary frequency control role was evaluated by means of a simplified electrical-thermal circuit model, taking into account also the BESS auxiliary consumptions, coupled with a cycle-life model, in order to assess the expected life of the BESS. Numerical simulations have been carried out considering the system response to real frequency measurements taken in Italy, spanning a whole year; a parametric study taking into account different values of governor droop and of BESS charge/discharge rates (C-rates was also performed. Simulations, fully validated by experimental results obtained thus far, evidenced a severe trade-off between expected lifetime and overall efficiency, which significantly restricts the choice of operating parameters for frequency control.

  17. Frequency Response Adaptive Control of a Refrigeration Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the adaptation of controller parameters in a single control loop based upon the estimation of frequency response parameters has been presented in an earlier paper. This paper contains an extension and a generalization of the first method and results in a more versatile solution which is applicable to a wider range of process characteristics. The application of this adaptive control technique is illustrated by a laboratory refrigeration cycle in which the evaporator pressure controls the speed of the compressor.

  18. Effect of geometry in frequency response modeling of nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, M. Nasr; Yilmaz, M.; Sonne, M. R.; Hattel, J. H.; Alaca, B. Erdem

    2016-06-01

    The trend towards nanomechanical resonator sensors with increasing sensitivity raises the need to address challenges encountered in the modeling of their mechanical behavior. Selecting the best approach in mechanical response modeling amongst the various potential computational solid mechanics methods is subject to controversy. A guideline for the selection of the appropriate approach for a specific set of geometry and mechanical properties is needed. In this study, geometrical limitations in frequency response modeling of flexural nanomechanical resonators are investigated. Deviation of Euler and Timoshenko beam theories from numerical techniques including finite element modeling and Surface Cauchy-Born technique are studied. The results provide a limit beyond which surface energy contribution dominates the mechanical behavior. Using the Surface Cauchy-Born technique as the reference, a maximum error on the order of 50 % is reported for high-aspect ratio resonators.

  19. Prediction of power system frequency response after generator outages using neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.B.; Popovic, D.P. (Electrotechnicki Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.-H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A new methodology is presented for estimating the frequency behaviour of power systems necessary for an indication of under-frequency load shedding in steady-state security assessment. It is well known that large structural disturbances such as generator tripping or load outages can initiate cascading outages, system separation into islands, and even the complete breakup. The approach provides a fairly accurate method of estimating the system average frequency response without making simplifications or neglecting non-linearities and small time constants in the equations of generating units, voltage regulators and turbines. The efficiency of the new procedure is demonstrated using the New England power system model for a series of characteristic perturbations. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by comparison with the simulation of short-term dynamics including effects of control and automatic devices. (author)

  20. Sampling frequency, response times and embedded signal filtration in fast, high efficiency liquid chromatography: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M Farooq; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kadjo, Akinde F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-02-11

    With increasingly efficient columns, eluite peaks are increasingly narrower. To take full advantage of this, choice of the detector response time and the data acquisition rate a.k.a. detector sampling frequency, have become increasingly important. In this work, we revisit the concept of data sampling from the theorem variously attributed to Whittaker, Nyquist, Kotelnikov, and Shannon. Focusing on time scales relevant to the current practice of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and optical absorbance detection (the most commonly used method), even for very narrow simulated peaks Fourier transformation shows that theoretical minimum sampling frequency is still relatively low (fast chromatography on a state-of-the-art column (38,000 plates), we evaluate the responses produced by different present generation instruments, each with their unique black box digital filters. We show that the common wisdom of sampling 20 points per peak can be inadequate for high efficiency columns and that the sampling frequency and response choices do affect the peak shape. If the sampling frequency is too low or response time is too large, the observed peak shapes will not remain as narrow as they really are - this is especially true for high efficiency and high speed separations. It is shown that both sampling frequency and digital filtering affect the retention time, noise amplitude, peak shape and width in a complex fashion. We show how a square-wave driven light emitting diode source can reveal the nature of the embedded filter. We discuss time uncertainties related to the choice of sampling frequency. Finally, we suggest steps to obtain optimum results from a given system.

  1. Frequency response function-based model updating using Kriging model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. T.; Wang, C. J.; Zhao, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    An acceleration frequency response function (FRF) based model updating method is presented in this paper, which introduces Kriging model as metamodel into the optimization process instead of iterating the finite element analysis directly. The Kriging model is taken as a fast running model that can reduce solving time and facilitate the application of intelligent algorithms in model updating. The training samples for Kriging model are generated by the design of experiment (DOE), whose response corresponds to the difference between experimental acceleration FRFs and its counterpart of finite element model (FEM) at selected frequency points. The boundary condition is taken into account, and a two-step DOE method is proposed for reducing the number of training samples. The first step is to select the design variables from the boundary condition, and the selected variables will be passed to the second step for generating the training samples. The optimization results of the design variables are taken as the updated values of the design variables to calibrate the FEM, and then the analytical FRFs tend to coincide with the experimental FRFs. The proposed method is performed successfully on a composite structure of honeycomb sandwich beam, after model updating, the analytical acceleration FRFs have a significant improvement to match the experimental data especially when the damping ratios are adjusted.

  2. Numerical simulation and analysis for low-frequency rock physics measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunhui; Tang, Genyang; Wang, Shangxu; He, Yanxiao

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, several experimental methods have been introduced to measure the elastic parameters of rocks in the relatively low-frequency range, such as differential acoustic resonance spectroscopy (DARS) and stress-strain measurement. It is necessary to verify the validity and feasibility of the applied measurement method and to quantify the sources and levels of measurement error. Relying solely on the laboratory measurements, however, we cannot evaluate the complete wavefield variation in the apparatus. Numerical simulations of elastic wave propagation, on the other hand, are used to model the wavefield distribution and physical processes in the measurement systems, and to verify the measurement theory and analyze the measurement results. In this paper we provide a numerical simulation method to investigate the acoustic waveform response of the DARS system and the quasi-static responses of the stress-strain system, both of which use axisymmetric apparatus. We applied this method to parameterize the properties of the rock samples, the sample locations and the sensor (hydrophone and strain gauges) locations and simulate the measurement results, i.e. resonance frequencies and axial and radial strains on the sample surface, from the modeled wavefield following the physical experiments. Rock physical parameters were estimated by inversion or direct processing of these data, and showed a perfect match with the true values, thus verifying the validity of the experimental measurements. Error analysis was also conducted for the DARS system with 18 numerical samples, and the sources and levels of error are discussed. In particular, we propose an inversion method for estimating both density and compressibility of these samples. The modeled results also showed fairly good agreement with the real experiment results, justifying the effectiveness and feasibility of our modeling method.

  3. Accurate simulation of Raman amplified lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Olesen, Anders Sig; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using a Raman amplifier for loss compensation is presented together with a numerical model capable of predicting the shape of individual pulses as well as the overall envelope of more than 100 pulses. The generated pulse envelope consists of 116 pulses...

  4. Simulation of the ultrasonic array response from real branched cracks using an efficient finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, Maria V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, United Kingdom and Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol BS34 7QE (United Kingdom); Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Barden, Tim J.; Dunhill, Tony K. [Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol BS34 7QE (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A hybrid model to simulate the ultrasonic array response from stress corrosion cracks is presented. These cracks are branched and difficult to detect so the model is required to enable optimization of an array design. An efficient frequency-domain finite element method is described and selected to simulate the ultrasonic scattering. Experimental validation results are presented, followed by an example of the simulated ultrasonic array response from a real stress corrosion crack whose geometry is obtained from an X-ray Computed Tomography image. A simulation-assisted array design methodology, which includes the model and use of real crack geometries, is proposed.

  5. Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2016-03-01

    Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.

  6. Research on influencing factors of LED frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tianyu; Qian, Keyuan

    2017-08-01

    In LED-based visible light communication, the choice of light source device is an important issue. In this paper, the frequency response (FR) of different types of blue LEDs and phosphors is measured. On the basis of that, this paper proposes the FR model of phosphor and supplements the FR model of blue LED. And also, a method is proposed to calculate the FR of phosphor coated LEDs using FR of blue LED and that of phosphor. On this basis, this paper analyses the influencing factors of the FR of blue LED and FR of phosphor respectively. It provides guidance for not only selecting the light source device but also selecting and blending phosphor in visible light communication based on LED.

  7. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Stochastic electrodynamics simulations for collective atom response in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark D.; Jenkins, Stewart D.; Bronstein, Yael; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2017-08-01

    We study the collective optical response of an atomic ensemble confined within a single-mode optical cavity by stochastic electrodynamics simulations that include the effects of atomic position correlations, internal level structure, and spatial variations in cavity coupling strength and atom density. In the limit of low light intensity, the simulations exactly reproduce the full quantum field-theoretical description for cold stationary atoms and at higher light intensities we introduce semiclassical approximations to atomic saturation that we compare with the exact solution in the case of two atoms. We find that collective subradiant modes of the atoms, with very narrow linewidths, can be coupled to the cavity field by spatial variation of the atomic transition frequency and resolved at low intensities, and show that they can be specifically driven by tailored transverse pumping beams. We show that the cavity optical response, in particular both the subradiant mode profile and the resonance shift of the cavity mode, can be used as a diagnostic tool for the position correlations of the atoms and hence the atomic quantum many-body phase. The quantum effects are found to be most prominent close to the narrow subradiant mode resonances at high light intensities. Although an optical cavity can generally strongly enhance quantum fluctuations via light confinement, we show that the semiclassical approximation to the stochastic electrodynamics model provides at least a qualitative agreement with the exact optical response outside the subradiant mode resonances even in the presence of significant saturation of the atoms.

  9. Individual brain-frequency responses to self-selected music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Höller, Peter; Crone, Julia Sophia; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-12-01

    Music is a stimulus which may give rise to a wide range of emotional and cognitive responses. Therefore, brain reactivity to music has become a focus of interest in cognitive neuroscience. It is possible that individual preference moderates the effectof music on the brain. In the present study we examined whether there are common effects of listening to music even if each subject in a sample chooses their own piece of music. We invited 18 subjects to bring along their favorite relaxing music, and their favourite stimulating music. Additionally, a condition with tactile stimulation on the foot and a baseline condition (rest) without stimulation were used. The tactile stimulation was chosen to provide a simple, non-auditory condition which would be identical for all subjects. The electroencephalogram was recorded for each of the 3 conditions and during rest. We found responses in the alpha range mainly on parietal and occipital sites that were significant compared to baseline in 13 subjects during relaxing music, 15 subjects during activating music, and 16 subjects during tactile stimulation. Most subjects showed an alpha desynchronization in a lower alpha range followed by a synchronization in an upper frequency range. However, some subjects showed an increase in this area, whereas others showed a decrease only. In addition, many subjects showed reactivity in the beta range. Beta activity was especially increased while listening to activating music and during tactile stimulation in most subjects. We found interindividual differences in the response patterns even though the stimuli provoked comparable subjective emotions (relaxation, activation), and even if the stimulus was the same for all subjects (somatosensory stimulation). We suggest that brain responsivity to music should be examined individually by considering individual characteristics.

  10. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  11. Wavelet-Based Frequency Response Function: Comparative Study of Input Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dziedziech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant systems can be found in many areas of engineering. It is widely accepted that the classical Fourier-based methods are not suitable for the analysis and identification of such systems. The time-variant frequency response function—based on the continuous wavelet transform—is used in this paper for the analysis of time-variant systems. The focus is on the comparative study of various broadband input excitations. The performance of the method is tested using simulated data from a simple MDOF system and experimental data from a frame-like structure.

  12. Responses of Haloarchaea to Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Legat, Andrea; Schwimbersky, Karin; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2011-04-01

    Various effects of microgravity on prokaryotes have been recognized in recent years, with the focus on studies of pathogenic bacteria. No archaea have been investigated yet with respect to their responses to microgravity. For exposure experiments on spacecrafts or on the International Space Station, halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are usually embedded in halite, where they accumulate in fluid inclusions. In a liquid environment, these cells will experience microgravity in space, which might influence their viability and survival. Two haloarchaeal strains, Haloferax mediterranei and Halococcus dombrowskii, were grown in simulated microgravity (SMG) with the rotary cell culture system (RCCS, Synthecon). Initially, salt precipitation and detachment of the porous aeration membranes in the RCCS were observed, but they were avoided in the remainder of the experiment by using disposable instead of reusable vessels. Several effects were detected, which were ascribed to growth in SMG: Hfx. mediterranei's resistance to the antibiotics bacitracin, erythromycin, and rifampicin increased markedly; differences in pigmentation and whole cell protein composition (proteome) of both strains were noted; cell aggregation of Hcc. dombrowskii was notably reduced. The results suggest profound effects of SMG on haloarchaeal physiology and cellular processes, some of which were easily observable and measurable. This is the first report of archaeal responses to SMG. The molecular mechanisms of the effects induced by SMG on prokaryotes are largely unknown; haloarchaea could be used as nonpathogenic model systems for their elucidation and in addition could provide information about survival during lithopanspermia (interplanetary transport of microbes inside meteorites).

  13. Response prediction for modified mechanical systems based on in-situ frequency response functions: Theoretical and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwei; Zhu, Ping

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a general method using in-situ frequency response functions (FRFs) is proposed for predicting operational responses of modified mechanical systems. In the method responses of modified mechanical systems can be calculated by using the delta dynamic stiffness matrix, the subsystem FRF matrix and responses of the original system, even though operational forces are unknown. The proposed method is derived theoretically in a general form as well as for six specific scenarios. The six scenarios correspond respectively to: (a) modifications made on the mass; (b) changes made on the stiffness values of the link between a degree-of-freedom (DOF) and the ground; (c) the fully rigid link between a DOF and the ground; (d) changes made on the stiffness values of the link between two DOFs; (e) the null link between two DOFs and (f) the fully rigid link between two DOFs. It is found that for scenarios (a), (b) and (d) the delta dynamic stiffness matrix is required when predicting responses of the modified mechanical system. But for scenarios (c), (e) and (f), no delta dynamic stiffness matrix is required and the new system responses can be calculated solely using the subsystem FRF matrix and responses of the original system. The proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example and validated using data generated by finite element simulations. The work in this paper will be beneficial to solving vibration and noise engineering problems.

  14. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAP,JEROME S.; NELSON,CURTIS F.

    2000-11-17

    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  15. Comparison of Bergeron and Frequency-dependent cable models for the simulation of electromagnetic transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    analyses the simulation errors of different Bergeron models to a reference frequency-dependent model for a 150kV cable. The simulations consider flat and trefoil installation, both-ends bonding and cross-bonding, ideal voltage source and modelling of the area around the cable. The Bergeron model...... the modelling of the area around the cable being energised, the Bergeron model has a small error if tuned for the right frequency....

  16. Model of the Radio Frequency (RF) Excitation Response from Monopole and Dipole Antennas in a Large Scale Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Good antenna-mode coupling is needed for determining the amount of propellant in a tank through the method of radio frequency mass gauging (RFMG). The antenna configuration and position in a tank are important factors in coupling the antenna to the natural electromagnetic modes. In this study, different monopole and dipole antenna mounting configurations and positions were modeled and responses simulated in a full-scale tank model with the transient solver of CST Microwave Studio (CST Computer Simulation Technology of America, Inc.). The study was undertaken to qualitatively understand the effect of antenna design and placement within a tank on the resulting radio frequency (RF) tank spectrum.

  17. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers - Application to Planck/HFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    uc(Context): Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. uc(Goal): We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. uc(Method): The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. uc(Results): The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  18. Circuit-level simulation of the hysteresis inversion frequency of the ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mengyao; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Zhang Weili; Zou Xihua

    2009-01-01

    The V-shaped electro-optical properties control is investigated by an equivalent circuit model. Simulation results show that genuine V-shaped form is only observed at hysteresis inversion frequency, and below and above this frequency an anomalous and normal hysteresis are observed. And the inversion frequency decreases with the resistance of ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) layer following logfi=-alogRLC+b. The results are in good accordance with the reported experimental results.

  19. Review and Simulation of Fixed and Adaptive Hysteresis Current Control Considering Switching Losses and High-Frequency Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Vahedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis Current Control (HCC is widely used due to its simplicity in implementation, fast and accurate response. However, the main issue is its variable switching frequency which leads to extraswitching losses and injecting high-frequency harmonics into the system current. To solve this problem, adaptive hysteresis current control (AHCC has been introduced which produces hysteresis bandwidth which instantaneously results in smoother and constant switching frequency. In this paper the instantaneous power theory is used to extract the harmonic components of system current. Then fixed-band hysteresis current control is explained. Because of fixed-band variable frequency disadvantages, the adaptive hysteresis current control is explained that leads to fixing the switching frequency and reducing the high-frequency components in source current waveform. Due to these advantages of AHCC, the switching frequency and switching losses will be diminished appropriately. Some simulations are done in MATLAB/Simulink. The Fourier Transform and THD results of source and load currents and the instantaneous switching frequency diagram are discussed to prove the efficiency of this method. The Fourier Transform and THD results of source and load currents are discussed to prove the validity of this method.

  20. Simulation of SU-8 frequency-driven scratch drive actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation of Scratch Drive Actuators (SDAs) for micro-robotic applications. SDAs use electrostatic forces to generate motion on top of an interdigitated electrode array. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate several design geometries and micro-actuator configurations using ConventorWare®\\'s finite element analysis module. The study performed investigates the SDAs modal and electrostatic behavior and the effects of linking two or more SDAs together in a microrobot device. In addition, the interdigitated electrode array performance, used for power delivery, was studied by changing the thickness of its dielectric layer. We present our observations based on these studies, which will aid in the understanding and development of future SDA designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Finesse, Frequency domain INterferomEter Simulation SoftwarE

    CERN Document Server

    Freise, Andreas; Bond, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Finesse is a fast interferometer simulation program. For a given optical setup, it computes the light field amplitudes at every point in the interferometer assuming a steady state. To do so, the interferometer description is translated into a set of linear equations that are solved numerically. For convenience, a number of standard analyses can be performed automatically by the program, namely computing modulation-demodulation error signals, transfer functions, shot-noise-limited sensitivities, and beam shapes. Finesse can perform the analysis using the plane-wave approximation or Hermite-Gauss modes. The latter allows computation of the properties of optical systems like telescopes and the effects of mode matching and mirror angular positions.

  2. Simulation of high frequency nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated sub-tropical soils using DAYCENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique high temporal frequency dataset from an irrigated cotton-wheat rotation was used to test the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. DayCent was able to simulate the effect of different irrigation intens...

  3. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of odd frequency microwave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A microwave intruder simulator for testing motion detection sensors is described. This simulator can be used to evaluate a variety of microwave sensors regardless of the value of the center frequency of the signal utilized. Representative curves from the evaluation of one microwave sensor are also presented.

  4. Simulation of DLA grating structures in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenolf, T.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Niedermayer, U.

    2017-07-01

    Dielectric laser accelerators (DLA) driven by ultrashort laser pulses can reach orders of magnitude larger gradients than contemporary RF electron accelerators. A new implemented field solver based on the finite element method in the frequency domain allows the efficient calculation of the structure constant, i.e. the ratio of energy gain to laser peak amplitude. We present the maximization of this ratio as a parameter study looking at a single grating period only. Based on this optimized shape the entire design of a beta-matched grating is completed in an iterative process. The period length of a beta-matched grating increases due to the increasing velocity of the electron when a subrelativistic beam is accelerated. The determination of the optimal length of each grating period thus requires the knowledge of the energy gain within all so far crossed periods. Furthermore, we outline to reverse the excitation in the presented solver for beam coupling impedance calculations and an estimation of the beam loading intensity limit.

  5. Simulation applied to working frequency selection in large-scale vibrating screen's design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Chen-yu; SU Rong-hua

    2011-01-01

    The working frequency selection of the ZK30525 vibrating screen was studied using ANSYS.Integrating the dynamic performance simulation analysis of the vibrating screen structure,the variation laws of beams' vibration displacements changing with different exciting frequencies were researched.These beams include six beams,with one discharging beam and one in-material beam.Results indicate that vibration displacements in the middle of these beams increase with the augmentation of exciting frequency.When exciting frequency exceeds a certain value,there exists a flat change region for vibration displacement.According to vibrator characteristics,the vibrating screen's working frequency should be selected in the flat change region,and be far away from modal frequencies.The study provides theoretical guidance for the reasonable working frequency selection of the large-scale vibrating screen.

  6. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc power electronic systems are widely used in a variety of applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircraft and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions and frequency coupling between network...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...... and loads and other converters. Hence, time-domain simulations are usually required to consider such a complex system behavior. However, simulations in the time-domain may increase the calculation time and the utilization of computer memory. Furthermore, frequency coupling driven by multiple converters...

  7. Cropping frequency and area response to climate variability can exceed yield response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Vanwey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie A.; Mustard, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural output to climate change has often been estimated by modelling crop yields under climate change scenarios or with statistical analysis of the impacts of year-to-year climatic variability on crop yields. However, the area of cropland and the number of crops harvested per growing season (cropping frequency) both also affect agricultural output and both also show sensitivity to climate variability and change. We model the change in agricultural output associated with the response of crop yield, crop frequency and crop area to year-to-year climate variability in Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, a key agricultural region. Roughly 70% of the change in agricultural output caused by climate was determined by changes in frequency and/or changes in area. Hot and wet conditions were associated with the largest losses and cool and dry conditions with the largest gains. All frequency and area effects had the same sign as total effects, but this was not always the case for yield effects. A focus on yields alone may therefore bias assessments of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts to agriculture should seek to limit production losses not only from crop yield, but also from changes in cropland area and cropping frequency.

  8. Theta frequency background tunes transmission but not summation of spiking responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30-135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30-135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations.

  9. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities.

  10. Dynamic Response to Pedestrian Loads with Statistical Frequency Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian loads depend on the regularity and frequency of the footfall process. Traditionally, pedestrian loads have been represented by one or more specific harmonic components with a well-defined frequency, and light footbridges have been investigated for resonance vibration generated by the h......Pedestrian loads depend on the regularity and frequency of the footfall process. Traditionally, pedestrian loads have been represented by one or more specific harmonic components with a well-defined frequency, and light footbridges have been investigated for resonance vibration generated...

  11. Computational simulations of thermally activated magnetisation dynamics at high frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Hannay, J D

    2001-01-01

    short time scale breakdown of the Arrhenius-Neel law for a single magnetic moment is demonstrated and explained in terms of the dynamics of the precessional motion. The variation in response as a function of the damping parameter is found to be an important factor determining the remanent magnetisation for a given pulse width. The effects of interactions between moments are described, including the apparent increase in effective damping. It is shown that interactions between grains can be described in terms of thermally excited spin waves. The most important device for today's large scale information storage is the magnetic hard disk drive. This is because it can store vast amounts of data and also provides the fastest way of accessing this valuable information. A current state of the art commercially available hard disk has data rates in excess of 1 GHz which means the magnetic bits are required to reverse in less than one nanosecond. The areal density is greater than 10 Gbits/in sup 2 which requires extreme...

  12. Evaluation of the Inertial Response of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines Using Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods using advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.

  13. Modal response of 4-rod type radio frequency quadrupole linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Avik; Mahapatra, Abhijit [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), M.G. Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India); Mondal, Manas; Chakrabarti, Alok [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Sector-1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2009-10-15

    This paper deals with the analysis and experimental study of natural frequencies of vibration of a 4-rod type radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The eigenvalue analysis of the structure has been done both analytically (multispan beam concept) as well as using blocked Lanczos eigenvalue finite element solver with an ability to extract the rigid body modes. This has been done in the mechanical design phase to find the level of agreement between the output of simplified analytical analysis results and the output of a commercial finite element method (FEM) solver, since a full scale RFQ structure is too complex to handle analytically. Experimental validation of the analysis results has been done on the physical 1.7 m RFQ at the installation site. The experimental data obtained were later analyzed and found to be in close agreement with the predicted frequencies in the lower frequency ranges. It gets more and more deviated in the higher frequency ranges. Also some frequencies were observed during experimentation, which were not found in the finite element analysis results. The source of those frequencies are to be further investigated as it may play a predominant role in the design high quality factor beam line cavities for higher operational efficiency.

  14. A framework for response surface methodology for simulation optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Neddermeijer; G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); N. Piersma (Nanda); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for automated optimization of stochastic simulation models using Response Surface Methodology. The framework is especially intended for simulation models where the calculation of the corresponding stochastic response function is very expensive or time-consuming. Re

  15. SPH Simulation of Acoustic Waves: Effects of Frequency, Sound Pressure, and Particle Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic problems consisting of multiphase systems or with deformable boundaries are difficult to describe using mesh-based methods, while the meshfree, Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method can handle such complicated problems. In this paper, after solving linearized acoustic equations with the standard SPH theory, the feasibility of the SPH method in simulating sound propagation in the time domain is validated. The effects of sound frequency, maximum sound pressure amplitude, and particle spacing on numerical error and time cost are then subsequently discussed based on the sound propagation simulation. The discussion based on a limited range of frequency and sound pressure demonstrates that the rising of sound frequency increases simulation error, and the increase is nonlinear, whereas the rising sound pressure has limited effects on the error. In addition, decreasing the particle spacing reduces the numerical error, while simultaneously increasing the CPU time. The trend of both changes is close to linear on a logarithmic scale.

  16. Frequency Response Function Based Damage Identification for Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph Acton

    Structural health monitoring technologies continue to be pursued for aerospace structures in the interests of increased safety and, when combined with health prognosis, efficiency in life-cycle management. The current dissertation develops and validates damage identification technology as a critical component for structural health monitoring of aerospace structures and, in particular, composite unmanned aerial vehicles. The primary innovation is a statistical least-squares damage identification algorithm based in concepts of parameter estimation and model update. The algorithm uses frequency response function based residual force vectors derived from distributed vibration measurements to update a structural finite element model through statistically weighted least-squares minimization producing location and quantification of the damage, estimation uncertainty, and an updated model. Advantages compared to other approaches include robust applicability to systems which are heavily damped, large, and noisy, with a relatively low number of distributed measurement points compared to the number of analytical degrees-of-freedom of an associated analytical structural model (e.g., modal finite element model). Motivation, research objectives, and a dissertation summary are discussed in Chapter 1 followed by a literature review in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives background theory and the damage identification algorithm derivation followed by a study of fundamental algorithm behavior on a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with generalized damping. Chapter 4 investigates the impact of noise then successfully proves the algorithm against competing methods using an analytical eight degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with non-proportional structural damping. Chapter 5 extends use of the algorithm to finite element models, including solutions for numerical issues, approaches for modeling damping approximately in reduced coordinates, and analytical validation using a composite

  17. Day-Ahead Scheduling Considering Demand Response as a Frequency Control Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qing Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced metering technologies makes demand response (DR able to provide fast response services, e.g., primary frequency control. It is recognized that DR can contribute to the primary frequency control like thermal generators. This paper proposes a day-ahead scheduling method that considers DR as a frequency control resource, so that the DR resources can be dispatched properly with other resources. In the proposed method, the objective of frequency control is realized by defining a frequency limit equation under a supposed contingency. The frequency response model is used to model the dynamics of system frequency. The nonlinear frequency limit equation is transformed to a linear arithmetic equation by piecewise linearization, so that the problem can be solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP. Finally, the proposed method is verified on numerical examples.

  18. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  19. Fast simulation approaches for power fluctuation model of wind farm based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Gao, Wen-zhong; Sun, Yuan-zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one model developed by Riso, DTU, which is capable of simulating the power fluctuation of large wind farms in frequency domain. In the original design, the “frequency-time” transformations are time-consuming and might limit the computation speed for a wind farm of large size....... is more than 300 times if all these approaches are adopted, in any low, medium and high wind speed test scenarios....

  20. Concrete bridge-borne low-frequency noise simulation based on train-track-bridge dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Xu, Y. L.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    Both the vibration of a railway bridge under a moving train and the associated bridge-borne noise are time-varying in nature. The former is commonly predicted in the time domain to take its time-varying and nonlinear properties into account, whereas acoustic computation is generally conducted in the frequency domain to obtain steady responses. This paper presents a general procedure for obtaining various characteristics of concrete bridge-borne low-frequency noise by bridging the gap between time-domain bridge vibration computation and frequency-domain bridge-borne noise simulation. The finite element method (FEM) is first used to solve the transient train-track-bridge dynamic interaction problem, with an emphasis on the local vibration of the bridge. The boundary element method (BEM) is then applied to find the frequency-dependent modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs). The time-domain sound pressure is finally obtained with the help of time-frequency transforms. The proposed procedure is applied to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge to compute the bridge acceleration and bridge-borne noise, and these results are compared with the field measurement results. Both sets of results show the proposed procedure to be feasible and accurate and the dominant frequencies of concrete bridge-borne noise to range from 32 Hz to 100 Hz.

  1. The numerical simulation on electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristics of coal face in time-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shi-jian; Cheng Jiu-long; LIU Jia-qi

    2007-01-01

    This paper took the abnormal geological objects with high or low resistivity in the coal face as the background to establish the physical model. 2D forward numerical simulation for electromagnetic wave equation was implemented by the finite-difference scheme. According to the simulative results, the attenuation-absorption coefficient were calculated respectively based on field intensity and frequency shift parameter. Research result indicates, when coal-bed contains high electric resistivity geological abnormal object or low electric resistivity geological abnormal object, absorption attenuation function researched by frequency shift parameter of electromagnetic wave signal is more sensitive than by electromagnetic field intensity parameter.

  2. Low and High Frequency Models of Response Statistics of a Cylindrical Orthogrid Vehicle Panel to Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David; Gardner, Bryce; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This presentation further develops the orthogrid vehicle panel work. Employed Hybrid Module capabilities to assess both low/mid frequency and high frequency models in the VA One simulation environment. The response estimates from three modeling approaches are compared to ground test measurements. Detailed Finite Element Model of the Test Article -Expect to capture both the global panel modes and the local pocket mode response, but at a considerable analysis expense (time & resources). A Composite Layered Construction equivalent global stiffness approximation using SEA -Expect to capture response of the global panel modes only. An SEA approximation using the Periodic Subsystem Formulation. A finite element model of a single periodic cell is used to derive the vibroacoustic properties of the entire periodic structure (modal density, radiation efficiency, etc. Expect to capture response at various locations on the panel (on the skin and on the ribs) with less analysis expense

  3. Vibrational frequency fluctuations of ionic vibrational probe in water: Theoretical study with molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masaki; Higashi, Masahiro; Ohta, Kaoru; Saito, Shinji; Tominaga, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    The vibrational dynamics of SCN- in H2O are theoretically investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the vibrational solvatochromism theory, we calculate the frequency-frequency time correlation function of the SCN anti-symmetric stretching mode, which is characterized by time constants of 0.13 and 1.41 ps. We find that the frequency fluctuation is almost determined by the electrostatic interaction from the water molecules in the first-hydration shell. The collective dynamics of the water molecules in the first-hydration shell is found to be similar to that of bulk water, though the hydrogen bond between the ion and water molecule is very strong.

  4. Effects of vibration frequency on vibration-assisted nano-scratch process of mono-crystalline copper via molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Yihan; Han, Lei; Kui, Hailin

    2016-03-01

    It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM), especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM) potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.

  5. Effects of vibration frequency on vibration-assisted nano-scratch process of mono-crystalline copper via molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM, especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.

  6. Level of Automation and Failure Frequency Effects on Simulated Lunar Lander Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ramirez, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, where instrument-rated pilots completed a simulated terminal descent phase of a lunar landing. Ten pilots participated in a 2 x 2 mixed design experiment, with level of automation as the within-subjects factor and failure frequency as the between subjects factor. The two evaluated levels of automation were high (fully automated landing) and low (manual controlled landing). During test trials, participants were exposed to either a high number of failures (75% failure frequency) or low number of failures (25% failure frequency). In order to investigate the pilots' sensitivity to changes in levels of automation and failure frequency, the dependent measure selected for this experiment was accuracy of failure diagnosis, from which D Prime and Decision Criterion were derived. For each of the dependent measures, no significant difference was found for level of automation and no significant interaction was detected between level of automation and failure frequency. A significant effect was identified for failure frequency suggesting failure frequency has a significant effect on pilots' sensitivity to failure detection and diagnosis. Participants were more likely to correctly identify and diagnose failures if they experienced the higher levels of failures, regardless of level of automation

  7. Analysis of Ripple Effects on Frequency Response Characteristics of Switching Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Eiji; Nakahara, Masatoshi

    In this paper we clarify for the boost and the buck-boost converter that the ripple effect is not ignorable for the frequency response, and reveal that it causes the unexpected characteristics where either the phase lag or the phase lead appears depending on the shape of waveform of the ramp generator in the PWM circuit. Eventually the phase margin for the stability drastically changes depending on the slope direction (normal or reverse) of the sawtooth waveform of the ramp generator even in the same circuit configuration. For the ripple effects we propose the general analysis model and analyze them of the boost and the buck-boost converters. As the result we identify that the ripple effects are caused mainly by the variation of the slope and the average of the ripple, and reveal that the both converters have the asymmetric characteristics for the slope direction of the sawtooth waveform of the ramp generator and there is more advantage for the stability in case of the reverse slope direction than in case of the normal one. It also clarified that the effect of ESR of the output capacitor of the converter on the frequency response is different according to the shape of the sawtooth waveforms. The proposed analysis method is validated by the experiments and simulations.

  8. Use of Nonlinear Frequency Modulated Signals for the Enhancement of Subharmonic Response from Contrast Microbubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ARIF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging with the subharmonic component from contrast microbubbles provide improved CTR (Contrast-to-Tissue Ratio, however it is susceptible to the low amplitude of the subharmonic component. In this simulation study, NLFM (Nonlinear Frequency Modulated signals are proposed in order to enhance the subharmonic response from microbubbles. NLFM signals having fractional bandwidths of 10, 20, and 40% with up and down sweeps were used as excitation. The performance of NLFM signals were compared with the reference tone-burst and LFM (Linear Frequency Modulated signals. The results show that the ultrasound contrast microbubbles can produce subharmonic response which is dependent on the applied signal pressure and bandwidth. It is observed that the subharmonic component of the scattered NLFM signal is 3.2dB higher than the LFM signal, whereas it is 9dB higher compared to the sinusoidal tone-burst signal. The results are also presented which show that the up and down sweeps NLFM signals performed better than the LFM signals at the same acoustic pressure and bandwidth.

  9. Adaptive workflow simulation of emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Guido Wybe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recent incidents and major training exercises in and outside the Netherlands have persistently shown that not having or not sharing information during emergency response are major sources of emergency response inefficiency and error, and affect incident mitigation outcomes through workflow planning

  10. First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuiter, Stacy L; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Zimmer, Walter M X; Sadykova, Dinara; Falcone, Erin A; Friedlaender, Ari S; Joseph, John E; Moretti, David; Schorr, Gregory S; Thomas, Len; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-23

    Most marine mammal- strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant naval exercises. Whales responded strongly to playbacks at low received levels (RLs; 89-127 dB re 1 µPa): after ceasing normal fluking and echolocation, they swam rapidly, silently away, extending both dive duration and subsequent non-foraging interval. Distant sonar exercises (78-106 dB re 1 µPa) did not elicit such responses, suggesting that context may moderate reactions. The observed responses to playback occurred at RLs well below current regulatory thresholds; equivalent responses to operational sonars could elevate stranding risk and reduce foraging efficiency.

  11. Developmental changes in ERP responses to spatial frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, Carlijn; Jonkman, Lisa M; Jaspers-Vlamings, Petra H J M; Cousijn, Janna; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction starts with perception of other persons. One of the first steps in perception is processing of basic information such as spatial frequencies (SF), which represent details and global information. However, although behavioural perception of SF is well investigated, the developmental

  12. Improved low frequency room responses by considering finiteness of room boundary surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    For room acoustic simulations, the acoustic characteristics of room boundary surfaces are typically calculated under the assumption that the surfaces are sufficiently large. In this study, a reflection coefficient for finite surfaces is suggested and its performance is assessed through case studies...... surface impedance values that are assigned to all the boundary surfaces, the suggested reflection coefficient is found to improve low frequency responses compared to the infinite panel theory; larger improvements are found for a more disproportionate room, more absorptive surfaces, and surfaces having...... larger negative phase angles of the surface impedance. A larger improvement is also found for a nonuniform absorption case than for a uniform absorption setting having a similar equivalent absorption coefficient....

  13. Improved Controller Design of Grid Friendly™ Appliances for Primary Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Sun, Yannan; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2015-09-01

    The Grid Friendly$^\\textrm{TM}$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can autonomously switch off the appliances by detecting the under-frequency events. In this paper, the impacts of curtailing frequency threshold on the performance of frequency responsive GFAs are carefully analyzed first. The current method of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds for GFAs is found to be insufficient to guarantee the desired performance especially when the frequency deviation is shallow. In addition, the power reduction of online GFAs could be so excessive that it can even impact the system response negatively. As a remedy to the deficiency of the current controller design, a different way of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds is proposed to ensure the effectiveness of GFAs in frequency protection. Moreover, it is also proposed to introduce a supervisor at each distribution feeder to monitor the curtailing frequency thresholds of online GFAs and take corrective actions if necessary.

  14. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntz, Katanya B; Song, Hongbin; Webb, James G; Mabrok, Mohamed A; Huntington, Elanor H; Yonezawa, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Precise knowledge of an optical device's frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity's optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator's frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation d...

  15. Simulations of the Ocean Response to a Hurricane: Nonlinear Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2009-10-01

    Superinertial internal waves generated by a tropical cyclone can propagate vertically and laterally away from their local generation site and break, contributing to turbulent vertical mixing in the deep ocean and maintenance of the stratification of the main thermocline. In this paper, the results of a modeling study are reported to investigate the mechanism by which superinertial fluctuations are generated in the deep ocean. The general properties of the superinertial wave wake were also characterized as a function of storm speed and central latitude. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) was used to simulate the open ocean response to realistic westward-tracking hurricane-type surface wind stress and heat and net freshwater buoyancy forcing for regions representative of midlatitudes in the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and low latitudes in the eastern Pacific. The model had high horizontal [Δ(x, y) = 1/6°] and vertical (Δz = 5 m in top 100 m) resolution and employed a parameterization for vertical mixing induced by shear instability. In the horizontal momentum equation, the relative size of the nonlinear advection terms, which had a dominant frequency near twice the inertial, was large only in the upper 200 m of water. Below 200 m, the linear momentum equations obeyed a linear balance to 2%. Fluctuations at nearly twice the inertial frequency (2f) were prevalent throughout the depth of the water column, indicating that these nonlinear advection terms in the upper 200 m forced a linear mode below at nearly twice the inertial frequency via vorticity conservation. Maximum variance at 2f in horizontal velocity occurred on the south side of the track. This was in response to vertical advection of northward momentum, which in the north momentum equation is an oscillatory positive definite term that constituted a net force to the south at a frequency near 2f. The ratio of this term to the Coriolis force was larger on the

  16. Cyclokinetic models and simulations for high-frequency turbulence in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhao; Waltz, R. E.; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-10-01

    Gyrokinetics is widely applied in plasma physics. However, this framework is limited to weak turbulence levels and low drift-wave frequencies because high-frequency gyro-motion is reduced by the gyro-phase averaging. In order to test where gyrokinetics breaks down, Waltz and Zhao developed a new theory, called cyclokinetics [R. E. Waltz and Zhao Deng, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012507 (2013)]. Cyclokinetics dynamically follows the high-frequency ion gyro-motion which is nonlinearly coupled to the low-frequency drift-waves interrupting and suppressing gyro-averaging. Cyclokinetics is valid in the high-frequency (ion cyclotron frequency) regime or for high turbulence levels. The ratio of the cyclokinetic perturbed distribution function over equilibrium distribution function δf/ F can approach 1. This work presents, for the first time, a numerical simulation of nonlinear cyclokinetic theory for ions, and describes the first attempt to completely solve the ion gyro-phase motion in a nonlinear turbulence system. Simulations are performed [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 056101 (2015)] in a local flux-tube geometry with the parallel motion and variation suppressed by using a newly developed code named rCYCLO, which is executed in parallel by using an implicit time-advanced Eulerian (or continuum) scheme [Zhao Deng and R. E. Waltz, Comp. Phys. Comm. 195, 23 (2015)]. A novel numerical treatment of the magnetic moment velocity space derivative operator guarantee saccurate conservation of incremental entropy. By comparing the more fundamental cyclokinetic simulations with the corresponding gyrokinetic simulations, the gyrokinetics breakdown condition is quantitatively tested. Gyrokinetic transport and turbulence level recover those of cyclokinetics at high relative ion cyclotron frequencies and low turbulence levels, as required. Cyclokinetic transport and turbulence level are found to be lower than those of gyrokinetics at high turbulence levels and low- Ω* values

  17. Graph-Based Symbolic Technique and Its Application in the Frequency Response Bound Analysis of Analog Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new graph-based symbolic technique (GBST for deriving exact analytical expressions like the transfer function H(s of an analog integrated circuit (IC, is introduced herein. The derived H(s of a given analog IC is used to compute the frequency response bounds (maximum and minimum associated to the magnitude and phase of H(s, subject to some ranges of process variational parameters, and by performing nonlinear constrained optimization. Our simulations demonstrate the usefulness of the new GBST for deriving the exact symbolic expression for H(s, and the last section highlights the good agreement between the frequency response bounds computed by our variational analysis approach versus traditional Monte Carlo simulations. As a conclusion, performing variational analysis using our proposed GBST for computing the frequency response bounds of analog ICs, shows a gain in computing time of 100x for a differential circuit topology and 50x for a 3-stage amplifier, compared to traditional Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Effect of stride frequency on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ishitobi, Masaki; Ogura, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency. These periods of increase or decrease were separated by free frequency running in the order of free stride frequency, stride frequency manipulation (increase or decrease), free stride frequency, and stride frequency manipulation (increase or decrease) for 15min each. The increased and decreased stride frequencies were 110% and 91% of the free running frequency, respectively (196±6, 162±5, and 178±5steps/min, respectively, Pheart rate, or the rate of perceived exhaustion during running. Whole-body sweat loss increased significantly when stride frequency was manipulated (1.48±0.11 and 1.57±0.11kg for control and manipulated stride frequencies, respectively, Prunning economy or central command), our results suggest that manipulation of stride frequency does not have a large effect on sweat loss or other physiological variables, but does increase mean skin temperature during endurance running. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Computer simulation of the collision frequency of two particles in optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sheng-Hua; Li Yin-Mei; Lou Li-Ren; Sun Zhi-Wei

    2005-01-01

    Optical tweezers have been successfully used in the study of colloid science. In most applications people are concerned with the behaviour of a single particle held in the optical tweezers. Recently, the ability of the optical tweezers to simultaneously hold two particles has been used to determine the stability ratio of colloidal dispersion. This new development stimulates the efforts to explore the characteristics of a two-particle system in the optical tweezers.An infinite spherical potential well has been used to estimate the collision frequency for two particles in the optical trap based on a Monte Carlo simulation. In this article, a more reasonable harmonic potential, commonly accepted for the optical tweezers, is adopted in a Monte Carlo simulation of the collision frequency. The effect of hydrodynamic interaction of particles in the trap is also considered. The simulation results based on this improved model show quantitatively that the collision frequency drops down sharply at first and then decreases slowly as the distance between the two particles increases. The simulation also shows how the collision frequency is related to the stiffness of the optical tweezers.

  20. Cylindrical PVF2 film based fiber optic phase modulator - Phase shift nonlinearity and frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-03-01

    A new cylindrical coil configuration for polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film based fiber optic phase modulator is studied for the frequency response and nonlinearity of phase shift at the resonance frequency. This configuration, hitherto unapproached for PVF2 film modulators, offers resonance at well defined, controllable and higher frequencies than possible for the flat-strip configuration. Two versions of this configuration are presented that differ strongly in both the resonance frequency and the phase shift nonlinearity coefficient.

  1. Testing the usefulness of hydrological models in simulating extreme streamflows for frequency analysis purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Li, L.; Wang, J.; Xu, C.-Y.; Guo, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, extreme flood events are becoming more uncertain and greater challenge in the world. Flood frequency analysis is a powerful tool to study and evaluate extreme flood events, and also a key step in design of water resources projects. Hydrological models have been used as an important tool for forecasting extreme flood event and design flood calculation. However, there are little studies on evaluation of the reasonability of flood frequency values obtained from runoff simulations of watershed hydrological models. In this study, the reasonability of the flood frequency analysis obtained from runoff simulations of different hydrological models is evaluated and analyzed by comparison with that from historical runoff observation. Xiangjiang basin, one of the most important economic belts in Hunan Province, is selected as the study region. Xiangjiang basin is always in a severe situation for flood control in summer and has also great influences on Dongting Lake's flood storage capacity. In this study Xiangjiang Basin was divided into 3 sub-basins and 1 downstream section, which have their outflow stations respectively. Each region has integrated and long observed historical runoff and rainfall series from 1961 to 2005. Three conceptual hydrological models, i.e., Xin-anjiang, HBV and WASMOD were established to simulate runoff in each sub-basins of Xiangjiang basin. To utilize the simulations from three hydrological models for frequency analysis, a transformation from deterministic rain-runoff models to stochastic models is needed by adding the model residuals to the simulated discharges using Monte-Carlo method. The commonly used Pearson type III distribution in China and L-moment were used to calculate the frequency. All three hydrological models perform well according to commonly used model evaluation criteria, i.e., Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient and water balance error, etc. However, the frequency analysis results of annual maximum flow simulated

  2. Simulating structural response to water impact

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, James C; Vignjevic, Rade

    2012-01-01

    Structural response to water impact is important for several areas, including the aerospace and marine industries. Aircraft must be designed to cope with ditching and offshore structures are subject to extreme wave impact and green water loading. The goal is a reliable technique for predicting the structural response to extreme water loading. This is a complex problem involving the interaction of non-linear fluid behaviour (breaking waves, fluid impact) with non-linear structural behaviour (l...

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Fluid-Surface Oscillation Frequencies in a Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapuzzano, Matthew; Pierre, Kiesha; Tufekcioglu, Emre; Guldiken, Rasim; Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Crane, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    Many important processes from agriculture to manufacturing depend on the wetting of fluids on rough or textured surfaces. This has traditionally been studied from a macro-perspective. The effects of these surface features can be dramatically altered by vibrations that overcome energy barriers to contact line motion caused by surface roughness. In order to study these effects in confined geometries and at different length scales, a validated model is required. This presentation will compare the measured and simulated frequencies of capillary vibrations in a cylindrical glass tube. Fluid surface vibrations are excited externally through deformation of the interface. The resulting surface oscillations are observed with a high speed video camera and the dominant oscillation frequencies are calculated. The measured oscillation frequencies are compared to predictions from transient CFD simulations across a range of interface diameters from 400 um to 1.5 mm. These results may be used to inform studies of wetting under vibration. NSF CMMI-1361919.

  4. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  5. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation prevents chronic epileptic seizure*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinxu Wang; Xiaoming Wang; Sha Ke; Juan Tan; Litian Hu; Yaodan Zhang; Wenjuan Cui

    2013-01-01

    Although low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation can potentially treat epilepsy, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the influence of low-frequency re-petitive transcranial magnetic simulation on changes in several nonlinear dynamic electroenceph-alographic parameters in rats with chronic epilepsy and explored the mechanism underlying repeti-tive transcranial magnetic simulation-induced antiepileptic effects. An epilepsy model was estab-lished using lithium-pilocarpine intraperitoneal injection into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation for 7 consecutive days. Nonlinear elec-electroencephalographic parameters were obtained from the rats at 7, 14, and 28 days post-stimulation. Results showed significantly lower mean correlation-dimension and Kolmogo-rov-entropy values for stimulated rats than for non-stimulated rats. At 28 days, the complexity and point-wise correlation dimensional values were lower in stimulated rats. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation has suppressive effects on electrical activity in epileptic rats, thus explaining its effectiveness in treating epilepsy.

  6. Calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for flood frequency estimation by continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Robert

    1999-10-01

    An approach is described to the calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, the Probability Distributed Model (PDM), for estimating flood frequencies at gauged sites by continuous flow simulation. A first step was the estimation of routing store parameters by recession curve analysis. Uniform random sampling was then used to search for parameter sets that produced simulations achieving the best fit to observed, hourly flow data over a 2-year period. Goodness of fit was expressed in terms of four objective functions designed to give different degrees of weight to peaks in flow. Flood frequency results were improved, if necessary, by manual adjustment of parameters, with reference to peaks extracted from the entire hourly flow record. Although the primary aim was to reproduce observed peaks, consideration was also given to finding parameter sets capable of generating a realistic overall characterization of the flow regime. Examples are shown where the calibrated model generated simulations that reproduced well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows. Factors affecting the acceptability of these simulations are discussed. For an example catchment, a sensitivity analysis shows that there may be more than one set of parameter values well suited to the simulation of peak flows.

  7. Responsive supply chain: modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected occurrence like natural calamity, abruptly change in customer demands, upgradation of technologies, necessity of compatible suppliers etc. is the most challenging issues even for efficient global supply chain management. Therefore, modeling of responsive supply chain is an emerging technology for sustaining any firm/industry in future competitive environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to not only analyze the performance of efficient supply chain management but also how to improve the performance of existing supply chain with the objective of developing a modeling of responsive supply chain management. The complexity of the model is also highlighted with the help of numerical example. This paper also explores the possibility to mathematical modeling of the responsive supply chain which will be an emerging topic for researchers and practitioners. The modeling of responsive supply chain can be employed as a competitive strategy for e-commerce, green supply chain, and compatible supplier selection problem. The another salient feature of this paper is that a distinct comparative literature review of the lean, agile, efficient, and responsive supply chain management has been presented.

  8. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; McCullough, John

    2017-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these

  9. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Johnson, Matthew D.; McCullough, John P.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    The SLS GNC team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these considerations and will present a framework for responding to

  10. Simulation of the cumulative hydrological response to green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, P. M.; Jefferson, A. J.; Grieser, J. M.; Bush, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cumulative hydrologic performance of green infrastructure in a residential area of the city of Parma, Ohio, draining to a tributary of the Cuyahoga River. Green infrastructure included the following spatially distributed devices: 16 street-side bioretention cells, 7 rain gardens, and 37 rain barrels. Data consisted of rainfall and outfall flow records for a wide range of storm events, including pretreatment and treatment periods. The Stormwater Management Model was calibrated and validated to predict the hydrologic response of green infrastructure. The calibrated model was used to quantify annual water budget alterations and discharge frequency over a 6 year simulation period. For the study catchment, we observed a treatment effect with increases of 1.4% in evaporation, 7.6% in infiltration, and a 9.0% reduction in surface runoff. The hydrologic performance of green infrastructure was evaluated by comparing the flow duration curve for pretreatment and treatment outfall flow scenarios. The flow duration curve shifted downward for the green infrastructure scenario. Discharges with a 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 year return period were reduced by an average of 29%. Parameter and predictive uncertainties were inspected by implementing a Bayesian statistical approach.

  11. Correction of frequency response of infrared photodetector signal path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalska, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the investigations targeted at broadening the bandwidth of the high speed photodector signal path. Photodetector output signal is formed in the signal path composed of the photodiode with appropriate cooling circuitry, short segment of transmission line and a high-speed amplifier. Bandwidth widening is achieved by including extra circuits in the signal tract (lossless and possibly also lossy one), which - together with inevitable mismatch at both ends of the transmission line - enable correction of the frequency characteristic. The trade-offs between gain, ripples of the AC characteristic and bandwidth are studied and presented in the paper.

  12. Effects of quinine on the mechanical frequency response of the cupula in the fish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, S M; Karlsson, K K; Khanna, S M; Flock, A

    1994-03-01

    Quinine induces changes in the motion of the cupula in the lateral line canal of the African knife-fish in response to sinusoidal water movements. Two different phases in the action of quinine on the cupular frequency response can be discerned. In the first phase the best frequency, i.e., the frequency at which the cupular vibratory displacement is maximal in response to constant-amplitude sinusoidal canal fluid displacement, shifts toward higher frequencies. During this phase, lasting about 70-100 min, the best frequency increases by a factor between 1.3 and 1.5. In the second phase, during roughly the following 90 min, the best frequency decreases gradually to a value 0.3-0.5 times that observed before the application of quinine.

  13. Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

  14. Microscopic molecular superfluid response: theory and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Since its discovery in 1938, superfluidity has been the subject of much investigation because it provides a unique example of a macroscopic manifestation of quantum mechanics. About 60 years later, scientists successfully observed this phenomenon in the microscopic world though the spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in helium nano-droplets. This reduction of scale suggests that not only helium but also para-H2 (pH2) can be a candidate for superfluidity. This expectation is based on the fact that the smaller number of neighbours and surface effects of a finite-size cluster may hinder solidification and promote a liquid-like phase. The first prediction of superfluidity in pH2 clusters was reported in 1991 based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The possible superfluidity of pH2 was later indirectly observed in a spectroscopic Andronikashvili experiment in 2000. Since then, a growing number of studies have appeared, and theoretical simulations have been playing a special role because they help guide and interpret experiments. In this review, we go over the theoretical studies of pH2 superfluid clusters since the experiment of 2000. We provide a historical perspective and introduce the basic theoretical formalism along with key experimental advances. We then present illustrative results of the theoretical studies and comment on the possible future developments in the field. We include sufficient theoretical details such that the review can serve as a guide for newcomers to the field.

  15. Polysilicon high frequency devices for large area electronics: Characterization, simulation and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botrel, J.L. [CEA-LETI 17, rue des Martyrs 38054 Grenoble (France); IMEP 23, rue des Martyrs 38016 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: jean-loius.botrel@cea.fr; Savry, O.; Rozeau, O.; Templier, F. [CEA-LETI 17, rue des Martyrs 38054 Grenoble (France); Jomaah, J. [IMEP 23, rue des Martyrs 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2007-07-16

    Laser Crystallised Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors have now sufficient good conduction properties to be used in high-frequency applications. In this work, we report the results for 5 {mu}m long polysilicon TFTs obtained at frequencies up to several hundred MHz for applications such as RFID tags or System-On-Panel. In order to investigate the device operation, DC and AC two-dimensional simulations of these devices in the Effective Medium framework have been performed. In the light of simulation results, the effects of carrier trapping and carrier transit on the device capacitances as a function of dimensions are analysed and compared. An equivalent small-signal circuit which accounts for the behaviour of these transistors in all regions of operation is proposed and a model for the most relevant elements of this circuit is presented. To validate our simulation results, scattering-parameters (S-parameters) measurements are performed for several structures such as multi-finger, serpentine and linear architectures and the most meaningful parameters will be given. Cut-off frequencies as high as 300 MHz and maximum oscillation frequencies of about 600 MHz have been extracted.

  16. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2017-03-01

    A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response

  18. Optimization of frequency lowering algorithms for getting the highest speech intelligibility improvement by hearing loss simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıöz, Umut; Günel, Banu

    2015-06-01

    High frequency hearing loss is a growing problem for both children and adults. To overcome this impairment, different frequency lowering methods (FLMs) were tried from 1930s, however no satisfaction was provided up to now. In this study, for getting higher speech intelligibility, eight combinations of FLMs which were designed originally were tried with simulated sounds onto normal hearing subjects. These improvements were calculated by the difference with standard hearing aid method, amplification. High frequency hearing loss was simulated with the combined suprathreshold effects. An offline study was carried out for each subject for determining the significant methods used in modified rhyme test (MRT) (Subjective measure for intelligibility). Significant methods were determined according to their speech intelligibility index (SII) (Objective measure for intelligibility). All different cases were tried under four noisy environments and a noise free environment. Twelve hearing impaired subjects were simulated by hearing loss simulation (HLS). MRT was developed for Turkish language as a first time. As the results of improvements, total 71 cases were statistically significant for twelve subjects. Eighty-three percent success of FLMs was achieved against amplification for being an alternative method of amplification in noisy environments. For four subjects, all significant methods gave higher improvements than amplification. As conclusion, specific method recommendations for different noisy environments were done for each subject for getting more speech intelligibility.

  19. Reflective Responses Following a Role Play Simulation of Nurse Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Deborah L.; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Boesch, Maura C.; Bateman, Kyle M.; Grubb, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    The affective domain of learning can be used with role play simulation to develop professional values in nursing students. A qualitative exploratory design was used for this study to evaluate role play simulation as an active learning strategy. The context for the role play was bullying in nursing practice. Three hundred thirty-three senior nursing students from five college campuses participated. Following the role play simulation students completed a reflection worksheet. The worksheet data were qualitatively coded into themes. Thematic findings were personal responses during the simulation, nonverbal communications exhibited during the simulation, actions taken by participants during the simulation, and the perceived impact of bullying. Role play simulation was a highly effective pedagogy requiring no technology, was free, and elicited learning at both the cognitive and affective domains of learning. PMID:28628071

  20. Impulse and Frequency Response of a Moving Coil Galvanometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a moving coil galvanometer is studied and the electromotive force generated by the swinging coil provides the impulse response information in a form suitable for digitizing and inputing to a microcomputer. Background information and analysis of typical data are included. (JN)

  1. A simulation tool to study high-frequency chest compression energy transfer mechanisms and waveforms for pulmonary disease applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2010-07-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) can be used as a therapeutic intervention to assist in the transport and clearance of mucus and enhance water secretion for cystic fibrosis patients. An HFCC pump-vest and half chest-lung simulation, with 23 lung generations, has been developed using inertance, compliance, viscous friction relationships, and Newton's second law. The simulation has proven to be useful in studying the effects of parameter variations and nonlinear effects on HFCC system performance and pulmonary system response. The simulation also reveals HFCC waveform structure and intensity changes in various segments of the pulmonary system. The HFCC system simulation results agree with measurements, indicating that the HFCC energy transport mechanism involves a mechanically induced pulsation or vibration waveform with average velocities in the lung that are dependent upon small air displacements over large areas associated with the vest-chest interface. In combination with information from lung physiology, autopsies and a variety of other lung modeling efforts, the results of the simulation can reveal a number of therapeutic implications.

  2. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  3. EVENT-DRIVEN SIMULATION OF INTEGRATE-AND-FIRE MODELS WITH SPIKE-FREQUENCY ADAPTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xianghong; Zhang Tianwen

    2009-01-01

    The evoked spike discharges of a neuron depend critically on the recent history of its electrical activity. A well-known example is the phenomenon of spike-frequency adaptation that is a commonly observed property of neurons. In this paper, using a leaky integrate-and-fire model that includes an adaptation current, we propose an event-driven strategy to simulate integrate-and-fire models with spike-frequency adaptation. Such approach is more precise than traditional clock-driven numerical integration approach because the timing of spikes is treated exactly. In experiments, using event-driven and clock-driven strategies we simulated the adaptation time course of single neuron and the random network with spike-timing dependent plasticity, the results indicate that (1) the temporal precision of spiking events impacts on neuronal dynamics of single as well as network in the different simulation strategies and (2) the simulation time scales linearly with the total number of spiking events in the event-driven simulation strategies.

  4. Variable Temperature High-Frequency Response of Heterostructure Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Joy

    1992-01-01

    The development of high performance heterostructure transistors is essential for emerging opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Applications for OEICs and MMICs include the rapidly growing telecommunications and personal communications markets. The key to successful OEIC and MMIC chip sets is the development of high performance, cost-effective technologies. In this work, several different transistor structures are investigated to determine the potential for high speed performance and the physical mechanisms controlling the ultimate device operation. A cryogenic vacuum microwave measurement system has been developed to study the high speed operation of modulation doped field-effect transistors (MODFETs), doped channel metal insulator field-effect transistors (MISFETs), and metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). This study has concluded that the high field velocity and not the low field mobility is what controls high frequency operation of GaAs based field-effect transistors. Both Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs and InP/In_{rm y}Ga _{rm 1-y}As heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBTs) have also been studied at reduced lattice temperatures to understand the role of diffusive transport in the Al_{rm x} Ga_{rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT and nonequilibrium transport in the InP/In _{rm y}Ga_ {rm 1-y}As HBT. It is shown that drift/diffusion formulation must be modified to accurately estimate the base delay time in the conventional Al _{rm x}Ga_ {rm 1-x}As/GaAs HBT. The reduced lattice temperature operation of the InP/In_ {rm y}Ga_{rm 1-y}As HBT demonstrates extreme nonequilibrium transport in the neutral base and collector space charge region with current gain cut-off frequency exceeding 300 GHz, which is the fastest reported transistor to date. Finally, the MODFET has been investigated as a three-terminal negative differential resistance (NDR) transistor. The existence of real space transfer is confirmed by

  5. Acoustics of fish shelters: frequency response and gain properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Many teleosts emit sounds from cavities beneath stones and other types of submerged objects, yet the acoustical properties of fish shelters are virtually unexplored. This study examines the gain properties of shelters commonly used by Mediterranean gobies as hiding places and/or nest sites in the field (flat stones, shells belonging to five bivalve species), or within aquarium tanks (tunnel-shaped plastic covers, concrete blocks, concrete cylinder pipe, halves of terracotta flower pots). All shelters were acoustically stimulated using a small underwater buzzer, placed inside or around the shelter to mimic a fish calling from the nest site, and different types of driving stimuli (white noise, pure tones, and artificial pulse trains). Results showed the presence of significant amplitude gain (3-18 dB) at frequencies in the range 100-150 Hz in all types of natural shelters but one (Mytilus), terracotta flower pots, and concrete blocks. Gain was higher for stones and artificial shelters than for shells. Gain peak amplitude increased with the weight of stones and shells. Conclusions were verified by performing analogous acoustical tests on flat stones in the stream. Results draw attention to the use of suitable shelters for proper recording of sounds produced by fishes kept within laboratory aquaria.

  6. A hybrid hopfield network-simulated annealing approach for frequency assignment in satellite communications systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Bousoño-Calzón, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing algorithm (HopSA) is presented for the frequency assignment problem (FAP) in satellite communications. The goal of this NP-complete problem is minimizing the cochannel interference between satellite communication systems by rearranging the frequency assignment, for the systems can accommodate the increasing demands. The HopSA algorithm consists of a fast digital Hopfield neural network which manages the problem constraints hybridized with a simulated annealing which improves the quality of the solutions obtained. We analyze the problem and its formulation, describing and discussing the HopSA algorithm and solving a set of benchmark problems. The results obtained are compared with other existing approaches in order to show the performance of the HopSA approach.

  7. The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-01-01

    Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin...... and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ(MEAL......)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between...

  8. Experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Qin; Honggang Li; Wande Fan; Qiuqin Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We make an experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor, and single-mode fibers and multi-mode fibers are used as the sensitive optic-fibers. Contrast between the two sensitive fibers is presented. Result shows that the micro-bend optic-fiber sensor has good frequency response characteristics and strong ability to restore the waveform. With the frequency varying in the range of 500 - 4762 Hz, the vibration sensors using multi-mode optic-fiber as the sensitive fiber is more sensitive than that using single-mode optic-fiber. And the former has better frequency response characteristics and stronger capacity of waveform revivification. But with the frequency in the range of 287 - 500 Hz, the latter is better.

  9. Nonlinear Site Response Due to Large Ground Acceleration: Observation and Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S.; Furumura, T.; Sasatani, T.

    2009-12-01

    We studied nonlinear site response due to large ground acceleration during the 2003 off-Miyagi Earthquake (Mw7.0) in Japan by means of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio analysis of S-wave motion. The results were then confirmed by finite-difference method (FDM) simulation of nonlinear seismic wave propagation. A nonlinear site response is often observed at soft sediment sites, and even at hard bedrock sites which are covered by thin soil layers. Nonlinear site response can be induced by strong ground motion whose peak ground acceleration (PGA) exceeds about 100 cm/s/s, and seriously affects the amplification of high frequency ground motion and PGA. Noguchi and Sasatani (2008) developed an efficient technique for quantitative evaluation of nonlinear site response using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of S-wave (S-H/V) derived from strong ground motion records, based on Wen et al. (2006). We applied this technique to perform a detailed analysis of the properties of nonlinear site response based on a large amount of data recorded at 132 K-NET and KiK-net strong motion stations in Northern Japan during the off-Miyagi Earthquake. We succeeded in demonstrating a relationship between ground motion level, nonlinear site response and surface soil characteristics. For example, the seismic data recorded at KiK-net IWTH26 showed obvious characteristics of nonlinear site response when the PGA exceeded 100 cm/s/s. As the ground motion level increased, the dominant peak of S-H/V shifted to lower frequency, the high frequency level of S-H/V dropped, and PGA amplification decreased. On the other hand, the records at MYGH03 seemed not to be affected by nonlinear site response even for high ground motion levels in which PGA exceeds 800 cm/s/s. The characteristics of such nonlinear site amplification can be modeled by evaluating Murnaghan constants (e.g. McCall, 1994), which are the third-order elastic constants. In order to explain the observed characteristics of

  10. The Control System Simulation of Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦金延; 曹娜

    2010-01-01

    <正>In general,Variable-Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF)Wind generation system is controlled by stator voltage orientation method which based on the mathematic model of VSCF Wind generation system and discussed the control strategy.Present the whole dynamic control model of variable-speed wind generator system in MATLAB/ Simulink,and the simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. TITAN: a computer program for accident occurrence frequency analyses by component Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamaki, Hitoshi [Department of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanai, Shigeru [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)

  12. Validation of frequency and mode extraction calculations from time-domain simulations of accelerator cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, T M; Ovtchinnikov, S; Werner, G R; Bellantoni, L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed frequency extraction algorithm [G.R. Werner and J.R. Cary, J. Comp. Phys. 227, 5200 (2008)] that enables a simple FDTD algorithm to be transformed into an efficient eigenmode solver is applied to a realistic accelerator cavity modeled with embedded boundaries and Richardson extrapolation. Previously, the frequency extraction method was shown to be capable of distinguishing M degenerate modes by running M different simulations and to permit mode extraction with minimal post-processing effort that only requires solving a small eigenvalue problem. Realistic calculations for an accelerator cavity are presented in this work to establish the validity of the method for realistic modeling scenarios and to illustrate the complexities of the computational validation process. The method is found to be able to extract the frequencies with error that is less than a part in 10^5. The corrected experimental and computed values differ by about one parts in 10^$, which is accounted for (in largest part)...

  13. Multiple Frequency Contrast Source Inversion Method for Vertical Electromagnetic Profiling: 2D Simulation Results and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.

  14. Developmental changes in ERP responses to spatial frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn van den Boomen

    Full Text Available Social interaction starts with perception of other persons. One of the first steps in perception is processing of basic information such as spatial frequencies (SF, which represent details and global information. However, although behavioural perception of SF is well investigated, the developmental trajectory of the temporal characteristics of SF processing is not yet well understood. The speed of processing of this basic visual information is crucial, as it determines the speed and possibly accuracy of subsequent visual and social processes. The current study investigated developmental changes in the temporal characteristics of selective processing of high SF (HSF; details versus low SF (LSF; global. To this end, brain activity was measured using EEG in 108 children aged 3-15 years, while HSF or LSF grating stimuli were presented. Interest was in the temporal characteristics of brain activity related to LSF and HSF processing, specifically at early (N80 or later (P1 or N2 peaks in brain activity. Analyses revealed that from 7-8 years onwards HSF but not LSF stimuli evoked an N80 peak. In younger children, aged 3-8 years, the visual manipulation mainly affected the visual N2 peak. Selective processing of HSF versus LSF thus occurs at a rather late time-point (N2 peak in young children. Although behavioural research previously showed that 3-6 year-olds can perceive detailed information, the current results point out that selective processing of HSF versus LSF is still delayed in these children. The delayed processing in younger children could impede the use of LSF and HSF for emotional face processing. Thus, the current study is a starting point for understanding changes in basic visual processing which underlie social development.

  15. MHC allele frequency distributions under parasite-driven selection: A simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Jacek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extreme polymorphism that is observed in major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, which code for proteins involved in recognition of non-self oligopeptides, is thought to result from a pressure exerted by parasites because parasite antigens are more likely to be recognized by MHC heterozygotes (heterozygote advantage and/or by rare MHC alleles (negative frequency-dependent selection. The Ewens-Watterson test (EW is often used to detect selection acting on MHC genes over the recent history of a population. EW is based on the expectation that allele frequencies under balancing selection should be more even than under neutrality. We used computer simulations to investigate whether this expectation holds for selection exerted by parasites on host MHC genes under conditions of heterozygote advantage and negative frequency-dependent selection acting either simultaneously or separately. Results In agreement with simple models of symmetrical overdominance, we found that heterozygote advantage acting alone in populations does, indeed, result in more even allele frequency distributions than expected under neutrality, and this is easily detectable by EW. However, under negative frequency-dependent selection, or under the joint action of negative frequency-dependent selection and heterozygote advantage, distributions of allele frequencies were less predictable: the majority of distributions were indistinguishable from neutral expectations, while the remaining runs resulted in either more even or more skewed distributions than under neutrality. Conclusions Our results indicate that, as long as negative frequency-dependent selection is an important force maintaining MHC variation, the EW test has limited utility in detecting selection acting on these genes.

  16. Optimasi Single Frequency Network pada Layanan TV Digital DVB-T dengan Menggunakan Metode Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destya Arisetyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standar Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial (DVB-T diimplementasikan pada konfigurasi Single Frequency Network (SFN dimana seluruh pemancar pada sebuah jaringan beroperasi pada kanal frekuensi yang sama dan ditransmisikan pada waktu yang sama. SFN lebih dipilih daripada sistem pendahulunya yaitu Multi Frequency Network (MFN karena menggunakan frekuensi yang lebih efisien serta jangkauan area cakupan yang lebih luas. Pada sisi penerima memungkinkan adanya skenario multipath dengan menggabungkan sinyal dari pemancar yang berbeda karena konfigurasi SFN ini berbasis Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM. Pada penelitian ini, data ketinggian dan jumlah gedung melalui model prediksi propagasi free space dan knife edge akan diterapkan untuk memperkirakan nilai daya terima dan delay sinyal. Perhitungan nilai carrier (C dan carrier to interference (C/I dilakukan untuk mengetahui kualitas sinyal pada sisi penerima. Selanjutnya, optimasi parameter lokasi pemancar diterapkan oleh algoritma Simulated Annealing dengan menggunakan tiga cooling schedule terbaik. Simulated Annealing merupakan algoritma optimasi berdasarkan sistem termodinamika yang mensimulasikan proses annealing. Simulated Annealing telah berhasil memperluas daerah cakupan SFN. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan berkurangnya sebagian besar titik receiver dengan kualitas sinyal dibawah threshold.

  17. Dual-/tri-apodization techniques for high frequency ultrasound imaging: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob

    2014-10-11

    In the ultrasound B-mode (Brightness-mode) imaging, high side-lobe level reduces contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A linear apodization scheme by using the window function can suppress the side-lobe level while the main-lobe width is increased resulting in degraded lateral resolution. In order to reduce the side-lobe level without sacrificing the main-lobe width, a non-linear apodization method has been suggested. In this paper, we computationally evaluated the performance of the non-linear apodization method such as dual-/tri-apodization focusing on the high frequency ultrasound image. The rectangular, Dolph-Chebyshev, and Kaiser window functions were employed to implement dual-/tri-apodization algorithms. The point and cyst target simulations were conducted by using a dedicated ultrasound simulation tool called Field-II. The center frequency of the simulated linear array transducer was 40 MHz and the total number of elements was 128. The performance of dual-/tri-apodization was compared with that of the rectangular window function focusing on the side-lobe level and the main-lobe widths (at -6 dB and -35 dB). In the point target simulation, the main-lobe widths of the dual-/tri-apodization were very similar to that of the rectangular window, and the side-lobe levels of the dual-/tri-apodization were more suppressed by 9~10 dB. In the cyst target simulation, CNR values of the dual-/tri-apodization were improved by 41% and 51%, respectively. The performance of the non-linear apodization was numerically investigated. In comparison with the rectangular window function, the non-linear apodization method such as dual- and tri-apodization had low side-lobe level without sacrificing the main-lobe width. Thus, it can be a potential way to increase CNR maintaining the main-lobe width in the high frequency ultrasound imaging.

  18. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R.A.P. Geis (H.-Rüdiger A.P.); J.G.G. Borst (Gerard)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFrequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM) stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here,

  19. Measurement of the frequency response of a bench-top quantum speed meter interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Glenn de; Gray, Malcolm; McClelland, David E.; Chen Yanbei; Whitcomb, Stan

    2003-09-15

    A simplified 'quantum speed meter' interferometer configuration, a candidate for future gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, was constructed and locked using a radio frequency (RF) locking scheme for length control. Employing a signal-laser-injection technique, we obtain the experimental frequency response, which shows good agreement with theoretical modeling.

  20. High frequency wide-band transformer uses coax to achieve high turn ratio and flat response

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Parry, T.

    1966-01-01

    Center-tap push-pull transformer with toroidal core helically wound with a single coaxial cable creates a high frequency wideband transformer. This transformer has a high-turn ratio, a high coupling coefficient, and a flat broadband response.

  1. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  2. Frequency response of the Loschmidt echo decay in an open driven nonlinear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Hui; Yan, Zhan-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The decay of the Loschmidt echo and its relation to the frequency response of the underlying classical dynamics are investigated in an open Duffing system by means of the Wigner function. The initial Wigner function of the system is Gaussian and centered at a phase point (x 0, p 0). For different (x 0, p 0), significant peaks are observed in the frequency response curves of the Loschmidt echo decay during the evolution of the Wigner function. Furthermore, there is good correspondence between the frequency response curves of the Loschmidt echo decay and the underlying classical dynamics. This can be attributed to the increase of the fringes of the Wigner function by the external driving force, which can be revealed by the frequency response of the underlying classical dynamics.

  3. Neuromagnetic auditory steady state response to chords: effect of frequency ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Asuka; Yumoto, Masato; Kuriki, Shinya; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual degree of consonance or dissonance of a chord is known to be varied as a function of frequency ratio between tones composing the chord. It has been indicated that generation of a sense of dissonance is associated with the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) phase-locked to difference frequencies which are salient in the chords with complex frequency ratios. This study further investigated how the neuromagnetic ASSR would be modulated as a function of the frequency ratio when the acoustic properties of the difference frequency, to which the ASSR was synchronized, was identical in terms of its number, energy and frequency. Neuronal frequency characteristics intrinsic to the ASSR were compensated by utilizing responses to a SAM (Sinusoidally Amplitude Modulated) chirp tone sweeping through the corresponding frequency range. The results showed that ASSR was significantly smaller for the chords with simple frequency ratios than for those with complex frequency ratios. It indicates that the basic neuronal correlates underlying the sensation of consonance/dissonance might be associated with the attenuation rate applied to encode the input information through the afferent auditory pathway. Attentional gating of the thalamo-cortical function might also be one of the factors.

  4. Effects of mistuning and matrix structure on the topology of frequency response curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Dare

    1989-01-01

    The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology of the forced response curves, if the mistuning transformation crosses the bifurcation set.

  5. Low-frequency waves at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Observations compared to numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, C.; Perschke, C.; Goetz, C.; Richter, I.; Motschmann, U.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2016-10-01

    Context. A new type of low-frequency wave was detected by the magnetometer of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium at the comet during the initial months after the arrival of the Rosetta spacecraft at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This large-amplitude, nearly continuous wave activity is observed in the frequency range from 30 mHz to 80 mHz where 40 mHz to 50 mHz is the dominant frequency. This type of low frequency is not closely related to the gyrofrequency of newborn cometary ions, which differs from previous wave activity observed in the interaction region of comets with the solar wind. Aims: This work aims to reveal a global view on the wave activity region using simulations of the comet-solar wind interaction region. Parameters, such as wavelength, propagation direction, and propagation patterns, are within the focus of this study. While the Rosetta observations only provide local information, numerical simulations provide further information on the global wave properties. Methods: Standard hybrid simulations were applied to the comet-solar wind interaction scenario. In the model, the ions were described as particles, which allows us to describe kinetic processes of the ions. The electrons were described as a fluid. Results: The simulations exhibit a threefold wave structure of the interaction region. A Mach cone and a Whistler wing are observed downstream of the comet. The third kind of wave activity found are low-frequency waves at 97 mHz, which corresponds to the waves observed by Richter et al. (2015, Ann. Geophys., 33, 1031). These waves are caused by the initial pick-up of the cometary ions that are perpendicular to the solar wind flow and in the interplanetary magnetic field direction. The associated electric current becomes unstable. The simulations show that wave activity is only detectable in the + E hemisphere and that the Mach cone and whistler wings need to be distinguished from the newly found instability driven wave activity. The movie associated to

  6. Simulation Analysis of Resonant Frequency of Mix Sucker Rod with absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingming; Zhou, Lili; Kaifeng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    Considering the influence of sucker rod absorber (SRA) on longitudinal vibration of sucker rod string (SRS), a new model of mix sucker rod with absorber (MSRWA) in the form of numerical integration is built. In the detail, based on the dynamical theory of continuous systems, the wave equation of instantaneous motion of MSRWA is deduced. The dynamic response is solved out with the mode superposition method. The affecting factors of natural frequency are analyzed, such as the length, diameter, density and elastic modulus of SRS. Then three dimensional curves of natural frequency are obtained. The results are very important for the design and application of SRS.

  7. Frequency-dependent dielectric response model for polyimide-poly(vinilydenefluoride) multilayered dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lillo, Luigi; Bergamini, Andrea; Albino Carnelli, Dario; Ermanni, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    A physical model for the frequency-dependent dielectric response of multilayered structures is reported. Two frequency regimes defined by the relative permittivities and volume resistivities of the layers have been analytically identified and experimentally investigated on a structure consisting of polyimide and poly(vinilydenefluoride) layers. The relative permittivity follows an effective medium model at high frequency while showing a dependence on the volume resistivity at low frequency. In this regime, relative permittivities exceeding those expected from effective medium model are recorded. These findings provide insights into inhomogeneous dielectrics behavior for the development of high energy density dielectric films.

  8. NEW WIND-INDUCED RESPONSES ANALYSIS METHOD OF SPATIAL STRUCTURES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN WITH MODE COMPENSATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳丽; 董石麟

    2002-01-01

    Large span spatial lattice structures have many natural frequencies in a narrow frequency range, the conventional frequency domain method is difficult to contain all significant contribution modes. Through numerical examples, it is found that some high order modes are likely to be overlooked because of their higher positions of modal order, in spite of their significance to wind response. According to the contributions of modes to strain energy of system, the paper presented an efficient method to compensate the errors owing to missing out some significant high order modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through a numerical analysis of the wind responses of a spherical dome.

  9. Rapid estimation of frequency response functions by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of a rapid method which estimates the frequency response function from stereoscopic dynamic data is computed. It is shown that reversal of the order of the operations of coordinate transformation and Fourier transformation, which provides a significant increase in computational speed, introduces error. A portion of the error, proportional to the perturbation components normal to the camera focal planes, cannot be eliminated. The remaining error may be eliminated by proper scaling of frequency data prior to coordinate transformation. Methods are developed for least squares estimation of the full 3x3 frequency response matrix for a three dimensional structure.

  10. Can inter-professional simulation training influence the frequency of blood transfusions after birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Øian, Pål; Bru, Lars Edvin; Sautter, Michael; Kristoffersen, Gunn; Eggebø, Torbjørn Moe

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether inter-professional simulation training influenced the rate of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions after birth. Design Two cohorts were compared retrospectively using a pre–post design. Setting Norwegian university hospital with 4800 deliveries annually. Population Women with estimated blood loss >500 mL within 24 h after birth in 2009 and 2011. Methods In 2010, all maternity staff attended a 6-h, scenario-based training on emergency obstetrics including postpartum hemorrhage, using a birthing simulator. The simulation focused on prevention, identification, and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and on communication and leadership. Debrief immediately after the scenarios involved reflection and self-assessment. Main outcome measures The frequency of women receiving RBC transfusions as a marker for blood loss. Secondary outcome was the frequency of surgical procedures in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. Results In 2009, 111/534 (20.8%) women with estimated blood loss >500 mL after birth received RBC transfusions vs. 67/546 (12.3%) in 2011 (p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratio for women receiving RBC transfusions in 2011 vs. 2009 was 0.53 (95% CI 0.38–0.74). Parity, oxytocin augmentation, duration of second stage, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery, and sphincter injury were included in the final model. The odds ratio was stable in all combinations of possible confounders. We observed a significant reduction in the frequencies of curettage (p < 0.01) and uterine artery embolizations (p = 0.01). Conclusion We found a significant reduction in RBC transfusions after birth, which might be associated with mandatory simulation training. A causal link cannot be documented because of complex interactions of several variables. PMID:25545119

  11. A Study on Regional Rainfall Frequency Analysis for Flood Simulation Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Ahn, Hyunjun; Joo, Kyungwon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2014-05-01

    Recently, climate change has been observed in Korea as well as in the entire world. The rainstorm has been gradually increased and then the damage has been grown. It is very important to manage the flood control facilities because of increasing the frequency and magnitude of severe rain storm. For managing flood control facilities in risky regions, data sets such as elevation, gradient, channel, land use and soil data should be filed up. Using this information, the disaster situations can be simulated to secure evacuation routes for various rainfall scenarios. The aim of this study is to investigate and determine extreme rainfall quantile estimates in Uijeongbu City using index flood method with L-moments parameter estimation. Regional frequency analysis trades space for time by using annual maximum rainfall data from nearby or similar sites to derive estimates for any given site in a homogeneous region. Regional frequency analysis based on pooled data is recommended for estimation of rainfall quantiles at sites with record lengths less than 5T, where T is return period of interest. Many variables relevant to precipitation can be used for grouping a region in regional frequency analysis. For regionalization of Han River basin, the k-means method is applied for grouping regions by variables of meteorology and geomorphology. The results from the k-means method are compared for each region using various probability distributions. In the final step of the regionalization analysis, goodness-of-fit measure is used to evaluate the accuracy of a set of candidate distributions. And rainfall quantiles by index flood method are obtained based on the appropriate distribution. And then, rainfall quantiles based on various scenarios are used as input data for disaster simulations. Keywords: Regional Frequency Analysis; Scenarios of Rainfall Quantile Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures

  12. Simulations of coherent nonlinear optical response of molecular vibronic dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Perlík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented vibronic dynamics for simulations of the third order coherent response of electronic dimers. In the present communication we provide the full and detailed description of the dynamical model, recently used for simulations of chlorophyll-carotenoid dyads, terylene dimers, or hypericin. We allow for explicit vibronic level structure, by including selected vibrational modes into a "system". Bath dynamics include the Landau-Teller vibrational relaxation, electronic dephasing, and nonlinear vibronic (to bath) coupling. Simulations combine effects of transport and dephasing between vibronic levels. Transport is described by master equation within secular approximation, phase is accumulated in cumulants and its calculation follows the transport pathways during waiting time period.

  13. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform Using Frequency Responses Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Widyawardana Adiprawita; Adang Suwandi Ahmad; Jaka Sembiring

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency-sweep is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency-sweep are guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that, we can set the safety parameters during the flight test (maximum roll/pitch value, minimum altitude, etc.) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot system is validated using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  14. Automated Flight Test and System Identification for Rotary Wing Small Aerial Platform using Frequency Responses Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an autopilot system that can be used to control the small scale rotorcraft during the flight test for linear-frequency-domain system identification. The input frequency swept is generated automatically as part of the autopilot control command. Therefore the bandwidth coverage and consistency of the frequency swept is guaranteed to produce high quality data for system identification. Beside that we can set the safety parameter during the flight test (maximum roll or pitch value, minimum altitude, etc) so the safety of the whole flight test is guaranteed. This autopilot for automated flight test will be tested using hardware in the loop simulator for hover flight condition.

  15. On the quantification of SSVEP frequency responses in human EEG in realistic BCI conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kuś

    Full Text Available This article concerns one of the most important problems of brain-computer interfaces (BCI based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP, that is the selection of the a-priori most suitable frequencies for stimulation. Previous works related to this problem were done either with measuring systems that have little in common with actual BCI systems (e.g., single flashing LED or were presented on a small number of subjects, or the tested frequency range did not cover a broad spectrum. Their results indicate a strong SSVEP response around 10 Hz, in the range 13-25 Hz, and at high frequencies in the band of 40-60 Hz. In the case of BCI interfaces, stimulation with frequencies from various ranges are used. The frequencies are often adapted for each user separately. The selection of these frequencies, however, was not yet justified in quantitative group-level study with proper statistical account for inter-subject variability. The aim of this study is to determine the SSVEP response curve, that is, the magnitude of the evoked signal as a function of frequency. The SSVEP response was induced in conditions as close as possible to the actual BCI system, using a wide range of frequencies (5-30 Hz, in step of 1 Hz. The data were obtained for 10 subjects. SSVEP curves for individual subjects and the population curve was determined. Statistical analysis were conducted both on the level of individual subjects and for the group. The main result of the study is the identification of the optimal range of frequencies, which is 12-18 Hz, for the registration of SSVEP phenomena. The applied criterion of optimality was: to find the largest contiguous range of frequencies yielding the strong and constant-level SSVEP response.

  16. Analysis of Frequency Response and Scale-Factor of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xukai Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the frequency response and the scale-factor of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an interference sense mode by utilizing the approximate transfer function. The optimal demodulation phase (ODP, which is always ignored in vacuum packaged micro-gyroscopes but quite important in gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure, is obtained through the transfer function of the sense mode, including the primary mode and the interference mode. The approximate transfer function of the micro-gyroscope is deduced in consideration of the interference mode and the ODP. Then, the equation describing the scale-factor of the gyroscope is also obtained. The impacts of the interference mode and Q-factor on the frequency response and the scale-factor of the gyroscope are analyzed through numerical simulations. The relationship between the scale-factor and the demodulation phase is also illustrated and gives an effective way to find out the ODP in practice. The simulation results predicted by the transfer functions are in close agreement with the results of the experiments. The analyses and simulations can provide constructive guidance on bandwidth and sensitivity designs of the micro-gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Analysis of frequency response and scale-factor of tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xukai; Li, Hongsheng; Ni, Yunfang; Sang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the frequency response and the scale-factor of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an interference sense mode by utilizing the approximate transfer function. The optimal demodulation phase (ODP), which is always ignored in vacuum packaged micro-gyroscopes but quite important in gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure, is obtained through the transfer function of the sense mode, including the primary mode and the interference mode. The approximate transfer function of the micro-gyroscope is deduced in consideration of the interference mode and the ODP. Then, the equation describing the scale-factor of the gyroscope is also obtained. The impacts of the interference mode and Q-factor on the frequency response and the scale-factor of the gyroscope are analyzed through numerical simulations. The relationship between the scale-factor and the demodulation phase is also illustrated and gives an effective way to find out the ODP in practice. The simulation results predicted by the transfer functions are in close agreement with the results of the experiments. The analyses and simulations can provide constructive guidance on bandwidth and sensitivity designs of the micro-gyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Spectral Response for 650 nm Silicon Photodetector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical spectral response formula of the N+-N-I-P+ silicon photodetector with high/low emission junction is given. At the same time, considering the process requirements, the optimum structure parameters of silicon photodetector are obtained by numerical calculation and simulation. Under the condition of these optimum structure parameters, the responsivity of the silicon photodetector will be 0.48A/W at 650nm.

  19. Recent Developments on Hybrid Time-Frequency Numerical Simulation Techniques for RF and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the promising doors that functional analysis techniques have recently opened in the field of electronic circuit simulation. Because of the modulated nature of radio frequency (RF signals, the corresponding electronic circuits seem to operate in a slow time scale for the aperiodic information and another, much faster, time scale for the periodic carrier. This apparent multirate behavior can be appropriately described using partial differential equations (PDEs within a bivariate framework, which can be solved in an efficient way using hybrid time-frequency techniques. With these techniques, the aperiodic information dimension is treated in the discrete time domain, while the periodic carrier dimension is processed in the frequency domain, in which the solution is evaluated within a space of harmonically related sinusoidal functions. The objective of this paper is thus to provide a general overview on the most important hybrid time-frequency techniques, as the ones found in commercial tools or the ones recently published in the literature.

  20. A fast continuation scheme for accurate tracing of nonlinear oscillator frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Dunne, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A new algorithm is proposed to combine the split-frequency harmonic balance method (SF-HBM) with arc-length continuation (ALC) for accurate tracing of the frequency response of oscillators with non-expansible nonlinearities. ALC is incorporated into the SF-HBM in a two-stage procedure: Stage I involves finding a reasonably accurate response frequency and solution using a relatively large number of low-frequency harmonics. This step is achieved using the SF-HBM in conjunction with ALC. Stage II uses the SF-HBM to obtain a very accurate solution at the frequency obtained in Stage I. To guarantee rapid path tracing, the frequency axis is appropriately subdivided. This gives high chance of success in finding a globally optimum set of harmonic coefficients. When approaching a turning point however, arc-lengths are adaptively reduced to obtain a very accurate solution. The combined procedure is tested on three hardening stiffness examples: a Duffing model; an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and single harmonic forcing; and an oscillator with non-expansible stiffness and multiple-harmonic forcing. The results show that for non-expansible nonlinearities and multiple-harmonic forcing, the proposed algorithm is capable of tracing-out frequency response functions with high accuracy and efficiency.

  1. Frequency sweep rate dependence on the dielectrophoretic response of polystyrene beads and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T. N. G.; Leonard, K. M.; Minerick, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis (DEP) experiments for biological particles in microdevices are typically done at a fixed frequency. Reconstructing the DEP response curve from static frequency experiments is laborious, but essential to ascertain differences in dielectric properties of biological particles. Our lab explored the concept of sweeping the frequency as a function of time to rapidly determine the DEP response curve from fewer experiments. For the purpose of determining an ideal sweep rate, homogeneous 6.08 μm polystyrene (PS) beads were used as a model system. Translatability of the sweep rate approach to ∼7 μm red blood cells (RBC) was then verified. An Au/Ti quadrapole electrode microfluidic device was used to separately subject particles and cells to 10Vpp AC electric fields at frequencies ranging from 0.010 to 2.0 MHz over sweep rates from 0.00080 to 0.17 MHz/s. PS beads exhibited negative DEP assembly over the frequencies explored due to Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarizations. Results demonstrate that frequency sweep rates must be slower than particle polarization timescales to achieve reliable incremental polarizations; sweep rates near 0.00080 MHz/s yielded DEP behaviors very consistent with static frequency DEP responses for both PS beads and RBCs. PMID:24396548

  2. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Power Frequency Electric Field of UHV AC Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the power frequency electric field of UHV AC transmission lines, this paper which models and calculates using boundary element method simulates various factors influencing the distribution of the power frequency electric field, such as the conductor arrangement, the over-ground height, the split spacing and the sub conductor radius. Different influence of various factors on the electric field distribution will be presented. In a single loop, using VVV triangular arrangement is the most secure way; in a dual loop, the electric field intensity using reverse phase sequence is weaker than that using positive phase sequence. Elevating the over-ground height and reducing the conductor split spacing will both weaken the electric field intensity, while the change of sub conductor radius can hardly cause any difference. These conclusions are important for electric power company to detect circuit.

  3. Simulation of particle diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence. Low frequency Bohm or percolation scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    An important point for turbulent transport consists in determining the scaling law for the diffusion coefficient D due to electrostatic turbulence. It is well-known that for weak amplitudes or large frequencies, the reduced diffusion coefficient has a quasi-linear like (or gyro-Bohm like) scaling, while for large amplitudes or small frequencies it has been traditionally believed that the scaling is Bohm-like. The aim of this work consists to test this prediction for a given realistic model. This problem is studied by direct simulation of particle trajectories. Guiding centre diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence is computed for test particles in a model spectrum, by means of a new parallelized code RADIGUET 2. The results indicate a continuous transition for large amplitudes toward a value which is compatible with the Isichenko percolation prediction. (author). 34 refs.

  4. Spatially resolved simulation of a radio frequency driven micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its effluent

    CERN Document Server

    Hemke, Torben; Gebhardt, Markus; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency driven plasma jets are frequently employed as efficient plasma sources for surface modification and other processes at atmospheric pressure. The \\textit{radio-frequency driven micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet} ($\\mu$APPJ) is a particular variant of that concept whose geometry allows direct optical access. In this work, the characteristics of a $\\mu$APPJ operated with a helium-oxygen mixture and its interaction with a helium environment are studied by numerical simulation. The density and temperature of the electrons, as well as the concentration of all reactive species are studied both in the jet itself and in its effluent. It is found that the effluent is essentially free of charge carriers but contains a substantial amount of activated oxygen (O, O$_3$ and O$_2(^1\\Delta)$).

  5. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Alexandre; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  6. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  7. Simulating low frequency changes in atmospheric CO2 during the last 740 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 measured in Antarctic ice cores shows a natural variability of 80 to 100 ppmv during the last four glacial cycles and variations of approximately 60 ppmv in the two cycles between 410 and 650 kyr BP. We here use various paleo-climatic records from the EPICA Dome C Antarctic ice core and from oceanic sediment cores covering the last 740 kyr to force the ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box model of the global carbon cycle BICYCLE in a forward mode over this time in order to interpret the natural variability of CO2. Our approach is based on the previous interpretation of carbon cycle variations during Termination I (Köhler et al., 2005a. In the absense of a process-based sediment module one main simplification of BICYCLE is that carbonate compensation is approximated by the temporally delayed restoration of deep ocean [CO32−]. Our results match the low frequency changes in CO2 measured in the Vostok and the EPICA Dome C ice core for the last 650 kyr BP (r2≈0.75. During these transient simulations the carbon cycle reaches never a steady state due to the ongoing variability of the overall carbon budget caused by the time delayed response of the carbonate compensation to other processes. The average contributions of different processes to the rise in CO2 during Terminations I to V and during earlier terminations are: the rise in Southern Ocean vertical mixing: 36/22 ppmv, the rise in ocean temperature: 26/11 ppmv, iron limitation of the marine biota in the Southern Ocean: 20/14 ppmv, carbonate compensation: 15/7 ppmv, the rise in North Atlantic deep water formation: 13/0 ppmv, the rise in gas exchange due to a decreasing sea ice cover: −8/−7 ppmv, sea level rise: −12/−4 ppmv, and rising terrestrial carbon storage: −13/−6 ppmv. According to our model the smaller interglacial CO2 values in the pre-Vostok period prior to Termination V are mainly caused by smaller interglacial Southern Ocean SST and an Atlantic THC which stayed

  8. Validation of simulated point response of columnar phosphor screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badano, Aldo; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Tang, Katherine H.; Saha, Anindita

    2007-03-01

    Typical methods to measure the resolution properties of x-ray detectors use slit or edge devices. However, complete models of imaging systems for system optimization require knowledge of the point-response function of the detector. In this paper, we report on the experimental methods developed for the validation of the point-response function of an indirect columnar CsI:Tl detector predicted by Monte Carlo using mantis. We describe simulation results that replicate experimental resolution measurements using edge and pinhole devices. The experimental setup consists of a high-resolution CCD camera with a 1-to-1fiber optic faceplate that allows measurements for different scintillation screens. The results of these experiments and simulations constitute a resource for the development and validation of the columnar models of phosphor screens proposed as part of previous work with mantis. We compare experimental high-resolution pinhole responses of two different CsI(Tl) screens to predictions from mantis. The simulated response matches reasonably well the measurements at normal and off-normal x-ray incidence angle when a realistic pinhole is used in the simulation geometry. Our results will be combined with results on Swank factors determined from Monte Carlo pulse-height spectra to provide a comprehensive validation of the phosphor models, therefore allowing their use for in silico system optimization.

  9. Modelling and Simulation of Variable Frequency Synchronous DC-DC Buck Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeya Selvan Renius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, novel small-signal averaged models for dc–dc converter operating at variable switching frequency are derived. This is achieved by separately considering the on-time and the off-time of the switching period. The derivation is shown in detail for a synchronous buck converter. The Enhanced Small Signal (ESSA Model is derived for the synchronous buck converter. The equivalent series inductance (ESL is also considered in this modelling. The buck converter model is also simulated in MATLAB and the result is also presented.

  10. Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie

    2011-01-01

    With the capacity of installed wind power generators steadily increasing in China, power fluctuation from wind farms will significantly affect the security and reliability of the power system. Traditional modeling of power fluctuation is based on the time domain or statistics methodology which...... the power spectral density of wind speed, the frequency domain model of a wind power generator and the information on weather and geography of the wind farms. The correctness and effectiveness of the model are verified by comparing the measurement data with simulation results of a certain wind farm. © 2011...

  11. Relation between derived-band auditory brainstem response latencies and behavioral frequency selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Christoforidis, Dimitrios; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Derived-band click-evoked auditory brainstem responses ABRs were obtained for normal-hearing NH and sensorineurally hearing-impaired HI listeners. The latencies extracted from these responses, as a function of derived-band center frequency and click level, served as objective estimates of cochlear...... selectivity in human listeners and offer a window to better understand how hearing impairment affects the spatiotemporal cochlear response pattern....

  12. Voice fundamental frequency modulates vocal response to pitch perturbations during English speech

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hanjun; Auger, James; Charles R Larson

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated task-dependent vocal responses to pitch perturbations during speech production. The present study investigated the effect of voice fundamental frequency (F0) on the modulation of vocal responses during English speech. Randomized pitch shifts of ±100 or 200 cents during speaking were presented to English speakers. Results indicated larger vocal responses and shorter latencies at a high voice F0 than at a low voice F0, but no significance differences were obse...

  13. Comparison between laboratory measurements, simulations, and analytical predictions of the transverse wall impedance at low frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Kroyer, T; Metral, E; Mounet, N; Salvant, B; Zotter, B

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of the transverse wall beam impedance at the first unstable betatron line (8 kHz) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of paramount importance for understanding and controlling the related coupled-bunch instabilities. Until now only novel analytical formulas were available at this frequency. Recently, laboratory measurements and numerical simulations were performed to cross-check the analytical predictions. The experimental results based on the measurement of the variation of a probe coil inductance in the presence of (i) sample graphite plates, (ii) stand-alone LHC collimator jaws, and (iii) a full LHC collimator assembly are presented in detail. The measurement results are compared to both analytical theories and simulations. In addition, the consequences for the understanding of the LHC impedance are discussed.

  14. Simulations of electromagnetic effects in high frequency capacitively coupled discharges using the Darwin approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Denis; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Darwin approximation is investigated for its possible use in simulation of electromagnetic effects in large size, high frequency capacitively coupled discharges. The approximation is utilized within the framework of two different fluid models which are applied to typical cases showing pronounced standing wave and skin effects. With the first model it is demonstrated that Darwin approximation is valid for treatment of such effects in the range of parameters under consideration. The second approach, a reduced nonlinear Darwin approximation-based model, shows that the electromagnetic phenomena persist in a more realistic setting. The Darwin approximation offers a simple and efficient way of carrying out electromagnetic simulations as it removes the Courant condition plaguing explicit electromagnetic algorithms and can be implemented as a straightforward modification of electrostatic algorithms. The algorithm described here avoids iterative schemes needed for the divergence cleaning and represents a fast and ...

  15. Simulation on Peak-to-Average Power Ratio for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Weifeng; MENG Baohong; LIU Ningning; LI Hui; ZHANG Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Clipping is a simple and convenient PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) reduction method for high speed OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) communication system. In this paper, we propose a new PAPR reduction method for Wireless-MAN(metropolitan area network)-OFDM system based on IEEE 802.16, which is over-sampling clipping arithmetic. Simulation and performance of the over-samples clipping's PAPR reduction capability, BER effect is given. The simulation indicates that the PAPR of at least 99.9% OFDM symbol is below 6dB after 2 Nyquist rate clipping, and the performance of BER has 1dB SNR(signal noise ratio) loss. The results prove that this method has better capacity to reducing PAPR. So it can be well used in WMAN-OFDM system.

  16. Simulation Model solves exact the Enigma named Generating high Voltages and high Frequencies by Tesla Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Janjanin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Simulation model of Tesla coil has been successfully completed, and has been verified the procedure and functioning. The literature and documentation for the model were taken from the rich sources, especially the copies of Tesla patents. The oscillating system‟s electrical scheme consists of the voltage supply 220/50 Hz, Fe transformer, capacitor and belonging chosen electrical components, the air gap in the primary Tesla coil (air transformer and spark gap in the exit of the coil. The investigation of the oscillating process Tesla coil‟s system using the simulation model in MATLAB & SIMULINK have given the exact solution the enigma named the generating high voltage and high frequency the Tesla‟s coil. The inductance voltage from the spark current in the primary (coil with its high voltage impulse excites the oscillating series circuit Ce-L3-R3 on the secondary of the air transformer to its own damped oscillations

  17. Computational methods for coupling microstructural and micromechanical materials response simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM,ELIZABETH A.; BATTAILE,CORBETT C.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT; RINTOUL,MARK DANIEL; VEDULA,VENKATA R.; GLASS,S. JILL; KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; NEILSEN,MICHAEL K.; WELLMAN,GERALD W.; SULSKY,DEBORAH; SHEN,YU-LIN; SCHREYER,H. BUCK

    2000-04-01

    Computational materials simulations have traditionally focused on individual phenomena: grain growth, crack propagation, plastic flow, etc. However, real materials behavior results from a complex interplay between phenomena. In this project, the authors explored methods for coupling mesoscale simulations of microstructural evolution and micromechanical response. In one case, massively parallel (MP) simulations for grain evolution and microcracking in alumina stronglink materials were dynamically coupled. In the other, codes for domain coarsening and plastic deformation in CuSi braze alloys were iteratively linked. this program provided the first comparison of two promising ways to integrate mesoscale computer codes. Coupled microstructural/micromechanical codes were applied to experimentally observed microstructures for the first time. In addition to the coupled codes, this project developed a suite of new computational capabilities (PARGRAIN, GLAD, OOF, MPM, polycrystal plasticity, front tracking). The problem of plasticity length scale in continuum calculations was recognized and a solution strategy was developed. The simulations were experimentally validated on stockpile materials.

  18. General-form 3-3-3 interpolation kernel and its simplified frequency-response derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tian-Bo

    2016-11-01

    An interpolation kernel is required in a wide variety of signal processing applications such as image interpolation and timing adjustment in digital communications. This article presents a general-form interpolation kernel called 3-3-3 interpolation kernel and derives its frequency response in a closed-form by using a simple derivation method. This closed-form formula is preliminary to designing various 3-3-3 interpolation kernels subject to a set of design constraints. The 3-3-3 interpolation kernel is formed through utilising the third-degree piecewise polynomials, and it is an even-symmetric function. Thus, it will suffice to consider only its right-hand side when deriving its frequency response. Since the right-hand side of the interpolation kernel contains three piecewise polynomials of the third degree, i.e. the degrees of the three piecewise polynomials are (3,3,3), we call it the 3-3-3 interpolation kernel. Once the general-form frequency-response formula is derived, we can systematically formulate the design of various 3-3-3 interpolation kernels subject to a set of design constraints, which are targeted for different interpolation applications. Therefore, the closed-form frequency-response expression is preliminary to the optimal design of various 3-3-3 interpolation kernels. We will use an example to show the optimal design of a 3-3-3 interpolation kernel based on the closed-form frequency-response expression.

  19. A transport model and numerical simulation of the high-frequency dynamics of three-dimensional beam trusses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guennec, Yves; Savin, Éric

    2011-12-01

    The theory of microlocal analysis shows that the energy density associated with the high-frequency vibrations of a three-dimensional Timoshenko beam satisfies a Liouville-type transport equation. In the present application, the material of the beam is assumed to be isotropic. Its parameters are allowed to vary along the beam axis at length scales much larger than the wavelength of the high-frequency waves traveling in it. Moreover, the curvature and torsion of the beam are accounted for. The first part of the paper focuses on the derivation of the transport model for a single three-dimensional beam. In order to extend this model to beam trusses, the reflection/transmission phenomena of the energy fluxes at junctions of beams are described by power flow reflection/transmission operators in a subsequent part. For numerical simulations, a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is used on account of the discontinuities of the energy density field at the junctions. Thus, a complete mechanical-numerical modeling of the linear transient dynamics of beam trusses is proposed. It is illustrated by numerical examples highlighting some remarkable features of high-frequency vibrations: The onset of a diffusive regime characterized by energy equipartition rules at late times. Energy diffusion is prompted by the multiple reflection/transmission of waves at the junctions, with possible mode (polarization) conversions. This is the regime applicable to the statistical energy analysis of structural acoustics systems. The main purpose of this research is to develop an effective strategy to simulate and predict the transient response of beam trusses impacted by acoustic or mechanical shocks.

  20. Large-scale derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, Viet; Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Guse, Björn; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for spatially consistent flood risk assessments at the regional scale (several 100.000 km2), in particular in the insurance industry and for national risk reduction strategies. However, most large-scale flood risk assessments are composed of smaller-scale assessments and show spatial inconsistencies. To overcome this deficit, a large-scale flood model composed of a weather generator and catchments models was developed reflecting the spatially inherent heterogeneity. The weather generator is a multisite and multivariate stochastic model capable of generating synthetic meteorological fields (precipitation, temperature, etc.) at daily resolution for the regional scale. These fields respect the observed autocorrelation, spatial correlation and co-variance between the variables. They are used as input into catchment models. A long-term simulation of this combined system enables to derive very long discharge series at many catchment locations serving as a basic for spatially consistent flood risk estimates at the regional scale. This combined model was set up and validated for major river catchments in Germany. The weather generator was trained by 53-year observation data at 528 stations covering not only the complete Germany but also parts of France, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Australia with the aggregated spatial scale of 443,931 km2. 10.000 years of daily meteorological fields for the study area were generated. Likewise, rainfall-runoff simulations with SWIM were performed for the entire Elbe, Rhine, Weser, Donau and Ems catchments. The validation results illustrate a good performance of the combined system, as the simulated flood magnitudes and frequencies agree well with the observed flood data. Based on continuous simulation this model chain is then used to estimate flood quantiles for the whole Germany including upstream headwater catchments in neighbouring countries. This continuous large scale approach overcomes the several

  1. Global particle in cell simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak ∖fs20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Lau, C.; Sun, G. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We are looking into a new nonlinear kinetic simulation model to study the radio frequency heating and current drive of fusion plasmas using toroidal code GTC. In this model ions are considered as fully kinetic (FK) particles using Vlasov equation and the electrons are treated as drift kinetic (DK) particles using drift kinetic equation. We have benchmarked this numerical model to verify the linear physics of normal modes, conversion of slow and fast waves and its propagation in the core region of the tokamak using the Boozer coordinates. In the nonlinear simulation of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) in a tokamak, parametric decay instability (PDI) is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasi-mode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity. Finally, in the electromagnetic LH simulation, nonlinear wave trapping of electrons is verified and plasma current is nonlinearly driven. Presently we are working on the development of new PIC simulation model using cylindrical coordinates to address the RF wave propagation from the edge of the tokamak to the core region and the parametric instabilities associated with this RF waves. We have verified the cyclotron integrator using Boris push method.

  2. Effect of ischemia and cooling on the response to high frequency stimulation in rat tail nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning; Feldbæk Nielsen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Bodil

    2000-01-01

    In normal rat tail nerves the effect of temperature and ischemia on the response to long-term high frequency stimulation (HFS) (143 Hz) was studied. The effect of temperature was studied in two consecutive tests at 14 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Prior to the HFS the peak-to-peak amplitude (PP-amp...... ischemia to the rat tail, an additional fall of the PP-amp was seen after 15-20 min of HFS at both low (20 Hz) and high (143 Hz) stimulation frequencies. In conclusion, ischemia and cooling result in an impaired ability to transmit high frequency impulses.......In normal rat tail nerves the effect of temperature and ischemia on the response to long-term high frequency stimulation (HFS) (143 Hz) was studied. The effect of temperature was studied in two consecutive tests at 14 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Prior to the HFS the peak-to-peak amplitude (PP...

  3. Core influence on the frequency response analysis (FRA of power transformers through the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Alvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of core parameters in Frequency Response Analysis is analyzed through the equivalent circuit impedance matrix of the transformer winding; the parameters of the circuit have been computed using the Finite Element Method. In order to appreciate the behavior of the iron core in comparison to the air core, the frequency dependence of resonances is calculated to show how the air core only influences the results at low frequencies. The core is modeled using a complex permeability, and the parameters of conductivity and permeability are varied to show their influence in the resonances, which turned out to be negligible. In order to explain this behavior, the eigenvalues of the inverse impedance matrix are calculated showing that they are similar for different values of conductivity and permeability. Finally, the magnetic flux inside and outside the core and its influence in the frequency response is studied.

  4. An Advanced Robust AVR-PSS Based H2 and H∞ Frequency Approachs Simulated Under a Realized GUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KABI Wahiba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article present a comparative study between two advanced robust frequency control strategies and their implementation using our realised Graphical User Interface ‘GUI’ under MATLAB software: the first method based on loop-shaping H∞ optimization technique and the second on robust H2 control method (LQG controller associated with KALMAN filter, and applied on automatic excitation control of synchronous generators, to improve transient stability and robustness of a single machine- infinite bus (SMIB system operating in different several conditions. The computer simulation results (static and dynamic stability, with test of robustness against machine parameters uncertainty (electric and mechanic, have proved that good dynamic performances, showing a stable system responses almost insensitive to large parameters variations, and more robustness using robust H∞ controller in comparison with H2 approach by exploiting our developed GUI interface in this work.

  5. Sound field control in a rectangular room at low frequencies to simulate the sound radiated by a virtual source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco, Arturo; Uchiyama, Michiaki; Tohyama, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    The sound reproduced in a room by a conventional audio system is modified because of the acoustic response of the room. In this paper a theoreticalstudy based on computer simulations for the synthesis of a desired sound field in a room is presented. The optimal solution in a continuous region...... that covers almost the entire volume of the room has been obtained with the least-square approximation. It is shown that the synthesis of travelling waves in a certain direction is possible at frequencies up to 320 Hz in a room with dimensions 2.9x3.6x2.5 m using 32 loudspeakers. If waves travelling in any...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristic of 4k Regenerators at High Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuopei; Jiang, Yanlong; Gan, Zhihua; Qiu, Limin

    Regenerator is a key component for all regenerative cryocoolers. 4K regenerative cryocoolers can be applied to provide cooling for low temperature superconductors, space and military infrared detectors, and medical examination etc. Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC), one type of regenerative cryocoolers, operate at high frequencies. As a result, SPTCs have the advantage of compact structure and low weight compared with G-M type pulse tube cryocoolers operating at low frequencies. However, as the frequency increase the thermal penetration depth of helium gas in the regenerator is greatly reduced which makes the heat transfer between the gas and the regenerator worse. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, regenerator materials with smaller hydraulic diameters are used. Therefore the flow resistance between the gas and the regenerator material will increase leading to larger pressure drop from the hot end to the cold end of the regenerator. The cooling performance is deteriorated due to the decreased pressure ratio (maximum pressure divided by minimum pressure) at the cold end. Also, behavior of helium at 4K deviates remarkably from that of ideal gas which has a significant influence both the flow and heat transfer characteristic within a regenerator. In this paper numerical simulation on the behavior of a 4K regenerator at high frequency is carried out to provide guidance for the optimization of the flow and heat transfer performance within a regenerator. Thermodynamic analysis of effect of the non-ideal gas behavior of helium at 4K on 4K regenerator at high frequency is investigated.

  7. Frequency response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex /VOR/ in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, U. W.; Henn, V.; Young, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has been investigated in the alert monkey during sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis in a frequency range of 0.001-0.5 Hz. Phase and gain of nystagmus slow phase velocity was determined. In the frequency range above 0.1 Hz, nystagmus slow phase velocity was in phase with (compensated for) head velocity. At lower frequencies, an increasing phase lead was present which could reach more than 90 deg. Gain fell off correspondingly at low frequencies. Calculated time constants were 10-40 s in different monkeys. Animals which had been exposed to numerous previous rotary stimuli in the laboratory showed much shorter time constants than did 'native' monkeys.

  8. Neural Network Model Of The PXIE RFQ Cooling System and Resonant Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, Auralee [Fermilab; Biedron, Sandra [Colorado State U., Fort Collins; Bowring, Daniel [Fermilab; Chase, Brian [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Milton, Stephen [Colorado State U., Fort Collins; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the PIP-II Injector Experiment (PXIE) accel-erator, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA H' ion beam to 2.1 MeV. It is designed to operate at a frequency of 162.5 MHz with arbitrary duty factor, including continuous wave (CW) mode. The resonant frequency is controlled solely by a water-cooling system. We present an initial neural network model of the RFQ frequency response to changes in the cooling system and RF power conditions during pulsed operation. A neural network model will be used in a model predictive control scheme to regulate the resonant frequency of the RFQ.

  9. Liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems: A method for determining frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Englund, D. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    An equation is given and experimentally verified for computing the resonant frequency of liquid-filled transient pressure measuring systems. Resonant frequencies of 100 to 1000 Hz are typical of those systems tested. The effect of noncondensable gas bubbles on system response is described. A method for determining transducer volumetric compliance is presented. An example system is described and analyzed to demonstrate the use of the theory.

  10. Design PID controllers for desired time-domain or frequency-domain response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yugeng; Yang, Genke; Xu, Xiaoming

    2002-10-01

    Practical requirements on the design of control systems, especially process control systems, are usually specified in terms of time-domain response, such as overshoot and rise time, or frequency-domain response, such as resonance peak and stability margin. Although numerous methods have been developed for the design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, little work has been done in relation to the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses. In this paper, we study the following problem: Given a nominal stable process with time delay, we design a suboptimal PID controller to achieve the required time-domain response or frequency-domain response for the nominal system or the uncertain system. An H(infinity) PID controller is developed based on optimal control theory and the parameters are derived analytically. Its properties are investigated and compared with that of two developed suboptimal controllers: an H2 PID controller and a Maclaurin PID controller. It is shown that all three controllers can provide the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses.

  11. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2015-01-01

    Beat phenomenon is occurred when two slightly different frequency waves interfere each other. The beat can also occur in the brain by providing two slightly different frequency waves separately each ear. This is called binaural beat. The brain responses to binaural beat are in discussion process whether the brain side and the brain area. Therefore, this study aims to figure out the brain responses to binaural beat by providing different binaural beat frequencies on 250 carrier tone continuously for 30 minutes to participants and using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) to interpret the data. The result shows that different responses appear in different beat frequency. Left hemisphere dominance occur in 3 Hz beat within 15 minutes and 15 Hz beat within 5 minutes. Right hemisphere dominance occurs in 10 Hz beat within 25 minute. 6 Hz beat enhances all area of the brain within 10 minutes. 8 Hz and 25 Hz beats have no clearly responses while 40 Hz beat enhances the responses in frontal lobe. These brain responses can be used for brain modulation application to induce the brain activity in further studies.

  12. Frequency and phase synchronization in neuromagnetic cortical responses to flickering-color stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.; Polyakov, Yu. S.; Yulmetyev, R. M.; Demin, S. A.; Panischev, O. Yu.; Shimojo, S.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2010-03-01

    In our earlier study dealing with the analysis of neuromagnetic responses (magnetoencephalograms—MEG) to flickering-color stimuli for a group of control human subjects (9 volunteers) and a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (a 12-year old girl), it was shown that Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) was able to identify specific differences in the responses of each organism. The high specificity of individual MEG responses manifested itself in the values of FNS parameters for both chaotic and resonant components of the original signal. The present study applies the FNS cross-correlation function to the analysis of correlations between the MEG responses simultaneously measured at spatially separated points of the human cortex processing the red-blue flickering color stimulus. It is shown that the cross-correlations for control (healthy) subjects are characterized by frequency and phase synchronization at different points of the cortex, with the dynamics of neuromagnetic responses being determined by the low-frequency processes that correspond to normal physiological rhythms. But for the patient, the frequency and phase synchronization breaks down, which is associated with the suppression of cortical regulatory functions when the flickering-color stimulus is applied, and higher frequencies start playing the dominating role. This suggests that the disruption of correlations in the MEG responses is the indicator of pathological changes leading to photosensitive epilepsy, which can be used for developing a method of diagnosing the disease based on the analysis with the FNS cross-correlation function.

  13. Calibration scheme for large Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays based on Readout Frequency Response

    CERN Document Server

    Bisigello, L; Murugesan, V; Baselmans, J J A; Baryshev, A M

    2016-01-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) provides a way to build large ground based sub-mm instruments such as NIKA and A-MKID. For such instruments, therefore, it is important to understand and characterize the response to ensure good linearity and calibration over wide dynamic range. We propose to use the MKID readout frequency response to determine the MKID responsivity to an input optical source power. A signal can be measured in a KID as a change in the phase of the readout signal with respect to the KID resonant circle. Fundamentally, this phase change is due to a shift in the KID resonance frequency, in turn due to a radiation induced change in the quasiparticle number in the superconducting resonator. We show that shift in resonant frequency can be determined from the phase shift by using KID phase versus frequency dependence using a previously measured resonant frequency. Working in this calculated resonant frequency, we gain near linearity and constant calibration to a constant optical signal ap...

  14. Frequency-dependent local field factors in dielectric liquids by a polarizable force field and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davari, Nazanin; Haghdani, Shokouh; Åstrand, Per-Olof [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-12-31

    A force field model for calculating local field factors, i.e. the linear response of the local electric field for example at a nucleus in a molecule with respect to an applied electric field, is discussed. It is based on a combined charge-transfer and point-dipole interaction model for the polarizability, and thereby it includes two physically distinct terms for describing electronic polarization: changes in atomic charges arising from transfer of charge between the atoms and atomic induced dipole moments. A time dependence is included both for the atomic charges and the atomic dipole moments and if they are assumed to oscillate with the same frequency as the applied electric field, a model for frequency-dependent properties are obtained. Furthermore, if a life-time of excited states are included, a model for the complex frequency-dependent polariability is obtained including also information about excited states and the absorption spectrum. We thus present a model for the frequency-dependent local field factors through the first molecular excitation energy. It is combined with molecular dynamics simulations of liquids where a large set of configurations are sampled and for which local field factors are calculated. We are normally not interested in the average of the local field factor but rather in configurations where it is as high as possible. In electrical insulation, we would like to avoid high local field factors to reduce the risk for electrical breakdown, whereas for example in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, high local field factors are desired to give dramatically increased intensities.

  15. An Approximate Treatment of Reflection Coefficient in the Phased Beam Tracing Method for the Simulation of Enclosed Sound Fields at Medium Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2008-01-01

    The phased beam tracing method (PBTM) was suggested as a medium-frequency simulation technique for the calculation of impulse response, although main assumptions of geometric acoustics still hold. The phased method needs the reflection coefficient for characterizing the acoustic property...... of a surface and the complex wave number for describing the propagation characteristics. In this study, two types of approximate real reflection coefficients derived from the measured absorption coefficient were tested for a practical applicability. As a test example, pressure impulse responses and energy......-frequency range in octave bands above the Schroeder cutoff frequency. A comparison was made between angle-dependent and angle-independent reflection coefficients in the calculation of acoustic measures. Although the angle-dependent reflection coefficient yielded best matched results with measured data...

  16. Characterization of Deficiencies in the Frequency Domain Forced Response Analysis Technique for Supersonic Turbine Bladed Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Schmauch, Preston

    2012-01-01

    Turbine blades in rocket and jet engine turbomachinery experience enormous harmonic loading conditions. These loads result from the integer number of upstream and downstream stator vanes as well as the other turbine stages. Assessing the blade structural integrity is a complex task requiring an initial characterization of whether resonance is possible and then performing a forced response analysis if that condition is met. The standard technique for forced response analysis in rocket engine turbines is to decompose a computational fluid dynamics (CFD).generated flow field into its harmonic components, and to then perform a frequency response analysis at the problematic natural frequencies using cyclically symmetric structural dynamic models. Recent CFD analysis and water-flow testing at NASA/MSFC, though, indicates that this technique may miss substantial harmonic and non ]harmonic excitation sources that become present in complex flows. This complex content can only be captured by a CFD flow field encompassing at least an entire revolution. A substantial development effort to create a series of software programs to enable application of the 360 degree forcing function in a frequency response analysis on cyclic symmetric models has been completed (to be described in a future paper), but the question still remains whether the frequency response analysis itself is capable of capturing the excitation content sufficiently. Two studies comparing frequency response analysis with transient response analysis, therefore, of bladed-disks undergoing this complex flow environment have been performed. The first is of a bladed disk with each blade modeled by simple beam elements and the disk modeled with plates (using the finite element code MSC/NASTRAN). The focus of this model is to be representative of response of realistic bladed disks, and so the dimensions are roughly equivalent to the new J2X rocket engine 1st stage fuel pump turbine. The simplicity of the model allows

  17. Simulation and Comparison of Channel Estimation Based on Block-type Pilot Frequency in OFDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Weiguo; Li, Zhendong; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Xiaobo

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) splits a high-speed data stream into a number of lower-speed data streams that are transmitted simultaneously over a number of subcarriers. The capability of resistance of intersymbol interference and bandwidth efficiency are improved, and multipath fading is effectively combated. In order to improve communication efficiency and communication quality, it is necessary to make a dynamic estimation of the current characteristics of the channel. In OFDM system, the technology of channel estimation based on the pilot frequency of block-type distribution is that pilot signal is inserted at regular intervals of time on the transmitting terminal, and on the receiving terminal extract pilot signal from the received data stream, and according to that the channel characteristics are estimated at the period of time. Three common methods of channel estimation based on pilot frequency: MMSE estimation, LS estimation and SVD estimation are discussed with comparison in OFDM system. Through the simulation of matlab, three channel estimation methods and their characteristics are analyzed and compared. The results show that the performance of MMSE estimation is far better than that of the LS estimation, but MMSE estimation has high computational complexity. The performance and computational complexity of SVD estimation are ranged between that of the MMSE estimation and LS estimation.

  18. The GLAST burst monitor instrument response simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, A. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson, R. B.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G. G.; von Kienlin, A.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Connaughton, V.

    2005-07-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to provide wide field of view observations of gamma-ray bursts from 10keV to 25MeV. The GBM is composed of twelve NaI and two BGO detectors that are widely dispersed about the GLAST spacecraft. Reconstructing burst locations and energy spectra from these separated detectors requires detailed knowledge of the response to direct and scattered burst radiation. A simulation software package based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolset is being developed to fulfill this requirement. We will discuss the architecture of our simulation system and evaluate the scientific capabilities of the GBM.

  19. Ablation response testing of simulated radioisotope power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Steven A.; Chan, Chris C.

    1994-05-01

    Results of an experimental program to assess the aerothermal ablation response of simulated radioisotope power supplies are presented. Full-scale general purpose heat source, graphite impact shell, and lightweight radioisotope heater unit test articles are all tested without nuclear fuel in simulated reentry environments. Convective stagnation heating, stagnation pressure, stagnation surface temperature, surface recession profile, and weight loss measurements are obtained for diffusion-limited and sublimation ablation conditions. The recession profile and weight loss measurements show an effect of surface features on the stagnation face. The surface features alter the local heating which in turn affects the local ablation.

  20. Low-Frequency Loudspeaker-Room Simulation Using Finite Differences in the Time Domain-Part 1: Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...

  1. Low-Frequency Loudspeaker-Room Simulation Using Finite Differences in the Time Domain-Part 1: Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...

  2. Hybrid simulations of solenoidal radio-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen discharges at low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Hong; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have described a radio-frequency (RF) inductively coupled H2 plasma using a hybrid computational model, incorporating the Maxwell equations and the linear part of the electron Boltzmann equation into global model equations. This report focuses on the effects of RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current on the spatial profiles of the induced electric field and plasma absorption power density. The plasma parameters, i.e., plasma density, electron temperature, density of negative ion, electronegativity, densities of neutral species, and dissociation degree of H2, as a function of absorption power, are evaluated at different gas pressures. The simulation results show that the utilization efficiency of the RF source characterized by the coupling efficiency of the RF electric field and power to the plasma can be significantly improved at the low RF frequency, gas pressure, and coil current, due to a low plasma density in these cases. The densities of vibrational states of H2 first rapidly increase with increasing absorption power and then tend to saturate. This is because the rapidly increased dissociation degree of H2 with increasing absorption power somewhat suppresses the increase of the vibrational states of H2, thus inhibiting the increase of the H-. The effects of absorption power on the utilization efficiency of the RF source and the production of the vibrational states of H2 should be considered when setting a value of the coil current. To validate the model simulations, the calculated electron density and temperature are compared with experimental measurements, and a reasonable agreement is achieved.

  3. Boundary implications for frequency response of interval FIR and IIR filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that vertex implication results in parameter space apply to interval trigonometric polynomials. Subsequently, it is shown that the frequency responses of both interval FIR and IIR filters are bounded by the frequency responses of certain extreme filters. The results apply directly in the evaluation of properties of designed filters, especially because it is more realistic to bound the filter coefficients from above and below instead of determining those with infinite precision because of finite arithmetic effects. Illustrative examples are provided to show how the extreme filters might be easily derived in any specific interval FIR or IIR filter design problem.

  4. Parallelization of a beam dynamics code and first large scale radio frequency quadrupole simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and operation support of hadron (proton and heavy-ion linear accelerators require substantial use of beam dynamics simulation tools. The beam dynamics code TRACK has been originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL to fulfill the special requirements of the rare isotope accelerator (RIA accelerator systems. From the beginning, the code has been developed to make it useful in the three stages of a linear accelerator project, namely, the design, commissioning, and operation of the machine. To realize this concept, the code has unique features such as end-to-end simulations from the ion source to the final beam destination and automatic procedures for tuning of a multiple charge state heavy-ion beam. The TRACK code has become a general beam dynamics code for hadron linacs and has found wide applications worldwide. Until recently, the code has remained serial except for a simple parallelization used for the simulation of multiple seeds to study the machine errors. To speed up computation, the TRACK Poisson solver has been parallelized. This paper discusses different parallel models for solving the Poisson equation with the primary goal to extend the scalability of the code onto 1024 and more processors of the new generation of supercomputers known as BlueGene (BG/L. Domain decomposition techniques have been adapted and incorporated into the parallel version of the TRACK code. To demonstrate the new capabilities of the parallelized TRACK code, the dynamics of a 45 mA proton beam represented by 10^{8} particles has been simulated through the 325 MHz radio frequency quadrupole and initial accelerator section of the proposed FNAL proton driver. The results show the benefits and advantages of large-scale parallel computing in beam dynamics simulations.

  5. Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling Simulator for Real Workflows Energy-Aware Management in Green Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Ruiz, Iván Tomás; Prado, Rocío P; García-Galán, Sebastián; Muñoz-Expósito, José Enrique; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the growing computational capabilities of Cloud systems rely on the reduction of the consumed power of their data centers to make them sustainable and economically profitable. The efficient management of computing resources is at the heart of any energy-aware data center and of special relevance is the adaptation of its performance to workload. Intensive computing applications in diverse areas of science generate complex workload called workflows, whose successful management in terms of energy saving is still at its beginning. WorkflowSim is currently one of the most advanced simulators for research on workflows processing, offering advanced features such as task clustering and failure policies. In this work, an expected power-aware extension of WorkflowSim is presented. This new tool integrates a power model based on a computing-plus-communication design to allow the optimization of new management strategies in energy saving considering computing, reconfiguration and networks costs as well as quality of service, and it incorporates the preeminent strategy for on host energy saving: Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS). The simulator is designed to be consistent in different real scenarios and to include a wide repertory of DVFS governors. Results showing the validity of the simulator in terms of resources utilization, frequency and voltage scaling, power, energy and time saving are presented. Also, results achieved by the intra-host DVFS strategy with different governors are compared to those of the data center using a recent and successful DVFS-based inter-host scheduling strategy as overlapped mechanism to the DVFS intra-host technique.

  6. Nonlinear amygdala response to face trustworthiness: contributions of high and low spatial frequency information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Baron, Sean G; Todorov, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has shown amygdala sensitivity to the perceived trustworthiness of neutral faces, with greater responses to untrustworthy compared with trustworthy faces. This observation is consistent with the common view that the amygdala encodes fear and is preferentially responsive to negative stimuli. However, some studies have shown greater amygdala activation to positive compared with neutral stimuli. The first goal of this study was to more fully characterize the amygdala response to face trustworthiness by modeling its activation with both linear and nonlinear predictors. Using fMRI, we report a nonmonotonic response profile, such that the amygdala responds strongest to highly trustworthy and highly untrustworthy faces. This finding complicates future attempts to make inferences about mental states based on activation in the amygdala. The second goal of the study was to test for modulatory effects of image spatial frequency filtering on the amygdala response. We predicted greater amygdala sensitivity to face trustworthiness for low spatial frequency images compared with high spatial frequency images. Instead, we found that both frequency ranges provided sufficient information for the amygdala to differentiate faces on trustworthiness. This finding is consistent with behavioral results and suggests that trustworthiness information may reach the amygdala through pathways carrying both coarse and fine resolution visual signals.

  7. Climate change signal of thunderstorm frequency using high-resolution COSMO-CLM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefczyk, Lukas; Heinemann, Guenther

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that temperature increase associated with global climate change will lead to increased thunderstorm intensity and associated heavy precipitation events. In the present study it is investigated whether the frequency of thunderstorm occurrences will in- or decrease and how the spatial distribution will change for the A1B scenario. The region of interest is Saar-Lor-Lux region (Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg) with a focus on Rhineland-Palatinate. Hourly and daily model data of the COSMO-CLM is used with a horizontal resolution of 4.5km and 1.3km. The simulations were carried out for three different decades: 1991-2000 (C20), 2041-2050 (A1B) and 2091-2100 (A1B). Thunderstorm indices are calculated to detect potential thunderstorms and differences in their frequency of occurrence in the three decades. The indices used are CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), SLI (Surface Lifted Index), and TSP (Thunderstorm Severity Potential), which combines deep-layer-shear and the maximum vertical velocity. The significance of a potential climate signal was tested with a t-test and a power analysis was performed to quantify the uncertainty of the signal. The investigation of the present and future thunderstorms shows that the regional averaged frequencies will decrease in general, but several regions like the Saarland and especially elevated areas will have a potential increase in thunderstorm occurrences and intensity. Statistically, nearly none of the signals is significant and the power analysis yields low power to detect changes of severe thunderstorms but high power for classes with no to light thunderstorms. Therefore it can be concluded that the frequency of severe thunderstorm is not likely to increase.

  8. Identification of the heat transfer frequency response in pulsating laminar and subcritical flow across a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A.; Cabrera, A.; Polifke, W.

    2016-09-01

    The steady-state heat transfer from a cylinder in cross-flow is a prototype problem in thermo-fluiddynamics. However, in many applications such as the Rijke tube, the flow may fluctuate. This work analyses the phenomenon combining numerical simulation with system identification. Direct numerical simulation of laminar flow and Large Eddy Simulation at subcritical flow at Reynolds number equal to 3900 are used, respectively. Fluctuations of the inlet velocity in the simulation are excited over a wide range of frequencies. Time series of unsteady heat release and velocity are post-processed to identify dynamic models, which may be represented as transfer functions. They accurately describe the dynamic behavior and can be used for further modeling.

  9. Spatial Frequency Dependence of the Human Visual Cortex Response on Temporal Frequency Modulation Studied by fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzajani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The brain response to temporal frequencies (TF has been already reported. However, there is no study on different TF with respect to various spatial frequencies (SF. Materials and Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was done by a 1.5 T General Electric system for 14 volunteers (9 males and 5 females, aged 19–26 years during square-wave reversal checkerboard visual stimulation with different temporal frequencies of 4, 6, 8 and 10 Hz in 2 states of low SF of 0.4 and high SF of 8 cycles/degree (cpd. All subjects had normal visual acuity of 20/20 based on Snellen’s fraction in each eye with good binocular vision and normal visual field based on confrontation test. The mean luminance of the entire checkerboard was 161.4 cd/m2 and the black and white check contrast was 96%. The activation map was created using the data obtained from the block designed fMRI study. Pixels with a Z score above a threshold of 2.3, at a statistical significance level of 0.05, were considered activated. The average percentage blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal change for all activated pixels within the occipital lobe, multiplied by the total number of activated pixels within the occipital lobe, was used as an index for the magnitude of the fMRI signal at each state of TF&SF. Results: The magnitude of the fMRI signal in response to different TF’s was maximum at 6 Hz for a high SF value of 8 cpd; it was however, maximum at a TF of 8 Hz for a low SF of 0.4 cpd. Conclusion: The results of this study agree with those of animal invasive neurophysiologic studies showing SF and TF selectivity of neurons in visual cortex. These results can be useful for vision therapy and selecting visual tasks in fMRI studies.

  10. Beam emittance measurements and simulations of injector line for radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Singh, P.

    2015-07-01

    A 400 keV deuteron (D+) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, built, and commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. A beam line has been developed for injecting deuterons into the 400 keV RFQ. This comprises of a RF plasma ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system, consisting of two solenoid magnets and two steerer magnets. The ion source is characterized in terms of transverse beam emittance. A slit-wire scanner based emittance measurement setup has been developed for the transverse emittance measurements of H+ and D+ beams. The measured emittance values are found to be well within the acceptance value for the RFQ. These measured emittance parameters are used to optimize the solenoid fields in LEBT to match the beam from the ion source to RFQ. TRACEWIN simulation code is used for the beam transport simulations. The simulations show 99% transmission of D+ beam through the RFQ, while 95% transmission has been measured experimentally.

  11. Circuit analysis and simulation of an ultrahigh-frequency capacitance sensor for scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Postula, A.; Bialkowski, M.

    2004-03-01

    Quantitative two-dimensional dopant profiling tools are urgently needed for nowadays semiconductor industry. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) holds most promise to become such a tool. The key component of SCM is an ultra high frequency (UHF) capacitance sensor. The output of the sensor has been approximately regarded as dC/dV, the derivative of the capacitance between the SCM tip and the sample versus the applied bias voltage. The SCM dopant profiling involves extracting the dopant profile from the SCM signal using analytic or numerical simulation models of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor physics. To achieve a quantitative SCM dopant profiling, the operational principle of the whole SCM measurement has to be well understood and correctly included in those models. Recently, experimental evidences show the SCM signal is dramatically affected by many SCM experimental factors, including the behavior of the UHF capacitance sensor. However, till now, very little research has been reported on the behavior of the sensor in SCM measurement of semiconductors. In this paper, we derive an analytic expression of the sensor output, a circuit simulation model of the sensor is established using Advanced Design System 2003, and the dependences of the sensor output on the SCM operational factors are simulated.

  12. The hydrological response of catchments to simulated changes in climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viney, Neil R.; Sivapalan, Murugesu [Centre for Water Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia)

    1996-04-17

    The Large Scale Catchment Model has been developed to predict the responses in stream yield and salinity to changes in land use and climate in southwestern Western Australia. In this paper it is used to simulate, for one small forested catchment, the hydrological consequences that might be associated with a doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The simulations assume that the region will experience a decrease in the amount of winter rainfall (with an increase in rainfall intensity) and an increase in potential evaporation. The results suggest that the assumed change in climate has the potential to lead to a 45% decrease in stream runoff in this catchment. About two-thirds of this decrease is associated with the reduction in rainfall; the remainder being associated with the increased potential evaporation. Furthermore, stream salinity is predicted to increase by about 8%, mostly in response to the enhanced evaporation regime

  13. Reconciling measured scattering response of 3D metamaterials with simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomanis Bryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane projection lithography is used to create 3-dimensional unit cells in a silicon matrix decorated with metallic inclusions. The structures show pronounced resonances in the 4–16 µm wavelength range and demonstrate direct coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic (TEM wave, a behavior only possible for vertically oriented resonators. Qualitative agreement between rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA simulation and measured scattering response is shown. COMSOL simulations show that slight variations in both metallic inclusion and silicon unit cell physical dimensions can have large impact in the scattering response, so that design for manufacture of 3D metamaterial structures for applications should be done with care.

  14. Computation simulation of the nonlinear response of suspension bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D.B.; Astaneh-Asl, A.

    1997-10-01

    Accurate computational simulation of the dynamic response of long- span bridges presents one of the greatest challenges facing the earthquake engineering community The size of these structures, in terms of physical dimensions and number of main load bearing members, makes computational simulation of transient response an arduous task. Discretization of a large bridge with general purpose finite element software often results in a computational model of such size that excessive computational effort is required for three dimensional nonlinear analyses. The aim of the current study was the development of efficient, computationally based methodologies for the nonlinear analysis of cable supported bridge systems which would allow accurate characterization of a bridge with a relatively small number of degrees of freedom. This work has lead to the development of a special purpose software program for the nonlinear analysis of cable supported bridges and the methodologies and software are described and illustrated in this paper.

  15. Dynamic Simulation of the Tank Gun Recoil Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Jun-wen; WANG Liang-xi; SHI Yan; CHEN Chun-liang

    2005-01-01

    By using the ATV module of MSC. ADAMS, the dynamic simulation of recoil response of tank gun is analyzed.How the recoil force affects the bodywork and the suspension during gun firing, as well as the changing status of the gun muzzle's velocity are gained. All results and analyzing methods are offered for the designing basis of optimizing tank vehicle-gun match. The constructive exploration is beneficial to improving the general capability of tank.

  16. Time-frequency analysis of railway bridge response in forced vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform in combination with the Modified Littlewood-Paley basis to analyse bridge responses exited by traversing trains. The analysis provides an energy distribution map in the time-frequency domain that offers a better resolution compared to previous published studies. This is demonstrated with recorded responses of the Skidträsk Bridge, a 36 m long composite bridge located in Sweden. It is shown to be particularly useful to understand ...

  17. Reproductive phase locking of mosquito populations in response to rainfall frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    Full Text Available The frequency of moderate to heavy rainfall events is projected to change in response to global warming. Here we show that these hydrologic changes may have a profound effect on mosquito population dynamics and rates of mosquito-borne disease transmission. We develop a simple model, which treats the mosquito reproductive cycle as a phase oscillator that responds to rainfall frequency forcing. This model reproduces observed mosquito population dynamics and indicates that mosquito-borne disease transmission can be sensitive to rainfall frequency. These findings indicate that changes to the hydrologic cycle, in particular the frequency of moderate to heavy rainfall events, could have a profound effect on the transmission rates of some mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Three-dimensional self-consistent simulations of multipacting in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chet Nieter

    2010-12-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are a popular choice among researchers designing new accelerators because of the reduced power losses due to surface resistance. However, SRF cavities still have unresolved problems, including the loss of power to stray electrons. Sources of these electrons are field emission from the walls and ionization of background gas, but the predominant source is secondary emission yield (SEY) from electron impact. When the electron motion is in resonance with the cavity fields the electrons strike the cavity surface repeatedly creating a resonant build up of electrons referred to as multipacting. Cavity shaping has successfully reduced multipacting for cavities used in very high energy accelerators. However, multipacting is still a concern for the cavity power couplers, where shaping is not possible, and for cavities used to accelerate particles at moderate velocities. This Phase II project built upon existing models in the VORPAL simulation framework to allow for simulations of multipacting behavior in SRF cavities and their associated structures. The technical work involved allowed existing models of secondary electron generation to work with the complex boundary conditions needed to model the cavity structures. The types of data produced by VORPAL were also expanded to include data common used by cavity designers to evaluate cavity performance. Post-processing tools were also modified to provide information directly related to the conditions that produce multipacting. These new methods were demonstrated by running simulations of a cavity design being developed by researchers at Jefferson National Laboratory to attempt to identify the multipacting that would be an issue for the cavity design being considered. These simulations demonstrate that VORPAL now has the capabilities to assist researchers working with SRF cavities to understand and identify possible multipacting issues with their cavity designs.

  19. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Dakin, C.J.; Vardy, A.N.; Happee, R.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Blouin, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain

  20. A fast, reliable algorithm for computing frequency responses of state space models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matt

    1991-01-01

    Computation of frequency responses for large order systems described by time invariant state space systems often provides a bottleneck in control system analysis. It is shown that banding the A-matrix in the state space model can effectively reduce the computation time for such systems while maintaining reliability in the results produced.

  1. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Zhu

    Full Text Available The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  2. Role of Wind Power in Primary Frequency Response of an Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Gevorgian, V.; Ela, E.; Singhvi, V.; Pourbeik, P.

    2013-09-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and system inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.

  3. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserte...

  4. A low density, high stiffness flat loudspeaker with improved sound frequency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel flat loudspeaker with improved sound frequency response. Flat loudspeakers provide advantages of compact dimensions and high durability. Known flat loudspeaker technology is based on high modal density. However, the resonances in the panel are complex and difficult to

  5. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    event in the power system with a high penetration of wind power. An energy storage system (ESS) might be a viable solution for providing inertial response and primary frequency regulation. A methodology has been presented here for the sizing of the ESS in terms of required power and energy. It describes...

  6. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Dakin, C.J.; Vardy, A.N.; Happee, R.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, A.C.; Blouin, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between

  7. Frequency response for electromotility of isolated outer hair cells of the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; vanDijk, P; Segenhout, HM

    1996-01-01

    Frequency and impulse responses were determined for isolated guinea pig outer hair cells by electrically stimulating the cells between two wire electrodes with white noise. Cells were attached to the bottom of a small culture dish at one end while the other end was freely moving. Results have the ch

  8. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers Application to Planck/HFI

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvé, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for {\

  9. Determining generator parameters of Camargos hydroelectric power plant through frequency response measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M. de; Padua Guarini, Antonio de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Joao A. de; Valgas, Helio M.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the results of the set frequency response tests performed in the generator number 2, 6.9 kV, 25 MVA, of Camargos hydroelectric power plant, CEMIG, and the parameters relatives to determined structures of model. This tests are unpublished in Brazil. (author) 7 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Oscillatory brain responses in spoken word production reflect lexical frequency and sentential constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Maris, E.G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental factors affecting the speed of spoken word production are lexical frequency and sentential constraint, but little is known about their timing and electrophysiological basis. In the present study, we investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory brain responses induced

  11. Improving multiple-point-based a priori models for inverse problems by combining Sequential Simulation with the Frequency Matching Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Lange, Katrine;

    proven to be an efficient way of obtaining multiple realizations that honor the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. The frequency matching method provides an alternative way of formulating multiple-point-based a priori models. In this strategy the pattern frequency distributions (i.......e. marginals) of the training image and a subsurface model are matched in order to obtain a solution with the same multiple-point statistics as the training image. Sequential Gibbs sampling is a simulation strategy that provides an efficient way of applying sequential simulation based algorithms as a priori...... information in probabilistic inverse problems. Unfortunately, when this strategy is applied with the multiple-point-based simulation algorithm SNESIM the reproducibility of training image patterns is violated. In this study we suggest to combine sequential simulation with the frequency matching method...

  12. Prediction of blind frequency in lock-in thermography using electro-thermal model based numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Tuli, Suneet

    2013-11-01

    Lock-in thermography is increasingly becoming popular as a non-destructive testing technique for defect detection in composite materials for its low heating excitation. The experimental data is processed with Fourier transformation to produce phase and amplitude images. Phase images, though immune to surface emissivity variation, suffer from blind frequency effect, where a defect becomes invisible at a certain excitation frequency. There exists no analytical model to predict this 3-dimensional heat flow phenomenon. This paper presents a study of blind frequency using electro-thermal model based numerical simulation on a piece of thermally anisotropic carbon fibre composite. The performance of the simulator is optimized for spatial mesh size. Further the effect of paint layer, which is often applied to the sample surface for better thermal imaging, has been incorporated in the simulation. Finally, both experimental and simulation results are presented side-by-side for easy comparison.

  13. An Analysis of Decentralized Demand Response as Frequency Control Support under CriticalWind Power Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Villena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In power systems with high wind energy penetration, the conjunction of wind power fluctuations and power system inertia reduction can lead to large frequency excursions, where the operating reserves of conventional power generation may be insufficient to restore the power balance. With the aim of evaluating the demand-side contribution to frequency control, a complete process to determine critical wind oscillations in power systems with high wind penetration is discussed and described in this paper. This process implies thousands of wind power series simulations, which have been carried out through a validated offshore wind farm model. A large number of different conditions have been taken into account, such as frequency dead bands, the percentages of controllable demand and seasonal factor influence on controllable loads. Relevant results and statistics are also included in the paper.

  14. Large eddy simulation of high frequency oscillating flow in an asymmetric branching airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Martin A; Cater, John E

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of artificial ventilation schemes is necessary when respiration fails. One approach involves the application of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) to the respiratory system. Oscillatory airflow in the upper bronchial tree can be characterized by Reynolds numbers as high as 10(4), hence, the flow presents turbulent features. In this study, transitional and turbulent flow within an asymmetric bifurcating model of the upper airway during HFOV are studied using large eddy simulation (LES) methods. The flow, characterized by a peak Reynolds number of 8132, is analysed using a validated LES model of a three-dimensional branching geometry. The pressures, velocities, and vorticity within the flow are presented and compared with prior models for branching flow systems. The results demonstrate how pendelluft occurs at asymmetric branches within the respiratory system. These results may be useful in optimising treatments using HFOV methods.

  15. Reconstructing comptonization parameters using simulations of single frequency, dual-beam observations of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Systematical effects in dual-beam, differential, radio observations of extended objects are discussed in the context of the One Centimeter Receiver Array (OCRA). We use simulated samples of Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) galaxy clusters at low ($z<0.4$) and intermediate ($0.4frequency (30 GHz) on the accuracy of extracting SZ flux densities and of reconstructing comptonization parameters with OCRA, analysing dependences on cluster mass, redshift, observation strategy, and telescope pointing accuracy. Using $Planck$ data to make primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) templates, we test the feasibility of mitigating CMB confusion effects in observations of SZ profiles at angular scales larger than the separation of the receiver beams.

  16. Bivariate at-site frequency analysis of simulated flood peak-volume data using copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Ladislav; Viglione, Alberto; Szolgay, Ján.; Blöschl, Günter; Bacigál, Tomáå.¡

    2010-05-01

    In frequency analysis of joint hydro-climatological extremes (flood peaks and volumes, low flows and durations, etc.), usually, bivariate distribution functions are fitted to the observed data in order to estimate the probability of their occurrence. Bivariate models, however, have a number of limitations; therefore, in the recent past, dependence models based on copulas have gained increased attention to represent the joint probabilities of hydrological characteristics. Regardless of whether standard or copula based bivariate frequency analysis is carried out, one is generally interested in the extremes corresponding to low probabilities of the fitted joint cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). However, usually there is not enough flood data in the right tail of the empirical CDFs to derive reliable statistical inferences on the behaviour of the extremes. Therefore, different techniques are used to extend the amount of information for the statistical inference, i.e., temporal extension methods that allow for making use of historical data or spatial extension methods such as regional approaches. In this study, a different approach was adopted which uses simulated flood data by rainfall-runoff modelling, to increase the amount of data in the right tail of the CDFs. In order to generate artificial runoff data (i.e. to simulate flood records of lengths of approximately 106 years), a two-step procedure was used. (i) First, the stochastic rainfall generator proposed by Sivapalan et al. (2005) was modified for our purpose. This model is based on the assumption of discrete rainfall events whose arrival times, durations, mean rainfall intensity and the within-storm intensity patterns are all random, and can be described by specified distributions. The mean storm rainfall intensity is disaggregated further to hourly intensity patterns. (ii) Secondly, the simulated rainfall data entered a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model that consisted of a snow routine

  17. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  18. Simulation and Measurement of Medium-Frequency Signals Coupling From a Line to a Loop Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Nicholas W.; Li, Jingcheng; Zhou, Chenming; Brocker, Donovan E.; Qin, Yifeng; Werner, Douglas H.; Werner, Pingjuan L.

    2016-01-01

    The underground-mining environment can affect radio-signal propagation in various ways. Understanding these effects is especially critical in evaluating communications systems used during normal mining operations and during mine emergencies. One of these types of communications systems relies on medium-frequency (MF) radio frequencies. This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating MF coupling between a transmission line (TL) and a loop antenna in an underground coal mine. Two different types of measurements were completed: 1) line-current distribution and 2) line-to-antenna coupling. Measurements were taken underground in an experimental coal mine and on a specially designed surface test area. The results of these tests are characterized by current along a TL and voltage induced in the loop from a line. This paper concludes with a discussion of issues for MF TLs. These include electromagnetic fields at the ends of the TL, connection of the ends of the TL, the effect of other conductors underground, and the proximity of coal or earth. These results could help operators by providing examples of these challenges that may be experienced underground and a method by which to measure voltage induced by a line. PMID:27784954

  19. Collision frequency of Lennard–Jones fluids at high densities by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G A Adebayo; B C Anusionwu; A N Njah; O J Adeniran; B Mathew; R S Sunmonu

    2010-09-01

    Detailed classical molecular dynamics simulation of transport coefficients and collision frequencies at high densities in rare gases are presented in this paper with a view to investigate the likely cause of discrepancy between theory and experiments. The results, when compared with experiments, showed an underestimation of the viscosity calculated through the Green–Kubo formalism, but the results are in agreement with some other calculations performed by other groups. The origin of the underestimation was considered in the present work. Analyses of the transport coefficients showed a very high collision frequency which suggested that an atom might spend much less time in the neighbourhood of the fields of force of another atom. The distribution of atoms in the systems adjusts itself to a nearly Maxwellian type that resulted in a locally and temporarily slowly varying temperature. We showed that during collision, the time spent by an atom in the fields of force of other atoms is so small compared with its relaxation time, leading to a possible reduction in local velocity autocorrelation between atoms.

  20. Model-aided radiometric determination of photolysis frequencies in a sunlit atmosphere simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bohn

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work diurnal and seasonal variations of mean photolysis frequencies for the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich are calculated. SAPHIR has a complex construction with UV permeable teflon walls allowing natural sunlight to enter the reactor volume. The calculations are based on external measurements of solar spectral actinic flux and a model considering the time-dependent impact of shadows from construction elements as well as the influence of the teflon walls. Overcast and clear-sky conditions are treated in a consistent way and different assumptions concerning diffuse sky radiance distributions are tested. Radiometric measurements inside the chamber are used for an inspection of model predictions. Under overcast conditions we obtain 74% and 67% of external values for photolysis frequencies j(NO2 (NO2+hν→NO+O(3P and j(O1D (O3+hν→O2+O(1D, respectively. On a clear sky summer day these values are time-dependent within ranges 0.65–0.86 and 0.60–0.73, for j(NO2 and j(O1D, respectively. A succeeding paper (Bohn et al., 2004 is dealing with an on-road test of the model approach by comparison with photolysis frequencies from chemical actinometry experiments within SAPHIR.

  1. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tonggui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G; Yu, Mukui

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (Pwind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (Pwind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (Pwind load.

  2. Weak simulated extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Knutson, T.R.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory atmosphere-land model version 2 (AM2/LM2) coupled to a 50-m-thick slab ocean model has been used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation. Magnitudes and significance of differences between a control run and a deforested run are assessed through comparisons of 50-yr time series, accounting for autocorrelation and field significance. Complete conversion of the broadleaf evergreen forests of South America, central Africa, and the islands of Oceania to grasslands leads to highly significant local responses. In addition, a broad but mild warming is seen throughout the tropical troposphere (deforested run and the control run are similar in magnitude and area to the differences between nonoverlapping segments of the control run. These simulations suggest that extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation are unlikely to be distinguishable from natural climate variability.

  3. Simulation of Caliste-SO single pixel response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barylak, J.; Barylak, A.; Mrozek, T.; Podgórski, P.; Steślicki, M.; Ścisłowski, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the pixel response using Geant4 package. The response is calculated for cadmium telluride sensor of Caliste-SO detector. Caliste-SO will be used in STIX instrument on board Solar Orbiter, which is M-class mission of the ESA's program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Solar Orbiter is to be launched in October 2018. STIX instrument will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar hard X-ray emissions (4 - 150 keV) using a Fourier-imaging technique. Response of pixels in pixelized Caliste-SO detector vary between each other due to different sizes and locations. This can influence the scientific data obtained from STIX. Additionally, in the simulation we considered detector effects, like: hole tailing, damage layer, Fano and electronic noise.

  4. Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Stone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46 and healthy controls (N = 57 using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Voice fundamental frequency modulates vocal response to pitch perturbations during English speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjun; Auger, James; Larson, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated task-dependent vocal responses to pitch perturbations during speech production. The present study investigated the effect of voice fundamental frequency (F(0)) on the modulation of vocal responses during English speech. Randomized pitch shifts of +/-100 or 200 cents during speaking were presented to English speakers. Results indicated larger vocal responses and shorter latencies at a high voice F(0) than at a low voice F(0), but no significance differences were observed for stimulus magnitude or direction. These findings suggest that the pitch-shift reflex during speech can be modulated as a function of voice F(0).

  6. Behavioral responses by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to high frequency sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Gordon D; Donovan, Carl; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2014-02-15

    The use of high frequency sonar is now commonplace in the marine environment. Most marine mammals rely on sound to navigate, and for detecting prey, and there is the potential that the acoustic signals of sonar could cause behavioral responses. To investigate this, we carried out behavioral response tests with grey seals to two sonar systems (200 and 375 kHz systems). Results showed that both systems had significant effects on the seals behavior; when the 200 kHz sonar was active, seals spent significantly more time hauled out and, although seals remained swimming during operation of the 375 kHz sonar, they were distributed further from the sonar. The results show that although peak sonar frequencies may be above marine mammal hearing ranges, high levels of sound can be produced within their hearing ranges that elicit behavioral responses; this has clear implications for the widespread use of sonar in the marine environment.

  7. The low-frequency dielectric response of charged oblate spheroidal particles immersed in an electrolyte

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Sen, Pabitra N

    2016-01-01

    We study the low-frequency polarization response of a surface-charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte solution. Because the charged spheroid attracts counter-ions which form the electric double layer around the particle, using usual boundary conditions at the interface between the particle and electrolyte can be quite complicated and challenging. Hence, we generalize Fixman's boundary conditions, originally derived for spherical particles, to the case of the charged oblate spheroid. Given two different counter-ion distributions in the thin electric double layer limit, we obtain analytic expressions for the polarization coefficients to the first non-trivial order in frequency. We find that the polarization response normal to the symmetry axis depends on the total amount of charge carried by the oblate spheroid while that parallel to the symmetry axis is suppressed when there is less charge on the edge of the spheroid. We further study the overall dielectric response for a dilute suspensio...

  8. Conventional Frequency Ultrasonic Biomarkers of Cancer Treatment Response In Vivo12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Tadayyon, Hadi; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Tran, William; Papanicolau, Naum; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional frequency quantitative ultrasound in conjunction with textural analysis techniques was investigated to monitor noninvasively the effects of cancer therapies in an in vivo preclinical model. METHODS: Conventional low-frequency (∼7 MHz) and high-frequency (∼20 MHz) ultrasound was used with spectral analysis, coupled with textural analysis on spectral parametric maps, obtained from xenograft tumor-bearing animals (n = 20) treated with chemotherapy to extract noninvasive biomarkers of treatment response. RESULTS: Results indicated statistically significant differences in quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers in both low- and high-frequency ranges between untreated and treated tumors 12 to 24 hours after treatment. Results of regression analysis indicated a high level of correlation between quantitative ultrasound-based biomarkers and tumor cell death estimates from histologic analysis. Applying textural characterization to the spectral parametric maps resulted in an even stronger correlation (r2 = 0.97). CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this research demonstrate that quantitative ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency can monitor tissue changes in vivo in response to cancer treatment administration. Using higher order textural information extracted from quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provides more information at a high sensitivity related to tumor cell death. PMID:23761215

  9. Reducing ambulance response times using discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Lam, Sean Shao; Zhang, Zhong Cheng; Oh, Hong Choon; Ng, Yih Ying; Wah, Win; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop a discrete-event simulation (DES) model for the Singapore Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and to demonstrate the utility of this DES model for the evaluation of different policy alternatives to improve ambulance response times. A DES model was developed based on retrospective emergency call data over a continuous 6-month period in Singapore. The main outcome measure is the distribution of response times. The secondary outcome measure is ambulance utilization levels based on unit hour utilization (UHU) ratios. The DES model was used to evaluate different policy options in order to improve the response times, while maintaining reasonable fleet utilization. Three policy alternatives looking at the reallocation of ambulances, the addition of new ambulances, and alternative dispatch policies were evaluated. Modifications of dispatch policy combined with the reallocation of existing ambulances were able to achieve response time performance equivalent to that of adding 10 ambulances. The median (90th percentile) response time was 7.08 minutes (12.69 minutes). Overall, this combined strategy managed to narrow the gap between the ideal and existing response time distribution by 11-13%. Furthermore, the median UHU under this combined strategy was 0.324 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 0.047 versus a median utilization of 0.285 (IQR of 0.051) resulting from the introduction of additional ambulances. Response times were shown to be improved via a more effective reallocation of ambulances and dispatch policy. More importantly, the response time improvements were achieved without a reduction in the utilization levels and additional costs associated with the addition of ambulances. We demonstrated the effective use of DES as a versatile platform to model the dynamic system complexities of Singapore's national EMS systems for the evaluation of operational strategies to improve ambulance response times.

  10. Assessing Polarizability Models for the Simulation of Low-Frequency Raman Spectra of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, John S; Coasne, Benoit; Fourkas, John T

    2015-07-23

    Optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy is a widely used technique for probing the low-frequency, Raman-active dynamics of liquids. Although molecular simulations are an attractive tool for assigning liquid degrees of freedom to OKE spectra, the accurate modeling of the OKE and the motions that contribute to it relies on the use of a realistic and computationally tractable molecular polarizability model. Here we explore how the OKE spectrum of liquid benzene, and the underlying dynamics that determines its shape, are affected by the polarizability model employed. We test a molecular polarizability model that uses a point anisotropic molecular polarizability and three other models that distribute the polarizability over the molecule. The simplest and most computationally efficient distributed polarizability model tested is found to be sufficient for the accurate simulation of the many-body polarizability dynamics of this liquid. We further find that the atomic-to-molecular polarizability transformation approximation [Hu et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 7837-7849], used in conjunction with this distributed polarizability model, yields OKE spectra whose shapes differ negligibly from those calculated without this approximation, providing a substantial increase in computational efficiency.

  11. Simulation of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge in γ mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Wan-Li; Wang De-Zhen; Michael G. Kong

    2007-01-01

    The existence of two different discharge modes has been verified in an rf (radio-frequency) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) by Shi [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023306 (2005)]. In the first mode, referred to as α mode, the discharge current density is relatively low and the bulk plasma electrons acquire the energy due to the sheath expansion.In the second mode, termed γ mode, the discharge current density is relatively high, the secondary electrons emitted by cathode under ion bombardment in the cathode sheath region play an important role in sustaining the discharge. In this paper, a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model for rf APGDs is used to simulate the discharge mechanisms in the γmode in helium discharge between two parallel metallic planar electrodes. The results show that as the applied voltage increases, the discharge current becomes greater and the plasma density correspondingly increases, consequentially the discharge transits from the c mode into the γ mode. The high collisionality of the APGD plasma results in significant drop of discharge potential across the sheath region, and the electron Joule heating and the electron collisional energy loss reach their maxima in the region. The validity of the simulation is checked with the available experimental and numerical data.

  12. Simulating the Immune Response on a Distributed Parallel Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F.; Bernaschi, M.; Succi, S.

    The application of ideas and methods of statistical mechanics to problems of biological relevance is one of the most promising frontiers of theoretical and computational mathematical physics.1,2 Among others, the computer simulation of the immune system dynamics stands out as one of the prominent candidates for this type of investigations. In the recent years immunological research has been drawing increasing benefits from the resort to advanced mathematical modeling on modern computers.3,4 Among others, Cellular Automata (CA), i.e., fully discrete dynamical systems evolving according to boolean laws, appear to be extremely well suited to computer simulation of biological systems.5 A prominent example of immunological CA is represented by the Celada-Seiden automaton, that has proven capable of providing several new insights into the dynamics of the immune system response. To date, the Celada-Seiden automaton was not in a position to exploit the impressive advances of computer technology, and notably parallel processing, simply because no parallel version of this automaton had been developed yet. In this paper we fill this gap and describe a parallel version of the Celada-Seiden cellular automaton aimed at simulating the dynamic response of the immune system. Details on the parallel implementation as well as performance data on the IBM SP2 parallel platform are presented and commented on.

  13. Study of the frequency response of the mutual coupling between overhead lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selivanov V. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the frequency response of the mutual coupling between multi-wire overhead lines with length comparable to the wavelengths of the highest power frequency harmonics. Deenergized overhead transmission lines are influenced by electromagnetic interference from neighboring in-service overhead lines, railway traction lines, as well as other extended conductors with currents. The voltages induced on the overhead lines are dangerous to life or health of maintenance personnel. The values of the induced voltages can be determined either by direct measurement or by calculation. The paper presents the results of experimental studies of double-circuit overhead lines of the Kola energy system. It has been shown that the frequency spectrum of the induced voltage is different from the spectrum of the source of interference, and this difference has a resonant nature. The amplitude of the voltage induced by higher harmonics can be comparable with the amplitude of the voltage induced by the power frequency. The similar results have been received in studies of influence of the AC railway traction line on adjacent overhead transmission lines. ATP-EMTP numerical analysis has been performed to receive the frequency characteristics that explain the experimental results. Preliminary estimates indicate that the cause of the phenomenon is most likely due to the resonant nature of the frequency response of the mutual coupling. The resonant nature is characterized by the interrelation of the length of overhead lines and the wavelength of the higher harmonics. A wave resonance of currents and voltages that appears in the lines lead to the "magnification" of the individual induced voltage harmonics falling in the maxima of the frequency characteristics of mutual coupling.

  14. Estimation of bending wave intensity in beams using the frequency response technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, J.; Lahti, T.

    1992-02-01

    The frequency response approach is applied to the measurement of bending wave intensity, with two or four accelerometers being used. Based on the known structural intensity equations, a comprehensive set of frequency domain expressions is derived for power measurements in a beam. A practical procedure is developed for the general four-transducer method, which allows a usual dual channel FFT analyzer to be employed in multi-channel measurements. The procedure uses the sequential frequency response technique, and is applicable if the situation remains stationary during the data acquisition. In addition, expressions are derived for the determination of the force- and moment-related bending wave power components separately. In a laboratory experiment, the power carried by bending waves was measured in a simple beam, and the methods developed were tested and compared. The frequency response approach was shown to work well in detecting the total power. The estimation of the two bending wave power components, both in the near and the far field, was also demonstrated.

  15. Studies of an inductively coupled negative hydrogen ion radio frequency source through simulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2004-08-24

    In the frame work of a development project for ITER neutral beam injection system a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen (H-/D-) ion source, (BATMAN ion source) is developed which is designed to produce several 10s of ampere of H-/D- beam current. This PhD work has been carried out to understand and optimize BATMAN ion source. The study has been done with the help of computer simulations, modeling and experiments. The complete three dimensional Monte-Carlo computer simulation codes have been developed under the scope of this PhD work. A comprehensive description about the volume production and the surface production of H- ions is presented in the thesis along with the study results obtained from the simulations, modeling and the experiments. One of the simulations is based on the volume production of H- ions, where it calculates the density profile of the vibrationally excited H2 molecules, the density profile of H- ions and the transport probability of those H- ions along the source axis towards the grid. The other simulation studies the transport of those H- ions which are produced on the surface of the plasma grid. It is expected that if there is a plasma flow in the source, the transport of plasma components (molecules and ions) would be influenced. Experimentally it is observed that there is a convective plasma flow exists in the ion source. A transverse magnetic filter field which is present near the grid inside the ion source reduces the flow velocity. Negative ions and electrons have the same sign of charge; therefore the electrons are co-extracted with the negative ions through the grid system, which is not desirable. It is observed that a magnetic field near the grid, magnetized the electrons and therefore reduce the co-extracted electron current. It is also observed experimentally that if the plasma grid is biased positively with respect to the source body, the electron density near the plasma grid is reduced and therefore the co

  16. Broadband frequency and angular response of a sinusoidal bull’s eye antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaskoetxea, U.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Beruete, M.

    2016-07-01

    A thorough experimental study of the frequency and beaming angle response of a metallic leaky-wave bull’s eye antenna working at 77 GHz with a sinusoidally corrugated profile is presented. The beam scanning property of these antennas as frequency is varied is experimentally demonstrated and corroborated through theoretical and numerical results. From the experimental results the dispersion diagram of the n  =  -1 and n  =  -2 space harmonics is extracted, and the operation at different frequency regimes is identified and discussed. In order to show the contribution of each half of the antenna, numerical examples of the near-field behavior are also displayed. Overall, experimental results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with theoretical and numerical calculations. Finally, an analysis of the beamwidth as a function of frequency is performed, showing that it can achieve values below 1.5° in a fractional bandwidth of 4% around the operation frequency, which is an interesting frequency-stable broadside radiation.

  17. Metabolic pathways reconstruction by frequency and amplitude response to forced glycolytic oscillations in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, William B

    2005-10-05

    The hypothesis that frequency and amplitude response can be used in a complicated metabolic pathway kinetics model for optimal parameter estimation, as speculated by its successful prior usage for a mechanical oscillator and a heterogeneous chemical system, is tested here. Given the complexity of the glycolysis model of yeast chosen, this question is limited to three kinetics parameters of the 87 in the in vitro model developed in the literature. The direct application of the approach, used with the uninformed selection of operating conditions for the oscillation of external glucose concentration, led to miring the data assimilation process in local minima. Application of linear systems theory, however, identified two natural resonant frequencies that, when excited by external forced oscillations of the same frequency, result in the expression of many harmonics in the Fourier spectra, that is, information-rich experiments. A single such information-rich experiment at one of the resonant frequencies was sufficient to break away from the local minima to find the optimum kinetics parameter estimates. The resonant frequencies themselves represent oscillation modes in glycolysis akin to those previously observed. Furthermore, operation of the bioreactor with large amplitude oscillations of glucose feed (25%) leads to enhanced ethanol average yield by 1.6% at the resonant frequency.

  18. Notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps for objective audiometry using auditory brainstem responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah I. Corona-Strauss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown recently that chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs show better performance than click stimulations, especially at low intensity levels. In this paper we present the development, test, and evaluation of a series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps. ABRs were collected in healthy young control subjects using the developed stimuli. Results of the analysis of the corresponding ABRs using a time-scale phase synchronization stability (PSS measure are also reported. The resultant wave V amplitude and latency measures showed a similar behavior as for values reported in literature. The PSS of frequency specific chirp-evoked ABRs reflected the presence of the wave V for all stimulation intensities. The scales that resulted in higher PSS are in line with previous findings, where ABRs evoked by broadband chirps were analyzed, and which stated that low frequency channels are better for the recognition and analysis of chirp-evoked ABRs. We conclude that the development and test of the series of notched-noise embedded frequency specific chirps allowed the assessment of frequency specific ABRs, showing an identifiable wave V for different intensity levels. Future work may include the development of a faster automatic recognition scheme for these frequency specific ABRs.

  19. Binary neutron star merger simulations with different initial orbital frequency and equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, F.; De Pietri, R.; Feo, A.; Löffler, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from three-dimensional general relativistic simulations of binary neutron star coalescences and mergers using public codes. We considered equal mass models where the baryon mass of the two neutron stars is 1.4{M}⊙ , described by four different equations of state (EOS) for the cold nuclear matter (APR4, SLy, H4, and MS1; all parametrized as piecewise polytropes). We started the simulations from four different initial interbinary distances (40,44.3,50, and 60 km), including up to the last 16 orbits before merger. That allows us to show the effects on the gravitational wave (GW) phase evolution, radiated energy and angular momentum due to: the use of different EOS, the orbital eccentricity present in the initial data and the initial separation (in the simulation) between the two stars. Our results show that eccentricity has a major role in the discrepancy between numerical and analytical waveforms until the very last few orbits, where ‘tidal’ effects and missing high-order post-Newtonian coefficients also play a significant role. We test different methods for extrapolating the GW signal extracted at finite radii to null infinity. We show that an effective procedure for integrating the Newman-Penrose {\\psi }4 signal to obtain the GW strain h is to apply a simple high-pass digital filter to h after a time domain integration, where only the two physical motivated integration constants are introduced. That should be preferred to the more common procedures of introducing additional integration constants, integrating in the frequency domain or filtering {\\psi }4 before integration.

  20. High Frequency Acoustic Response Characterization and Analysis of the Deep Throttling Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Common Extensive Cryogenic Engine program demonstrated the operation of a deep throttling engine design. The program, spanning five years from August 2005 to July 2010, funded testing through four separate engine demonstration test series. Along with successful completion of multiple objectives, a discrete response of approximately 4000 Hz was discovered and explored throughout the program. The typical low-amplitude acoustic response was evident in the chamber measurement through almost every operating condition; however, at certain off-nominal operating conditions, the response became discrete with higher amplitude. This paper summarizes the data reduction, characterization, and analysis of the 4,000 Hz response for the entire program duration, using the large amount of data collected. Upon first encountering the response, new objectives and instrumentation were incorporated in future test series to specifically collect 4,000 Hz data. The 4,000 Hz response was identified as being related to the first tangential acoustic mode by means of frequency estimation and spatial decomposition. The latter approach showed that the effective node line of the mode was aligned with the manifold propellant inlets with standing waves and quasi-standing waves present at various times. Contour maps that contain instantaneous frequency and amplitude trackings of the response were generated as a significant improvement to historical manual approaches of data reduction presentation. Signal analysis and dynamic data reduction also uncovered several other features of the response including a stable limit cycle, the progressive engagement of subsequent harmonics, the U-shaped time history, an intermittent response near the test-based neutral stability region, other acoustic modes, and indications of modulation with a separate subsynchronous response. Although no engine damage related to the acoustic mode was noted, the peak-to-peak fluctuating pressure amplitude achieved 12.1% of the

  1. Effect of Scale Coupling Frequency on Simulated Climatology in the Uncoupled Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model v. 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent attempts to accelerate cloud superparameterization for climate simulation by using reduced cloud resolving model (CRM) extents unsatisfyingly amplify upper tropospheric temperature biases and liquid water condensate. The effect of scale coupling frequency, fscale, is investigated as a candidate strategy to remedy these biases by compensating for CRM-trapped subsidence. Significant sensitivity to fscale is found in the 10-year climatology of a superparameterized version of NCAR Community Atmosphere Model 3.0. Higher fscale improves both long wave cloud forcing (LWCF) and short wave cloud forcing (SWCF) in a systematic manner that scales quasi-linearly with increased fscale. In addition, a systematic quasi-linear mid-tropospheric warming associated with faster updraft is observed with higher fscale. These improvements suggest fscale is a useful tuning parameter in superparamtereized global climate models to improve mean state cloud forcing biases and can help remedy the too cold mid-troposphere thermal bias associated with the trapped subsidence when using reduced CRM setups. However, inconsistent LWCF response with ice water path (IWP), e.g. lower LWCF with more IWP, and confounding surface flux responses, e.g. increasing surface flux with fscale, need be further investigated.

  2. Real-Time Dynamic Simulation of Korean Power Grid for Frequency Regulation Control by MW Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hwan Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a real-time dynamic simulator of a power grid with power plant and battery model. The simulator was used to investigate the frequency control characteristics of a megawatt-scale high-capacity energy storage system connected to the electric power grid. In this study, a lithium-ion secondary battery was chosen as one of the batteries for a grid-connected model. The dynamics of the model was analysed in both steady and transient states. The frequency control system of the battery model plays a role in regulating the grid frequency by controlling the power of energy storage systems according to process variables and grid frequencies. The power grid model based on the current power network of South Korea, included power plants, substations and power demands. The power supply is classified by the type of turbine generator as thermal, nuclear, hydro power, pumped power storage, combined power plants, and batteries, including high-capacity energy storage systems rated for a maximum of 500 MW. This study deals with an installed capacity of 87.17 GW and peak load of 77.30 GW in the Korean power grid. For 24 hours of operation, the maximum and minimum power outputs were simulated as 61.59 GW and 46.32 GW, respectively. The commercialized real-time dynamic simulation software ProTRAX was used. The simulation was conducted to observe the operation characteristics of the frequency control system during a breakdown of power plants, as well as under governor-free operation, auto generation control operation, and with the battery energy storage system connected. The results show that the model is valid for each power plant breakdown simulation. They also confirm that the output power and frequency controls of the battery operated well during simulations.

  3. Correspondence between phasor transforms and frequency response function in RLC circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Hassan Mohamed Abdelalim

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of RLC circuits is usually made by considering phasor transforms of sinusoidal signals (characterized by constant amplitude, period and phase) that allow the calculation of the AC steady state of RLC circuits by solving simple algebraic equations. In this paper I try to show that phasor representation of RLC circuits is analogue to consider the frequency response function (commonly designated by FRF) of the total impedance of the circuit. In this way I derive accurate expressions for the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and their corresponding values of impedances of the parallel and series RLC circuits respectively, notwithstanding the presence of damping effects.

  4. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transformer modeling for low- and mid-frequency electromagnetic transients simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Mathieu

    In this work, new models are developed for single-phase and three-phase shell-type transformers for the simulation of low-frequency transients, with the use of the coupled leakage model. This approach has the advantage that it avoids the use of fictitious windings to connect the leakage model to a topological core model, while giving the same response in short-circuit as the indefinite admittance matrix (BCTRAN) model. To further increase the model sophistication, it is proposed to divide windings into coils in the new models. However, short-circuit measurements between coils are never available. Therefore, a novel analytical method is elaborated for this purpose, which allows the calculation in 2-D of short-circuit inductances between coils of rectangular cross-section. The results of this new method are in agreement with the results obtained from the finite element method in 2-D. Furthermore, the assumption that the leakage field is approximately 2-D in shell-type transformers is validated with a 3-D simulation. The outcome of this method is used to calculate the self and mutual inductances between the coils of the coupled leakage model and the results are showing good correspondence with terminal short-circuit measurements. Typically, leakage inductances in transformers are calculated from short-circuit measurements and the magnetizing branch is calculated from no-load measurements, assuming that leakages are unimportant for the unloaded transformer and that magnetizing current is negligible during a short-circuit. While the core is assumed to have an infinite permeability to calculate short-circuit inductances, and it is a reasonable assumption since the core's magnetomotive force is negligible during a short-circuit, the same reasoning does not necessarily hold true for leakage fluxes in no-load conditions. This is because the core starts to saturate when the transformer is unloaded. To take this into account, a new analytical method is developed in this

  6. Dynamic Response of Linear Mechanical Systems Modeling, Analysis and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Response of Linear Mechanical Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation can be utilized for a variety of courses, including junior and senior-level vibration and linear mechanical analysis courses. The author connects, by means of a rigorous, yet intuitive approach, the theory of vibration with the more general theory of systems. The book features: A seven-step modeling technique that helps structure the rather unstructured process of mechanical-system modeling A system-theoretic approach to deriving the time response of the linear mathematical models of mechanical systems The modal analysis and the time response of two-degree-of-freedom systems—the first step on the long way to the more elaborate study of multi-degree-of-freedom systems—using the Mohr circle Simple, yet powerful simulation algorithms that exploit the linearity of the system for both single- and multi-degree-of-freedom systems Examples and exercises that rely on modern computational toolboxes for both numerical and symbolic compu...

  7. Shock responses of nanoporous aluminum by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Meizhen; Yang, Yantao; Liao, Yi; Wang, Kun; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic investigations on the shock responses of nanoporous aluminum (np-Al) by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The dislocation nucleation sites are found to concentrate in low latitude region near the equator of the spherical void surfaces. We propose a continuum wave reflection theory and a resolved shear stress model to explain the distribution of dislocation nucleation sites. The simulations reveals two mechanisms of void collapse: the plasticity mechanism and the internal jetting mechanism. The plasticity mechanism, which leads to transverse collapse of voids, prevails under relatively weaker shocks; while the internal jetting mechanism, which leads to longitudinal filling of the void vacuum, plays more significant role as the shock intensity increases. In addition, an abnormal thermodynamic phenomenon (i.e., arising of temperature with pressure dropping) in shocked np-Al is discovered. This phenomenon is incompatible with the conventional Rankine-Hugoniot theory, and is expl...

  8. Simulation of polyvinylidene fluoride detector response to hypervelocity particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppe, Andrew, E-mail: poppe@lasp.colorado.ed [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jacobsmeyer, Brian [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); James, David [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films have been utilized as interplanetary dust detectors for many years in a variety of space environments. PVDF serves as a dust detector by producing a 'depolarization' charge upon hypervelocity impact. Previous instruments have relied on empirical calibrations to establish the relationship between the mass and velocity of the impacting dust particle and the generated charge. Here, we present a new theoretical derivation of PVDF response to non-penetrating hypervelocity particle impacts. We compare our simulation results to experimental calibration data from the Cosmic Dust Experiment on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite and the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data, yet suggest a modified crater diameter scaling law for non-penetrating hypervelocity impacts into PVDF.

  9. Skeletal response to simulated weightlessness - A comparison of suspension techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are made of the skeletal response of rats subjected to simulated weightlessness by back or tail suspension. In comparison to pair-fed control rats, back-suspended rats failed to gain weight whereas tail-suspended rats exhibited normal weight gain. Quantitative bone histomorphometry revealed marked skeletal abnormalities in the proximal tibial metaphysis of back-suspended rats. Loss of trabecular bone mass in these animals was due to a combination of depressed longitudinal bone growth, decreased bone formation, and increased bone resorption. In contrast, the proximal tibia of tail-suspended rats was relatively normal by these histologic criteria. However, a significant reduction trabecular bone volume occurred during 2 weeks of tail suspension, possibly due to a transient inhibition of bone formation. The findings indicate that tail suspension may be a more appropriate model for evaluating the effects of simulated weightlessness on skeletal homeostasis.

  10. Frequency and Phase Synchronization in Neuromagnetic Cortical Responses to Flickering-Color Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, S F; Yulmetyev, R M; Demin, S A; Panischev, O Yu; Shimojo, S; Bhattacharya, J

    2009-01-01

    In our earlier study dealing with the analysis of neuromagnetic responses (magnetoencephalograms - MEG) to flickering-color stimuli for a group of control human subjects (9 volunteers) and a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (a 12-year old girl), it was shown that Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) was able to identify specific differences in the responses of each organism. The high specificity of individual MEG responses manifested itself in the values of FNS parameters for both chaotic and resonant components of the original signal. The present study applies the FNS cross-correlation function to the analysis of correlations between the MEG responses simultaneously measured at spatially separated points of the human cortex processing the red-blue flickering color stimulus. It is shown that the cross-correlations for control (healthy) subjects are characterized by frequency and phase synchronization at different points of the cortex, with the dynamics of neuromagnetic responses being determined by the low-fr...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Response of Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composite Beam with Matrix Cracks Using Multiscale Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiguang; Song Yingdong; Sun Zhigang; Hu Xuteng

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale method for simulating the dynamic response of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with matrix cracks is developed.At the global level,the finite element method is employed to simulate the dynamic response ofa CMC beam.While at the local level,the multiscale mechanical method is used to estimate the stress/strain response of the material.A distributed computing system is developed to speed up the simulation.The simulation of dynamic response of a Nicalon/CAS-Ⅱ beam being subjected to harmonic loading is performed as a numerical example.The results show that both the stress/strain responses under tension and compressive loading are nonlinear.These conditions result in a different response compared with that of elastic beam,such as:1) the displacement response is not symmetric about the axis of time;2) in the condition of small external load,the response at first order natural frequency is limited within a finite range;3) decreasing the matrix crack space will increase the displacement response of the beam.

  12. Frequency Domain Analysis for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness by Using Instantaneous Pulse Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.

  13. Simulating Quantitative Cellular Responses Using Asynchronous Threshold Boolean Network Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Imran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing knowledge about the potential mechanisms underlying cellular functions, it is becoming feasible to predict the response of biological systems to genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the lack of homogeneity in living tissues it is difficult to estimate the physiological effect of chemicals, including potential toxicity. Here we investigate a biologically motivated model for estimating tissue level responses by aggregating the behavior of a cell population. We assume that the molecular state of individual cells is independently governed by discrete non-deterministic signaling mechanisms. This results in noisy but highly reproducible aggregate level responses that are consistent with experimental data. Results We developed an asynchronous threshold Boolean network simulation algorithm to model signal transduction in a single cell, and then used an ensemble of these models to estimate the aggregate response across a cell population. Using published data, we derived a putative crosstalk network involving growth factors and cytokines - i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor, Insulin, Insulin like Growth Factor Type 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α - to describe early signaling events in cell proliferation signal transduction. Reproducibility of the modeling technique across ensembles of Boolean networks representing cell populations is investigated. Furthermore, we compare our simulation results to experimental observations of hepatocytes reported in the literature. Conclusion A systematic analysis of the results following differential stimulation of this model by growth factors and cytokines suggests that: (a using Boolean network ensembles with asynchronous updating provides biologically plausible noisy individual cellular responses with reproducible mean behavior for large cell populations, and (b with sufficient data our model can estimate the response to different concentrations of extracellular ligands. Our

  14. Time and frequency response of a resistance-wire aircraft atmospheric temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G. A.; Friehe, C. A.; Edwards, D. K.

    1994-04-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of an aircraft-mounted resistance-wire atmospheric temperature sensor are modeled to determine the time and frequency responses. The sensor element (Rosemount 102E4AL) consists of a 25-micron-diameter platinum wire wound around a cruciform mica support with approximately 143 diameters of wire between contacts with the mica. A longitudinally distributed, radially lumped capacitance model provided for the convective heat transfer to the wire and the transient heat conduction along it. Similarly, the temperature gradient across the thin dimension of the mica support was neglected, and a radially distributed model provided for the convective heat transfer to the mica and the transient conduction within it. The two solutions are coupled by the boundary conditions at the wire-mica contact. The equations were solved to produce the temperature distribution along the wire and in the mica support as a function of the frequency of a free-stream sinusoidal temperature fluctuation. The frequency response transfer function was determined and fit to a two-time-constant transfer function by regression analysis. The two-time-constant model fits the general solution very well. The small (fast response) time constant is essentially determined by the wire itself. The larger (slow response) time constant is due to conduction into and out of the mica supports. The model predicts that the effects of the mica supports are important for frequencies greater than about 0.1 Hz. The responses to five different temperature waveform inputs (sinusoid, step, pulse, ramp, and ramp level) are derived using the two-time-constant model with Laplace transform techniques for both infinite-length wire (no mica support effects) and the finite-length wire of the 102 probe. The actual temperature signals are distorted by the larger time constant of the mica supports, especially for the pulse and ramp inputs that are typical of aircraft measurements of thermals and

  15. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  16. Inertial Response of Wind Power Plants: A Comparison of Frequency-Based Inertial Control and Stepwise Inertial Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Jianhui; Yan, Shijie; Wu, Ziping; Yan, Weihang; Gevorgian, Vahan; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Moses; Hwang, Min; Kang, YongCheol

    2016-11-21

    The frequency regulation capability of a wind power plant plays an important role in enhancing frequency reliability especially in an isolated power system with high wind power penetration levels. A comparison of two types of inertial control methods, namely frequency-based inertial control (FBIC) and stepwise inertial control (SIC), is presented in this paper. Comprehensive case studies are carried out to reveal features of the different inertial control methods, simulated in a modified Western System Coordination Council (WSCC) nine-bus power grid using real-time digital simulator (RTDS) platform. The simulation results provide an insight into the inertial control methods under various scenarios.

  17. Frequency-Speed Control Model Identification of Ultrasonic Motor Using Step Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jingzhuo; Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Control model of ultrasonic motor is the foundation for high control performance .The frequency of driv-ing voltage is commonly used as control variable in the speed control system of ultrasonic motor .Speed control model with the input frequency can significantly improve speed control performance .Step response of rotating speed is tested .Then ,the transfer function model is identified through characteristic point method .Considering time-varying characteristics of the model parameters ,the variables are fitted with frequency and speed as the inde-pendent variables ,and the variable model of ultrasonic motor system is obtained ,with consideration of the nonlin-earity of ultrasonic motor system .The proposed model can be used in the design and analysis of the speed control system in ultrasonic motor .

  18. Modal identification using the frequency-scale domain decomposition technique of ambient vibration responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien-Phu; Argoul, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new modal identification method of ambient vibration responses. The application of the singular value decomposition to continuous wavelet transform of power spectral density matrix gives singular values and singular vectors in frequency-scale domain. Analytical development shows a direct relation between local maxima in frequency-scale representation of singular values and modal parameters. This relation is then carried on for the identification of modal parameters via a complete practical procedure. The main novelties of this work involve the new formulation in frequency-scale domain and the capacity for the identification of modal parameters without the step of ridges extraction in comparison with previous wavelet-based modal identification methods.

  19. Effect of tip mass on frequency response and sensitivity of AFM cantilever in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokh Payam, Amir; Fathipour, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    The effect of tip mass on the frequency response and sensitivity of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever in the liquid environment is investigated. For this purpose, using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and considering tip mass and hydrodynamic functions in a liquid environment, an expression for the resonance frequencies of AFM cantilever in liquid is derived. Then, based on this expression, the effect of the surface contact stiffness on the flexural mode of a rectangular AFM cantilever in fluid is investigated and compared with the case where the AFM cantilever operates in the air. The results show that in contrast with an air environment, the tip mass has no significant impact on the resonance frequency and sensitivity of the AFM cantilever in the liquid. Hence, analysis of AFM behaviour in liquid environment by neglecting the tip mass is logical.

  20. The Response of Long-Span Bridges to Low Frequency, Near-Fault Earthquake Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, David; Astaneh-Asl, A.; Larsen, S.C.; Hutchings, Larry

    2009-02-27

    Historical seismic hazard characterizations did not include earthquake ground motion waveforms at frequencies below approximately 0.2 Hz (5 seconds period). This resulted from limitations in early strong motion instrumentation and signal processing techniques, a lack of measurements in the near-field of major earthquakes and therefore no observational awareness, and a delayed understanding in the engineering community of the potential significance of these types of motions. In recent years, there is a growing recognition of the relevance of near-fault, low frequency motions, particularly for long-period structures such as large bridges. This paper describes a computationally based study of the effects of low frequency (long-period) near-fault motions on long-span bridge response. The importance of inclusion of these types of motions for long span cable supported bridges is demonstrated using actual measured broad-band, near-fault motions from large earthquakes.

  1. Estimation of Transformer Winding Capacitances through Frequency Response Analysis - An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa; Ragavan, K.

    2013-10-01

    This article focuses on developing a non-invasive method for determining capacitances using frequency response data. The proposed methodology involves acquiring driving-point impedance of the winding under consideration over wide frequency range. With certain terminal conditions and using the terminal impedance measured at specific frequencies, input and shunt capacitances are determined. For the purpose of estimating series capacitance of the winding, an algorithm is proposed. To demonstrate the capability of the method, initially model coils that have provisions for connecting external capacitances are considered. Then, it is found that the estimated values of capacitances are nearly same as those of connected capacitances. The method is, then, extended to transformer winding, and a capacitive ladder network is constructed. To assess the accuracy of estimation, capacitive voltage distribution is utilized. That is, the voltage distribution in the winding is compared with that of synthesized circuit. A good agreement between those data reveals that the estimated capacitance values are accurate.

  2. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, Jr., Clell Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Accurate detector modeling is a requirement to design systems in many non-proliferation scenarios; by determining a Detector’s Response Function (DRF) to incident radiation, it is possible characterize measurements of unknown sources. DRiFT is intended to post-process MCNP® output and create realistic detector spectra. Capabilities currently under development include the simulation of semiconductor, gas, and (as is discussed in this work) scintillator detector physics. Energy spectra and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) trends for incident photon and neutron radiation have been reproduced by DRiFT.

  3. Simulation of Upstream Tracker Detector Response for Modernised LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pikies, M

    2015-01-01

    LHCb experiment operates a forward spectrometer that collects proton–proton collision data at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. During the so-called Long Shutdown 2 period in years 2018–2019, LHCb detector will undergo a major modernisation. A vital part of this upgrade process is building a silicon micro-strip tracking detector — Upstream Tracker (UT) — that will be placed before the bending magnet. The UT will play a critical role in the upgraded trigger system. This paper contains a general discussion of the UT detector and presents description of a silicon response simulation platform that is being currently designed by the AGH UST LHCb group.

  4. Auditory brainstem responses predict auditory nerve fiber thresholds and frequency selectivity in hearing impaired chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kenneth S; Kale, Sushrut; Scheidt, Ryan E; Heinz, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    Noninvasive auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are commonly used to assess cochlear pathology in both clinical and research environments. In the current study, we evaluated the relationship between ABR characteristics and more direct measures of cochlear function. We recorded ABRs and auditory nerve (AN) single-unit responses in seven chinchillas with noise-induced hearing loss. ABRs were recorded for 1-8 kHz tone burst stimuli both before and several weeks after 4 h of exposure to a 115 dB SPL, 50 Hz band of noise with a center frequency of 2 kHz. Shifts in ABR characteristics (threshold, wave I amplitude, and wave I latency) following hearing loss were compared to AN-fiber tuning curve properties (threshold and frequency selectivity) in the same animals. As expected, noise exposure generally resulted in an increase in ABR threshold and decrease in wave I amplitude at equal SPL. Wave I amplitude at equal sensation level (SL), however, was similar before and after noise exposure. In addition, noise exposure resulted in decreases in ABR wave I latency at equal SL and, to a lesser extent, at equal SPL. The shifts in ABR characteristics were significantly related to AN-fiber tuning curve properties in the same animal at the same frequency. Larger shifts in ABR thresholds and ABR wave I amplitude at equal SPL were associated with greater AN threshold elevation. Larger reductions in ABR wave I latency at equal SL, on the other hand, were associated with greater loss of AN frequency selectivity. This result is consistent with linear systems theory, which predicts shorter time delays for broader peripheral frequency tuning. Taken together with other studies, our results affirm that ABR thresholds and wave I amplitude provide useful estimates of cochlear sensitivity. Furthermore, comparisons of ABR wave I latency to normative data at the same SL may prove useful for detecting and characterizing loss of cochlear frequency selectivity.

  5. Using optimized wall section to improve low frequency response in a room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaotian; ZHU Zhemin; CHENG Jianchun

    2006-01-01

    Three different wall sections with step shape were applied in the finite element analysis models set up to investigate the effect on low frequency sound field by wall modification.The heights of the step in three cases are taken as equal, random and optimized. The optimized value is obtained by using an optimization process with an objective function of minimum fluctuation in sound field. The frequency responses of rooms with original and modified walls were calculated in a range from 60 Hz to 120 Hz. The results showed that the room with an optimized wall section had the flattest frequency response. Same thing was true as the ratio of the room was changed. The largest improvement on fluctuation reached 4.5 dB. In addition, wall section with semicircle and triangle were studied. The rooms that wall section had optimized radius and heights also gave a better performance than those that had fixed radius and heights.Therefore, it is possible to use optimized wall section to improve low frequency sound field.

  6. High frequency switched-mode stimulation can evoke postsynaptic responses in cerebellar principal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Van Dongen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100kHz duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation.These findings are subsequently verified using in vitro experiments in which the response of a Purkinje cell is measured due to a stimulation signal in the molecular layer of the cerebellum of a mouse. For this purpose a stimulator circuit is developed that is able to produce a monophasic high frequency switched-mode stimulation signal. The results confirm the modeling by showing that switched-mode stimulation is able to induce similar responses in the Purkinje cell as classical stimulation using a constant current source. This conclusion opens up possibilities for novel stimulation designs that can improve the performance of the stimulator circuitry. Care has to be taken to avoid losses in the system due to the higher operating frequency.

  7. Open Photoacoustic Cell for Blood Sugar Measurement: Numerical Calculation of Frequency Response

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Teschner, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A new approach for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose concentration in human epidermis has been suggested recently. This method is based on photoacoustic (PA) analysis of human interstitial fluid. The measurement can be performed in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the blood sugar level for diabetes patients. It requires a windowless PA cell with an additional opening that is pressed onto the human skin. Since signals are weak, advantage is taken of acoustic resonances of the cell. Recently, a numerical approach based on the Finite Element (FE) Method has been successfully used for the calculation of the frequency response function of closed PA cells. This method has now been adapted to obtain the frequency response of the open cell. Despite the fact that loss due to sound radiation at the opening is not included, fairly good accordance with measurement is achieved.

  8. Cancelation of transducer effects from frequency response functions: Experimental case study on the steel plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Zamani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is a progressive science in the experimental evaluation of dynamic properties of the structures. Mechanical devices such as accelerometers are one of the sources of lack of quality in measuring modal testing parameters. In this article, elimination of the accelerometer’s mass effect of the frequency response of the structure is studied. So, a strategy is used for eliminating the mass effect using sensitivity analysis. In this method, the amount of mass change and the place to measure the structure’s response with least error in frequency correction is chosen. Experimental modal testing is carried out on a steel plate, and the effect of accelerometer’s mass is omitted using this strategy. Finally, a good agreement is achieved between numerical and experimental results.

  9. Multivariable low order structured-controller design by frequency response approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Trierweiler

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The method presented here offers an effective and time saving tool for multivariable controller design. The relation between controller complexity and closed loop performance can easily be evaluated. The method consists of five steps: 1. A desired behavior of the closed loop system is specified. Considering the nonminimum phase part of the process model the closed loop attainable performance is determined. 2. The process model and the attainable performance are scaled by the RPN-scaling procedure. 3. This defines an "ideal" scaled controller, which is usually too complex to be realized. 4. The frequency response of the ideal scaled compensator is approximated by a simpler one with structure and order chosen by the user. 5. Since the approximation in frequency response is performed with the scaled system, it is necessary to return to the original system’s units.

  10. Event-related potentials to conjunctions of spatial frequency and orientation as a function of stimulus parameters and response requirements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenemans, J.L.; Kok, A.; Smulders, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 7 male graduate students who were required to push a button in response to a given conjunction of spatial frequency and orientation (target) and to ignore conjunctions sharing with the target only frequency (frequency-relevant), only orientation (or

  11. Modeling the response of small myelinated axons in a compound nerve to kilohertz frequency signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelot, N. A.; Behrend, C. E.; Grill, W. M.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. There is growing interest in electrical neuromodulation of peripheral nerves, particularly autonomic nerves, to treat various diseases. Electrical signals in the kilohertz frequency (KHF) range can produce different responses, including conduction block. For example, EnteroMedics’ vBloc® therapy for obesity delivers 5 kHz stimulation to block the abdominal vagus nerves, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Approach. We developed a two-part computational model, coupling a 3D finite element model of a cuff electrode around the human abdominal vagus nerve with biophysically-realistic electrical circuit equivalent (cable) model axons (1, 2, and 5.7 µm in diameter). We developed an automated algorithm to classify conduction responses as subthreshold (transmission), KHF-evoked activity (excitation), or block. We quantified neural responses across kilohertz frequencies (5-20 kHz), amplitudes (1-8 mA), and electrode designs. Main results. We found heterogeneous conduction responses across the modeled nerve trunk, both for a given parameter set and across parameter sets, although most suprathreshold responses were excitation, rather than block. The firing patterns were irregular near transmission and block boundaries, but otherwise regular, and mean firing rates varied with electrode-fibre distance. Further, we identified excitation responses at amplitudes above block threshold, termed ‘re-excitation’, arising from action potentials initiated at virtual cathodes. Excitation and block thresholds decreased with smaller electrode-fibre distances, larger fibre diameters, and lower kilohertz frequencies. A point source model predicted a larger fraction of blocked fibres and greater change of threshold with distance as compared to the realistic cuff and nerve model. Significance. Our findings of widespread asynchronous KHF-evoked activity suggest that conduction block in the abdominal vagus nerves is unlikely with current clinical parameters. Our

  12. Realistic simulations of tsunami detection by High-Frequency Radar in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Stéphan; Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Annette; Lado Insua, Tania; Guérin, Charles-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    A promising technique for long-range detection of tsunamis is the use of shore-based High Frequency (HF) surface wave radars, also simply referred to as oceanographic radars. These over-the-horizon radars are routinely used for real-time monitoring of ocean surface currents up to a 70-80 km range, based on the Doppler shift the latter cause in ocean waves at the radar Bragg frequency. Quite recently there has been convincing numerical and experimental evidence that oceanographic radars can also be used to detect tsunami-induced surface currents. However, these need to be at least 0.15-0.20 m/s to be detectable, when considering environmental noise and background currents (from tide and mesoscale circulation). This limits the actual detection of tsunami currents to the near range, that is essentially to the continental shelf over which tsunami currents become strong enough; in many cases this does not leave enough time to issue an efficient warning, unless there is a wide shelf. In recent work, some of the authors have proposed a detection algorithm that does not have this limitation and can detect an approaching tsunami in deeper water, beyond the continental shelf. This algorithm does not require "inverting" currents, but instead is based on spatial correlations of the raw signals recorded at two distant radar cells along the same wave ray, shifted in time by the tsunami propagation time along the ray. An elevated correlation would indicate the presence of a tsunami. We apply this algorithm to a realistic tsunami case study conducted, using a state-of-the-art long wave model, for sources (both seismic and landslide) and bathymetry off of Vancouver Island, BC. The propagation time between different radar cells is calculated with a Geometrical Optics approach using the Eikonal equation. This requires first determining wave rays' intersections with radar cells and computing a connectivity matrix between the latter. A model simulating the radar backscattered signal in

  13. The Digital Simulation of Synchronous Motors Fed by Voltage-Source Inverters Over Wide Speed and Frequency Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowihal, Said Soliman

    Both voltage-source and current-source inverters are widely used for supplying three-phase power to induction motor drives, each having their advantages and disadvantages. For high power drives and applications requiring accurate speed and tracking coordination, the synchronous motors are the optimum choice. For constant speed applications of synchronous motor drives, current-source inverters tend to be favored as the motor can usually be operated in the overexcited leading power factor region, thus providing the inverter with sufficient electro-motive force to allow natural commutation. Generally speaking low speed operation of synchronous motors is not satisfactory from naturally commutated current-source inverters. To provide a dynamic range of speed and frequency would require expensive control circuitry and complicates the performance of the drive. The advantage of the voltage-source inverter for the wide range of speed and frequency control herein envisaged is that forced commutation is employed throughout the range and the commutating circuits have been well developed and established. On balance, voltage-source inverters represent a viable compromise for variable-speed three -phase synchronous motor drives including start-up. To investigate the transient response of the voltage -source fed-synchronous motor drives, a digital computer program is developed. The program is based on two models --machine model and inverter model. The machine is represented by a detailed two-axis model which includes the effects due to saliency, damper windings, and machine resistances. The inverter model represents a forced-commutated voltage-source inverter assuming ideal switching devices (thyristors and diodes). To cope with the wide variations of power factor during start-up, a thyristor with a reverse connected parallel diode are integrated as a bidirectional switch. The digital program provides the machine variables of interest (phase currents, field current, damper winding

  14. Bruel and Kjaer 4944 Microphone Grid Frequency Response Function System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Reginald; Lee, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Br el & Kjaer (B&K) 4944B pressure field microphone was judiciously selected to measure acoustic environments, 400Hz 50kHz, in close proximity of the nozzle during multiple firings of solid propellant rocket motors. It is well known that protective grids can affect the frequency response of microphones. B&K recommends operation of the B&K 4944B without a protective grid when recording measurements above 10 to 15 kHz.

  15. Study of frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication region avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Banoushi, A; Setayeshi, S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode are studied by solving the carrier continuity equations, in the low gain regime. The discrepancy between the carrier velocities in different layers is considered for the first time. It is shown that considerable error occurs, if the device d characteristics are calculated assuming uniformly distributed velocities in the depletion layer, especially when the different layers have almost equal thickness.

  16. Real-time open-loop frequency response analysis of flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, J. T.; West, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    A technique has been developed to compare the open-loop frequency response of a flight test aircraft real time with linear analysis predictions. The result is direct feedback to the flight control systems engineer on the validity of predictions and adds confidence for proceeding with envelope expansion. Further, gain and phase margins can be tracked for trends in a manner similar to the techniques used by structural dynamics engineers in tracking structural modal damping.

  17. Frequency-dependent response of a pinned charge-density wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Valerii; Fogler, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Recent theoretical advances in the theory of collective pinning [M. M. Fogler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 186402 (2002)] enable us to go beyond the usual phenomenology in the theory of a finite-frequency response of a pinned charge-density wave (CDW) and to calculate ω and T dependences of the complex dielectric function without additional assumptions. According to our estimates, in typical electrical experiments on CDW, the dominant process is a thermal activation over atypically shallow barriers. It gives rise to a novel T^3/4-dependence of the linear response, in agreement with the experiment. A close analogy with acoustic attenuation in glassy dielectrics is noted.

  18. High frequency dynamic bending response of piezoresistive GaN microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Abdul; Qazi, Muhammad; Koley, Goutam

    2012-12-01

    Static and dynamic ac responses of piezoresistive GaN microcantilevers, with integrated AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors as highly sensitive deflection transducers, have been investigated. Very high gauge factor exceeding 3500 was exhibited by the microcantilevers, with quality factor determined from electronically transduced ac response exceeding 200 in air and 4500 at low pressure. The gauge factor reduced at resonance frequency of the cantilevers, possibly due to reduced charge exchange with surface donor and trap states. Ultrasonic waves generated in air by a piezochip, and in the Si substrate through photoacoustic effect, could be detected by the cantilevers with high sensitivity.

  19. Response of an invasive liana to simulated herbivory: implications for its biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, S.; Dhileepan, K.; Treviño, M.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-release evaluation of the efficacy of biological control agents is often not possible in the case of many invasive species targeted for biocontrol. In such circumstances simulating herbivory could yield significant insights into plant response to damage, thereby improving the efficiency of agent prioritisation, increasing the chances of regulating the performance of invasive plants through herbivory and minimising potential risks posed by release of multiple herbivores. We adopted this approach to understand the weaknesses herbivores could exploit, to manage the invasive liana, Macfadyena unguis-cati. We simulated herbivory by damaging the leaves, stem, root and tuber of the plant, in isolation and in combination. We also applied these treatments at multiple frequencies. Plant response in terms of biomass allocation showed that at least two severe defoliation treatments were required to diminish this liana's climbing habit and reduce its allocation to belowground tuber reserves. Belowground damage appears to have negligible effect on the plant's biomass production and tuber damage appears to trigger a compensatory response. Plant response to combinations of different types of damage did not differ significantly to that from leaf damage. This suggests that specialist herbivores in the leaf-feeding guild capable of removing over 50% of the leaf tissue may be desirable in the biological control of this invasive species.

  20. Simulation of thermal effects during high and low frequency gas storage operations in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources will result in shortages in power supply on various timescales and magnitudes. Besides other options, porous media storage of chemical energy in the form of gases such as hydrogen (H2) or synthetic methane (CH4) as well as mechanical energy, i.e. in the form of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) could be employed to mitigate such shortages. A key difference between these storage options are the potential storage operation schemes in which they are used as a result of the different effective energy density in the subsurface. While CAES would most likely be employed in a high flow rate, high frequency storage scheme with daily cycles, H2 and CH4 storage sites are also suitable for longer, up to seasonal, withdrawal cycles with a lower periodicity. The aim of this work is to compare different thermal effects as a result of H2, CH4, and compressed air energy storage operations. Besides advective-conductive heat transport in the fluid and solid phases, also the Joule-Thomson effect as a result of gas flow through the porous formation is analysed for the different storage options. For this the Joule-Thomson effect is implemented in the open source simulation software OpenGeoSys and numerical simulations of the different storage options are performed. For the simulations, synthetic but realistically parameterized storage sites are used. Besides using OpenGeoSys, the simulations are also compared to results obtained with the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator (© Schlumberger). The simulations show that the heat introduced into the system by the gas injections is transported away from the injection wells mainly through heat conduction. Thus, the thermal perturbation is also present in the caprocks above and below the storage formation. Because of the low heat capacity of the injected gas, thermal effects are confined to the near well region. Temperature changes of more than 1 K are thus found within the first

  1. Frequency Coupling Model for Dynamics of Responses to Stimuli in Plasmodium of Physarum Polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Takahashi, Kengo; Nagao, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    1997-06-01

    Gathering or escaping behavior in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is considered to relate to an entrainment of the coupled nonlinear oscillators. The behavior has been explained to be caused by the formation of phase gradient between those oscillators, which results from the local frequency modulation at the stimulated site. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the formation process relates to the migration of the plasmodium. In this paper, we have introduced a model with frequency coupling besides the phase coupling in the system of coupled oscillators. By the simulation, we have shown that not only the phase gradient but also the concentration gradient of substances such as Ca2+ and ATP are self-organized and their reverse by the stimulus results in the migration of plasmodium.

  2. Computer simulations for a deceleration and radio frequency quadrupole instrument for accelerator ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J.A., E-mail: j.eliades@alum.utoronto.ca; Kim, J.K.; Song, J.H.; Yu, B.Y.

    2015-10-15

    Radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) technology incorporated into the low energy ion beam line of an accelerator system can greatly broaden the range of applications and facilitate unique experimental capabilities. However, ten’s of keV kinetic energy negative ion beams with large emittances and energy spreads must first be decelerated down to <100 eV for ion–gas interactions, placing special demands on the deceleration optics and RFQ design. A system with large analyte transmission in the presence of gas has so far proven challenging. Presented are computer simulations using SIMION 8.1 for an ion deceleration and RFQ ion guide instrument design. Code included user-defined gas pressure gradients and threshold energies for ion–gas collisional losses. Results suggest a 3 mm diameter, 35 keV {sup 36}Cl{sup −} ion beam with 8 eV full-width half maximum Gaussian energy spread and 35 mrad angular divergence can be efficiently decelerated and then cooled in He gas, with a maximum pressure of 7 mTorr, to 2 eV within 450 mm in the RFQs. Vacuum transmissions were 100%. Ion energy distributions at initial RFQ capture are shown to be much larger than the average value expected from the deceleration potential and this appears to be a general result arising from kinetic energy gain in the RFQ field. In these simulations, a potential for deceleration to 25 eV resulted in a 30 eV average energy distribution with a small fraction of ions >70 eV.

  3. Simulation of microbubble response to ambient pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The theory on microbubbles clearly indicates a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations...... of 4.6 dB is observed when changing pov from 0 to 25 kPa. Increasing the pulse duration makes the reduction even more clear. For a pulse with 64 cycles, the reduction is 9.9 dB. This simulation is in good correspondence with measurement results presented by Shi et al. 1999, who found a linear reduction...... of 9.6 dB. Further simulations of Levovist show that also the shape and the acoustic pressure of the driving pulse are very important factors. The best pressure sensitivity of Levovist was found to be 0.88 dB/kPa. For Sonazoid, a sensitivity of 0.71 dB/kPa has been found, although the reduction...

  4. Analysis of the frequency-dependent response to wave forcing in the extratropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Haklander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasigeostrophic model for the frequency-dependent response of the zonal-mean flow to planetary-wave forcing at Northern Hemisphere (NH midlatitudes is applied to 4-D-Var ECMWF analysis data for six extended winter seasons. The theoretical response is a non-linear function of the frequency of the forcing, the thermal damping time α−1, and a scaling parameter µ which includes the aspect ratio of the meridional to the vertical length scale of the response. Regression of the calculated response from the analyses onto the theoretical response yields height-dependent estimates for both α−1 and µ. The thermal damping time estimated from this dynamical model is about 2 days in the troposphere, 7–10 days in the stratosphere, and 2–4 days in the lower mesosphere. For the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, the estimates lie within the range of existing radiative damping time estimates, but for the troposphere they are significantly smaller.

  5. Research on the iterative method for model updating based on the frequency response function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ming Li; Jia-Zhen Hong

    2012-01-01

    Model reduction technique is usually employed in model updating process,In this paper,a new model updating method named as cross-model cross-frequency response function (CMCF) method is proposed and a new iterative method associating the model updating method with the model reduction technique is investigated.The new model updating method utilizes the frequency response function to avoid the modal analysis process and it does not need to pair or scale the measured and the analytical frequency response function,which could greatly increase the number of the equations and the updating parameters.Based on the traditional iterative method,a correction term related to the errors resulting from the replacement of the reduction matrix of the experimental model with that of the finite element model is added in the new iterative method.Comparisons between the traditional iterative method and the proposed iterative method are shown by model updating examples of solar panels,and both of these two iterative methods combine the CMCF method and the succession-level approximate reduction technique.Results show the effectiveness of the CMCF method and the proposed iterative method.

  6. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  7. Responses of Waveform-Selective Absorbing Metasurfaces to Oblique Waves at the Same Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakatsuchi, Hiroki; Gao, Fei; Yagitani, Satoshi; Sievenpiper, Daniel F

    2016-08-12

    Conventional materials vary their electromagnetic properties in response to the frequency of an incoming wave, but these responses generally remain unchanged at the same frequency unless nonlinearity is involved. Waveform-selective metasurfaces, recently developed by integrating several circuit elements with planar subwavelength periodic structures, allowed us to distinguish different waves even at the same frequency depending on how long the waves continued, namely, on their pulse widths. These materials were thus expected to give us an additional degree of freedom to control electromagnetic waves. However, all the past studies were demonstrated with waves at a normal angle only, although in reality electromagnetic waves scatter from various structures or boundaries and therefore illuminate the metasurfaces at oblique angles. Here we study angular dependences of waveform-selective metasurfaces both numerically and experimentally. We demonstrate that, if designed properly, capacitor-based waveform-selective metasurfaces more effectively absorb short pulses than continuous waves (CWs) for a wide range of the incident angle, while inductor-based metasurfaces absorb CWs more strongly. Our study is expected to be usefully exploited for applying the concept of waveform selectivity to a wide range of existing microwave devices to expand their functionalities or performances in response to pulse width as a new capability.

  8. Tapering the sky response for angular power spectrum estimation from low-frequency radio-interferometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad

    2016-06-11

    It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase centre. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum Cℓ of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it to provide an unbiased estimation of Cℓ.

  9. Tapering the sky response for angular power spectrum estimation from low-frequency radio-interferometric data

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhuri, Samir; Roy, Nirupam; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk Saiyad

    2016-01-01

    It is important to correctly subtract point sources from radio-interferometric data in order to measure the power spectrum of diffuse radiation like the Galactic synchrotron or the Epoch of Reionization 21-cm signal. It is computationally very expensive and challenging to image a very large area and accurately subtract all the point sources from the image. The problem is particularly severe at the sidelobes and the outer parts of the main lobe where the antenna response is highly frequency dependent and the calibration also differs from that of the phase center. Here we show that it is possible to overcome this problem by tapering the sky response. Using simulated 150 MHz observations, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress the contribution due to point sources from the outer parts by using the Tapered Gridded Estimator to measure the angular power spectrum C_l of the sky signal. We also show from the simulation that this method can self-consistently compute the noise bias and accurately subtract it t...

  10. Simulating low frequency sound transmission through walls and windows by a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, Finn; Norèn-Cosgriff, Karin; Madshus, Christian; Ellingsen, Ståle Engvik

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft, supersonic flights, blasts, and explosions emit sound with substantial energy below 100 Hz. When the low frequency sound is transmitted inside a building, it generates vibration and rattling that may lead to annoyance. Our understanding of these low frequency phenomena is presently limited. In this paper, we attempt to improve our computational capabilities related to the low frequency sound transmission. For this purpose, a finite element methodology that incorporates a two-way coupled fluid-structure interaction, has been developed. Results from a broad experimental investigation of low frequency sound transmission are compared with the numerical finite element simulations. Plain walls, and walls with windows are studied. Close agreement between the simulations and the laboratory measurement data is obtained in the frequency range investigated (10-100 Hz). It was found that structural connections were of large importance for modeling the vibration and sound transmission. The windows control the low frequency transmission from 15 to 30 Hz, whereas the walls control the sound transmission from 30 to 100 Hz. Mitigation of vibrations and rattling induced by low frequency sound therefore needs to consider both wall and window construction.

  11. EFFECTS OF QUININE ON THE MECHANICAL FREQUENCY-RESPONSE OF THE CUPULA IN THE FISH LATERAL-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.; KARLSSON, KK; KHANNA, SM; FLOCK, A

    1994-01-01

    Quinine induces changes in the motion of the cupula in the lateral line canal of the African knife-fish in response to sinusoidal water movements. Two different phases in the action of quinine on the cupular frequency response can be discerned. In the first phase the best frequency, i.e., the freque

  12. Assessment of a PML Boundary Condition for Simulating an MRI Radio Frequency Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsuo Duan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods such as the finite difference time domain (FDTD play an important role in simulating radiofrequency (RF coils used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The choice of absorbing boundary conditions affects the final outcome of such studies. We have used FDTD to assess the Berenger's perfectly matched layer (PML as an absorbing boundary condition for computation of the resonance patterns and electromagnetic fields of RF coils. We first experimentally constructed a high-pass birdcage head coil, measured its resonance pattern, and used it to acquire proton (1H phantom MRI images. We then computed the resonance pattern and B1 field of the coil using FDTD with a PML as an absorbing boundary condition. We assessed the accuracy and efficiency of PML by adjusting the parameters of the PML and comparing the calculated results with measured ones. The optimal PML parameters that produce accurate (comparable to the experimental findings FDTD calculations are then provided for the birdcage head coil operating at 127.72 MHz, the Larmor frequency of 1H at 3 Tesla (T.

  13. Simulation Study of the Relationship between Partial Discharge and Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Wave in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When partial discharge occurs in Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS with insulation defects, Ultrahigh-Frequency (UHF electromagnetic wave up to several MHz and GHz will be exited and propagate inside GIS cavity. This study, based on the propagation theory of electromagnetic waves in coaxial waveguide, performs simulation analysis of the relationship between PD pulse form and the exited UHF electromagnetic wave using Finite-Deferential Time-Domain (FDTD algorithm. First, we study the relationship of partial discharge magnitude and electric field strength of electromagnetic wave. It is found that the changes of partial discharge magnitude have little effect on electric field strength of electromagnetic wave at certain variation rate of PD pulse current. Next, we examine the relationship of variation rate of PD pulse current to electric field strength of electromagnetic wave. It is pointed out that, at a certain partial discharge magnitude, the two are approximately linearly related. Finally, we study the impact of variation rate of PD pulse current on higher mode components. Variation coefficient is used to analyze the proportion of higher mode components in electromagnetic wave. The proportion of higher mode components increases with increasing variation rate of PD pulse current.

  14. Frequency dependence of CA3 spike phase response arising from h-current properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie eBorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The phase of firing of hippocampal neurons during theta oscillations encodes spatial information. Moreover, the spike phase response to synaptic inputs in individual cells depends on the expression of the hyperpolarisation-activated mixed cation current (Ih, which differs between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here, we compared the phase response of these two cell types, as well as their intrinsic membrane properties. We found that both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons show a voltage sag in response to negative current steps but that this voltage sag is significantly smaller in CA3 cells. Moreover, CA3 pyramidal neurons have less prominent resonance properties compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons. This is consistent with differential expression of Ih by the two cell types. Despite their distinct intrinsic membrane properties, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons displayed bidirectional spike phase control by excitatory conductance inputs during theta oscillations. In particular, excitatory inputs delivered at the descending phase of a dynamic clamp-induced membrane potential oscillation delayed the subsequent spike by nearly 50 mrad. The effect was shown to be mediated by Ih and was counteracted by increasing inhibitory conductance driving the membrane potential oscillation. Using our experimental data to feed a computational model, we showed that differences in Ih between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons could predict frequency-dependent differences in phase response properties between these cell types. We confirmed experimentally such frequency-dependent spike phase control in CA3 neurons. Therefore, a decrease in theta frequency, which is observed in intact animals during novelty, might switch the CA3 spike phase response from unidirectional to bidirectional and thereby promote encoding of the new context.

  15. Multi-frequency response of a cylinder subjected to vortex shedding and support motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikestad, Kyrre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with an experimental investigation of vortex induced vibrations of a circular cylinder. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the influence from a controlled disturbance of the cylinder motions on the response caused by vortex shedding. The cylinder investigated is 2 m long and the diameter is 10 cm. The cylinder is elastically mounted in an apparatus using springs, where the foundation of one of the springs can have a harmonic motion. The apparatus is placed on a carriage in a 25 m long towing tank. Towing velocities are varied between 0.140 m/s and 0.655 m/s corresponding to reduced velocity range from 2.8 to 13.2. The still water natural frequency is 0.497 Hz, and the natural frequency in air is 0.634 Hz. The cylinder is only able to oscillate in the cross-flow direction. The support motion frequency was varied between 0.26 Hz and 1.01 Hz, and the force motion amplitude was varied using 2, 4 and 6 cm support amplitudes. Three sets of experiments were carried out: (1) Still water oscillations due to harmonic support motion excitation, support amplitude and frequencies varied, (2) Towing tests with no support motion, the velocity is varied, (3) Combined excitation: Towing tests with support motion. All possible combinations of experiments (1) and (2) are carried out. The two first experiments provide reference values for the combined excitation experiments and for verification purposes. The results reveal the ability of the external disturbance to influence the vortex shedding process both regarding frequency and the resulting response amplitudes. Results for added mass, in-line drag and damping are also obtained. The work may be of use in deep water floating petroleum production. 81 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Transient Response of Arc Temperature and Iron Vapor Concentration Affected by Current Frequency with Iron Vapor in Pulsed Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    TIG arc welding is chemically a joining technology with melting the metallic material and it can be high quality. However, this welding should not be used in high current to prevent cathode melting. Thus, the heat transfer is poor. Therefore, the deep penetration cannot be obtained and the weld defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed arc welding has been used for the improvement of this defect. The pulsed arc welding can control the heat flux to anode. The convention and driving force in the weld pool are caused by the arc. Therefore, it is important to grasp the distribution of arc temperature. The metal vapor generate from the anode in welding. In addition, the pulsed current increased or decreased periodically. Therefore, the arc is affected by such as a current value and current frequency, the current rate of increment and the metal vapor. In this paper, the transient response of arc temperature and the iron vapor concentration affected by the current frequency with iron vapor in pulsed arc was elucidated by the EMTF (ElectroMagnetic Thermal Fluid) simulation. As a result, the arc temperature and the iron vapor were transient response as the current frequency increase. Thus, the temperature and the electrical conductivity decreased. Therefore, the electrical field increased in order to maintain the current continuity. The current density and electromagnetic force increased at the axial center. In addition, the electronic flow component of the heat flux increased at the axial center because the current density increased. However, the heat conduction component of the heat flux decreased.

  17. Artificial Ionization and UHF Radar Response Associated with HF Frequencies near Electron Gyro-Harmonics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results from O-mode ionospheric heating experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska to demonstrate that the magnitude of artificial ionization production is critically dependent on the choice of HF frequency near gyro-harmonics. For O-mode heating in the lower F-region ionosphere, typically about 200 km altitude, artificial ionization enhancements are observed in the lower ionosphere (about 150 - 220 km) and also in the topside ionosphere above about 500 km. Lower ionosphere density enhancements are inferred from HF-enhanced ion and plasma-line signals observed with UHF radar. Upper ionospheric density enhancements have been observed with TEC (total electron content) experiments by monitoring satellite radio beacons where signal paths traverse the HF-modified ionosphere. Both density enhancements and corresponding upward plasma fluxes have also been observed in the upper ionosphere via in-situ satellite observations. The data presented focus mainly on observations near the third and fourth gyro-harmonics. The specific values of the height-dependent gyro-harmonics have been computed from a magnetic model of the field line through the HF heated volume. Experiments with several closely spaced HF frequencies around the gyro-harmonic frequency region show that the magnitude of the lower-ionosphere artificial ionization production maximizes for HF frequencies about 1.0 - 1.5 MHz above the gyro-harmonic frequency. The response is progressively larger as the HF frequency is increased in the frequency region near the gyro-harmonics. For HF frequencies that are initially greater than the gyro-harmonic value the UHF radar scattering cross-section is relatively small, and non-existent or very weak signals are observed; as the signal returns drop in altitude due to density enhancements the HF interaction region passes through lower altitudes where the HF frequency is less than the gyro-harmonic value, for these conditions the radar scattering cross-section is

  18. Mode transformation and frequency change with height in 3D numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, T; Collados, M

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetoacoustic wave propagation are performed in a sunspot atmosphere with a computational domain covering from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The wave source, with properties resembling the solar spectrum, is located at different distances from the axis of the sunspot for each simulation. These results are compared with the theory of mode transformation and also with observational features. Simulations show that the dominant oscillation frequency in the chromosphere decreases with the radial distance from the sunspot axis. The energy flux of the different wave modes involved, including de Alfv\\'en mode, is evaluated and discussed.

  19. Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological $N$-body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, most probably more precise, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naive derivation assuming a universal mass function by 18%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum...

  20. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G.; Yu, Mukui

    2016-01-01

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (PSLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (PSLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load. PMID:27662594

  1. Refined Monte Carlo method for simulating angle-dependent partial frequency redistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-S.

    1982-01-01

    A refined algorithm for generating emission frequencies from angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution functions R sub II and R sub III is described. The improved algorithm has as its basis a 'rejection' technique that, for absorption frequencies x less than 5, involves no approximations. The resulting procedure is found to be essential for effective studies of radiative transfer in optically thick or temperature varying media involving angle-dependent partial frequency redistributions.

  2. Ironic effects as reflexive responses: Evidence from word frequency effects on involuntary subvocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangal, Sabrina; Merrick, Christina; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2015-07-01

    In ironic processing, one is more likely to think about something (e.g., white bears) when instructed to not think about that thing. To further investigate this phenomenon involving cognitive control, in the Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT), participants are instructed to not subvocalize the names of visual objects. On the majority of the trials, participants fail to suppress such subvocalizations. This finding supports theorizing that conscious thoughts can be triggered by external stimuli in a manner that is nontrivial, involuntary, and, importantly, reflex-like. These conclusions challenge intuitions that consciousness is unpredictable, whimsical, and somewhat insulated from external control. Perhaps these thoughts arise, not in a reflex-like manner, but from experimental demand or other high-level, strategic processes. This prevalent criticism would be inconsistent with the observation that the RIT effect is influenced by a stimulus parameter such as word frequency. Regarding demand characteristics, such an artifact would require participants to have a theory regarding how word frequency should influence responses. We introduce evidence that stimuli associated with high frequency names are more likely to yield involuntary subvocalizations than stimuli associated with low frequency names. These theoretically-relevant data suggest that ironic effects in paradigms such as the RIT resemble reflex-like processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring the neck frequency response function of laryngectomy patients: Implications for the design of electrolarynx devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Kobler, James B.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2003-08-01

    Measurements of the neck frequency response function (NFRF), defined as the ratio of the spectrum of the estimated volume velocity that excites the vocal tract to the spectrum of the acceleration delivered to the neck wall, were made at three different positions on the necks of nine laryngectomized subjects (five males and four females) and four normal laryngeal speakers (two males and two females). A minishaker driven by broadband noise provided excitation to the necks of subjects as they configured their vocal tracts to mimic the production of the vowels /aye/, /æ/, and /I/. The sound pressure at the lips was measured with a microphone and an impedance head mounted on the shaker measured the acceleration. The neck wall passed low-frequency sound energy better than high-frequency sound energy, and thus the NFRF was accurately modeled as a low-pass filter. The NFRFs of the different subject groups (female laryngeal, male laryngeal speakers, laryngectomized males, and laryngectomized females) differed from each other in terms of corner frequency and gain, with both types of male subjects presenting NFRFs with larger overall gains. In addition, there was a notable amount of intersubject variability within groups. Because the NFRF is an estimate of how sound energy passes through the neck wall, these results should aid in the design of improved neck-type electrolarynx devices.

  4. Frequency characteristic of response of surface air pressure to changes in flux of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, M. B.

    2014-11-01

    We compare the series of daily-average values of the surface air pressure for De Bilt and Lugano meteorological stations with subtracted linear trends and seasonal harmonics, as well as the series of the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at Jungfraujoch station with subtracted moving average over 200 days. Using the method of superposed epochs, we show that the Forbush decreases at both stations are accompanied by increased pressure. Spectral analysis allows us to conclude that the analyzed series are characterized by nonzero coherence in almost the entire frequency range: from 0.02 day-1 day up to the Nyquist frequency of 0.5 day-1. Using changes in the GCR flux as a probing signal, we obtain amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pressure reaction. For both stations, these characteristics are in qualitative agreement with each other and indicate that the atmospheric response can be described by a second-order linear dynamic system that has wide resonance with a maximum at a frequency of 0.15 day-1.

  5. Oscillatory shear response of dilute ferrofluids: predictions from rotational Brownian dynamics simulations and ferrohydrodynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Aquino, D; Rosso, D; Rinaldi, C

    2011-11-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that exhibit normal liquid behavior in the absence of magnetic fields but respond to imposed magnetic fields by changing their viscosity without loss of fluidity. The response of ferrofluids to constant shear and magnetic fields has received a lot of attention, but the response of ferrofluids to oscillatory shear remains largely unexplored. In the present work we used rotational Brownian dynamics to study the dynamic properties of ferrofluids with thermally blocked nanoparticles under oscillatory shear and constant magnetic fields. Comparisons between simulations and modeling using the ferrohydrodynamics equations were also made. Simulation results show that, for small rotational Péclet number, the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the complex viscosity depend on the magnitude of the magnetic field and frequency of the shear, following a Maxwell-like model with field-dependent viscosity and characteristic time equal to the field-dependent transverse magnetic relaxation time of the nanoparticles. Comparison between simulations and the numerical solution of the ferrohydrodynamic equations shows that the oscillatory rotational magnetoviscosity for an oscillating shear field obtained using the kinetic magnetization relaxation equation quantitatively agrees with simulations for a wide range of Péclet number and Langevin parameter but has quantitative deviations from the simulations at high values of the Langevin parameter. These predictions indicate an apparent elastic character to the rheology of these suspensions, even though we are considering the infinitely dilute limit in which there are negligible particle-particle interactions and, as such, chains do not form. Additionally, an asymptotic analytical solution of the ferrohydrodynamics equations, valid for Pe<2, was used to demonstrate that the Cox-Merz rule applies for dilute ferrofluids under conditions of small shear rates. At higher shear

  6. Management Process of a Frequency Response Flight Test for Rotorcraft Flying Qualities Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Otávio Falcão Arantes Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the frequency response methodology to characterize and analyze the flying qualities of longitudinal and lateral axes of a rotary-wing aircraft, AS355-F2. Using the results, it is possible to check the suitability of the aircraft in accordance with ADS-33E-PRF standard, whose flying qualities specifications criteria are based on parameters in the frequency domain. The key steps addressed in the study involve getting, by means of flight test data, the closed-loop dynamic responses including the design of the instrumentation and specification of the sensors to be used in the flight test campaign, the definition of the appropriate maneuvers characteristics for excitation of the aircraft, the planning and execution of the flight test to collect the data, and the proper data treatment, processing and analysis after the flight. After treatment of the collected data, single input-single output spectral analysis is performed. The results permit the analysis of the flying qualities characteristics, anticipation of the demands to which the pilot will be subjected during closed-loop evaluations and check of compliance with the aforementioned standard, within the range of consistent excitation frequencies for flight tests, setting the agility level of the test aircraft.

  7. Flat acoustic sources with frequency response correction based on feedback and feed-forward distributed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur P

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an acoustic source with a small thickness and high bending stiffness. The high bending stiffness is obtained with a sandwich structure in which the face of the sandwich structure internal to the source is perforated to increase the acoustic compliance, thereby leading to increased electroacoustic conversion efficiency. Multiple actuators are used to drive the moving component of the acoustic source. Control of the acoustic resonances and structural resonances is required to obtain an even frequency response. The use of collocated decentralized feedback control based on velocity sensing was found to be ineffective for controlling these resonances due to the destabilizing asymmetric modes caused by the coupling of the internal acoustic cavity and the rigid body vibration of the moving component. Resonances can be controlled by a set of independent combinations of symmetric driving patterns with corresponding velocity feedback controllers such that the fundamental mass-air resonance is effectively controlled, as is the lowest bending mode of the moving component. Finally, a compensation scheme for low frequencies is used which enables a flat frequency response in the range of 30 Hz to 1 kHz with deviations smaller than 3 dB.

  8. Time-frequency analysis of railway bridge response in forced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Daniel; Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-08-01

    This paper suggests the use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform in combination with the Modified Littlewood-Paley basis to analyse bridge responses exited by traversing trains. The analysis provides an energy distribution map in the time-frequency domain that offers a better resolution compared to previous published studies. This is demonstrated with recorded responses of the Skidträsk Bridge, a 36 m long composite bridge located in Sweden. It is shown to be particularly useful to understand the evolution of the energy content during a vehicle crossing event. With this information it is possible to distinguish the effect of several of the governing factors involved in the dynamic response including vehicle's speed and axle configuration as well as non-linear behaviour of the structure.

  9. Condition assessment of transformer insulation using dielectric frequency response analysis by artificial bee colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigdeli Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformers are one of the most important components of the power system. It is important to maintain and assess the condition. Transformer lifetime depends on the life of its insulation and insulation life is also strongly influenced by moisture in the insulation. Due to importance of this issue, in this paper a new method is introduced for determining the moisture content of the transformer insulation system using dielectric response analysis in the frequency domain based on artificial bee colony algorithm. First, the master curve of dielectric response is modeled. Then, using proposed method the master curve and the measured dielectric response curves are compared. By analyzing the results of the comparison, the moisture content of paper insulation, electrical conductivity of the insulating oil and dielectric model dimensions are determined. Finally, the proposed method is applied to several practical samples to demonstrate its capabilities compared with the well-known conventional method.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Combustion Instability in Solid Rocket Motor : Implementation of Pressure Coupled Response Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Combustion instability in solid propellant rocket motor is numerically simulated by implementing propellant response function with quasi steady homogeneous one dimensional formulation. The convolution integral of propellant response with pressure history is implemented through a user defined function in commercial computational fluid dynamics software. The methodology is validated against literature reported motor test and other simulation results. Computed amplitude of pressure fluctuations compare closely with the literarture data. The growth rate of pressure oscillations of a cylindrical grain solid rocket motor is determined for different response functions at the fundamental longitudinal frequency. It is observed that for response function more than a critical value, the motor exhibits exponential growth rate of pressure oscillations.

  11. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  12. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    oscillations, obtaining single-trial estimate of response latency, frequency, and magnitude. This permits within-subject statistical comparisons, correlation with pre-stimulus features, and integration of simultaneously-recorded EEG and fMRI.

  13. Chirping response of weakly electric knife fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) to low-frequency electric signals and to heterospecific electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, K D; DiBenedictis, B T; Banever, S R

    2010-07-01

    Brown ghost knife fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) can briefly increase their electric organ discharge (EOD) frequency to produce electrocommunication signals termed chirps. The chirp rate increases when fish are presented with conspecific fish or high-frequency (700-1100 Hz) electric signals that mimic conspecific fish. We examined whether A. leptorhynchus also chirps in response to artificial low-frequency electric signals and to heterospecific electric fish whose EOD contains low-frequency components. Fish chirped at rates above background when presented with low-frequency (10-300 Hz) sine-wave stimuli; at 30 and 150 Hz, the threshold amplitude for response was 1 mV cm(-1). Low-frequency (30 Hz) stimuli also potentiated the chirp response to high-frequency ( approximately 900 Hz) stimuli. Fish increased their chirp rate when presented with two heterospecific electric fish, Sternopygus macrurus and Brachyhypopomus gauderio, but did not respond to the presence of the non-electric fish Carassius auratus. Fish chirped to low-frequency (150 Hz) signals that mimic those of S. macrurus and to EOD playbacks of B. gauderio. The response to the B. gauderio playback was reduced when the low-frequency component (electric signals of heterospecific electric fish, and the low-frequency components of heterospecific EODs significantly influence chirp rate. These results raise the possibility that chirps function to communicate to conspecifics about the presence of a heterospecific fish or to communicate directly to heterospecific fish.

  14. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  15. Induced Currents in a Rat's Brain due a Radio Frequency Fields: Numerical Simulation with a Pixel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, R.; Garcia, R. D.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2008-08-01

    The increasing use of high fields in Magnetic Resonance Systems poses new challenges for their operation within safety limits. At high frequencies, electromagnetic fields induce current densities that may damage the organs to be imaged. These eddy currents are transformed in heat via the Joule's effect causing possible severe damage in tissues and organs. The electric field effects in a rat's brain were studied from numerically computed induced currents using a pixel-based model. Numerical simulations were calculated solving the Maxwell's equations with a Finite Element Method for a circular-shaped coil and the pixel model of a rat's brain. Simulations of the electric field were computed and graphically displayed as bi-dimensional transversal images. Profiles of current density as a function of position for four different frequencies were computed from the simulations. An increment of the induced currents can be appreciates at the surface of the brain, and it vanished towards the centre.

  16. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  17. Use of population exposure frequency distributions to simulate effects of policy interventions on NO2 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Ashmore, M. R.; Terry, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Health effects of air pollution on individuals depend on their personal exposure, but few modelling tools are available which can predict how the distribution of personal exposures within a city will change in response to policies to reduce emissions both indoors and outdoors. We describe a new probabilistic modelling framework (INDAIR-2/EXPAIR), which provides predictions of the personal exposure frequency distribution (PEFD) across a city to assess the effects of both reduced emissions from home sources and reduced roadside concentrations on population exposure. The model uses a national time activity database, which gives the percentage of each population group in different residential and non-residential micro-environments, and links this, for the home, to predictions of concentrations from a three-compartment model, and for non-residential microenvironments to empirical indoor/outdoor ratios. This paper presents modelled PEFDs for NO2 in the city of Leicester, for children, the elderly, and office workers, comparing results in different seasons and on different days of the week. While the mean NO2 population exposure was close to, or below the urban background concentration, the 95%ile of the PEFD was well above the urban background concentration. The relationship between both mean and 95%ile PEFD and urban background concentrations was strongly influenced by air exchange rate. The 24 h mean PEFD showed relative small differences between the population groups, with both removal of home sources and reductions of roadside concentrations on roads with a high traffic density having similar effects in reducing mean exposure. In contrast, the 1 h maximum of the PEFD was significantly higher for children and the elderly than for office workers, and showed a much greater response to reduced home emissions in these groups. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the dynamics of NO2 exposure at a population level within different groups, if the benefits

  18. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  19. Measurement of the frequency response of the electrostrictive nonlinearity in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, E L; Boyd, R W

    1997-05-15

    The electrostrictive contribution to the nonlinear refractive index is investigated by use of frequency-dependent cross-phase modulation with a weak unpolarized cw probe wave and a harmonically modulated pump copropagating in optical fibers. Self-delayed homodyne detection is used to measure the amplitude of the sidebands imposed upon the probe wave as a function of pump intensity for pump modulation frequencies from 10 MHz to 1 GHz. The ratio of the electrostrictive nonlinear coefficient to the cross-phase-modulation Kerr coefficient for unpolarized light is measured to be 1.58:1 for a standard step-index single-mode fiber and 0.41:1 for dispersion-shifted fibers, indicating a larger electrostrictive response in silica fibers than previously expected.

  20. Transfer function method for frequency response and damping effect of multilayer PCLD on cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Q.; Fang, Z. P.; Wan, H. C.; Zheng, L.

    2013-07-01

    Based on the Donnell assumptions and linear visco-elastic theory, the constitutive equations of the cylindrical shell with multilayer Passive Constrained Layer Damping (PCLD) treatments are described. The motion equations and boundary conditions are derived by Hamilton principle. After trigonometric series expansion and Laplace transform, the state vector is introduced and the dynamic equations in state space are established. The transfer function method is used to solve the state equation. The dynamic performance including the natural frequency, the loss factor and the frequency response of clamped-clamped multi-layer PCLD cylindrical shell is obtained. The results show that multi-layer PCLD cylindrical shell is more effective than the traditional three-layer PCLD cylindrical shell in suppressing vibration and noise if the same amount of material is applied. It demonstrates a potential application of multi-layer PCLD treatments in many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles.

  1. Response of Flight Nurses in a Simulated Helicopter Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniecki, David M; Hickman, Ronald L; Alfes, Celeste M; Reimer, Andrew P

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a helicopter flight simulator could provide a useful educational platform by creating experiences similar to those encountered by actual flight nurses. Flight nurse (FN) and non-FN participants completed a simulated emergency scenario in a flight simulator. Physiologic and psychological stress during the simulation was measured using heart rate and perceived stress scores. A questionnaire was then administered to assess the realism of the flight simulator. Subjects reported that the overall experience in the flight simulator was comparable with a real helicopter. Sounds, communications, vibrations, and movements in the simulator most approximated those of a real-life helicopter environment. Perceived stress levels of all participants increased significantly from 27 (on a 0-100 scale) before simulation to 51 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 28 (P simulation to 54 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 30 (P simulation to 49 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 25 (P simulation. FNs' heart rates increased significantly from 77 before simulation to 100 at the peak of the simulation and declined thereafter to 72 (P simulation of a critical care scenario in a high-fidelity helicopter flight simulator can provide a realistic helicopter transport experience and create physiologic and psychological stress for participants. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The non-equilibrium response of a superconductor to pair-breaking radiation measured over a broad frequency band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, P. J. de, E-mail: p.j.devisser@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Yates, S. J. C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Neto, A.; Llombart, N. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Baryshev, A. M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Terahertz Sensing Group, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-06-22

    We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on, the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice, this is a measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements.

  3. Ventilatory responses when altering stride frequency at a constant oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R G; Smith, L G

    1985-10-01

    Ten women completed a slow walk (SW), fast walk (FW) and a slow run (R) on a motor driven treadmill to evaluate the effect of varying stride frequency on ventilatory responses. The treadmill grade was adjusted during the walks such that the oxygen uptake was the same as during running at 0% grade. Stride frequencies averaged 59, 69 and 80 strides/min for the SW, FW and R, respectively. Oxygen uptake was similar for all three trials (1.78 L/min); as were heart frequencies (154.6 beats/min). Mean blood pressure was unaffected by changing stride frequency. Minute ventilation was similar for all three trials (ca. 47.3 L/min). Significant differences in respiratory frequency were observed (SW = 33.2, FW = 35.4, R = 37.2 breaths/min). Tidal volumes were significantly greater during the slow walk (1417 ml) than either the fast walk (1331 ml) or the run (1301 ml). CO2 output was significantly greater during the run compared to either of the walking trials. End-tidal CO2 was 38.6 mm Hg during the slow walk and was significantly reduced during the fast walk (36.3) and run (36.0). The results suggest the existence of a mild hypocapnia during the fast walk and running exercise. These results further suggest that variations in ventilatory patterns exist during walking and running that are not totally accountable by blood pressure or CO2 and may be related to extra-metabolic stimuli.

  4. Frequency response of laminated composite plates and shells with matrix cracks type of damage mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Aly A.

    The present study has been designed to tackle a new set of problems for structural composites, as these materials are finding new applications in civil engineering field. An attempt has been made to study the frequency response of laminated polymer composite plates and shallow shells containing matrix cracks type of damage with arbitrary support conditions and free vibratory motions. The shell governing equations are derived using a simplified shallow shell theory based on a first order shear deformation field. The continuum damage mechanics approach has been used to model the matrix cracks in a damaged region within the plates and shallow shells. In such approach, the damage is accounted for in the laminate constitutive equations by using a set of second order tensor internal state variables which are strain-like quantities. The simplified damage model was then used to study the changes in frequency response of laminated composite plates and shallow cylindrical shells. The Ritz method and a finite element method have been proposed and developed as approximate solution procedures to quantify the change in the free vibration frequencies due to matrix cracks type of damage under both material as well as geometrical variables such as size, shape and extent of damage, degree of curvature, ratio of orthotropy, thickness ratio as well as support conditions. The analysis of various plates and shells with a centrally located damaged-zone depicts a typical trend of reduction in the vibration frequencies. This reduction is more pronounced for higher frequency modes and it shows greater sensitivity toward the size of the damaged region and density of cracks. The results also show that the changes in the frequency, especially for the fundamental mode, appear to be less sensitive to the shell boundary conditions as well as small values of curvature. The investigation of various undamaged plates and shallow shells demonstrates the importance of a first-order shear deformation

  5. Low-conductance HCN1 ion channels augment the frequency response of rod and cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Andrew J; Wu, Samuel M

    2009-05-06

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels are expressed in several tissues throughout the body, including the heart, the CNS, and the retina. HCN channels are found in many neurons in the retina, but their most established role is in generating the hyperpolarization-activated current, I(h), in photoreceptors. This current makes the light response of rod and cone photoreceptors more transient, an effect similar to that of a high-pass filter. A unique property of HCN channels is their small single-channel current, which is below the thermal noise threshold of measuring electronics. We use nonstationary fluctuation analysis (NSFA) in the intact retina to estimate the conductance of single HCN channels, revealing a conductance of approximately 650 fS in both rod and cone photoreceptors. We also analyze the properties of HCN channels in salamander rods and cones, from the biophysical to the functional level, showing that HCN1 is the predominant isoform in both cells, and demonstrate how HCN1 channels speed up the light response of both rods and cones under distinct adaptational conditions. We show that in rods and cones, HCN channels increase the natural frequency response of single cells by modifying the photocurrent input, which is limited in its frequency response by the speed of a molecular signaling cascade. In doing so, HCN channels form the first of several systems in the retina that augment the speed of the visual response, allowing an animal to perceive visual stimuli that change more quickly than the underlying photocurrent.

  6. Response to muscular exercise following repeated simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Kirby, C. R.; Karst, G. M.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 10-d 6-deg-head-down bed rest (BR1), 14 d of recovery, another 10 d bed rest (BR2), and another 14-d recovery on the cardiovascular response to a graded supine cycle ergometer test (4 min unloaded 60-rpm pedaling followed by 15-W/min increasing work load to volitional fatigue) are investigated experimentally in seven male nonsmokers of mean age 41 yrs, mean weight 80.2 kg, mean height 178 cm, and mean body fat content 22.3 percent. Ergometer tests are performed before BR1, after BR1 and BR2, and 14 d after BR2. The results are presented in tables, and it is found that the significantly decreased maximum-O2-uptake, gas-exchange-aerobic-threshold, and plasma-volume responses and the increased submaximal and maximal heart rates observed (relative to pre-BR1 levels) after BR1 and BR2 return to pre-BR1 values 14 d after BR2. It is inferred that 14 d of mild exercise are adequate for recovery from even repeated exposure to this type of simulated weightlessness.

  7. Neuromuscular responses to simulated brazilian jiu-jitsu fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bruno Victor Corrêa; Ide, Bernardo Neme; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Marocolo, Moacir; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest). Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT) and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ) tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre) and after the last one (Post). Blood lactate (LA) was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power) was observed.

  8. Simulation of triaxial response of granular materials by modified DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoLiang; Li, JiaChun

    2014-12-01

    A modified discrete element method (DEM) with rolling effect taken into consideration is developed to examine macroscopic behavior of granular materials in this study. Dimensional analysis is firstly performed to establish the relationship between macroscopic mechanical behavior, mesoscale contact parameters at particle level and external loading rate. It is found that only four dimensionless parameters may govern the macroscopic mechanical behavior in bulk. The numerical triaxial apparatus was used to study their influence on the mechanical behavior of granular materials. The parametric study indicates that Poisson's ratio only varies with stiffness ratio, while Young's modulus is proportional to contact modulus and grows with stiffness ratio, both of which agree with the micromechanical model. The peak friction angle is dependent on both inter-particle friction angle and rolling resistance. The dilatancy angle relies on inter-particle friction angle if rolling stiffness coefficient is sufficiently large. Finally, we have recommended a calibration procedure for cohesionless soil, which was at once applied to the simulation of Chende sand using a series of triaxial compression tests. The responses of DEM model are shown in quantitative agreement with experiments. In addition, stress-strain response of triaxial extension was also obtained by numerical triaxial extension tests.

  9. Activation of the SOS response increases the frequency of small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    with different mechanism of action influence the formation of SCVs that are resistant to otherwise lethal concentrations of the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. We found that exposure of S. aureus to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C increased the frequency of gentamicin resistant SCVs, while other antibiotic classes...... failed to do so. The higher proportion of SCVs in cultures exposed to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C compared to un-exposed cultures correlate with an increased mutation rate monitored by rifampicin resistance and followed induction of the SOS DNA damage response. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest...

  10. Effects of low-spatial-frequency response of phase plates on TEM imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcombe, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Images of simple objects produced by a perfect lens and a phase plate have been calculated by use of Abbe theory for Foucault, Hilbert and Zernike phase plates. The results show that with a Zernike plate, white outlines and ringing like those observed previously can be caused by the beam hole, which limits the low-spatial-frequency response of the system even when the lens behaves perfectly. When the change of phase added by the phase plate is distributed over a range of radius rather than a simple step, the unwanted effects are substantially reduced.

  11. Simulation of Space-borne Radar Observation from High Resolution Cloud Model - for GPM Dual frequency Precipitation Radar -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Meneghini, R.; Jones, J.; Liao, L.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive space-borne radar simulator has been developed to support active microwave sensor satellite missions. The two major objectives of this study are: 1) to develop a radar simulator optimized for the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (KuPR and KaPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission satellite (GPM-DPR) and 2) to generate the synthetic test datasets for DPR algorithm development. This simulator consists of two modules: a DPR scanning configuration module and a forward module that generates atmospheric and surface radar observations. To generate realistic DPR test data, the scanning configuration module specifies the technical characteristics of DPR sensor and emulates the scanning geometry of the DPR with a inner swath of about 120 km, which contains matched-beam data from both frequencies, and an outer swath from 120 to 245 km over which only Ku-band data will be acquired. The second module is a forward model used to compute radar observables (reflectivity, attenuation and polarimetric variables) from input model variables including temperature, pressure and water content (rain water, cloud water, cloud ice, snow, graupel and water vapor) over the radar resolution volume. Presently, the input data to the simulator come from the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) and Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) models where a constant mass density is assumed for each species with a particle size distribution given by an exponential distribution with fixed intercept parameter (N0) and a slope parameter (Λ) determined from the equivalent water content. Although the model data do not presently contain mixed phase hydrometeors, the Yokoyama-Tanaka melting model is used along with the Bruggeman effective dielectric constant to replace rain and snow particles, where both are present, with mixed phase particles while preserving the snow/water fraction. For testing one of the DPR retrieval algorithms, the Surface Reference Technique (SRT), the simulator uses

  12. Spectral Analysis and Sonification of Simulation Data Generated in a Frequency Domain Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    multiples of the fundamental frequencies in the sound. Fundamental frequencies are similar to notes on the musical scale. Fundamental frequencies are...Perceptually, we consider the complexity of a sound as timbre . 45 For example, the timbre of a violin is different than the timbre of a flute, even...two sounds that have the same intensity and timbre for the human ear to distinguish the two sounds as different 50 percent of the time. Similarly

  13. Stochastic simulation for the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through a random velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.

    2012-05-01

    In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.

  14. Neural Network Algorithm for Designing FIR Filters Utilizing Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Wang; Yi-Gang He; Tian-Zan Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new joint optimization method for the design of sharp linear-phase finite-impulse response (FIR) digital filters which are synthesized by using basic and multistage frequency-response-masking (FRM) techniques. The method is based on a batch back-propagation neural network algorithm with a variable learning rate mode. We propose the following two-step optimization technique in order to reduce the complexity. At the first step, an initial FRM filter is designed by alternately optimizing the subfilters. At the second step, this solution is then used as a start-up solution to further optimization. The further optimization problem is highly nonlinear with respect to the coefficients of all the subfilters. Therefore, it is decomposed into several linear neural network optimization problems. Some examples from the literature are given, and the results show that the proposed algorithm can design better FRM filters than several existing methods.

  15. Response Identification in the Extremely Low Frequency Region of an Electret Condenser Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Yang, Tzung-Ming; Lee, Shang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC) has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD) plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems. PMID:22346594

  16. Response Identification in the Extremely Low Frequency Region of an Electret Condenser Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that a small electret condenser microphone connected to a notebook or a personal computer (PC has a prominent response in the extremely low frequency region in a specific environment. It confines most acoustic waves within a tiny air cell as follows. The air cell is constructed by drilling a small hole in a digital versatile disk (DVD plate. A small speaker and an electret condenser microphone are attached to the two sides of the hole. Thus, the acoustic energy emitted by the speaker and reaching the microphone is strong enough to actuate the diaphragm of the latter. The experiments showed that, once small air leakages are allowed on the margin of the speaker, the microphone captured the signal in the range of 0.5 to 20 Hz. Moreover, by removing the plastic cover of the microphone and attaching the microphone head to the vibration surface, the low frequency signal can be effectively captured too. Two examples are included to show the convenience of applying the microphone to pick up the low frequency vibration information of practical systems.

  17. Cardiac frequency compensation responses of adult blue crabs exposed to moderate temperature increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Richardson, L.B.; Moore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac frequency patterns of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun were used to evaluate potential thermal stress after exposure to 5/sup 0/C increases over a range of acclimation temperatures from 5/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C. An acclimated rate-temperature curve (R-T curve), acute R-T curves of the stabilized rates at the increased temperatures and Q/sub 10/ temperature coefficients were used to assess the significance of the changes in rate frequency. The acclimated R-T curve showed that blue crabs go through a series of seasonal adaptation types characterized by a plateau of perfect adaptation for both cold and warm adapted organisms. Paradoxical adaptation occurred between the transition from cold to warm acclimation temperatures. The acute R-T curves showed that cardiac frequency was highly responsive to a 5/sup 0/C increase when the organisms were acclimated to low temperatures. The Q/sub 10/'s of the acute R-T curves at the warm acclimation temperatures approximated those values derived for the acclimated R-T curve. This suggests that the temperature increase had a negligible effect on the warm adapted crabs, that is, little or no thermal stress occurred.

  18. Swearing as a response to pain-effect of daily swearing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Umland, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Previously we showed that swearing produces a pain lessening (hypoalgesic) effect for many people.(20) This paper assesses whether habituation to swearing occurs such that people who swear more frequently in daily life show a lesser pain tolerance effect of swearing, compared with people who swear less frequently. Pain outcomes were assessed in participants asked to repeat a swear word versus a nonswear word. Additionally, sex differences and the roles of pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and daily swearing frequency were explored. Swearing increased pain tolerance and heart rate compared with not swearing. Moreover, the higher the daily swearing frequency, the less was the benefit for pain tolerance when swearing, compared with when not swearing. This paper shows apparent habituation related to daily swearing frequency, consistent with our theory that the underlying mechanism by which swearing increases pain tolerance is the provocation of an emotional response. This article presents further evidence that, for many people, swearing (cursing) provides readily available and effective relief from pain. However, overuse of swearing in everyday situations lessens its effectiveness as a short-term intervention to reduce pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSE RESPONSE: LONG OVERDUE CONFRONTATION WITH THE EFFECTS OF IONISATION DENSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Y S; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L

    2016-12-01

    The reader will time-travel through almost seven decades of kinetic models and mathematical simulations of thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics based on the band-gap theory of the solid state. From post-World-War II, ideas concerning electron trapping mechanisms to the highly idealised one trap-one recombination (OTOR) model first elaborated in 1956 but still in 'high gear' today. The review caresses but purposely avoids in-depth discussion of the endless stream of papers discussing the intricacies of glow peak shapes arising from first-order, second-order, mixed-order and general-order kinetics predominantly based on non-interacting systems, and then on to the more physically realistic scenarios that have attempted to analyse complex systems involving ever greater numbers of interacting trapping centres, luminescent centres and non-luminescent centres. The review emphasises the difficulty the band-gap models have in the simulation of dose response linear/supralinear behaviour and especially the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density. The significance of the non-observation of filling-rate supralinearity in the absorption stage is emphasised since it removes from consideration the possibility of TL supralinearity arising from irradiation stage supralinearity. The importance of the simultaneous action of both localised and delocalised transitions has gradually penetrated the mindset of the community of kinetic researchers, but most simulations have concentrated on the shape of glow peaks and the extraction of the glow peak parameters, E (the thermal activation energy) and s (the attempt-to-escape frequency). The simulation of linear/supralinear dose response and its dependence on ionisation density have been largely avoided until recently due to the fundamental schism between the effects of ionisation density and some basic assumptions of the band-gap model. The review finishes with an in-depth presentation and discussion of the most recent

  20. Cachectic skeletal muscle response to a novel bout of low-frequency stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppa, Melissa J.; Murphy, E. Angela; Fayad, Raja; Hand, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    While exercise benefits have been well documented in patients with chronic diseases, the mechanistic understanding of cachectic muscle's response to contraction is essentially unknown. We previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise training attenuates the initiation of cancer cachexia and the development of metabolic syndrome symptoms (Puppa MJ, White JP, Velazquez KT, Baltgalvis KA, Sato S, Baynes JW, Carson JA. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 3: 117–137, 2012). However, cachectic muscle's metabolic signaling response to a novel, acute bout of low-frequency contraction has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether severe cancer cachexia disrupts the acute contraction-induced response to low-frequency muscle contraction [low-frequency stimulation (LoFS)]. Metabolic gene expression and signaling was examined 3 h after a novel 30-min bout of contraction (10 Hz) in cachectic ApcMin/+ (Min) and C57BL/6 (BL-6) mice. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a STAT/NF-κB inhibitor and free radical scavenger, was administered systemically to a subset of mice to determine whether this altered the muscle contraction response. Although glucose transporter-4 mRNA was decreased by cachexia, LoFS increased muscle glucose transporter-4 mRNA in both BL-6 and Min mice. LoFS also induced muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1 mRNA. However, in Min mice, LoFS was not able to induce muscle proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1 targets nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A mRNA. LoFS induced phosphorylated-S6 in BL-6 mice, but this induction was blocked by cachexia. Administration of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate for 24 h rescued LoFS-induced phosphorylated-S6 in cachectic muscle. LoFS increased muscle phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 in BL-6 and Min mice. These data demonstrate that cachexia alters the muscle metabolic response

  1. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways.

  2. On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario

    2014-05-01

    There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral

  3. The Frequency-Watt Function: Simulation and Testing for the Hawaiian Electric Companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Jin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mahmud, Rasel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elkhatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antonio, Chris [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States); Arakawa, Dean [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fong, Ken [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-25

    This interim report describes research related to frequency-watt control of solar photovoltaic (PV) inverters conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) by a regional partnership for Hawaii. The purpose of this report is to inform an ongoing discussion around frequency-watt control activation in Hawaii.

  4. Evaluation of an automated procedure for detecting frequency-following responses in American and Chinese neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Peris, Kevin S; Hu, Jiong; Lin, Chia-Der

    2013-04-01

    To date, observations of the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch have depended on subjective interpretation of the experimenter. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated procedure for detecting the presence of a response. Twenty American (9 boys, 1-3 days) and 20 Chinese (10 boys, 1-3 days) neonates were recruited. A Chinese monosyllable that mimicked the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch (117-166 Hz) was used as the stimulus. Three objective indices (Frequency Error, Tracking Accuracy, and Pitch Strength) were computed from the recorded brain waves and the test results were compared with human judgments to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. Results demonstrated that the automated procedure produced sensitivity values between 53-90% and specificity values between 80-100%, and could be used to assess the presence of an FFR for neonates who were born in a tonal or non-tonal language environment.

  5. Generation of High Frequency Response in a Dynamically Loaded, Nonlinear Soil Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, Robert Edward [Idaho National Laboratory; Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Detailed guidance on linear seismic analysis of soil columns is provided in “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary (ASCE 4, 1998),” which is currently under revision. A new Appendix in ASCE 4-2014 (draft) is being added to provide guidance for nonlinear time domain analysis which includes evaluation of soil columns. When performing linear analysis, a given soil column is typically evaluated with a linear, viscous damped constitutive model. When submitted to a sine wave motion, this constitutive model produces a smooth hysteresis loop. For nonlinear analysis, the soil column can be modelled with an appropriate nonlinear hysteretic soil model. For the model in this paper, the stiffness and energy absorption result from a defined post yielding shear stress versus shear strain curve. This curve is input with tabular data points. When submitted to a sine wave motion, this constitutive model produces a hysteresis loop that looks similar in shape to the input tabular data points on the sides with discontinuous, pointed ends. This paper compares linear and nonlinear soil column results. The results show that the nonlinear analysis produces additional high frequency response. The paper provides additional study to establish what portion of the high frequency response is due to numerical noise associated with the tabular input curve and what portion is accurately caused by the pointed ends of the hysteresis loop. Finally, the paper shows how the results are changed when a significant structural mass is added to the top of the soil column.

  6. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  7. Flutter and forced response of turbomachinery with frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakozawa, Tomokazu

    This dissertation provides numerical studies to improve bladed disk assembly design for preventing blade high cycle fatigue failures. The analyses are divided into two major subjects. For the first subject presented in Chapter 2, the mechanisms of transonic fan flutter for tuned systems are studied to improve the shortcoming of traditional method for modern fans using a 3D time-linearized Navier-Stokes solver. Steady and unsteady flow parameters including local work on the blade surfaces are investigated. It was found that global local work monotonically became more unstable on the pressure side due to the flow rollback effect. The local work on the suction side significantly varied due to nodal diameter and flow rollback effect. Thus, the total local work for the least stable mode is dominant by the suction side. Local work on the pressure side appears to be affected by the shock on the suction side. For the second subject presented in Chapter 3, sensitivity studies are conducted on flutter and forced response due to frequency mistuning and aerodynamic asymmetry using the single family of modes approach by assuming manufacturing tolerance. The unsteady aerodynamic forces are computed using CFD methods assuming aerodynamic symmetry. The aerodynamic asymmetry is applied by perturbing the influence coefficient matrix. These aerodynamic perturbations influence both stiffness and damping while traditional frequency mistuning analysis only perturbs the stiffness. Flutter results from random aerodynamic perturbations of all blades showed that manufacturing variations that effect blade unsteady aerodynamics may cause a stable, perfectly symmetric engine to flutter. For forced response, maximum blade amplitudes are significantly influenced by the aerodynamic perturbation of the imaginary part (damping) of unsteady aerodynamic modal forces. This is contrary to blade frequency mistuning where the stiffness perturbation dominates.

  8. CRITICAL ILLUMINATION AND CRITICAL FREQUENCY FOR RESPONSE TO FLICKERED LIGHT, IN DRAGONFLY LARVAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. J.; Wolf, Ernst; Zerrahn-Wolf, Gertrud

    1937-01-01

    Curves relating flicker frequency (F) to mean critical illumination (Im) for threshold response to flickered light, with equal durations of light and no light intervals, and relating illumination (I) to mean critical flicker frequency (Fm) for the same response, have been obtained from homogeneous data based upon the reactions of dragonfly larvae (Anax junius). These curves exhibit the properties already described in the case of the fish Lepomis. The curve for Fm lies above the curve of Im by an amount which, as a function of I, can be predicted from a knowledge either of the variation of Im or of Fm. The law of the observable connection between F and I is properly expressed as a band, not as a simple curve. The variation of Im (and of Fm) is not due to "experimental error," but is an expression of the variable character of the organism's capacity to exhibit the reaction which is the basis of the measurements. As in other series of measurements, P.E.I is a rectilinear function of Im; P.E.F passes through a maximum as F (or I) increases. The form of P.E.F as a function of I can be predicted from the measurements of P.E.I. It is pointed out that the equations which have been proposed for the interpretation of curves of critical flicker frequency as a function of intensity, based upon the balance of light adaptation and dark adaptation, have in fact the character of "population curves;" and that their contained constants do not have the properties requisite for the consistent application of the view that the shape of the F - I curve is governed by the steady state condition of adaptation. These curves can, however, be understood as resulting from the achievement of a certain level of difference between the average effect of a light flash and its average after effect during the dark interval. PMID:19872997

  9. Skeletal Micro-RNA Responses to Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicholas J.; Choi, Catherine Y.; Alwood, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts lose bone structure during long-duration spaceflight. These changes are due, in part, to insufficient bone formation by the osteoblast cells. Little is known about the role that small (approximately 22 nucleotides), non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) play in the osteoblast response to microgravity. We hypothesize that osteoblast-lineage cells alter their miRNA status during microgravity exposure, contributing to impaired bone formation during weightlessness. To simulate weightlessness, female mice (C57BL/6, Charles River, 10 weeks of age, n = 7) were hindlimb unloaded up to 12 days. Age-matched and normally ambulating mice served as controls (n=7). To assess the expression of miRNAs in skeletal tissue, the tibia was collected ex vivo and cleaned of soft-tissue and marrow. Total RNA was collected from tibial bone and relative abundance was measured for miRNAs of interest using quantitative real time PCR array looking at 372 unique and well-characterized mature miRNAs using the delta-delta Ct method. Transcripts of interest were normalized to an average of 6 reference RNAs. Preliminary results show that hindlimb unloading decreased the expression of 14 miRNAs to less than 0.5 times that of the control levels and increased the expression of 5 miRNAs relative to the control mice between 1.2-1.5-fold (p less than 0.05, respectively). Using the miRSystem we assessed overlapping target genes predicted to be regulated by multiple members of the 19 differentially expressed miRNAs as well as in silico predicted targets of our individual miRNAs. Our miRsystem results indicated that a number of our differentially expressed miRNAs were regulators of genes related to the Wnt-Beta Catenin pathway-a known regulator of bone health-and, interestingly, the estrogen-mediated cell-cycle regulation pathway, which may indicate that simulated weightlessness modulated systemic hormonal levels or hormonal transduction that additionally contributed to bone loss. We plan to follow up

  10. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  11. Time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. Y.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    For grid connected hydropower plants with surge tanks, the time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid with load disturbance have been examined. On the basis of a mathematical model of a hydro-turbine governing system operating in an isolated grid with a surge tank, a power grid model of the hydro-turbine governing system connected to a grid has been developed. Using Laplace transformation, a comprehensive transfer function, taking the disturbance of the hydro-turbine as the input signal and the speed of the hydro-turbine as the output signal, has been developed for the mathematical model. Finally, by using MATLAB-Simulink to numerically simulate the time response of frequency of the system under the coupled action of the grid at different scales and the surge tank with different sectional areas, the mechanism of the coupled action of the surge tank and the power grid and the effect of grid scale on time response of frequency of system has been analysed. It is concluded that surge tank only affects the tail wave of the time response of frequency, and for surge tanks with large sectional area, the fluctuations in the tail wave are gentler. Hence, the system is easier to become steady. The power grid has an inhibiting effect, which becomes greater for larger grid scale, on both the head wave and the tail wave of the time response of frequency in which the head wave is separated into several wavelets and the tail wave become gentler.

  12. Simulation of a current source with a Cole-Cole load for multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar Santos, Susana; Schlebusch, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    An accurate current source is one of the keys in the hardware of Electrical impedance Tomography systems. Limitations appear mainly at higher frequencies and for non-simple resistive loads. In this paper, we simulate an improved Howland current source with a Cole-Cole load. Simulations comparing two different op-amps (THS4021 and OPA843) were performed at 1 kHz to 1 MHz. Results show that the THS4021 performed better than the OPA843. The current source with THS4021 reaches an output impedance of 20 MΩ at 1 kHz and above 320 kΩ at 1 MHz, it provides a constant and stable output current up to 4 mA, in the complete range of frequencies, and for Cole-Cole (resistive and capacitive) load.

  13. A High-Frequency Doppler Feature in the Power Spectra of Simulated GRMHD Black Hole Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wellons, Sarah; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    Black hole binaries exhibit a wide range of variability phenomena, from large-scale state changes to broadband noise and quasi-periodic oscillations, but the physical nature of much of this variability is poorly understood. We examine the variability properties of three GRMHD simulations of thin accretion disks around black holes of varying spin, producing light curves and power spectra as would be seen by observers. We find that the simulated power spectra show a broad feature at high frequency, which increases in amplitude with the inclination of the observer. We show that this high-frequency feature is a product of the Doppler effect and that its location is a function of the mass and spin of the black hole. This Doppler feature demonstrates that power spectral properties of the accretion disk can be tied to, and potentially used to determine, physical properties of the black hole.

  14. Frequency characteristics of human muscle and cortical responses evoked by noisy Achilles tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, Robyn Lynne; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sebastien; Carpenter, Mark Gregory; Inglis, J Timothy

    2017-02-16

    Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine proprioceptive reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults (n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied two-minutes of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii were significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed a) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with <60 s of low-level (RMS=10 m/s(2)) vibration, b) responses did not habituate over two-minutes of exposure, and importantly c) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize proprioceptive reflexes.

  15. The simulation of temperature dependence of responsivity and response time for 6H-SiC UV photodetector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi-Men; Zhou Yong-Hua; Zhang Yu-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the temperature dependence of responsivity and response time for 6H-SiC ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is simulated based on numerical model in the range from 300 K to 900 K. The simulation results show that the responsivity and the response time of device are less sensitive to temperature and this kind of UV photodetector has excellent temperature stability. Also the effects of device structure and bias voltage on the responsivity and the response time are presented. The thicker the drift region is, the higher the responsivity and the longer the response time are. So the thickness of drift region has to be carefully designed to make trade-off between responsivity and response time.

  16. 2D fluid-analytical simulation of electromagnetic effects in low pressure, high frequency electronegative capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.; Marakhtanov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical multifrequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor code is used to study center high nonuniformity in a low pressure electronegative chlorine discharge. In the code, a time-independent Helmholtz wave equation is used to solve for the capacitive fields in the linearized frequency domain. This eliminates the time dependence from the electromagnetic (EM) solve, greatly speeding up the simulations at the cost of neglecting higher harmonics. However, since the code allows up to three driving frequencies, we can add the two most important harmonics to the CCP simulations as the second and third input frequencies. The amplitude and phase of these harmonics are estimated by using a recently developed 1D radial nonlinear transmission line (TL) model of a highly asymmetric cylindrical discharge (Lieberman et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 055011). We find that at higher applied frequencies, the higher harmonics contribute significantly to the center high nonuniformity due to their shorter plasma wavelengths.

  17. Vibration-induced drop atomization and the numerical simulation of low-frequency single-droplet ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ashley J.; Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari

    2003-02-01

    Vibration-induced droplet ejection is a novel way to create a spray. In this method, a liquid drop is placed on a vertically vibrating solid surface. The vibration leads to the formation of waves on the free surface. Secondary droplets break off from the wave crests when the forcing amplitude is above a critical value. When the forcing frequency is small, only low-order axisymmetric wave modes are excited, and a single secondary droplet is ejected from the tip of the primary drop. When the forcing frequency is high, many high-order non-axisymmetric modes are excited, the motion is chaotic, and numerous small secondary droplets are ejected simultaneously from across the surface of the primary drop. In both frequency regimes a crater may form that collapses to create a liquid spike from which droplet ejection occurs. An axisymmetric, incompressible, Navier Stokes solver was developed to simulate the low-frequency ejection process. A volume-of-fluid method was used to track the free surface, with surface tension incorporated using the continuum-surface-force method. A time sequence of the simulated interface shape compared favourably with an experimental sequence. The dynamics of the droplet ejection process was investigated, and the conditions under which ejection occurs and the effect of the system parameters on the process were determined.

  18. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O' Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2010-12-20

    An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

  19. Simulation of the aging process of insulating systems variable frequency drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganeev, A.; Leonov, A.; Merkulov, V.; Charkov, D.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the intensity of the model in the electrical insulation variable frequency drive controlled at different temperatures and electric fields. It is shown that aging of insulation mechanism associated with the development of corona discharges caused by transients when the frequency adjustment. Laws aging of insulation can be described from the point of view of the theory of thermal destruction of dielectrics vibrations.

  20. Simulation of the frequency dispersion of effective dielectric characteristics of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, V. B.; Bardushkin, V. V.; Lavrov, I. V., E-mail: iglavr@mail.ru; Yakovleva, E. N. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The problems of calculating the effective dielectric characteristics of polycrystalline materials are considered taking into account the frequency dependence of the characteristics of individual components. The effective characteristics of ceramics such as lead zirconate-titanate with titanium and zirconium oxide, metal lead, and water inclusions are calculated in the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman approximations. The dependences of the effective dielectric characteristics on the inclusion concentration and applied electromagnetic-field frequency are obtained.

  1. Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Stephen W; Finneran, James J

    2013-12-01

    Military sonar has the potential to negatively impact marine mammals. To investigate factors affecting behavioral disruption in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study using a simulated tactical sonar signal (1 s duration, 3250-3450 Hz) as a stimulus. Subjects were placed into groups of three and each group received a stimulus exposure of 125, 140, 155, 170, or 185 dB re: 1 μPa (rms). Each subject was trained to swim across an enclosure, touch a paddle, and return to the start location. Sound exposures occurred at the mid-point of the enclosure. Control and exposure sessions were run consecutively and each consisted of ten, 30-s trials. The occurrence and severity of behavioral responses were used to create acoustic dose-response and dose-severity functions. Age of the subject significantly affected the dose-response relationship, but not the dose-severity relationship. Repetitive exposures did not affect the dose-response relationship.

  2. Nonlinear Response of Unbiased and Biased Bilayer Graphene at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGouran, Riley

    The main focus of this thesis is the investigation of the nonlinear response of unbiased and biased bilayer graphene to incident radiation at terahertz frequencies. We present a tight-binding model of biased and unbiased bilayer graphene that is used to calculate the nonlinear terahertz response. Dynamic equations are developed for the electron density matrix within the length gauge. These equations facilitate the calculation of interband and intraband carrier dynamics. We then obtain nonlinear transmitted and reflected terahertz fields using the calculated nonlinear interband and intraband current densities. We examine the nonlinear response of unbiased bilayer graphene as a function of the incident field amplitude. In this case the sample is taken to be undoped. In the reflected field, we find the maximum third harmonic amplitude to be approximately 30% of the fundamental frequency for an incident field of 1.5 kV cm-1, which is greater than that found in undoped monolayer graphene at the same field amplitude. To examine the nonlinear response of biased bilayer graphene, we investigate two different scenarios. In the first scenario, we consider an undoped sample at fixed temperature. We find that when the external bias has a value of 2 meV, the generated third harmonic in the reflected field is approximately 45% of the fundamental for an incident field amplitude of 2 kV cm-1 . When we increase the external bias further to 8 meV, we find the generated third harmonic field is approximately 38% of the fundamental for an incident field amplitude of 1 kV cm-1. For both of these bias values, the generated third harmonic is greater than that found in undoped monolayer graphene. In that system, the generated third harmonic field is approximately 32% of the fundamental for an incident field amplitude of 200 V cm-1. In the second scenario, we consider doped biased bilayer graphene. We fix the carrier density at 2x1012 cm-2, the incident field amplitude at 50 kV cm-1, and

  3. The dielectric calibration of capacitance probes for soil hydrology using an oscillation frequency response model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Robinson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacitance probes are a fast, safe and relatively inexpensive means of measuring the relative permittivity of soils, which can then be used to estimate soil water content. Initial experiments with capacitance probes used empirical calibrations between the frequency response of the instrument and soil water content. This has the disadvantage that the calibrations are instrument-dependent. A twofold calibration strategy is described in this paper; the instrument frequency is turned into relative permittivity (dielectric constant which can then be calibrated against soil water content. This approach offers the advantages of making the second calibration, from soil permittivity to soil water content. instrument-independent and allows comparison with other dielectric methods, such as time domain reflectometry. A physically based model, used to calibrate capacitance probes in terms of relative permittivity (εr is presented. The model, which was developed from circuit analysis, predicts, successfully, the frequency response of the instrument in liquids with different relative permittivities, using only measurements in air and water. lt was used successfully to calibrate 10 prototype surface capacitance insertion probes (SCIPS and a depth capacitance probe. The findings demonstrate that the geometric properties of the instrument electrodes were an important parameter in the model, the value of which could be fixed through measurement. The relationship between apparent soil permittivity and volumetric water content has been the subject of much research in the last 30 years. Two lines of investigation have developed, time domain reflectometry (TDR and capacitance. Both methods claim to measure relative permittivity and should therefore be comparable. This paper demonstrates that the IH capacitance probe overestimates relative permittivity as the ionic conductivity of the medium increases. Electrically conducting ionic solutions were used to test the

  4. Frequency dependence of allowable differences in visual and vestibular motion cues in a simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentink, M.; Correia Grácio, B.J.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    In the real world in which we move around, inertial and visual motion are usually equal; what you see is what you feel. In a simulator, however, this is usually not the case. On the contrary, due to the relatively small motion space of even the largest simulators, the inertial motion cues must be

  5. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jane J.; Young, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V) in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS). This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1) Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant) bandwidths across a 50–60 dB range of sound levels; (2) 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons) were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3) contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4) 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise [e. g., virtual-space stimuli (VS)]. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115. PMID:23675323

  6. Response of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to a high-frequency input

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, L S

    2010-01-01

    We study the response of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron stimulated by a periodic sequence of conductance pulses arriving through the synapse in the high frequency regime. In addition to the usual excitation threshold there is a smooth crossover from the firing to the silent regime for increasing pulse amplitude $g_{syn}$. The amplitude of the voltage spikes decreases approximately linearly with $g_{syn}$. In some regions of parameter space the response is irregular, probably chaotic. In the chaotic regime between the mode-locked regions 3:1 and 2:1 near the lower excitation threshold the output interspike interval histogram (ISIH) undergoes a sharp transition. If the driving period is below the critical value, $T_i T^*$ even multiples of $T_i$ also appear in the histogram, starting from the largest values. Near $T^*$ the ISIH scales logarithmically on both sides of the transition. The coefficient of variation of ISIH has a cusp singularity at $T^*$. The average response period has a maximum slightly above $T^*$. Ne...

  7. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of dynamic phase transitions and frequency dispersions of hysteresis curves in core/shell ferrimagnetic cubic nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatansever, Erol, E-mail: erol.vatansever@deu.edu.tr

    2017-05-10

    By means of Monte Carlo simulation method with Metropolis algorithm, we elucidate the thermal and magnetic phase transition behaviors of a ferrimagnetic core/shell nanocubic system driven by a time dependent magnetic field. The particle core is composed of ferromagnetic spins, and it is surrounded by an antiferromagnetic shell. At the interface of the core/shell particle, we use antiferromagnetic spin–spin coupling. We simulate the nanoparticle using classical Heisenberg spins. After a detailed analysis, our Monte Carlo simulation results suggest that present system exhibits unusual and interesting magnetic behaviors. For example, at the relatively lower temperature regions, an increment in the amplitude of the external field destroys the antiferromagnetism in the shell part of the nanoparticle, leading to a ground state with ferromagnetic character. Moreover, particular attention has been dedicated to the hysteresis behaviors of the system. For the first time, we show that frequency dispersions can be categorized into three groups for a fixed temperature for finite core/shell systems, as in the case of the conventional bulk systems under the influence of an oscillating magnetic field. - Highlights: • Cubic core/shell nanoparticle is considered. • Monte-Carlo simulation with Metropolis algorithm is used. • The particle is subjected to time dependent oscillating magnetic field. • External field destroys the antiferromagnetism in the shell part of particle. • Frequency dispersions of hysteresis loop areas can be categorized into three groups.

  9. Power management and frequency regulation for microgrid and smart grid: A real-time demand response approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmousavi Kani, Seyyed Ali

    Future power systems (known as smart grid) will experience a high penetration level of variable distributed energy resources to bring abundant, affordable, clean, efficient, and reliable electric power to all consumers. However, it might suffer from the uncertain and variable nature of these generations in terms of reliability and especially providing required balancing reserves. In the current power system structure, balancing reserves (provided by spinning and non-spinning power generation units) usually are provided by conventional fossil-fueled power plants. However, such power plants are not the favorite option for the smart grid because of their low efficiency, high amount of emissions, and expensive capital investments on transmission and distribution facilities, to name a few. Providing regulation services in the presence of variable distributed energy resources would be even more difficult for islanded microgrids. The impact and effectiveness of demand response are still not clear at the distribution and transmission levels. In other words, there is no solid research reported in the literature on the evaluation of the impact of DR on power system dynamic performance. In order to address these issues, a real-time demand response approach along with real-time power management (specifically for microgrids) is proposed in this research. The real-time demand response solution is utilized at the transmission (through load-frequency control model) and distribution level (both in the islanded and grid-tied modes) to provide effective and fast regulation services for the stable operation of the power system. Then, multiple real-time power management algorithms for grid-tied and islanded microgrids are proposed to economically and effectively operate microgrids. Extensive dynamic modeling of generation, storage, and load as well as different controller design are considered and developed throughout this research to provide appropriate models and simulation

  10. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  11. Human frequency-following responses: representation of steady-state synthetic vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2002-04-01

    Auditory nerve single-unit population studies have demonstrated that phase-locking plays a dominant role in the neural encoding of the spectrum of speech sounds. Given this, it was reasoned that the phase-locked neural activity underlying the scalp-recorded human frequency-following response (FFR) might preserve information about certain acoustic features of speech sounds. It was recently reported (Ananthanarayan, A.K., 1999. J. Audiol. Neurootol. 4, 95-103) that the FFR spectrum to simple two-tone approximations of several English back vowels does indeed contain peaks corresponding to the first and second formant frequencies. In this investigation FFRs to the more complex steady-state synthetic English back vowels (/u/, /)/, and /a/) were evaluated. FFRs were obtained from 10 normal-hearing human adults at 85, 75, 65, and 55 dB normal-hearing level (nHL). Spectrum analyses of the FFRs revealed distinct peaks at harmonics adjacent to the first and the second formants across all levels suggesting that phase-locked activity among two distinct populations of neurons is indeed preserved in the FFR. For each vowel the spectral peaks at first formant harmonics dominated the spectrum at high stimulus levels suggesting formant capture. The observation of less robust peaks for harmonics between the formants may very well suggest selective suppression to enhance spectral peaks at the formant frequencies. These results suggest that the scalp-recorded FFR may provide for a non-invasive analytic window to evaluate neural encoding of speech sounds in the brainstem of normal-hearing individuals and how this encoding may be degraded subsequent to cochlear hearing impairment.

  12. Physically based analysis of electrical frequency response of passive microelectronic circuits by heterodyne lock-in thermal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, J.; Perpiñà, X.; Altet, J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jordà, X.

    2013-11-01

    This paper combines the heterodyne modulation technique with lock-in detection approaches to characterize the electrical behaviour of electronic systems in the frequency domain by thermal means. A thermal test chip (TTC), featuring a heating resistor and an embedded thermal sensor, is used as a test vehicle to assess this approach. The frequency response of the heating resistor has been first characterized by electrical measurements, yielding to a suitable TTC equivalent circuit which qualitatively explains its behaviour. Then, in order to infer this behaviour by thermal means, the heating resistor temperature has been heterodynally detected by on-chip local sensing (embedded thermal sensor) and off-chip spatially resolved (infrared lock-in thermography) techniques. The results of this paper show that from low-frequency temperature measurements it is possible to obtain the electrical frequency response of the TTC and to detect and locate capacitive coupling that disturbs the high-frequency operation of the device.

  13. Improving quality of Food Frequency Questionnaire response in low-income Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Treviño, Roberto P; Echon, Roger M; Mobley, Connie; Block, Torin; Bizzari, Ansam; Michalek, Joel

    2012-11-01

    The authors evaluated the validity and reliability of the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ) and the Block Kid Screener (BKScreener) in Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border who participated in the National Institutes of Health-funded Proyecto Bienestar Laredo. The Bienestar/NEEMA health program is a school-based diabetes and obesity control program, and the Proyecto Bienestar Laredo is the translation of the Bienestar/NEEMA health program to 38 elementary schools in Laredo, Texas. Par ticipants included 2,376 eight-year-old boys (48%) and girls (52%) from two school districts in Laredo. Two Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ and BKScreener) dietary intakes were collected, and an expert panel of nutritionist assigned a classification response quality of "Good," "Questionable," and "Poor," based on playfulness (systematic or nonrandom) patterns and completion rates. In addition, both instruments were assessed for reliability (test-retest) in 138 students from a San Antonio School District. Children's height, weight, percentage body fat, reported family history of diabetes, and Texas Assessments of Knowledge and Skills in reading and mathematics scores were collected. This study showed that for Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border, within the time constraints of the classroom, BKScreener yielded better data than the BKFFQ.

  14. Intrinsic frequency response patterns in mechano-sensory neurons of the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Linda; Scherbarth, Frank; Chagnaud, Boris; Felmy, Felix

    2017-07-15

    Animals employ mechano-sensory systems to detect and explore their environment. Mechano-sensation encompasses stimuli such as constant pressure, surface movement or vibrations at various intensities that need to be segregated in the central nervous system. Besides different receptor structures, sensory filtering via intrinsic response properties could provide a convenient way to solve this problem. In leech, three major mechano-sensory cell types can be distinguished, according to their stimulus sensitivity, as nociceptive, pressure and touch cells. Using intracellular recordings, we show that the different mechano-sensory neuron classes in Hirudo medicinalis differentially respond supra-threshold to distinct frequencies of sinusoidal current injections between 0.2 and 20 Hz. Nociceptive cells responded with a low-pass filter characteristic, pressure cells as high-pass filters and touch cells as an intermediate band-pass filter. Each class of mechano-sensory neurons is thus intrinsically tuned to a specific frequency range of voltage oscillation that could help segregate mechano-sensory information centrally. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of strain modal parameters by Bayesian method using frequency response function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Yi Weijian; Zhihua Yi

    2007-01-01

    Structural strain modes are able to detect changes in local structural performance, but errors are inevitably intermixed in the measured data. In this paper, strain modal parameters are considered as random variables, and their uncertainty is analyzed by a Bayesian method based on the structural frequency response function (FRF). The estimates of strain modal parameters with maximal posterior probability are determined. Several independent measurements of the FRF of a four-story reinforced concrete frame structural model were performed in the laboratory. The ability to identify the stiffness change in a concrete column using the strain mode was verified. It is shown that the uncertainty of the natural frequency is very small. Compared with the displacement mode shape, the variations of strain mode shapes at each point are quite different. The damping ratios are more affected by the types of test systems. Except for the case where a high order strain mode does not identify local damage, the first order strain mode can provide an exact indication of the damage location.

  16. Function-weighted frequency response function sensitivity method for analytical model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Since the frequency response function (FRF) sensitivity method was first proposed [26], it has since become a most powerful and practical method for analytical model updating. Nevertheless, the original formulation of the FRF sensitivity method does suffer the limitation that the initial analytical model to be updated should be reasonably close to the final updated model to be sought, due the assumed mathematical first order approximation implicit to most sensitivity based methods. Convergence to correct model is not guaranteed when large modelling errors exist and blind application often leads to optimal solutions which are truly sought. This paper seeks to examine all the important numerical characteristics of the original FRF sensitivity method including frequency data selection, numerical balance and convergence performance. To further improve the applicability of the method to cases of large modelling errors, a new novel function-weighted sensitivity method is developed. The new method has shown much superior performance on convergence even in the presence of large modelling errors. Extensive numerical case studies based on a mass-spring system and a GARTEUR structure have been conducted and very encouraging results have been achieved. Effect of measurement noise has been examined and the method works reasonably well in the presence of measurement uncertainties. The new method removes the restriction of modelling error magnitude being of second order in Euclidean norm as compared with that of system matrices, thereby making it a truly general method applicable to most practical model updating problems.

  17. Frequency Response Properties of Organic Photo-Detectors as Opto-Electrical Conversion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimune, Taichiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Ohmori, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    Frequency performances and sensitivities for three types of organic photo-detector (OPD) were studied for an opto-electrical conversion device. A high efficiency of 19.4% of the external conversion efficiency and a high cutoff frequency response of 16 MHz were achieved using a mixed-layer between copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N, N'-bis (2,5-di-tert- butylphenyl) 3,4,9,10-perylene dicarboximide (BPPC) at a reverse bias voltage of 8 V under red incident light. These results were achieved by increasing exciton dissociation and charge carrier generation and to reduce the number of trapped carriers at the interfaces between CuPc and BPPC. The transmission of a moving picture was successfully demonstrated using mixed-layer OPD as an opto-electrical conversion device. These results indicate that it is possible for an OPD to be used as an opto-electrical conversion device in high-speed optical transmission systems.

  18. Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Alirezaie, Javad

    2005-12-01

    Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.

  19. Optimized Multichannel Filter Bank with Flat Frequency Response for Texture Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachouie Nezamoddin N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation use multichannel filtering by applying a set of filters in the frequency domain or a set of masks in the spatial domain. This paper presents two new texture segmentation algorithms based on multichannel filtering in conjunction with neural networks for feature extraction and segmentation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. Suitable choices of filter parameters and filter bank coverage in the frequency domain to optimize the filters are discussed. Here we introduce two methods to optimize Gabor filter bank. First, a Gabor filter bank with a flat response is implemented and the optimal feature dimension is extracted by competitive networks. Second, a subset of Gabor filter bank is selected to compose the best discriminative filters, so that each filter in this small set can discriminate a pair of textures in a given image. In both approaches, multilayer perceptrons are employed to segment the extracted features. The comparisons of segmentation results generated using the proposed methods and previous research using Gabor, discrete cosine transform (DCT, and Laws filters are presented. Finally, the segmentation results generated by applying the optimized filter banks to textured images are presented and discussed.

  20. Wavenumber-frequency Spectra of Pressure Fluctuations Measured via Fast Response Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.; Roozeboom, N. H.; Ross, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement in fast-response Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP) allows time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations from a dense grid of spatial points on a wind tunnel model. This capability allows for direct calculations of the wavenumber-frequency (k-?) spectrum of pressure fluctuations. Such data, useful for the vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, are difficult to obtain otherwise. For the present work, time histories of pressure fluctuations on a flat plate subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body were measured using PSP. The light intensity levels in the photographic images were then converted to instantaneous pressure histories by applying calibration constants, which were calculated from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Fourier transform of the time-histories from a large number of spatial points provided k-? spectra for pressure fluctuations. The data provides first glimpse into the possibility of creating detailed forcing functions for vibro-acoustics analysis of aerospace vehicles, albeit for a limited frequency range.

  1. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserted...... into the model by using two different approaches: (a) linearized active oil film forces and the assumption that the hydrodynamic forces and the active hydraulic forces can be decoupled, and (b) equivalent dynamic coefficients of the active oil film and the solution of the modified Reynolds equation...... lubricated tilting-pad bearing. By applying a simple proportional controller it is possible to reach 30% reduction of the resonance peak associated with the first rigid body mode shape of the system. One of the most important consequences of such a vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility...

  2. Characteristic analysis of the optical delay in frequency response of resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) photodetectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jian-Chuan; Zuo Yu-Hua; Zhang Yun; Ding Wu-Chang; Cheng Bu-Wen; Yu Jin-Zhong; Wang Qi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With consideration of the modulation frequency of the input lightwave itself, we present a new model to calculate the quantum efficiency of RCE p-i-n photodetectors (PD) by superimposition of multiple reflected lightwaves. For the first time, the optical delay, another important factor limiting the electrical bandwidth of RCE p-i-n PD excluding the transit time of the carriers and RCd response of the photodetector, is analyzed and discussed in detail. The optical delay dominates the bandwidth of RCE p-i-n PD when its active layer is thinner than several 10 nm. These three limiting factors must be considered exactly for design of ultra-high-speed RCE p-i-n PD.

  3. Approximation of the Duffing oscillator frequency response function using the FPK equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, E J; Worden, K, E-mail: k.worden@sheffield.ac.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin St Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Although a great deal of work has been carried out on structural dynamic systems under random excitation, there has been a comparatively small amount of this work concentrating on the calculation of the quantities commonly measured in structural dynamic tests. Perhaps the most fundamental of these quantities is the Frequency Response Function (FRF). A number of years ago, Yar and Hammond took an interesting approach to estimating the FRF of a Duffing oscillator system which was based on an approximate solution of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorow equation. Despite reproducing the general features of the statistical linearization estimate, the approximation failed to show the presence of the poles at odd multiples of the primary resonance which are known to occur experimentally. The current paper simply extends the work of Yar and Hammond to a higher order of approximation and is thus able to show the existence of a third 'harmonic' in the FRF.

  4. A Review of Frequency Response Analysis Methods for Power Transformer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alsuhaibani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers play a critical role in electric power networks. Such transformers can suffer failures due to multiple stresses and aging. Thus, assessment of condition and diagnostic techniques are of great importance for improving power network reliability and service continuity. Several techniques are available to diagnose the faults within the power transformer. Frequency response analysis (FRA method is a powerful technique for diagnosing transformer winding deformation and several other types of problems that are caused during manufacture, transportation, installation and/or service life. This paper provides a comprehensive review on FRA methods and their applications in diagnostics and fault identification for power transformers. The paper discusses theory and applications of FRA methods as well as various issues and challenges faced in the application of this method.

  5. A multichannel frequency response analyser for impedance spectroscopy on power sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL J. L. BRETT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost multi-channel frequency response analyser (FRA has been developed based on a DAQ (data acquisition/LabVIEW interface. The system has been tested for electric and electrochemical impedance measurements. This novel association of hardware and software demonstrated performance comparable to a commercial potentiostat / FRA for passive electric circuits. The software has multichannel capabilities with minimal phase shift for 5 channels when operated below 3 kHz. When applied in active (galvanostatic mode in conjunction with a commercial electronic load (by discharging a lead acid battery at 1.5 A the performance was fit for purpose, providing electrochemical information to characterize the performance of the power source.

  6. Device for filamentous fungi growth monitoring using the multimodal frequency response of cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, N.; Lukacs, G.; Ball, S. L.; Hegner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi cause opportunistic infections in hospital patients. A fast assay to detect viable spores is of great interest. We present a device that is capable of monitoring fungi growth in real time via the dynamic operation of cantilevers in an array. The ability to detect minute frequency shifts for higher order flexural resonance modes is demonstrated using hydrogel functionalised cantilevers. The use of higher order resonance modes sees the sensor dependent mass responsivity enhanced by a factor of 13 in comparison to measurements utilizing the fundamental resonance mode only. As a proof of principle measurement, Aspergillus niger growth is monitored using the first two flexural resonance modes. The detection of single spore growth within 10 h is reported for the first time. The ability to detect and monitor the growth of single spores, within a small time frame, is advantageous in both clinical and industrial settings.

  7. Effects of free-electron-laser field fluctuations on the frequency response of driven atomic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolopoulos, G M

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of field fluctuations on the total yields of Auger electrons, obtained in the excitation of neutral atoms to a core-excited state by means of short-wavelength free-electron-laser pulses. Beginning with a self-contained analysis of the statistical properties of fluctuating free-electron-laser pulses, we analyse separately and in detail the cases of single and double Auger resonances, focusing on fundamental phenomena such as power broadening and ac Stark (Autler-Townes) splitting. In certain cases, field fluctuations are shown to influence dramatically the frequency response of the resonances, whereas in other cases the signal obtained may convey information about the bandwidth of the radiation as well as the dipole moment between Auger states.

  8. Effect of the Detector Width and Gas Pressure on the Frequency Response of a Micromachined Thermal Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Courteaud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the design and the environmental conditions of a micromachined thermal accelerometer, based on convection effect, are discussed and studied in order to understand the behavior of the frequency response evolution of the sensor. It has been theoretically and experimentally studied with different detector widths, pressure and gas nature. Although this type of sensor has already been intensively examined, little information concerning the frequency response modeling is currently available and very few experimental results about the frequency response are reported in the literature. In some particular conditions, our measurements show a cut-off frequency at −3 dB greater than 200 Hz. By using simple cylindrical and planar models of the thermal accelerometer and an equivalent electrical circuit, a good agreement with the experimental results has been demonstrated.

  9. Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie

    2011-01-01

    -frequency transformation related to the power spectrum density (PSD), which is more special and complicated than normal transformations. Meanwhile, the computational complexity also increases significantly, more computation resources are needed. These problems negatively affect the engineering application of the model....... To overcome these disadvantages, the physical meaning of PSD based on fundamental concepts is presented, so that the specialties of this model compared with conventional ones can be understood. Then the time-frequency transformation algorithm is derived, which is fast to be implemented in digital computers...

  10. High frequency ballast algorithm simulation base on square error optimize on MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moslemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study Design of the High pressure electronic ballast algorithm for sodium vapor lamp in MATLAB that regulate power by variable frequency despite of voltage variations and characteristic lamp gnawing in total time of lamp longevity. Electronic ballast structure and algorithm of design it, is explained and its design with mathematic model is described. Design process using offer plan in such that in addition of dominant to voice resonance variable frequency and voltage variations keep lamp power to nominal power. Design process performed by consideration characteristic of 250 W sodium vapor lamp. Theory studies ratification with MATLAB.

  11. Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie;

    2011-01-01

    . To overcome these disadvantages, the physical meaning of PSD based on fundamental concepts is presented, so that the specialties of this model compared with conventional ones can be understood. Then the time-frequency transformation algorithm is derived, which is fast to be implemented in digital computers......-frequency transformation related to the power spectrum density (PSD), which is more special and complicated than normal transformations. Meanwhile, the computational complexity also increases significantly, more computation resources are needed. These problems negatively affect the engineering application of the model...

  12. Constant Resistance Is Not Constant Termperature Anemometry - A Lesson From the PWM-CTA Simulation and Its Impact on All CTA Frequency Responce Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott; Foss, John

    1998-11-01

    The transient response of a hot-wire sensor has been simulated numerically ala Perry(Perry, A., (1982), Hotwire Anemometry, Oxford Press.). The recently developed Pulse-Width-Modulated Constant Temperature Anemometer (PWM-CTA(J.F.Foss,D.G. Bohl, and T.J. Hicks (1996) ``The Pulse Width Modulated-Constant Temperature Anemometer,'' Meas. Sci. and Tech., vol. 7, pp. 1388-1395.)) was the power source for the sensor. The simplicity of this electrical circuit has permitted the simulation to reveal a distinctive feature of the sensor's response. A typical sensor was "calibrated" in the model for 3t_0) = 25m/sec. The indicated velocity did not equal the established Q(t>t_o) value albeit the proper overheat resistance was achieved in one time step. The discrepancy is a result of transient effects in the temperature distribution: T(z) and the non-linear coupling between the velocity and the heat transfer. This effect will be present in all CTA operations. The ``effective frequency response'' will be discussed.

  13. Postural responses to various frequencies of vibration of the triceps surae and forefoot sole during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Masami; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of somatosensory input to the sensory reference system in quiet standing. We applied vibration (0.5 mm amplitude, 1-60 Hz) to the triceps surae and the forefoot sole to stimulate the muscle spindles and the mechanoreceptors, respectively, and evaluated postural responses. Thirteen young healthy adults who showed backward-lean and forward-lean responses to vibration at high and low frequencies, respectively, participated in the full experiment. The lowest vibration frequencies inducing backward-lean responses (B-LF) were 15-55 Hz for the triceps surae and 16-60 Hz for the forefoot sole. The highest frequencies inducing forward-lean responses (F-HF) were 3-18 Hz for the triceps surae and 1-20 Hz for the forefoot sole. When vibration was simultaneously applied to the triceps surae and forefoot sole at F-HF, no response was induced in 70% of trials. A forward-lean response was induced in the remaining 30% of trials. Simultaneous vibration of the triceps surae and forefoot sole at B-LF induced backward-lean responses in all trials. All postural responses occurred 0.5-4.3 s after vibration onset. Postural responses to high-frequency vibration conceivably occur as a compensatory movement to the illusionary perception that standing position is deviating forward from quiet standing, which must be a reference position. Postural responses to low-frequency vibration possibly occur to equalize the positional information that is received from the triceps surae and the forefoot sole. Both postural responses are likely to involve the sensory reference system, which is located in the supraspinal nervous system.

  14. Nondeterministic wave-based methods for low- and mid-frequency response analysis of acoustic field with limited information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baizhan; Yin, Hui; Yu, Dejie

    2017-02-01

    The response of the acoustic field, especially for the mid-frequency response, is very sensitive to uncertainties rising from manufacturing/construction tolerances, aggressive environmental factors and unpredictable excitations. To quantify these uncertainties with limited information effectively, two nondeterministic models (the interval model and the hybrid probability-interval model) are introduced. And then, two corresponding nondeterministic numerical methods are developed for the low- and mid-frequency response analysis of the acoustic field under these two nondeterministic models. The first one is the interval perturbation wave-based method (IPWBM) which is proposed to predict the maximal values of the low- and mid-frequency responses of the acoustic field under the interval model. The second one is the hybrid perturbation wave-based method (HPWBM) which is proposed to predict the maximal values of expectations and standard variances of the low- and mid-frequency responses of the acoustic field under the hybrid probability-interval model. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed nondeterministic numerical methods for the low- and mid-frequency response analysis of the acoustic field under the interval model and the hybrid probability-interval model are investigated by a numerical example.

  15. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  16. Rapid E-Learning Simulation Training and User Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackler, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in e-learning development is to have subject matter experts use rapid development tools to create training simulations. This type of training is called rapid e-learning simulation training. Though companies are using rapid development tools to create training quickly and cost effectively, there is little empirical research to indicate…

  17. Simulation of Low frequency Noise from a Downwind Wind Turbine Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helge Aa.; Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of a wind turbine with a downwind rotor is the generation of considerable low frequency noise (so-called thumping noise) which can cause annoyance of people at a considerable distance. This was experienced on a number of full-scale turbines in e.g. US and Sweden in the ...

  18. Low phase noise oscillator design and simulation using large signal analysis and low frequency feedback networks

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Çağatay Ertürk

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 72-76. Spectral purity of oscillators is of great importance in both commercial and military systems. Implementing communication, radar, and Electronic Warfare systems with increasingly higher frequencies, wider bandwidths, greater data rates...

  19. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Ravelo Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function  is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current,[PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF]. The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR, giant magnetoresistance (GMR, spin-valve (GMR-SV and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.

  20. Effect of bimodularity on frequency response of cylindrical panels using Galerkin time domain approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kallol Khan; Badri Prasad Patel; Yogendra Nath

    2010-12-01

    The forced vibration analysis of bimodulus material laminated structures is a challenging problem due to non-smooth nonlinear nature of governing equations. The most commonly used direct time integration schemes show numerical instability and do not predict steady state response except for limited number of cases without considering in-plane inertia. This is due to the sudden change of restoring force from positive/negative half cycle to negative/positive half cycle exciting higher modes/harmonics at every instant of a cycle change leading to numerical instability in the time marching scheme. In the present work, Galerkin time domain approach is successfully used for the forced vibration analysis of bimodular cylindrical panels. The effect of bimodularity ratio on the frequency response of cylindrical panels for few typical geometrical and lamination parameters is studied for the first time. It is found that the positive half cycle amplitude is greater than the negative half cycle amplitude for $E_{2t}/E_{2c} < 1$ and is smaller for $E_{2t}/E_{2c} > 1$. Further, the percentage difference of positive and negative half cycle amplitudes decreases with the increase in $E_{2t}/E_{2c}$. The stresses under dynamic loading are different for positive and negative half of a vibration cycle.